G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
cytoplasmic linker associated protein 2
G00000753 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000163539 (Ensembl human gene)
23122 (Entrez Gene)
1174 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
CLASP2 (GeneCards)
605853 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:17078 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O75122 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • KIAA0627

Literature (21)

Pubmed - other

  • Golgi-derived CLASP-dependent microtubules control Golgi organization and polarized trafficking in motile cells.

    Miller PM, Folkmann AW, Maia AR, Efimova N, Efimov A and Kaverina I

    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

    Microtubules are indispensable for Golgi complex assembly and maintenance, which are integral parts of cytoplasm organization during interphase in mammalian cells. Here, we show that two discrete microtubule subsets drive two distinct, yet simultaneous, stages of Golgi assembly. In addition to the radial centrosomal microtubule array, which positions the Golgi in the centre of the cell, we have identified a role for microtubules that form at the Golgi membranes in a manner dependent on the microtubule regulators CLASPs. These Golgi-derived microtubules draw Golgi ministacks together in tangential fashion and are crucial for establishing continuity and proper morphology of the Golgi complex. We propose that specialized functions of these two microtubule arrays arise from their specific geometries. Further, we demonstrate that directional post-Golgi trafficking and cell migration depend on Golgi-associated CLASPs, suggesting that correct organization of the Golgi complex by microtubules is essential for cell polarization and motility.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P50 CA095103, P50 CA095103-08, P50CA095103; NIGMS NIH HHS: 1R01GM078373-01, R01 GM078373, R01 GM078373-02

    Nature cell biology 2009;11;9;1069-80

  • An EB1-binding motif acts as a microtubule tip localization signal.

    Honnappa S, Gouveia SM, Weisbrich A, Damberger FF, Bhavesh NS, Jawhari H, Grigoriev I, van Rijssel FJ, Buey RM, Lawera A, Jelesarov I, Winkler FK, Wüthrich K, Akhmanova A and Steinmetz MO

    Biomolecular Research, Structural Biology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland.

    Microtubules are filamentous polymers essential for cell viability. Microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) associate with growing microtubule plus ends and control microtubule dynamics and interactions with different cellular structures during cell division, migration, and morphogenesis. EB1 and its homologs are highly conserved proteins that play an important role in the targeting of +TIPs to microtubule ends, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. By using live cell experiments and in vitro reconstitution assays, we demonstrate that a short polypeptide motif, Ser-x-Ile-Pro (SxIP), is used by numerous +TIPs, including the tumor suppressor APC, the transmembrane protein STIM1, and the kinesin MCAK, for localization to microtubule tips in an EB1-dependent manner. Structural and biochemical data reveal the molecular basis of the EB1-SxIP interaction and explain its negative regulation by phosphorylation. Our findings establish a general "microtubule tip localization signal" (MtLS) and delineate a unifying mechanism for this subcellular protein targeting process.

    Cell 2009;138;2;366-76

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • GSK3beta phosphorylation modulates CLASP-microtubule association and lamella microtubule attachment.

    Kumar P, Lyle KS, Gierke S, Matov A, Danuser G and Wittmann T

    Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    Polarity of the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton is essential for many cell functions. Cytoplasmic linker-associated proteins (CLASPs) are MT-associated proteins thought to organize intracellular MTs and display a unique spatiotemporal regulation. In migrating epithelial cells, CLASPs track MT plus ends in the cell body but bind along MTs in the lamella. In this study, we demonstrate that glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) directly phosphorylates CLASPs at multiple sites in the domain required for MT plus end tracking. Although complete phosphorylation disrupts both plus end tracking and association along lamella MTs, we show that partial phosphorylation of the identified GSK3beta motifs determines whether CLASPs track plus ends or associate along MTs. In addition, we find that expression of constitutively active GSK3beta destabilizes lamella MTs by disrupting lateral MT interactions with the cell cortex. GSK3beta-induced lamella MT destabilization was partially rescued by expression of CLASP2 with mutated phosphorylation sites. This indicates that CLASP-mediated stabilization of peripheral MTs, which likely occurs in the vicinity of focal adhesions, may be regulated by local GSK3beta inactivation.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: C06 RR 16490, C06 RR016490; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM 079139, R01 GM079139, U01 GM 067230, U01 GM067230, U01 GM067230-07

    The Journal of cell biology 2009;184;6;895-908

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • Role of CLASP2 in microtubule stabilization and the regulation of persistent motility.

    Drabek K, van Ham M, Stepanova T, Draegestein K, van Horssen R, Sayas CL, Akhmanova A, Ten Hagen T, Smits R, Fodde R, Grosveld F and Galjart N

    Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Erasmus MC, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    In motile fibroblasts, stable microtubules (MTs) are oriented toward the leading edge of cells. How these polarized MT arrays are established and maintained, and the cellular processes they control, have been the subject of many investigations. Several MT "plus-end-tracking proteins," or +TIPs, have been proposed to regulate selective MT stabilization, including the CLASPs, a complex of CLIP-170, IQGAP1, activated Cdc42 or Rac1, a complex of APC, EB1, and mDia1, and the actin-MT crosslinking factor ACF7. By using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in a wound-healing assay, we show here that CLASP2 is required for the formation of a stable, polarized MT array but that CLIP-170 and an APC-EB1 interaction are not essential. Persistent motility is also hampered in CLASP2-deficient MEFs. We find that ACF7 regulates cortical CLASP localization in HeLa cells, indicating it acts upstream of CLASP2. Fluorescence-based approaches show that GFP-CLASP2 is immobilized in a bimodal manner in regions near cell edges. Our results suggest that the regional immobilization of CLASP2 allows MT stabilization and promotes directionally persistent motility in fibroblasts.

    Current biology : CB 2006;16;22;2259-64

  • Mammalian CLASP1 and CLASP2 cooperate to ensure mitotic fidelity by regulating spindle and kinetochore function.

    Pereira AL, Pereira AJ, Maia AR, Drabek K, Sayas CL, Hergert PJ, Lince-Faria M, Matos I, Duque C, Stepanova T, Rieder CL, Earnshaw WC, Galjart N and Maiato H

    Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, 4150-180 Porto, Portugal.

    CLASPs are widely conserved microtubule plus-end-tracking proteins with essential roles in the local regulation of microtubule dynamics. In yeast, Drosophila, and Xenopus, a single CLASP orthologue is present, which is required for mitotic spindle assembly by regulating microtubule dynamics at the kinetochore. In mammals, however, only CLASP1 has been directly implicated in cell division, despite the existence of a second paralogue, CLASP2, whose mitotic roles remain unknown. Here, we show that CLASP2 localization at kinetochores, centrosomes, and spindle throughout mitosis is remarkably similar to CLASP1, both showing fast microtubule-independent turnover rates. Strikingly, primary fibroblasts from Clasp2 knockout mice show numerous spindle and chromosome segregation defects that can be partially rescued by ectopic expression of Clasp1 or Clasp2. Moreover, chromosome segregation rates during anaphase A and B are slower in Clasp2 knockout cells, which is consistent with a role of CLASP2 in the regulation of kinetochore and spindle function. Noteworthy, cell viability/proliferation and spindle checkpoint function were not impaired in Clasp2 knockout cells, but the fidelity of mitosis was strongly compromised, leading to severe chromosomal instability in adult cells. Together, our data support that the partial redundancy of CLASPs during mitosis acts as a possible mechanism to prevent aneuploidy in mammals.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R37 GM040198, R37 GM040198-22; PHS HHS: GMS 40198; Wellcome Trust: 073915

    Molecular biology of the cell 2006;17;10;4526-42

  • Mammalian CLASPs are required for mitotic spindle organization and kinetochore alignment.

    Mimori-Kiyosue Y, Grigoriev I, Sasaki H, Matsui C, Akhmanova A, Tsukita S and Vorobjev I

    KAN Research Institute, Kyoto Research Park, Kyoto 600-8815, Japan. y-kiyosue@kan.gr.jp

    CLASP1 and CLASP2 are homologous mammalian proteins, which associate with the ends of growing microtubules, as well as the cell cortex and the kinetochores of mitotic chromosomes. Previous studies have shown that in interphase cells CLASPs can attach microtubule plus ends to the cortex and stabilize them by repeatedly rescuing them from depolymerization. Here we show that CLASP1 and 2 play similar and redundant roles in organizing the mitotic apparatus in HeLa cells. Simultaneous depletion of both CLASPs causes mitotic spindle defects and a significant metaphase delay, which often results in abnormal exit from mitosis. Metaphase delay is associated with decreased kinetochore tension, increased kinetochore oscillations and more rapid microtubule growth. We show that the association of CLASP2 with the kinetochores relies on its C-terminal domain, but is independent of microtubules or association with CLIP-170. We propose that CLASPs exhibit at the kinetochores an activity similar to that at the cortex, providing apparent stabilization of microtubules by locally reducing the amplitude of growth/shortening episodes at the microtubule ends. This local stabilization of microtubules is essential for the formation of normal metaphase spindle, completion of anaphase and cytokinesis.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2006;11;8;845-57

  • CLASPs attach microtubule plus ends to the cell cortex through a complex with LL5beta.

    Lansbergen G, Grigoriev I, Mimori-Kiyosue Y, Ohtsuka T, Higa S, Kitajima I, Demmers J, Galjart N, Houtsmuller AB, Grosveld F and Akhmanova A

    MGC Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    CLASPs are mammalian microtubule-stabilizing proteins that can mediate the interaction between distal microtubule ends and the cell cortex. Using mass spectrometry-based assays, we have identified two CLASP partners, LL5beta and ELKS. LL5beta and ELKS form a complex that colocalizes with CLASPs at the cortex of HeLa cells as well as at the leading edge of motile fibroblasts. LL5beta is required for cortical CLASP accumulation and microtubule stabilization in HeLa cells, while ELKS plays an accessory role in these processes. LL5beta is a phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) binding protein, and its recruitment to the cell cortex is influenced by PI3 kinase activity but does not require intact microtubules. Cortical clusters of LL5beta and ELKS do not overlap with focal adhesions but often form in their vicinity and can affect their size. We propose that LL5beta and ELKS can form a PIP3-regulated cortical platform to which CLASPs attach distal microtubule ends.

    Developmental cell 2006;11;1;21-32

  • FEZ1 dimerization and interaction with transcription regulatory proteins involves its coiled-coil region.

    Assmann EM, Alborghetti MR, Camargo ME and Kobarg J

    Centro de Biologia Molecular Estrutural, Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro 10.000, CP 6192, 13084-971 Campinas, SP, Brasil.

    The fasciculation and elongation protein zeta1 (FEZ1) is a mammalian orthologue of the Caenorhabditis elegans protein UNC-76, which is necessary for axon growth in that nematode. In previous studies FEZ1 has been found to interact with protein kinase Czeta, DISC1, the agnoprotein of the human polyomavirus JC virus, and E4B, a U-box-type ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase. We reported previously that FEZ1 and its paralogue FEZ2 are proteins that interact with NEK1, a protein kinase involved in polycystic kidney disease and DNA repair mechanisms at the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle. Here we report the identification of 16 proteins that interact with human FEZ1-(221-396) in a yeast two-hybrid assay of a human fetal brain cDNA library. The 13 interacting proteins of known functions take part either in transcription regulation and chromatin remodeling (6 proteins), the regulation of neuronal cell development (2 proteins) and cellular transport mechanisms (3 proteins) or participate in apoptosis (2 proteins). We were able to confirm eight of the observed interactions by in vitro pull-down assays with recombinant fusion proteins. The confirmed interacting proteins include FEZ1 itself and three transcription controlling proteins (SAP30L, DRAP1, and BAF60a). In mapping studies we found that the C-terminal regions of FEZ1, and especially its coiled-coil region, are involved in its dimerization, its heterodimerization with FEZ2, and in the interaction with 10 of the identified interacting proteins. Our results give further support to the previous speculation of the functional involvement of FEZ1 in neuronal development but suggest further that FEZ1 may also be involved in transcriptional control.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;15;9869-81

  • Spatial regulation of CLASP affinity for microtubules by Rac1 and GSK3beta in migrating epithelial cells.

    Wittmann T and Waterman-Storer CM

    Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. twittman@scripps.edu

    Proteins that in cells specifically bind to growing microtubule plus ends (+TIPs) are thought to play important roles in polarization of the cytoskeleton. However, most +TIPs do not show a bias of their microtubule-binding behavior toward different subcellular regions. Here, we examine the dynamics of the +TIP CLASP in migrating PtK1 epithelial cells. We find that, although CLASPs track microtubule plus ends in the cell body, they dynamically decorate the entire microtubule lattice in the leading edge lamella and lamellipodium. Microtubule lattice binding is mediated by the COOH-terminal region of the CLASP microtubule-binding domain and is regulated downstream of Rac1. Phosphorylation of sites in the NH2-terminal part of the microtubule-binding domain by glycogen synthase kinase 3beta likely regulates the affinity of CLASPs for microtubule lattices. These results demonstrate the striking difference of the microtubule cytoskeleton in the lamella as compared with the cell body and provide the first direct observation of subcellular regulation of a microtubule-associated protein in migrating cells.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM61804, R01 GM061804

    The Journal of cell biology 2005;169;6;929-39

  • CLIPs and CLASPs and cellular dynamics.

    Galjart N

    Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Erasmus Medical Centre, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. n.galjart@erasmusmc.nl

    The dynamic properties of microtubules are regulated by plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs), which associate with the distal ends of microtubules. Among the +TIPs are cytoplasmic linker proteins (CLIPs), which promote microtubule growth and regulate dynein-dynactin localization, and CLIP-associating proteins (CLASPs), which stabilize specific subsets of microtubules on reception of signalling cues. CLIPs and CLASPs interact and cooperate to direct the microtubule network, thereby regulating cellular asymmetry.

    Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology 2005;6;6;487-98

  • CLASP1 and CLASP2 bind to EB1 and regulate microtubule plus-end dynamics at the cell cortex.

    Mimori-Kiyosue Y, Grigoriev I, Lansbergen G, Sasaki H, Matsui C, Severin F, Galjart N, Grosveld F, Vorobjev I, Tsukita S and Akhmanova A

    KAN Research Institute, Kyoto Research Park, Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto 600-8815, Japan.

    CLIP-associating protein (CLASP) 1 and CLASP2 are mammalian microtubule (MT) plus-end binding proteins, which associate with CLIP-170 and CLIP-115. Using RNA interference in HeLa cells, we show that the two CLASPs play redundant roles in regulating the density, length distribution and stability of interphase MTs. In HeLa cells, both CLASPs concentrate on the distal MT ends in a narrow region at the cell margin. CLASPs stabilize MTs by promoting pauses and restricting MT growth and shortening episodes to this peripheral cell region. We demonstrate that the middle part of CLASPs binds directly to EB1 and to MTs. Furthermore, we show that the association of CLASP2 with the cell cortex is MT independent and relies on its COOH-terminal domain. Both EB1- and cortex-binding domains of CLASP are required to promote MT stability. We propose that CLASPs can mediate interactions between MT plus ends and the cell cortex and act as local rescue factors, possibly through forming a complex with EB1 at MT tips.

    The Journal of cell biology 2005;168;1;141-53

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • The microtubule plus end tracking protein Orbit/MAST/CLASP acts downstream of the tyrosine kinase Abl in mediating axon guidance.

    Lee H, Engel U, Rusch J, Scherrer S, Sheard K and Van Vactor D

    Department of Cell Biology, Program in Neuroscience, Dana Farber Cancer Institute/Harvard Cancer Center and Harvard Center of Neurodegeneration and Repair, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Axon guidance requires coordinated remodeling of actin and microtubule polymers. Using a genetic screen, we identified the microtubule-associated protein Orbit/MAST as a partner of the Abelson (Abl) tyrosine kinase. We find identical axon guidance phenotypes in orbit/MAST and Abl mutants at the midline, where the repellent Slit restricts axon crossing. Genetic interaction and epistasis assays indicate that Orbit/MAST mediates the action of Slit and its receptors, acting downstream of Abl. We find that Orbit/MAST protein localizes to Drosophila growth cones. Higher-resolution imaging of the Orbit/MAST ortholog CLASP in Xenopus growth cones suggests that this family of microtubule plus end tracking proteins identifies a subset of microtubules that probe the actin-rich peripheral growth cone domain, where guidance signals exert their initial influence on cytoskeletal organization. These and other data suggest a model where Abl acts as a central signaling node to coordinate actin and microtubule dynamics downstream of guidance receptors.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS35909, NS40043

    Neuron 2004;42;6;913-26

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Human CLASP1 is an outer kinetochore component that regulates spindle microtubule dynamics.

    Maiato H, Fairley EA, Rieder CL, Swedlow JR, Sunkel CE and Earnshaw WC

    Chromosome Structure Group, Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Swann Building, King's Buildings, Mayfield Road, EH9 3JR, Scotland, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

    One of the most intriguing aspects of mitosis is the ability of kinetochores to hold onto plus ends of microtubules that are actively gaining or losing tubulin subunits. Here, we show that CLASP1, a microtubule-associated protein, localizes preferentially near the plus ends of growing spindle microtubules and is also a component of a kinetochore region that we term the outer corona. A truncated form of CLASP1 lacking the kinetochore binding domain behaves as a dominant negative, leading to the formation of radial arrays of microtubule bundles that are highly resistant to depolymerization. Microinjection of CLASP1-specific antibodies suppresses microtubule dynamics at kinetochores and throughout the spindle, resulting in the formation of monopolar asters with chromosomes buried in the interior. Incubation with microtubule-stabilizing drugs rescues the kinetochore association with microtubule plus ends at the periphery of the asters. Our data suggest that CLASP1 is required at kinetochores for attached microtubules to exhibit normal dynamic behavior.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 40198, R37 GM040198, R37 GM040198-20; Wellcome Trust: 073915

    Cell 2003;113;7;891-904

  • Clasps are CLIP-115 and -170 associating proteins involved in the regional regulation of microtubule dynamics in motile fibroblasts.

    Akhmanova A, Hoogenraad CC, Drabek K, Stepanova T, Dortland B, Verkerk T, Vermeulen W, Burgering BM, De Zeeuw CI, Grosveld F and Galjart N

    MGC Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Erasmus University, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    CLIP-170 and CLIP-115 are cytoplasmic linker proteins that associate specifically with the ends of growing microtubules and may act as anti-catastrophe factors. Here, we have isolated two CLIP-associated proteins (CLASPs), which are homologous to the Drosophila Orbit/Mast microtubule-associated protein. CLASPs bind CLIPs and microtubules, colocalize with the CLIPs at microtubule distal ends, and have microtubule-stabilizing effects in transfected cells. After serum induction, CLASPs relocalize to distal segments of microtubules at the leading edge of motile fibroblasts. We provide evidence that this asymmetric CLASP distribution is mediated by PI3-kinase and GSK-3 beta. Antibody injections suggest that CLASP2 is required for the orientation of stabilized microtubules toward the leading edge. We propose that CLASPs are involved in the local regulation of microtubule dynamics in response to positional cues.

    Cell 2001;104;6;923-35

  • Mast, a conserved microtubule-associated protein required for bipolar mitotic spindle organization.

    Lemos CL, Sampaio P, Maiato H, Costa M, Omel'yanchuk LV, Liberal V and Sunkel CE

    Laboratório de Genética Molecular da Mitose, Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, R.Campo Alegre, 823, 4150-180 Porto, Portugal.

    Through mutational analysis in Drosopjila we have identified the gene multiple asters (mast), which encodes a new 165 kDa protein. mast mutant neuroblasts are highly polyploid and show severe mitotic abnormalities including the formation of mono- and multi-polar spindles organized by an irregular number of microtubule-organizing centres of abnormal size and shape. The mast gene product is evolutionarily conserved since homologues were identified from yeast to man, revealing a novel protein family. Antibodies against Mast and analysis of tissue culture cells expressing an enhanced green fluorescent protein-Mast fusion protein show that during mitosis, this protein localizes to centrosomes, the mitotic spindle, centromeres and spindle midzone. Microtubule-binding assays indicate that Mast is a microtubule-associated protein displaying strong affinity for polymerized microtubules. The defects observed in the mutant alleles and the intracellular localization of the protein suggest that Mast plays an essential role in centrosome separation and organization of the bipolar mitotic spindle.

    The EMBO journal 2000;19;14;3668-82

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. X. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro.

    Ishikawa K, Nagase T, Suyama M, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    As an extension of our cDNA analysis for deducing the coding sequences of unidentified human genes, we have newly determined the sequences of 100 cDNA clones from a set of size-fractionated human brain cDNA libraries, and predicted the coding sequences of the corresponding genes, named KIAA0611 to KIAA0710. In vitro transcription-coupled translation assay was applied as the first screening to select cDNA clones which produce proteins with apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa and over. One hundred unidentified cDNA clones thus selected were then subjected to sequencing of entire inserts. The average size of the inserts and corresponding open reading frames was 4.9 kb and 2.8 kb (922 amino acid residues), respectively. Computer search of the sequences against the public databases indicated that predicted coding sequences of 87 genes were similar to those of known genes, 62% of which (54 genes) were categorized as proteins related to cell signaling/communication, cell structure/motility and nucleic acid management. The expression profiles in 10 human tissues of all the clones characterized in this study were examined by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction and the chromosomal locations of the clones were determined by using human-rodent hybrid panels.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1998;5;3;169-76

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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