G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Tmod2 (MGI)
Mus musculus
tropomodulin 2
G00002001 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (8)

ENSMUSG00000032186 (Ensembl mouse gene)
50876 (Entrez Gene)
344 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
NM_016711 (Allen Brain Atlas)
50876 (Genepaint)
602928 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:1355335 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
Q9JKK7 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • N-Tmod
  • neural tropomodulin

Alleles (1)

Literature (7)

Pubmed - other

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • Novel features of boundary cap cells revealed by the analysis of newly identified molecular markers.

    Coulpier F, Le Crom S, Maro GS, Manent J, Giovannini M, Maciorowski Z, Fischer A, Gessler M, Charnay P and Topilko P

    INSERM, CNRS, IFR36, Plate-forme Transcriptome, 46 rue d'Ulm, 75230 Paris Cedex 05, France.

    Neural crest (NC) cells are a multipotent, highly migratory cell population that generates most of the components of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), including the glial Schwann cells (SC) and boundary cap (BC) cells. These latter cells are located at the interface between the central nervous system and PNS, at the exit/entry points of ventral motor/dorsal sensory axons and give rise to all SC in the nerve roots and to a subset of nociceptive neurons and satellite cells in the dorsal root ganglia. In the present study we have compared BC cells with two closely related cell types, NC and Schwann cell precursors (SCpr), by RNA profiling. This led to the definition of a set of 10 genes that show specific expression in BC cells and/or in their derivatives along the nerve roots. Analysis of the expression of these genes during mouse development revealed novel features, of those most important are: (i) dorsal and ventral nerve root BC cell derivatives express different sets of genes, suggesting that they have distinct properties; (ii) these cells undergo major modifications in their gene expression pattern between embryonic days 14.5 and 17.5, possibly linked to the SCpr-immature Schwann cell transition; (iii) nerve roots SC differ from more distal SC not only in their origins and locations, but also in their gene expression patterns. In conclusion, the identification of these novel makers opens the way for a detailed characterization of BC cells in both mouse and man.

    Glia 2009;57;13;1450-7

  • Proteomics analysis identifies phosphorylation-dependent alpha-synuclein protein interactions.

    McFarland MA, Ellis CE, Markey SP and Nussbaum RL

    National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20891, USA.

    Mutations and copy number variation in the SNCA gene encoding the neuronal protein alpha-synuclein have been linked to familial Parkinson disease (Thomas, B., and Beal, M. F. (2007) Parkinson's disease. Hum. Mol. Genet. 16, R183-R194). The carboxyl terminus of alpha-synuclein can be phosphorylated at tyrosine 125 and serine 129, although only a small fraction of the protein is phosphorylated under normal conditions (Okochi, M., Walter, J., Koyama, A., Nakajo, S., Baba, M., Iwatsubo, T., Meijer, L., Kahle, P. J., and Haass, C. (2000) Constitutive phosphorylation of the Parkinson's disease associated alpha-synuclein. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 390-397). Under pathological conditions, such as in Parkinson disease, alpha-synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of Parkinson disease, and is mostly phosphorylated at Ser-129 (Anderson, J. P., Walker, D. E., Goldstein, J. M., de Laat, R., Banducci, K., Caccavello, R. J., Barbour, R., Huang, J. P., Kling, K., Lee, M., Diep, L., Keim, P. S., Shen, X. F., Chataway, T., Schlossmacher, M. G., Seubert, P., Schenk, D., Sinha, S., Gai, W. P., and Chilcote, T. J. (2006) Phosphorylation of Ser-129 is the dominant pathological modification of alpha-synuclein in familial and sporadic Lewy body disease. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 29739-29752). Controversy exists over the extent to which phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein and/or the visible protein aggregation in Lewy bodies are steps in disease pathogenesis, are protective, or are neutral markers for the disease process. Here we used the combination of peptide pulldown assays and mass spectrometry to identify and compare protein-protein interactions of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated alpha-synuclein. We showed that non-phosphorylated alpha-synuclein carboxyl terminus pulled down protein complexes that were highly enriched for mitochondrial electron transport proteins, whereas alpha-synuclein carboxyl terminus phosphorylated on either Ser-129 or Tyr-125 did not. Instead the set of proteins pulled down by phosphorylated alpha-synuclein was highly enriched in certain cytoskeletal proteins, in vesicular trafficking proteins, and in a small number of enzymes involved in protein serine phosphorylation. This targeted comparative proteomics approach for unbiased identification of protein-protein interactions suggests that there are functional consequences when alpha-synuclein is phosphorylated.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; NIMH NIH HHS: Z01 MH000279

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;11;2123-37

  • Mice lacking Tropomodulin-2 show enhanced long-term potentiation, hyperactivity, and deficits in learning and memory.

    Cox PR, Fowler V, Xu B, Sweatt JD, Paylor R and Zoghbi HY

    Division of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Actin filaments control cell morphology and are essential to the growth of dendritic spines and the plasticity of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). The length of these filaments is regulated in muscle and nonmuscle cell types by tropomodulins 1-4 (Tmod1-4), a family of proteins that cap the pointed ends of actin filaments. To investigate whether tropomodulins could play a role in synaptic plasticity, learning, memory, or behavior, we created mice lacking Tropomodulin-2 (Tmod2), which is highly expressed in neuronal structures. Tmod2(lacZ-/-) mice are viable and fertile and exhibit no gross morphological or anatomical abnormalities, but behavioral analysis found hyperactivity, reduced sensorimotor gating, and impaired learning and memory. Electrophysiological analysis revealed enhanced LTP in Tmod2(lacZ-/-) mice. These studies suggest that Tmod2 plays a role in behavior, learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM34225

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2003;23;1;1-12

  • Leiomodins: larger members of the tropomodulin (Tmod) gene family.

    Conley CA, Fritz-Six KL, Almenar-Queralt A and Fowler VM

    Space Life Sciences, MS 239-11, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000, USA. cconley@mail.arc.nasa.gov

    The 64-kDa autoantigen D1 or 1D, first identified as a potential autoantigen in Graves' disease, is similar to the tropomodulin (Tmod) family of actin filament pointed end-capping proteins. A novel gene with significant similarity to the 64-kDa human autoantigen D1 has been cloned from both humans and mice, and the genomic sequences of both genes have been identified. These genes form a subfamily closely related to the Tmods and are here named the Leiomodins (Lmods). Both Lmod genes display a conserved intron-exon structure, as do three Tmod genes, but the intron-exon structure of the Lmods and the Tmods is divergent. mRNA expression analysis indicates that the gene formerly known as the 64-kDa autoantigen D1 is most highly expressed in a variety of human tissues that contain smooth muscle, earning it the name smooth muscle Leiomodin (SM-Lmod; HGMW-approved symbol LMOD1). Transcripts encoding the novel Lmod gene are present exclusively in fetal and adult heart and adult skeletal muscle, and it is here named cardiac Leiomodin (C-Lmod; HGMW-approved symbol LMOD2). Human C-Lmod is located near the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy locus CMH6 on human chromosome 7q3, potentially implicating it in this disease. Our data demonstrate that the Lmods are evolutionarily related and display tissue-specific patterns of expression distinct from, but overlapping with, the expression of Tmod isoforms.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-34225

    Genomics 2001;73;2;127-39

  • Genome-wide expression profiling of mid-gestation placenta and embryo using a 15,000 mouse developmental cDNA microarray.

    Tanaka TS, Jaradat SA, Lim MK, Kargul GJ, Wang X, Grahovac MJ, Pantano S, Sano Y, Piao Y, Nagaraja R, Doi H, Wood WH, Becker KG and Ko MS

    Laboratory of Genetics and DNA Array Unit, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224-6820, USA.

    cDNA microarray technology has been increasingly used to monitor global gene expression patterns in various tissues and cell types. However, applications to mammalian development have been hampered by the lack of appropriate cDNA collections, particularly for early developmental stages. To overcome this problem, a PCR-based cDNA library construction method was used to derive 52,374 expressed sequence tags from pre- and peri-implantation embryos, embryonic day (E) 12.5 female gonad/mesonephros, and newborn ovary. From these cDNA collections, a microarray representing 15,264 unique genes (78% novel and 22% known) was assembled. In initial applications, the divergence of placental and embryonic gene expression profiles was assessed. At stage E12.5 of development, based on triplicate experiments, 720 genes (6.5%) displayed statistically significant differences in expression between placenta and embryo. Among 289 more highly expressed in placenta, 61 placenta-specific genes encoded, for example, a novel prolactin-like protein. The number of genes highly expressed (and frequently specific) for placenta has thereby been increased 5-fold over the total previously reported, illustrating the potential of the microarrays for tissue-specific gene discovery and analysis of mammalian developmental programs.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;16;9127-32

  • Sequencing, expression analysis, and mapping of three unique human tropomodulin genes and their mouse orthologs.

    Cox PR and Zoghbi HY

    Division of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    Tropomodulin (TMOD) is the actin-capping protein for the slow-growing end of filamentous actin, and a neuronal-specific isoform, neuronal tropomodulin (NTMOD), is the major binding protein to brain tropomyosin in rat. The Drosophila TMOD homolog, Sanpodo, alters sibling cell fate determination, so we used a cross-species approach to identify additional TMOD family members that may play a critical role in this process. We characterized the human and mouse orthologs to rat NTMOD (TMOD2 and Tmod2, respectively) as well as two novel tropomodulin family members (TMOD3, Tmod3 and TMOD4, Tmod4). Their expression patterns vary extensively, from ubiquitous (TMOD3 and Tmod3) to muscle (TMOD4) or neuronal tissues only (TMOD2 and Tmod2). TMOD2 and TMOD3 map next to one another on chromosome 15q21.1-q21.2, and their mouse orthologs map to a homologous region on mouse chromosome 9; TMOD4 maps to the telomeric end of 1q12 and Tmod4 to a homologous region of mouse chromosome 3. Their location and expression patterns make TMOD2 and TMOD3 candidate genes for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 5 (ALS5) and dyslexia-1 (DYX1) and TMOD4 a candidate gene for limb girdle muscular dystrophy 1B (LGMD1B). Our mapping efforts revealed new regions of paralogy among chromosomes 1q, 9q, 15q, and 19p.

    Genomics 2000;63;1;97-107

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000003 G2C Mus musculus Mouse clathrin Mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000004 G2C Mus musculus Mouse Synaptosome Mouse Synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

Cookies Policy | Terms and Conditions. This site is hosted by Edinburgh University and the Genes to Cognition Programme.