G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00000753
Gene symbol
Clasp2 (MGI)
Species
Mus musculus
Description
CLIP associating protein 2
Orthologue
G00002002 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSMUSG00000033392 (Ensembl mouse gene)
76499 (Entrez Gene)
1174 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
MGI:1923749 (Allen Brain Atlas)
Literature
605853 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:1923749 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
Q8BRT1 (UniProt)

Synonyms (4)

  • CLASP2
  • CLASP2alpha
  • CLASP2beta
  • CLASP2gamma

Literature (14)

Pubmed - other

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • Role of CLASP2 in microtubule stabilization and the regulation of persistent motility.

    Drabek K, van Ham M, Stepanova T, Draegestein K, van Horssen R, Sayas CL, Akhmanova A, Ten Hagen T, Smits R, Fodde R, Grosveld F and Galjart N

    Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Erasmus MC, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    In motile fibroblasts, stable microtubules (MTs) are oriented toward the leading edge of cells. How these polarized MT arrays are established and maintained, and the cellular processes they control, have been the subject of many investigations. Several MT "plus-end-tracking proteins," or +TIPs, have been proposed to regulate selective MT stabilization, including the CLASPs, a complex of CLIP-170, IQGAP1, activated Cdc42 or Rac1, a complex of APC, EB1, and mDia1, and the actin-MT crosslinking factor ACF7. By using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in a wound-healing assay, we show here that CLASP2 is required for the formation of a stable, polarized MT array but that CLIP-170 and an APC-EB1 interaction are not essential. Persistent motility is also hampered in CLASP2-deficient MEFs. We find that ACF7 regulates cortical CLASP localization in HeLa cells, indicating it acts upstream of CLASP2. Fluorescence-based approaches show that GFP-CLASP2 is immobilized in a bimodal manner in regions near cell edges. Our results suggest that the regional immobilization of CLASP2 allows MT stabilization and promotes directionally persistent motility in fibroblasts.

    Current biology : CB 2006;16;22;2259-64

  • Mammalian CLASP1 and CLASP2 cooperate to ensure mitotic fidelity by regulating spindle and kinetochore function.

    Pereira AL, Pereira AJ, Maia AR, Drabek K, Sayas CL, Hergert PJ, Lince-Faria M, Matos I, Duque C, Stepanova T, Rieder CL, Earnshaw WC, Galjart N and Maiato H

    Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, 4150-180 Porto, Portugal.

    CLASPs are widely conserved microtubule plus-end-tracking proteins with essential roles in the local regulation of microtubule dynamics. In yeast, Drosophila, and Xenopus, a single CLASP orthologue is present, which is required for mitotic spindle assembly by regulating microtubule dynamics at the kinetochore. In mammals, however, only CLASP1 has been directly implicated in cell division, despite the existence of a second paralogue, CLASP2, whose mitotic roles remain unknown. Here, we show that CLASP2 localization at kinetochores, centrosomes, and spindle throughout mitosis is remarkably similar to CLASP1, both showing fast microtubule-independent turnover rates. Strikingly, primary fibroblasts from Clasp2 knockout mice show numerous spindle and chromosome segregation defects that can be partially rescued by ectopic expression of Clasp1 or Clasp2. Moreover, chromosome segregation rates during anaphase A and B are slower in Clasp2 knockout cells, which is consistent with a role of CLASP2 in the regulation of kinetochore and spindle function. Noteworthy, cell viability/proliferation and spindle checkpoint function were not impaired in Clasp2 knockout cells, but the fidelity of mitosis was strongly compromised, leading to severe chromosomal instability in adult cells. Together, our data support that the partial redundancy of CLASPs during mitosis acts as a possible mechanism to prevent aneuploidy in mammals.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R37 GM040198, R37 GM040198-22; PHS HHS: GMS 40198; Wellcome Trust: 073915

    Molecular biology of the cell 2006;17;10;4526-42

  • Comprehensive identification of phosphorylation sites in postsynaptic density preparations.

    Trinidad JC, Specht CG, Thalhammer A, Schoepfer R and Burlingame AL

    Mass Spectrometry Facility, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

    In the mammalian central nervous system, the structure known as the postsynaptic density (PSD) is a dense complex of proteins whose function is to detect and respond to neurotransmitter released from presynaptic axon terminals. Regulation of protein phosphorylation in this molecular machinery is critical to the activity of its components, which include neurotransmitter receptors, kinases/phosphatases, scaffolding molecules, and proteins regulating cytoskeletal structure. To characterize the phosphorylation state of proteins in PSD samples, we combined strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography with IMAC. Initially, tryptic peptides were separated by cation exchange and analyzed by reverse phase chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, which led to the identification of phosphopeptides in most SCX fractions. Because each of these individual fractions was too complex to characterize completely in single LC-MS/MS runs, we enriched for phosphopeptides by performing IMAC on each SCX fraction, yielding at least a 3-fold increase in identified phosphopeptides relative to either approach alone (SCX or IMAC). This enabled us to identify at least one site of phosphorylation on 23% (287 of 1,264) of all proteins found to be present in the postsynaptic density preparation. In total, we identified 998 unique phosphorylated peptides, mapping to 723 unique sites of phosphorylation. At least one exact site of phosphorylation was determined on 62% (621 of 998) of all phosphopeptides, and approximately 80% of identified phosphorylation sites are novel.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR14606; Wellcome Trust

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2006;5;5;914-22

  • PAR-1 and the microtubule-associated proteins CLASP2 and dynactin-p50 have specific localisation on mouse meiotic and first mitotic spindles.

    Moore CA and Zernicka-Goetz M

    University of Cambridge, The Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute of Cancer and Developmental Biology, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK.

    The site of second meiotic division, marked by the second polar body, is an important reference point in the early mouse embryo. To study its formation, we look at the highly asymmetric meiotic divisions. For extrusion of the small polar bodies during meiosis, the spindles must be located cortically. The positioning of meiotic spindles is known to involve the actin cytoskeleton, but whether microtubules are also involved is not clear. In this study we investigated the patterns of localisation of microtubule regulatory proteins in mouse oocytes. PAR-1 is a member of the PAR (partitioning-defective) family with known roles in regulation of microtubule stability and spindle positioning in other model systems. Here we show its specific localisation on mouse meiotic and first mitotic spindles. In addition, the microtubule-associated proteins CLASP2 (a CLIP associating protein) and dynactin-p50 are found on kinetochores and a subset of microtubule-organising centres. Thus we show specific localisation of microtubule regulatory proteins in mouse oocytes, which could indicate roles in meiotic spindle organisation.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 064421

    Reproduction (Cambridge, England) 2005;130;3;311-20

  • Tagging genes with cassette-exchange sites.

    Cobellis G, Nicolaus G, Iovino M, Romito A, Marra E, Barbarisi M, Sardiello M, Di Giorgio FP, Iovino N, Zollo M, Ballabio A and Cortese R

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Via P. Castellino 111, 80131 Naples, Italy.

    In an effort to make transgenesis more flexible and reproducible, we developed a system based on novel 5' and 3' 'gene trap' vectors containing heterospecific Flp recognition target sites and the corresponding 'exchange' vectors allowing the insertion of any DNA sequence of interest into the trapped locus. Flp-recombinase-mediated cassette exchange was demonstrated to be highly efficient in our system, even in the absence of locus-specific selection. The feasibility of constructing a library of ES cell clones using our gene trap vectors was tested and a thousand insertion sites were characterized, following electroporation in ES cells, by RACE-PCR and sequencing. We validated the system in vivo for two trapped loci in transgenic mice and demonstrated that the reporter transgenes inserted into the trapped loci have an expression pattern identical to the endogenous genes. We believe that this system will facilitate in vivo studies of gene function and large-scale generation of mouse models of human diseases, caused by not only loss but also gain of function alleles.

    Funded by: Telethon: TGM03S01, TGM06S01

    Nucleic acids research 2005;33;4;e44

  • Phosphoproteomic analysis of the developing mouse brain.

    Ballif BA, Villén J, Beausoleil SA, Schwartz D and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Proper development of the mammalian brain requires the precise integration of numerous temporally and spatially regulated stimuli. Many of these signals transduce their cues via the reversible phosphorylation of downstream effector molecules. Neuronal stimuli acting in concert have the potential of generating enormous arrays of regulatory phosphoproteins. Toward the global profiling of phosphoproteins in the developing brain, we report here the use of a mass spectrometry-based methodology permitting the first proteomic-scale phosphorylation site analysis of primary animal tissue, identifying over 500 protein phosphorylation sites in the developing mouse brain.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2004;3;11;1093-101

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of mouse homologues of KIAA gene: I. The complete nucleotide sequences of 100 mouse KIAA-homologous cDNAs identified by screening of terminal sequences of cDNA clones randomly sampled from size-fractionated libraries.

    Okazaki N, Kikuno R, Ohara R, Inamoto S, Hara Y, Nagase T, Ohara O and Koga H

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 2-6-7 Kazusa-Kamatari, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0818, Japan.

    We have been conducting a human cDNA project to predict protein-coding sequences in long cDNAs (> 4 kb) since 1994. The number of these newly identified human genes exceeds 2000 and these genes are known as KIAA genes. As an extension of this project, we herein report characterization of cDNAs derived from mouse KIAA-homologous genes. A primary aim of this study was to prepare a set of mouse. KIAA-homologous cDNAs that could be used to analyze the physiological roles of KIAA genes in mice. In addition, comparison of the structures of mouse and human KIAA cDNAs might enable us to evaluate the integrity of KIAA cDNAs more convincingly. In this study, we selected mouse KIAA-homologous cDNA clones to be sequenced by screening a library of terminal sequences of mouse cDNAs in size-fractionated libraries. We present the entire sequences of 100 cDNA clones thus selected and predict their protein-coding sequences. The average size of the 100 cDNA sequences reached 5.1 kb and that of mouse KIAA-homologous proteins predicted from these cDNAs was 989 amino acid residues.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2002;9;5;179-88

  • Construction of long-transcript enriched cDNA libraries from submicrogram amounts of total RNAs by a universal PCR amplification method.

    Piao Y, Ko NT, Lim MK and Ko MS

    Developmental Genomics and Aging Section, Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

    Here we report a novel design of linker primer that allows one to differentially amplify long tracts (average 3.0 kb with size ranges of 1-7 kb) or short DNAs (average 1.5 kb with size ranges of 0.5-3 kb) from a complex mixture. The method allows one to generate cDNA libraries enriched for long transcripts without size selection of insert DNAs. One representative library from newborn kidney includes 70% of clones bearing ATG start codons. A comparable library has been generated from 20 mouse blastocysts, containing only approximately 40 ng of total RNA. This universal PCR amplification scheme can provide a route to isolate very large cDNAs, even if they are expressed at very low levels.

    Genome research 2001;11;9;1553-8

  • Clasps are CLIP-115 and -170 associating proteins involved in the regional regulation of microtubule dynamics in motile fibroblasts.

    Akhmanova A, Hoogenraad CC, Drabek K, Stepanova T, Dortland B, Verkerk T, Vermeulen W, Burgering BM, De Zeeuw CI, Grosveld F and Galjart N

    MGC Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Erasmus University, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    CLIP-170 and CLIP-115 are cytoplasmic linker proteins that associate specifically with the ends of growing microtubules and may act as anti-catastrophe factors. Here, we have isolated two CLIP-associated proteins (CLASPs), which are homologous to the Drosophila Orbit/Mast microtubule-associated protein. CLASPs bind CLIPs and microtubules, colocalize with the CLIPs at microtubule distal ends, and have microtubule-stabilizing effects in transfected cells. After serum induction, CLASPs relocalize to distal segments of microtubules at the leading edge of motile fibroblasts. We provide evidence that this asymmetric CLASP distribution is mediated by PI3-kinase and GSK-3 beta. Antibody injections suggest that CLASP2 is required for the orientation of stabilized microtubules toward the leading edge. We propose that CLASPs are involved in the local regulation of microtubule dynamics in response to positional cues.

    Cell 2001;104;6;923-35

  • Genome-wide expression profiling of mid-gestation placenta and embryo using a 15,000 mouse developmental cDNA microarray.

    Tanaka TS, Jaradat SA, Lim MK, Kargul GJ, Wang X, Grahovac MJ, Pantano S, Sano Y, Piao Y, Nagaraja R, Doi H, Wood WH, Becker KG and Ko MS

    Laboratory of Genetics and DNA Array Unit, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224-6820, USA.

    cDNA microarray technology has been increasingly used to monitor global gene expression patterns in various tissues and cell types. However, applications to mammalian development have been hampered by the lack of appropriate cDNA collections, particularly for early developmental stages. To overcome this problem, a PCR-based cDNA library construction method was used to derive 52,374 expressed sequence tags from pre- and peri-implantation embryos, embryonic day (E) 12.5 female gonad/mesonephros, and newborn ovary. From these cDNA collections, a microarray representing 15,264 unique genes (78% novel and 22% known) was assembled. In initial applications, the divergence of placental and embryonic gene expression profiles was assessed. At stage E12.5 of development, based on triplicate experiments, 720 genes (6.5%) displayed statistically significant differences in expression between placenta and embryo. Among 289 more highly expressed in placenta, 61 placenta-specific genes encoded, for example, a novel prolactin-like protein. The number of genes highly expressed (and frequently specific) for placenta has thereby been increased 5-fold over the total previously reported, illustrating the potential of the microarrays for tissue-specific gene discovery and analysis of mammalian developmental programs.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;16;9127-32

  • Large-scale cDNA analysis reveals phased gene expression patterns during preimplantation mouse development.

    Ko MS, Kitchen JR, Wang X, Threat TA, Wang X, Hasegawa A, Sun T, Grahovac MJ, Kargul GJ, Lim MK, Cui Y, Sano Y, Tanaka T, Liang Y, Mason S, Paonessa PD, Sauls AD, DePalma GE, Sharara R, Rowe LB, Eppig J, Morrell C and Doi H

    ERATO Doi Bioasymmetry Project, JST, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA. kom@grc.nia.nih.gov

    Little is known about gene action in the preimplantation events that initiate mammalian development. Based on cDNA collections made from each stage from egg to blastocyst, 25438 3'-ESTs were derived, and represent 9718 genes, half of them novel. Thus, a considerable fraction of mammalian genes is dedicated to embryonic expression. This study reveals profound changes in gene expression that include the transient induction of transcripts at each stage. These results raise the possibility that development is driven by the action of a series of stage-specific expressed genes. The new genes, 798 of them placed on the mouse genetic map, provide entry points for analyses of human and mouse developmental disorders.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: R01HD32243

    Development (Cambridge, England) 2000;127;8;1737-49

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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