G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
tropomodulin 2 (neuronal)
G00000752 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000128872 (Ensembl human gene)
29767 (Entrez Gene)
344 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
TMOD2 (GeneCards)
602928 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:11872 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9NZR1 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)


Literature (7)

Pubmed - other

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Alterations in tropomyosin isoform expression in human transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Pawlak G, McGarvey TW, Nguyen TB, Tomaszewski JE, Puthiyaveettil R, Malkowicz SB and Helfman DM

    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA.

    Previous studies of transformed rodent fibroblasts have suggested that specific isoforms of the actin-binding protein tropomyosin (TM) could function as suppressors of transformation, but an analysis of TM expression in patient tumor tissue is limited. The purpose of our study was to characterize expression of the different TM isoforms in human transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. We found that TM1 and TM2 protein levels were markedly reduced and showed >60% reduction in 61% and 55% of tumor samples, respectively. TM5, which was expressed at very low levels in normal bladder mucosa, exhibited aberrant expression in 91% of tumor specimens. The Western blot findings were confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis in a number of tumors. We then investigated the mechanism underlying TM expression deregulation, in the T24 human bladder cancer cell line. We showed that levels of TM1, TM2 and TM3 are reduced in T24 cells, but significantly upregulated by inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase-signaling pathway. In addition, inhibition of this pathway was accompanied by restoration of stress fibers. Overall, changes in TM expression levels seem to be an early event during bladder carcinogenesis. We conclude that alterations in TM isoform expression may provide further insight into malignant transformation in transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder and may be a useful target for early detection strategies.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA83182

    International journal of cancer 2004;110;3;368-73

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Sequencing, expression analysis, and mapping of three unique human tropomodulin genes and their mouse orthologs.

    Cox PR and Zoghbi HY

    Division of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    Tropomodulin (TMOD) is the actin-capping protein for the slow-growing end of filamentous actin, and a neuronal-specific isoform, neuronal tropomodulin (NTMOD), is the major binding protein to brain tropomyosin in rat. The Drosophila TMOD homolog, Sanpodo, alters sibling cell fate determination, so we used a cross-species approach to identify additional TMOD family members that may play a critical role in this process. We characterized the human and mouse orthologs to rat NTMOD (TMOD2 and Tmod2, respectively) as well as two novel tropomodulin family members (TMOD3, Tmod3 and TMOD4, Tmod4). Their expression patterns vary extensively, from ubiquitous (TMOD3 and Tmod3) to muscle (TMOD4) or neuronal tissues only (TMOD2 and Tmod2). TMOD2 and TMOD3 map next to one another on chromosome 15q21.1-q21.2, and their mouse orthologs map to a homologous region on mouse chromosome 9; TMOD4 maps to the telomeric end of 1q12 and Tmod4 to a homologous region of mouse chromosome 3. Their location and expression patterns make TMOD2 and TMOD3 candidate genes for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 5 (ALS5) and dyslexia-1 (DYX1) and TMOD4 a candidate gene for limb girdle muscular dystrophy 1B (LGMD1B). Our mapping efforts revealed new regions of paralogy among chromosomes 1q, 9q, 15q, and 19p.

    Genomics 2000;63;1;97-107

  • N-tropomodulin: a novel isoform of tropomodulin identified as the major binding protein to brain tropomyosin.

    Watakabe A, Kobayashi R and Helfman DM

    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, NY 11724, USA.

    We have identified and characterized two proteins in rat brain that bind to the neuron-specific tropomyosin isoform, TMBr3. The two proteins were identified by blot overlay assay, in which the proteins immobilized on the membrane were probed by epitope-tagged TMBr3, followed by detection with anti-epitope antibody. We have purified these proteins using a TMBr3 affinity column. Peptide sequencing as well as immunoblotting showed that one of the two proteins is identical to tropomodulin, a tropomyosin-binding protein originally identified in erythrocytes. The cDNA for the other protein was cloned from an adult rat brain cDNA library using degenerate oligonucleotides that we designed based on the peptide sequences. Sequence analysis of the cDNA clone revealed this protein to be a novel isoform of tropomodulin which is the product of a distinct gene, and is herein referred to as N-tropomodulin. Recombinant N-tropomodulin bound to TMBr3 as well as to other low molecular mass tropomyosins (TM5a or TM5), but not to high molecular mass tropomyosins (TM2 or TMBr1). Northern blotting and RNase protection assays as well as immunoblotting showed that N-tropomodulin is expressed predominantly in brain. Furthermore, RNase protection assays revealed no alternatively spliced regions within the coding sequence. Developmentally, N-tropomodulin was detected in rat brain as early as embryonic day 14 and reaches the adult level before birth. Immunofluorescence of primary frontal cortex cell cultures showed that N-tropomodulin is specifically expressed in neurons. The neuron-specific expression of N-tropomodulin strongly suggests specialized roles of this TM-binding protein in neurons.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA45508, CA58607

    Journal of cell science 1996;109 ( Pt 9);2299-310

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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