G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00002147
Gene symbol
CCT6A (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 6A (zeta 1)
Orthologue
G00000898 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000146731 (Ensembl human gene)
908 (Entrez Gene)
601 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
CCT6A (GeneCards)
Literature
104613 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:1620 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P40227 (UniProt)

Synonyms (5)

  • Cctz
  • HTR3
  • TCP20
  • TCPZ
  • TTCP20

Literature (19)

Pubmed - other

  • The CCT/TRiC chaperonin is required for maturation of sphingosine kinase 1.

    Zebol JR, Hewitt NM, Moretti PA, Lynn HE, Lake JA, Li P, Vadas MA, Wattenberg BW and Pitson SM

    Hanson Institute, Division of Human Immunology, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Frome Road, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia.

    Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) catalyses the generation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive phospholipid that influences a diverse range of cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, adhesion, migration, morphogenesis and differentiation. SK1 is controlled by various mechanisms, including transcriptional regulation, and post-translational activation by phosphorylation and protein-protein interactions which can regulate both the activity and localisation of this enzyme. To gain a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms controlling SK1 activity and function we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify SK1-interacting proteins. Using this approach we identified that SK1 interacts with subunit 7 (eta) of cytosolic chaperonin CCT (chaperonin containing t-complex polypeptide, also called TRiC for TCP-1 ring complex), a hexadecameric chaperonin that binds unfolded polypeptides and mediates their folding and release in an ATP-dependent manner. Further analysis of the SK1-CCTeta interaction demonstrated that other CCT/TRiC subunits also associated with SK1 in HEK293T cell lysates in an ATP-sensitive manner, suggesting that the intact, functional, multimeric CCT/TRiC complex associated with SK1. Furthermore, pulse-chase studies indicated that CCT/TRiC binds specifically to newly translated SK1. Finally, depletion of functional CCT/TRiC through the use of RNA interference in HeLa cells or temperature sensitive CCT yeast mutants reduced cellular SK1 activity. Thus, combined this data suggests that SK1 is a CCT/TRiC substrate, and that this chaperonin facilitates folding of newly translated SK1 into its mature active form.

    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 2009;41;4;822-7

  • A PP2A phosphatase high density interaction network identifies a novel striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase complex linked to the cerebral cavernous malformation 3 (CCM3) protein.

    Goudreault M, D'Ambrosio LM, Kean MJ, Mullin MJ, Larsen BG, Sanchez A, Chaudhry S, Chen GI, Sicheri F, Nesvizhskii AI, Aebersold R, Raught B and Gingras AC

    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada.

    The serine/threonine protein phosphatases are targeted to specific subcellular locations and substrates in part via interactions with a wide variety of regulatory proteins. Understanding these interactions is thus critical to understanding phosphatase function. Using an iterative affinity purification/mass spectrometry approach, we generated a high density interaction map surrounding the protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit. This approach recapitulated the assembly of the PP2A catalytic subunit into many different trimeric complexes but also revealed several new protein-protein interactions. Here we define a novel large multiprotein assembly, referred to as the striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex. STRIPAK contains the PP2A catalytic (PP2Ac) and scaffolding (PP2A A) subunits, the striatins (PP2A regulatory B''' subunits), the striatin-associated protein Mob3, the novel proteins STRIP1 and STRIP2 (formerly FAM40A and FAM40B), the cerebral cavernous malformation 3 (CCM3) protein, and members of the germinal center kinase III family of Ste20 kinases. Although the function of the CCM3 protein is unknown, the CCM3 gene is mutated in familial cerebral cavernous malformations, a condition associated with seizures and strokes. Our proteomics survey indicates that a large portion of the CCM3 protein resides within the STRIPAK complex, opening the way for further studies of CCM3 biology. The STRIPAK assembly establishes mutually exclusive interactions with either the CTTNBP2 proteins (which interact with the cytoskeletal protein cortactin) or a second subcomplex consisting of the sarcolemmal membrane-associated protein (SLMAP) and the related coiled-coil proteins suppressor of IKKepsilon (SIKE) and FGFR1OP2. We have thus identified several novel PP2A-containing protein complexes, including a large assembly linking kinases and phosphatases to a gene mutated in human disease.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: N01-HV-28179, N01HV28179

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2009;8;1;157-71

  • PP4R4/KIAA1622 forms a novel stable cytosolic complex with phosphoprotein phosphatase 4.

    Chen GI, Tisayakorn S, Jorgensen C, D'Ambrosio LM, Goudreault M and Gingras AC

    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4M 2Y8, Canada.

    Protein serine/threonine phosphatase 4 (PP4c) is an essential polypeptide involved in critical cellular processes such as microtubule growth and organization, DNA damage checkpoint recovery, apoptosis, and tumor necrosis factor alpha signaling. Like other phosphatases of the PP2A family, PP4c interacts with regulatory proteins, which specify substrate targeting and intracellular localization. The identification of these regulatory proteins is, therefore, key to fully understanding the function of this enzyme class. Here, using a sensitive affinity purification/mass spectrometry approach, we identify a novel, stable cytosolic PP4c interacting partner, KIAA1622, which we have renamed PP4R4. PP4R4 displays weak sequence homology with the A (scaffolding) subunit of the PP2A holoenzyme and specifically associates with PP4c (and not with the related PP2Ac or PP6c phosphatases). The PP4c.PP4R4 interaction is disrupted by mutations analogous to those abrogating the association of PP2Ac with PP2A A subunit. However, unlike the PP2A A subunit, which plays a scaffolding role, PP4R4 does not bridge PP4c with previously characterized PP4 regulatory subunits. PP4c.PP4R4 complexes exhibit phosphatase activity toward a fluorogenic substrate and gammaH2AX, but this activity is lower than that associated with the PP4c.PP4R2.PP4R3 complex, which itself is less active than the free PP4c catalytic subunit. Our data demonstrate that PP4R4 forms a novel cytosolic complex with PP4c, independent from the complexes containing PP4R1, PP4R2.PP4R3, and alpha4, and that the regulatory subunits of PP4c have evolved different modes of interaction with the catalytic subunit.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;43;29273-84

  • Systematic analysis of the protein interaction network for the human transcription machinery reveals the identity of the 7SK capping enzyme.

    Jeronimo C, Forget D, Bouchard A, Li Q, Chua G, Poitras C, Thérien C, Bergeron D, Bourassa S, Greenblatt J, Chabot B, Poirier GG, Hughes TR, Blanchette M, Price DH and Coulombe B

    Laboratory of Gene Transcription and Proteomics Discovery Platform, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

    We have performed a survey of soluble human protein complexes containing components of the transcription and RNA processing machineries using protein affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry. Thirty-two tagged polypeptides yielded a network of 805 high-confidence interactions. Remarkably, the network is significantly enriched in proteins that regulate the formation of protein complexes, including a number of previously uncharacterized proteins for which we have inferred functions. The RNA polymerase II (RNAP II)-associated proteins (RPAPs) are physically and functionally associated with RNAP II, forming an interface between the enzyme and chaperone/scaffolding proteins. BCDIN3 is the 7SK snRNA methylphosphate capping enzyme (MePCE) present in an snRNP complex containing both RNA processing and transcription factors, including the elongation factor P-TEFb. Our results define a high-density protein interaction network for the mammalian transcription machinery and uncover multiple regulatory factors that target the transcription machinery.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: 14309-3, 82851-1

    Molecular cell 2007;27;2;262-74

  • Proteomic analysis of SUMO4 substrates in HEK293 cells under serum starvation-induced stress.

    Guo D, Han J, Adam BL, Colburn NH, Wang MH, Dong Z, Eizirik DL, She JX and Wang CY

    Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, 1120 15th Street, CA4098, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

    The substrates of SUMO4, a novel member for the SUMO gene family, were characterized in HEK293 cells cultured under serum starvation by proteomic analysis. We identified 90 SUMO4 substrates including anti-stress proteins such as antioxidant enzymes and molecular chaperones or co-chaperones. The substrates also include proteins involved in the regulation of DNA repair and synthesis, RNA processing, protein degradation, and glucose metabolism. Several SUMO4-associated transcription factors were characterized by Western blot analyses. AP-1 was selected for in vitro conjugation assays to confirm SUMO4 sumoylation of these transcription factors. Further functional analyses of the transcription factors suggested that SUMO4 sumoylation represses AP-1 and AP-2alpha transcriptional activity, but enhances GR DNA binding capacity. These results demonstrate that SUMO4 sumoylation may play an important role in the regulation of intracellular stress.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;337;4;1308-18

  • A novel, evolutionarily conserved protein phosphatase complex involved in cisplatin sensitivity.

    Gingras AC, Caballero M, Zarske M, Sanchez A, Hazbun TR, Fields S, Sonenberg N, Hafen E, Raught B and Aebersold R

    Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA. agingras@systemsbiology.org

    Using a combination of tandem affinity purification tagging and mass spectrometry, we characterized a novel, evolutionarily conserved protein phosphatase 4 (PP4)-containing complex (PP4cs, protein phosphatase 4, cisplatin-sensitive complex) that plays a critical role in the eukaryotic DNA damage response. PP4cs is comprised of the catalytic subunit PP4C; a known regulatory subunit, PP4R2; and a novel protein that we termed PP4R3. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae PP4R3 ortholog Psy2 was identified previously in a screen for sensitivity to the DNA-damaging agent and anticancer drug cisplatin. We demonstrated that deletion of any of the PP4cs complex orthologs in S. cerevisiae elicited cisplatin hypersensitivity. Furthermore human PP4R3 complemented the yeast psy2 deletion, and Drosophila melanogaster lacking functional PP4R3 (flfl) exhibited cisplatin hypersensitivity, suggesting a highly conserved role for PP4cs in DNA damage repair. Finally we found that PP4R3 may target PP4cs to the DNA damage repair machinery at least in part via an interaction with Rad53 (CHK2).

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR11823; NHLBI NIH HHS: N01-HV-28179

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2005;4;11;1725-40

  • Identification of candidate radioresistant genes in human squamous cell carcinoma cells through gene expression analysis using DNA microarrays.

    Higo M, Uzawa K, Kouzu Y, Bukawa H, Nimura Y, Seki N and Tanzawa H

    Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.

    Radiation therapy is currently the standard adjuvant approach for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. Individual OSCCs display a wide range of radiosensitivity (RS). To identify genes associated with radioresistance (RR) of OSCC and establish a useful method of predicting radio-therapeutic effectiveness, we examined the gene expression patterns of OSCC cell lines that exhibited different responses to ionizing radiation (IR) by clonogenic survival assay using an in-house cDNA microarray consisting of 2,201 human genes and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR). Microarray analysis showed overexpression of 7 genes in the radioresistant cell line, HSC2, and 2 genes in the radiosensitive cell line, HSC3. The changes in expression levels in 7 of 9 genes (Cytokeratin18, DTNBP1, ASNA1, Tcp20, Cyclophilin F, KIAA0218, and HBp17) were confirmed with QRT-PCR. Of these, the genetic alterations of Tcp20, whose expression was remarkably elevated in radioresistant HSC2 cells after IR, were investigated. The escalation of X-ray doses resulted in an enhanced Tcp20 expression level in HSC2 cells compared to radiosensitive HSC3 cells (P<0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). These results suggest that the identified genes, which include Tcp20, may play an important role in conferring RR to OSCC, and could also be useful in identifying cases of OSCC with more radioresistance.

    Oncology reports 2005;14;5;1293-8

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • A product of the human gene adjacent to parkin is a component of Lewy bodies and suppresses Pael receptor-induced cell death.

    Imai Y, Soda M, Murakami T, Shoji M, Abe K and Takahashi R

    Laboratory for Motor System Neurodegeneration, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.

    Parkin, a RING-type ubiquitin ligase, is the product of the gene responsible for autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism. A reverse strand gene located upstream of the parkin gene in the human genome has been identified. The gene product, termed Glup/PACRG, forms a large molecular chaperone complex containing heat shock proteins 70 and 90 and chaperonin components. Glup suppressed cell death induced by accumulation of unfolded Pael receptor (Pael-R), a substrate of Parkin. On the other hand, Glup facilitated the formation of inclusions consisting of Pael-R, molecular chaperones, protein degradation molecules, and Glup itself, when proteasome is inhibited. Glup knockdown attenuated the formation of Pael-R inclusions, which resulted in the promotion of cell death with extensive vacuolization. Moreover, Glup turned out to be a component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease cases. These data suggest that Glup may play an important role in the formation of Lewy bodies and protection of dopaminergic neurons against Parkinson's disease.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;51;51901-10

  • The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7.

    Hillier LW, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Graves TA, Pepin KH, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Maas J, Jaeger S, Walker R, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, O'Laughlin MD, Schaller ME, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Cordes M, Du H, Sun H, Edwards J, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Andrews S, Isak A, Vanbrunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Lamar B, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Bielicki L, Scott K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Harris A, Strong CM, Hou S, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Leonard S, Rohlfing T, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Abbott A, Minx P, Maupin R, Strowmatt C, Latreille P, Miller N, Johnson D, Murray J, Woessner JP, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Schultz BR, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Nelson JO, Berkowicz N, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Bedell JA, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Chissoe SL, Marra MA, Raymond C, Haugen E, Gillett W, Zhou Y, James R, Phelps K, Iadanoto S, Bubb K, Simms E, Levy R, Clendenning J, Kaul R, Kent WJ, Furey TS, Baertsch RA, Brent MR, Keibler E, Flicek P, Bork P, Suyama M, Bailey JA, Portnoy ME, Torrents D, Chinwalla AT, Gish WR, Eddy SR, McPherson JD, Olson MV, Eichler EE, Green ED, Waterston RH and Wilson RK

    Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8501, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.

    Human chromosome 7 has historically received prominent attention in the human genetics community, primarily related to the search for the cystic fibrosis gene and the frequent cytogenetic changes associated with various forms of cancer. Here we present more than 153 million base pairs representing 99.4% of the euchromatic sequence of chromosome 7, the first metacentric chromosome completed so far. The sequence has excellent concordance with previously established physical and genetic maps, and it exhibits an unusual amount of segmentally duplicated sequence (8.2%), with marked differences between the two arms. Our initial analyses have identified 1,150 protein-coding genes, 605 of which have been confirmed by complementary DNA sequences, and an additional 941 pseudogenes. Of genes confirmed by transcript sequences, some are polymorphic for mutations that disrupt the reading frame.

    Nature 2003;424;6945;157-64

  • Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides.

    Gevaert K, Goethals M, Martens L, Van Damme J, Staes A, Thomas GR and Vandekerckhove J

    Department of Medical Protein Research, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Ghent University, A. Baertsoenkaai 3, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. kris.gevaert@rug.ac.be

    Current non-gel techniques for analyzing proteomes rely heavily on mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatically digested protein mixtures. Prior to analysis, a highly complex peptide mixture is either separated on a multidimensional chromatographic system or it is first reduced in complexity by isolating sets of representative peptides. Recently, we developed a peptide isolation procedure based on diagonal electrophoresis and diagonal chromatography. We call it combined fractional diagonal chromatography (COFRADIC). In previous experiments, we used COFRADIC to identify more than 800 Escherichia coli proteins by tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis of isolated methionine-containing peptides. Here, we describe a diagonal method to isolate N-terminal peptides. This reduces the complexity of the peptide sample, because each protein has one N terminus and is thus represented by only one peptide. In this new procedure, free amino groups in proteins are first blocked by acetylation and then digested with trypsin. After reverse-phase (RP) chromatographic fractionation of the generated peptide mixture, internal peptides are blocked using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); they display a strong hydrophobic shift and therefore segregate from the unaltered N-terminal peptides during a second identical separation step. N-terminal peptides can thereby be specifically collected for further liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis. Omitting the acetylation step results in the isolation of non-lysine-containing N-terminal peptides from in vivo blocked proteins.

    Nature biotechnology 2003;21;5;566-9

  • Cytosolic chaperonin-containing t-complex polypeptide 1 changes the content of a particular subunit species concomitant with substrate binding and folding activities during the cell cycle.

    Yokota S, Yanagi H, Yura T and Kubota H

    HSP Research Institute, Kyoto Research Park, Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.

    The chaperonin-containing t-complex polypeptide 1 (CCT) is a cytosolic molecular chaperone composed of eight subunits that assists in the folding of actin, tubulin and other cytosolic proteins. We show here that the content of particular subunits of CCT within mammalian cells decreases concomitantly with the reduction of chaperone activity during cell cycle arrest at M phase. CCT recovers chaperone activity upon resumption of these subunits after release from M phase arrest or during arrest at S phase. The levels of alpha, delta and zeta-1 subunits decreased more rapidly than the other subunits during M phase arrest by colcemid treatment and recovered after release from the arrest. Gel filtration chromatography or native (nondenaturing) PAGE analysis followed by immunoblotting indicated that the alpha and delta subunit content in the 700- to 900-kDa CCT complex was appreciably lower in the M phase cells than in asynchronous cells. In vivo, the CCT complex of M-phase-arrested cells was found to bind lower amounts of tubulin than that of asynchronous cells. In vitro, the CCT complex of M phase-arrested cells was less active in binding and folding denatured actin than that of asynchronous cells. On the other hand, the CCT complex of asynchronous cells (a mixture of various phases of cell cycle) exhibited lower alpha and delta subunit content and lower chaperone activity than that of S-phase-arrested cells obtained by excess thymidine treatment. In addition, turnover (synthesis and degradation) rates of the alpha and delta subunits in vivo were more rapid than those of most other subunits. These results suggest that the content of alpha and delta subunits of CCT reduces from the complete active complex in S phase cells to incomplete inactive complex in M phase cells.

    European journal of biochemistry 2001;268;17;4664-73

  • Cloning of rabbit Cct6 and the distribution of the Cct complex in mammalian tissues.

    Schwartz GJ, Kittelberger AM and Segel GB

    Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. george_schwartz@urmc.rochester.edu

    Cct6 protein is one of the subunits of the Cct complex involved in ATP-dependent folding of cellular proteins. We used the cDNA of the human CCT6 subunit to obtain a full-length cDNA from a rabbit kidney cortex library. Two transcripts of 2 and 2.5 kb were detected in rabbit kidney and liver by Northern analysis. The rabbit CCT6 was 93% identical to the human gene; the deduced amino acid sequence was 97% identical. A phylogenetic analysis of Cct6 proteins from mouse, rabbit, human, and yeast showed greater similarities of Cct6 protein among the species than among other Cct subunits. The ATP-binding sites were perfectly conserved among mammals and yeast, supporting the role of Cct complex in ATP-dependent protein folding. Using a polyclonal antibody to human Cct6 protein and Western analysis, we found expression of this subunit in a variety of rabbit organs and tissues, as well as in bovine testes, human lymphocytes, human and rabbit reticulocytes, and in two cultured kidney cell lines. We also found Cct1 protein by Western analysis in several rabbit organs as well as in bovine testes. These data characterize the rabbit Cct6 subunit and compare it to its homologues. The Western analyses support the concept that Cct complex is widely distributed among tissues and highly conserved among eukaryotes.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-50603

    Experimental nephrology 2000;8;3;152-60

  • Tcp20, a subunit of the eukaryotic TRiC chaperonin from humans and yeast.

    Li WZ, Lin P, Frydman J, Boal TR, Cardillo TS, Richard LM, Toth D, Lichtman MA, Hartl FU, Sherman F et al.

    Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, New York 14642.

    Members of the Hsp60 chaperonin family, such as Escherichia coli GroEL/S and the eukaryotic cytosolic chaperonin complex, TRiC (TCP ring complex), are double toroid complexes capable of assisting the folding of proteins in vitro in an ATP-dependent fashion. TRiC differs from the GroEL chaperonin in that it has a hetero rather than homo-oligomeric subunit composition and lacks a GroES-like regulatory cofactor. We have established greater than 57% identity between a protein encoded by the TCP20 gene from a human cDNA library and the newly identified protein encoded by the TCP20 gene located on the right arm of chromosome IV of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These Tcp20 proteins showed approximately 30% identity to Tcp1, a known subunit of TRiC. Gel filtration, followed by Western analysis of purified bovine testis TRiC with a Tcp20-specific antibody, indicated that Tcp20 is a subunit of the hetero-oligomeric TRiC. Gene disruption experiments showed that TCP20, like TCP1, is an essential gene in yeast, consistent with the view that TRiC is required for folding of key proteins. The amino acid sequence similarities and the derived evolutionary relationships established that the human and yeast Tcp20 proteins represent members of a new family of subunits of TRiC chaperonins.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA34691; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL08365; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM48742

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;28;18616-22

  • Identification of six Tcp-1-related genes encoding divergent subunits of the TCP-1-containing chaperonin.

    Kubota H, Hynes G, Carne A, Ashworth A and Willison K

    Institute of Cancer Research, Chester Beatty Laboratories, London, UK.

    Background: TCP-1 is a 60 kD subunit of a cytosolic hetero-oligomeric chaperone that is known to be involved in the folding of actin and tubulin. This protein is a member of the chaperonin family, which includes Escherichia coli GroEL, the mitochondrial heat-shock protein Hsp60, the plastid Rubisco-subunit-binding protein and the archaebacterial protein TF55. These chaperonins assist the folding of proteins upon ATP hydrolysis.

    Results: Using two-dimensional gel analysis, we have identified nine different subunits of TCP-1-containing chaperonin complexes from mammalian testis and seven different subunits of such complexes from mouse F9 cells. We have isolated full-length mouse cDNAs encoding six novel TCP-1-related polypeptides and show that these cDNAs encode subunits of the TCP-1-containing cytosolic chaperonin. These subunits are between 531 and 545 residues in length. Their sequences are 25-36% identical to one another, 27-35% identical to that of TCP-1 and 32-39% identical to that of the archaebacterial chaperonin, TF55. We have named these genes, Cctb, Cctg, Cctd, Ccte, Cctz and Ccth, which encode the CCT beta, CCT gamma, CCT delta, CCT epsilon, CCT zeta and CCT eta subunits, respectively, of the 'Chaperonin Containing TCP-1' (CCT). All the CCT subunits contain motifs that are also shared by all other known chaperonins of prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles, and that probably relate to their common ATPase function.

    Conclusion: It is likely that each CCT subunit has a specific, independent function, as they are highly diverged from each other but conserved from mammals to yeast. We suggest that the expansion in the number of types of CCT subunit, compared with other chaperonins, has allowed CCT to carry out the more complex functions that are required for the folding and assembly of highly evolved eukaryotic proteins.

    Current biology : CB 1994;4;2;89-99

  • Isolation of a gene encoding a chaperonin-like protein by complementation of yeast amino acid transport mutants with human cDNA.

    Segel GB, Boal TR, Cardillo TS, Murant FG, Lichtman MA and Sherman F

    Department of Pediatric, University of Rochester Medical School, NY 14642.

    A human cDNA library in lambda-yes plasmid was used to transform a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with defects in histidine biosynthesis (his4-401) and histidine permease (hip1-614) and with the general amino acid permease (GAP) repressed by excess ammonium. We investigated three plasmids complementing the transport defect on a medium with a low concentration of histidine. Inserts in these plasmids hybridized with human genomic but not yeast genomic DNA, indicating their human origin. mRNA corresponding to the human DNA insert was produced by each yeast transformant. Complementation of the histidine transport defect was confirmed by direct measurement of histidine uptake, which was increased 15- to 65-fold in the transformants as compared with the parental strain. Competitive inhibition studies, measurement of citrulline uptake, and lack of complementation in gap1- strains indicated that the human cDNA genes code for proteins that prevent GAP repression by ammonium. The amino acid sequence encoded by one of the cDNA clones is related to T-complex proteins, which suggests a "chaperonin"-like function. We suggest that the human chaperonin-like protein stabilizes the NPR1 gene product and prevents inactivation of GAP.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA34691; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL07152-17; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM12702

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1992;89;13;6060-4

  • Treatment of Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis with ciprofloxacin.

    Dawson SJ and White LA

    Department of Microbiology, Southampton General Hospital, U.K.

    A patient with Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. The response to treatment with cefotaxime and netilmicin for 12 days was poor but was satisfactory to a 6 weeks' course of ciprofloxacin.

    The Journal of infection 1992;24;3;317-20

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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