G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001844
Gene symbol
PKP4 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
plakophilin 4
Orthologue
G00000595 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000144283 (Ensembl human gene)
8502 (Entrez Gene)
1032 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PKP4 (GeneCards)
Literature
604276 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:9026 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q99569 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • p0071

Literature (29)

Pubmed - other

  • Targeting of p0071 to the midbody depends on KIF3.

    Keil R, Kiessling C and Hatzfeld M

    Institute for Pathophysiology, Division of Pathobiochemistry, Martin-Luther-University Halle, 06114 Halle, Germany.

    P0071 (plakophilin-4) is a member of the p120ctn subfamily of armadillo proteins that are essential for cell contact formation. Additionally, p0071 plays a role in cytokinesis, in which it regulates local activation of RhoA together with Ect2. Because spatiotemporal regulation is required for progression through cytokinesis, we analyzed when and how p0071 is targeted to the midbody to induce RhoA activation. We show that Ect2 precedes p0071 accumulation at the midbody and that targeting is mediated by different motor proteins. p0071 interacted with the kinesin-II family member KIF3b, and knockdown of KIF3b interfered with p0071 midbody recruitment whereas Ect2 or RhoA localization was not affected in these cells. Moreover, knockdown of KIF3b induced a similar phenotype as the p0071 knockdown, with reduced actin and phospho-myosin-light-chain accumulation at the midbody and decreased levels of active RhoA during cytokinesis. The lack of RhoA activation in KIF3b-deficient cells was not rescued by overexpression of wild-type p0071 but was substantially ameliorated by a p0071-MKLP1-motor-domain fusion protein that was targeted to the furrow independently of KIF3. These data indicate that p0071 and Ect2 are transported via distinct motors and identify a novel pathway implicating KIF3 in the regulation of actin organization during cytokinesis.

    Journal of cell science 2009;122;Pt 8;1174-83

  • Prefrontal cortex shotgun proteome analysis reveals altered calcium homeostasis and immune system imbalance in schizophrenia.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Rewerts C, Maccarrone G, Dias-Neto E and Turck CW

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua. Dr. Ovidio Pires de Campos, no 785, Consolação, São Paulo, SP 05403-010, Brazil.

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease, likely to be caused by a combination of serial alterations in a number of genes and environmental factors. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46) is involved in schizophrenia and executes high-level functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts and attitudes, correct social behavior and personality expression. Global proteomic analysis of post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples from schizophrenia patients and non-schizophrenic individuals was performed using stable isotope labeling and shotgun proteomics. The analysis resulted in the identification of 1,261 proteins, 84 of which showed statistically significant differential expression, reinforcing previous data supporting the involvement of the immune system, calcium homeostasis, cytoskeleton assembly, and energy metabolism in schizophrenia. In addition a number of new potential markers were found that may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

    European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience 2009;259;3;151-63

  • Large-scale structural analysis of the classical human protein tyrosine phosphatome.

    Barr AJ, Ugochukwu E, Lee WH, King ON, Filippakopoulos P, Alfano I, Savitsky P, Burgess-Brown NA, Müller S and Knapp S

    University of Oxford, Structural Genomics Consortium, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford, OX3 7DQ, UK. alastair.barr@sgc.ox.ac.uk

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play a critical role in regulating cellular functions by selectively dephosphorylating their substrates. Here we present 22 human PTP crystal structures that, together with prior structural knowledge, enable a comprehensive analysis of the classical PTP family. Despite their largely conserved fold, surface properties of PTPs are strikingly diverse. A potential secondary substrate-binding pocket is frequently found in phosphatases, and this has implications for both substrate recognition and development of selective inhibitors. Structural comparison identified four diverse catalytic loop (WPD) conformations and suggested a mechanism for loop closure. Enzymatic assays revealed vast differences in PTP catalytic activity and identified PTPD1, PTPD2, and HDPTP as catalytically inert protein phosphatases. We propose a "head-to-toe" dimerization model for RPTPgamma/zeta that is distinct from the "inhibitory wedge" model and that provides a molecular basis for inhibitory regulation. This phosphatome resource gives an expanded insight into intrafamily PTP diversity, catalytic activity, substrate recognition, and autoregulatory self-association.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Cell 2009;136;2;352-63

  • Protein p0071, a major plaque protein of non-desmosomal adhering junctions, is a selective cell-type marker.

    Hofmann I, Kuhn C and Franke WW

    Joint Research Division Vascular Biology of the Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) at Mannheim, CBTM, Ludolf-Krehl-Strasse 13-17, 68167 Mannheim, Germany. i.hofmann@dkfz.de

    Protein p0071, which originally was introduced as a member of the p120-subfamily of armadillo proteins, common to desmosomes and adhaerens junctions (AJs) and to several other cell structures (centrosomes, midbodies), has been localized by using a series of novel mono- and polyclonal antibodies generated against various domains of the molecule. By protein analysis and immunolocalization techniques, protein p0071 has been localized as a plaque protein in AJs of diverse epithelia and certain vascular endothelia, in the composite junctions (areal compositae) of the intercalated disks of cardiomyocytes, and in the punctate or more extended AJs of the vast majority of cell culture types examined, including mitotic states. Using these antibodies, we have also shown that this AJ protein occurs only rarely or is even absent in tissues such as skeletal and smooth muscles, in a series of mesenchymal tissue cells, and in specific desmosome-rich cells such as those of the upper layers of the epidermis and certain other stratified epithelia and Hassall corpuscles of the thymus. We have also demonstrated that p0071 is absent from desmosomes. The occurrence of two major subtypes of lymphatic endothelial cells, one with AJs containing p0071 and one without detectable p0071, is emphasized. Possible structural and functional roles of p0071 are discussed in light of these new findings regarding its localization, and the addition of p0071 to the armamentarium of cytodiagnostic cell-type markers is recommended.

    Cell and tissue research 2008;334;3;381-99

  • Replication of a genome-wide case-control study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Ng D, Hu N, Hu Y, Wang C, Giffen C, Tang ZZ, Han XY, Yang HH, Lee MP, Goldstein AM and Taylor PR

    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Rm 7112, Bethesda, MD 20892-7236, USA. davidng@mail.nih.gov

    In a previous pilot case-control study of individuals diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and matched controls from a high-risk area in China, we identified 38 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with ESCC located in or near one of 33 genes. In our study, we attempted to replicate the results of these 38 gene-related SNPs in a new sample of 300 ESCC cases and 300 matched controls from the same study conducted in Shanxi Province, China. Among 36 evaluable SNPs, 4 were significant in one or more analyses, including SNPs located in EPHB1, PGLYRP2, PIK3C3 and SLC9A9, although the odds ratios (ORs) for these genotypes were modest. Associations were found with EPHB1/rs1515366 (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.99; p = 0.019), PIK3C3/rs52911 (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.99; p = 0.02) and PGLYRP2/rs959117 (OR 0.93, 95% CI, 0.86-1.01; p = 0.061) in general linear models (additive mode); and the genotype distribution differed between cases and controls for SLC9A9/rs956062 (p = 0.024). To examine these 4 genes in more detail, 40 HapMap-based tag SNPs from these 4 genes were evaluated in the same subjects and 7 additional SNPs associated with ESCC were identified. Further confirmation of these findings in other populations and other studies are needed to determine if the signals from these SNPs are indirectly associated due to linkage disequilibrium, or are directly related to biologic function and the development of ESCC.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS: Z99 HG999999

    International journal of cancer 2008;123;7;1610-5

  • Beyond regulation of cell adhesion: local control of RhoA at the cleavage furrow by the p0071 catenin.

    Keil R, Wolf A, Hüttelmaier S and Hatzfeld M

    Institute for Pathophysiology, Division of Pathobiochemistry, Martin Luther University-Halle, Halle, Germany.

    P120(ctn) is the prototype of a subfamily of armadillo proteins that also comprises p0071, delta-catenin, ARVCF and the more distantly related plakophilins 1-3. These proteins have well established roles in regulating adherens junction and desmosome formation which critically depends on their capacity to cluster cadherins. Besides this function in cell adhesion that is mediated by a membrane associated pool, these proteins also show cytoplasmic and nuclear localization. While their nuclear function is still enigmatic, major progress in understanding their cytoplasmic role has been made. In the cytoplasm, the p120 catenins appear responsible for the spatio-temporal control of small Rho-GTPases in various cellular contexts. Whereas p120(ctn) has a major function in regulating cell adhesion and motility through controlling Rho-GTPases, a recent report shows that the closely related protein p0071 associates and regulates RhoA at the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. Overexpression and knockdown of p0071 induced a cytokinesis defect that was mediated by up- or downregulation of RhoA activity at the contractile ring. There, p0071 interacted directly with RhoA itself and with the Rho-GEF Ect2. Full activation of RhoA required Ect2 as well as p0071 indicating that these two proteins act in conjunction to regulate RhoA during cytokinesis. Here we discuss the function of p120 catenins as versatile scaffolds that confer specificity to the complex regulation of Rho-GTPases. By controlling numerous stimulating guanine exchange factors (GEFs) and inhibiting GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) via the formation of multiprotein complexes at the right time and place, they direct the spatio-temporal control of Rho-signalling.

    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 2007;6;2;122-7

  • The armadillo protein p0071 regulates Rho signalling during cytokinesis.

    Wolf A, Keil R, Götzl O, Mun A, Schwarze K, Lederer M, Hüttelmaier S and Hatzfeld M

    Institute for Pathophysiology, Division of Pathobiochemistry, Martin-Luther-University Halle, Hollystrasse 1, 06114 Halle, Germany.

    Cytokinesis requires the spatio-temporal coordination of cell-cycle control and cytoskeletal reorganization. Members of the Rho-family of GTPases are crucial regulators of this process and assembly of the contractile ring depends on local activation of Rho signalling. Here, we show that the armadillo protein p0071, unlike its relative p120(ctn), is localized at the midbody during cytokinesis and is essential for cell division. Both knockdown and overexpression of p0071 interfered with normal cell growth and survival due to cytokinesis defects with formation of multinucleated cells and induction of apoptosis. This failure of cytokinesis seemingly correlated with the deregulation of Rho activity in response to altered p0071 expression. The function of p0071 in regulating Rho activity occurred through an association of p0071 with RhoA, as well as the physical and functional interaction of p0071 with Ect2, the one Rho guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) essential for cytokinesis. These findings support an essential role for p0071 in spatially regulating restricted Rho signalling during cytokinesis.

    Nature cell biology 2006;8;12;1432-40

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Time-resolved mass spectrometry of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling network reveals dynamic modules.

    Zhang Y, Wolf-Yadlin A, Ross PL, Pappin DJ, Rush J, Lauffenburger DA and White FM

    Biological Engineering Division, Massachusetts Institute of Technnology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

    Ligand binding to cell surface receptors initiates a cascade of signaling events regulated by dynamic phosphorylation events on a multitude of pathway proteins. Quantitative features, including intensity, timing, and duration of phosphorylation of particular residues, may play a role in determining cellular response, but experimental data required for analysis of these features have not previously been available. To understand the dynamic operation of signaling cascades, we have developed a method enabling the simultaneous quantification of tyrosine phosphorylation of specific residues on dozens of key proteins in a time-resolved manner, downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. Tryptic peptides from four different EGFR stimulation time points were labeled with four isoforms of the iTRAQ reagent to enable downstream quantification. After mixing of the labeled samples, tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides were immunoprecipitated with an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody and further enriched by IMAC before LC/MS/MS analysis. Database searching and manual confirmation of peptide phosphorylation site assignments led to the identification of 78 tyrosine phosphorylation sites on 58 proteins from a single analysis. Replicate analyses of a separate biological sample provided both validation of this first data set and identification of 26 additional tyrosine phosphorylation sites and 18 additional proteins. iTRAQ fragment ion ratios provided time course phosphorylation profiles for each site. The data set of quantitative temporal phosphorylation profiles was further characterized by self-organizing maps, which resulted in identification of several cohorts of tyrosine residues exhibiting self-similar temporal phosphorylation profiles, operationally defining dynamic modules in the EGFR signaling network consistent with particular cellular processes. The presence of novel proteins and associated tyrosine phosphorylation sites within these modules indicates additional components of this network and potentially localizes the topological action of these proteins. Additional analysis and modeling of the data generated in this study are likely to yield more sophisticated models of receptor tyrosine kinase-initiated signal transduction, trafficking, and regulation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA96504; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK070172, DK42816; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM68762

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2005;4;9;1240-50

  • Quantitative phosphoproteome analysis using a dendrimer conjugation chemistry and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Tao WA, Wollscheid B, O'Brien R, Eng JK, Li XJ, Bodenmiller B, Watts JD, Hood L and Aebersold R

    The Bindley Bioscience Center and Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.

    We present a robust and general method for the identification and relative quantification of phosphorylation sites in complex protein mixtures. It is based on a new chemical derivatization strategy using a dendrimer as a soluble polymer support and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In a single step, phosphorylated peptides are covalently conjugated to a dendrimer in a reaction catalyzed by carbodiimide and imidazole. Modified phosphopeptides are released from the dendrimer via acid hydrolysis and analyzed by MS/MS. When coupled with an initial antiphosphotyrosine protein immunoprecipitation step and stable-isotope labeling, in a single experiment, we identified all known tyrosine phosphorylation sites within the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) of the T-cell receptor (TCR) CD3 chains, and previously unknown phosphorylation sites on total 97 tyrosine phosphoproteins and their interacting partners in human T cells. The dynamic changes in phosphorylation were quantified in these proteins.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: N01-HV-28179

    Nature methods 2005;2;8;591-8

  • Comparative analysis of armadillo family proteins in the regulation of a431 epithelial cell junction assembly, adhesion and migration.

    Setzer SV, Calkins CC, Garner J, Summers S, Green KJ and Kowalczyk AP

    Departments of Dermatology and Cell Biology, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

    p0071 is an armadillo family protein related to both the adherens junction protein p120ctn and to the desmosomal proteins plakophilins 1-3. p0071 assembles into both adherens junctions and desmosomes, suggesting that this protein may regulate the balance between adherens junction and desmosome formation. Furthermore, this subfamily of proteins may also regulate cell functions directly influenced by intercellular junctions, including the strength of cell adhesion and the ability of cells to migrate. These possibilities were tested by expressing exogenous p0071 in A431 epithelial cells and monitoring the effects on adhesive junction assembly in comparison to other closely related armadillo family proteins. In this model system, p0071 specifically enhanced adherens junction assembly but dramatically compromised desmosome assembly, resulting in keratin filament retraction from regions of cell-cell contact. Protein interaction studies revealed that p0071 bound to the first 160 amino-terminal residues of desmoplakin and also interacted directly with plakoglobin, suggesting that p0071 may regulate desmosome assembly by controlling plakoglobin availability. Using an in vitro assay to measure the strength of cell-cell contacts, both plakophilin-1 and p120ctn were found to increase the strength of adhesion. Interestingly, p0071 expression caused no overall changes in adhesive strength, but dramatically inhibited the ability of A431 cells to close an in vitro wound. These results suggest that p120ctn/plakophilin family proteins interact with intercellular junction binding partners to differentially modulate the adhesive and migratory behavior of epithelial cells.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: P30 AR 042687, R01 AR 48266, T32 AR 007587; NIDCR NIH HHS: P01 DE 012328

    The Journal of investigative dermatology 2004;123;3;426-33

  • Computational and experimental studies on human misshapen/NIK-related kinase MINK-1.

    Qu K, Lu Y, Lin N, Singh R, Xu X, Payan DG and Xu D

    Rigel, Inc., 1180 Veterans Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. kqu@rigel.com

    We have studied the structure and function of Human Misshapen/NIK-related kinase (MINK-1) through a combination of computational methods and experimental approaches, including (1) fold recognition and sequence-structure alignment for each structural domain using the threading program PROSPECT, (2) gene expression and protein-protein interaction analysis of yeast homologs of human MINK-1 domains, and (3) yeast two-hybrid screening for proteins that interact with human MINK-1. Our structure prediction dissects MINK-1 into four domains: a conserved N-terminal kinase domain, followed by a coiled-coil region and a proline-rich region, and a C-terminal GCK domain. Gene expression and yeast two-hybrid analysis of yeast homologs of the MINK-1 domains suggest that MINK-1 may be involved in cell-cycle progression and cytoskeletal control. Consistent with these predicted functions, our in-house yeast two-hybrid screen for proteins that interact with human MINK-1 provides strong evidence that the coiled-coil and proline-rich domains of MINK-1 participate in the regulation of cytoskeletal organization, cell-cycle control and apoptosis. A homology model of the MINK-1 kinase domain was used to screen the NCI open compound database in DOCK, and chemical compounds with pharmaceutically acceptable properties were identified. Further medicinal chemistry compound structure optimization and kinase assays are underway.

    Current medicinal chemistry 2004;11;5;569-82

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Targeting of p0071 to desmosomes and adherens junctions is mediated by different protein domains.

    Hatzfeld M, Green KJ and Sauter H

    Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Medical Faculty of the University of Halle, 06097 Halle/Saale, Germany. mechthild.hatzfeld@medizin.uni-halle.de

    p0071, a member of the armadillo protein family, is most closely related to p120(ctn) and the plakophilins 1-3. Whereas plakophilins are desmosomal plaque proteins, p120(ctn) localizes to adherens junctions and interacts with classical cadherins. In contrast, p0071 has been described as a protein with dual localization in adherens junctions and desmosomes depending on the cell type examined. Here we have analyzed the localization of p0071 and its domains in detail. Although by sequence analysis, p0071 is more closely related to the adherens junction proteins p120(ctn), ARVCF and delta-catenin, endogenous p0071 associated preferentially with desmosomes in MCF-7 epithelial cells. Overexpressed p0071 localized along cell borders and overlapped only partially with desmosomal markers but colocalized with non-desmosomal cadherins and recruited cadherins to the membrane. The head domain of p0071 was sufficient for desmosomal targeting, whereas the arm repeat domain associated with adherens junctions and enhanced membrane association of classical cadherins. The tail domain localized preferentially to the nucleus and associated with desmosomes. To examine the mechanism underlying this dual localization more closely we determined binding partners of p0071 by using yeast-two-hybrid and mom-targeting assays. These approaches show that the head domain interacted with desmosomal proteins desmocollin 3a and desmoplakin, whereas the armadillo repeat domain binds to non-desmosomal cadherins. Head and armadillo repeat domains both interacted with plakoglobin by binding to different sites. Our data suggest that, in addition to plakoglobin, p0071 is the second armadillo protein present in both types of adhesive junctions and may play a role in regulating crosstalk between adherens junctions and desmosomes.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR43380; NIDCR NIH HHS: P01 DE12328

    Journal of cell science 2003;116;Pt 7;1219-33

  • Profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation pathways in human cells using mass spectrometry.

    Salomon AR, Ficarro SB, Brill LM, Brinker A, Phung QT, Ericson C, Sauer K, Brock A, Horn DM, Schultz PG and Peters EC

    Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, 10675 John Jay Hopkins Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

    The reversible phosphorylation of tyrosine residues is an important mechanism for modulating biological processes such as cellular signaling, differentiation, and growth, and if deregulated, can result in various types of cancer. Therefore, an understanding of these dynamic cellular processes at the molecular level requires the ability to assess changes in the sites of tyrosine phosphorylation across numerous proteins simultaneously as well as over time. Here we describe a sensitive approach based on multidimensional liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry that enables the rapid identification of numerous sites of tyrosine phosphorylation on a number of different proteins from human whole cell lysates. We used this methodology to follow changes in tyrosine phosphorylation patterns that occur over time during either the activation of human T cells or the inhibition of the oncogenic BCR-ABL fusion product in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells in response to treatment with STI571 (Gleevec). Together, these experiments rapidly identified 64 unique sites of tyrosine phosphorylation on 32 different proteins. Half of these sites have been documented in the literature, validating the merits of our approach, whereas motif analysis suggests that a number of the undocumented sites are also potentially involved in biological pathways. This methodology should enable the rapid generation of new insights into signaling pathways as they occur in states of health and disease.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;2;443-8

  • The Armadillo family protein p0071 is a VE-cadherin- and desmoplakin-binding protein.

    Calkins CC, Hoepner BL, Law CM, Novak MR, Setzer SV, Hatzfeld M and Kowalczyk AP

    Department of Dermatology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.

    p0071, a member of the armadillo protein family, localizes to both adherens junctions and desmosomes in epithelial cells and exhibits homology to the adherens junction protein p120 and the desmosomal protein plakophilin-1. p0071 is also present at dermal microvascular endothelial intercellular junctions and colocalizes with VE-cadherin, an endothelium-specific cadherin that associates with both actin and intermediate filament networks. To define the role of p0071 in junction assembly, p0071 was tested for interactions with other components of the endothelial junctional complex. In transient expression assays, p0071 colocalized with and formed complexes with both VE-cadherin and desmoplakin. Deletion analysis using the yeast two-hybrid system revealed that the armadillo repeat domain of p0071 bound directly to VE-cadherin. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that p0071 and p120 bound to the same region on the cytoplasmic tail of VE-cadherin and that overexpression of p0071 could displace p120 from intercellular junctions. In contrast to VE-cadherin, desmoplakin was found to associate with the non-armadillo head domain of p0071. Cotransfections and triple-label immunofluorescence analysis revealed that VE-cadherin colocalization with desmoplakin in transfected COS cells required p0071, suggesting that p0071 may couple VE-cadherin to desmoplakin. Based on previous findings that both VE-cadherin and desmoplakin play central roles in vasculogenesis, these new results suggest that p0071 may play an important role in endothelial junction assembly and in the morphogenic events associated with vascular remodeling.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: HP30 AR042687, K01 AR002039, R01 AR48266-01, R03 AR47147, T32 AR007587

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;3;1774-83

  • Localization of p0071-interacting proteins, plakophilin-related armadillo-repeat protein-interacting protein (PAPIN) and ERBIN, in epithelial cells.

    Ohno H, Hirabayashi S, Iizuka T, Ohnishi H, Fujita T and Hata Y

    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519, Japan.

    PAPIN has six PDZ domains and interacts with p0071, a catenin-related protein. Recent studies have revealed that catenins determine the subcellular localization of some PDZ proteins. We have examined whether the localization of PAPIN is determined by p0071 in epithelial cells. PAPIN was localized not only on the lateral membrane but also on the apical membrane, where p0071 was absent. The targeting to both membranes was mediated by the middle region of PAPIN and did not require the p0071-interacting PDZ domain. In cells that came into contact, PAPIN was diffusely distributed on the plasma membrane, while p0071 was concentrated at immature cell-cell contacts. When epithelial cells were exposed to the low concentration of calcium, p0071 was internalized, whereas PAPIN remained on the plasma membrane. We also confirmed that the interaction with p0071 was not essential for the membrane targeting of ERBIN, a recently identified p0071- and ErbB2-binding protein. PAPIN, p0071, and ERBIN formed a complex in 293T cells. Furthermore, ERBIN and ErbB2 were colocalized with PAPIN on the lateral membrane. These findings suggest that PAPIN, p0071, and ERBIN come to the cell-cell contacts independently and interact with each other on the lateral membrane.

    Oncogene 2002;21;46;7042-9

  • ERBIN associates with p0071, an armadillo protein, at cell-cell junctions of epithelial cells.

    Izawa I, Nishizawa M, Tomono Y, Ohtakara K, Takahashi T and Inagaki M

    Division of Biochemistry, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8681, Japan.

    Background: ERBIN, an ErbB2 receptor-interacting protein, belongs to a recently described family of proteins termed the LAP [leucine-rich repeats and PSD-95/dLg-A/ZO-1 (PDZ) domains] family which has essential roles in establishment of cell polarity.

    Results: To identify new ERBIN-binding proteins, we screened a yeast two-hybrid library, using the carboxyl-terminal fragment of ERBIN containing PDZ domain as the bait, and we isolated p0071 (also called plakophilin-4) as an ERBIN-interacting protein. p0071 is a member of the p120 catenin family, which are defined as proteins with 10 armadillo repeats, and localizes along the cell-cell border. The ERBIN PDZ domain binds the COOH-terminus of p0071 containing the PDZ domain-binding sequence. Endogenous ERBIN was co-immunoprecipitated with p0071. In fully polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, ERBIN co-localized largely with beta-catenin and partly with desmoplakin along the lateral plasma membrane domain. At these cell-cell contact regions, ERBIN co-localizes with p0071. Over-expression of the dominant active forms of Cdc42, Rac1 or RhoA, Rho family small GTPases, resulted in a marked accumulation of ERBIN at the cell-cell contacts of MDCK and HeLa cells.

    Conclusion: These results show that ERBIN interacts in vivo with p0071 and that it may be involved in the organization of adherens junctions and the desmosomes of epithelia. In addition, we demonstrated that the subcellular localization of ERBIN might be regulated by Rho family small GTPases.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2002;7;5;475-85

  • The Erbin PDZ domain binds with high affinity and specificity to the carboxyl termini of delta-catenin and ARVCF.

    Laura RP, Witt AS, Held HA, Gerstner R, Deshayes K, Koehler MF, Kosik KS, Sidhu SS and Lasky LA

    Department of Molecular Oncology, Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA.

    Erbin is a recently described member of the LAP (leucine-rich repeat and PDZ domain) protein family. We used a C-terminally displayed phage peptide library to identify optimal ligands for the Erbin PDZ domain. Phage-selected peptides were type 1 PDZ ligands that bound with high affinity and specificity to the Erbin PDZ domain in vitro. These peptides most closely resembled the C-terminal PDZ domain-binding motifs of three p120-related catenins: delta-catenin, ARVCF, and p0071 (DSWV-COOH). Analysis of the interactions of the Erbin PDZ domain with synthetic peptides matching the C termini of ARVCF or delta-catenin also demonstrated specific high affinity binding. We characterized the interactions between the Erbin PDZ domain and both ARVCF and delta-catenin in vitro and in vivo. The Erbin PDZ domain co-localized and coprecipitated with ARVCF or delta-catenin complexed with beta-catenin and E/N-cadherin. Mutagenesis and peptide competition experiments showed that the association of Erbin with the cadherin-catenin complex was mediated by the interaction of its PDZ domain with the C-terminal PDZ domain-binding motifs (DSWV-COOH) of ARVCF and delta-catenin. Finally, we showed that endogenous delta-catenin and Erbin co-localized in and co-immunoprecipitated from neurons. These results suggest that delta-catenin and ARVCF may function to mediate the association of Erbin with the junctional cadherin-catenin complex. They also demonstrate that C-terminal phage-display technology can be used to predict physiologically relevant ligands for PDZ domains.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;15;12906-14

  • Interaction between Erbin and a Catenin-related protein in epithelial cells.

    Jaulin-Bastard F, Arsanto JP, Le Bivic A, Navarro C, Vély F, Saito H, Marchetto S, Hatzfeld M, Santoni MJ, Birnbaum D and Borg JP

    U119 INSERM, Molecular Oncology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Molecular Pharmacology, 27 boulevard Lei Roure 13009 Marseille, France.

    Integrity of epithelial tissues relies on the proper apical-basolateral polarity of epithelial cells. Members of the LAP (LRR and PDZ) protein family such as LET-413 and Scribble are involved in maintaining epithelial cell polarity in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. We previously described Erbin as a mammalian LET-413 homologue interacting with ERBB2/HER2, an epidermal growth factor receptor family member. Erbin and ERBB2/HER2 are located in the basolateral membranes of epithelial cells. We show here that Erbin interacts with p0071 (also called plakophilin-4), an armadillo repeat protein linked to the cytoskeleton. Erbin binds to p0071 in vitro and in vivo in a PDZ domain-dependent manner, and both proteins colocalized in desmosomes of epithelial cells. Using a dominant negative approach, we found that integrity of epithelial cell monolayer is impaired when interaction between Erbin and p0071 is disrupted. We propose that Erbin is connected by p0071 to cytoskeletal networks in an interaction crucial for epithelial homeostasis.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;4;2869-75

  • PAPIN. A novel multiple PSD-95/Dlg-A/ZO-1 protein interacting with neural plakophilin-related armadillo repeat protein/delta-catenin and p0071.

    Deguchi M, Iizuka T, Hata Y, Nishimura W, Hirao K, Yao I, Kawabe H and Takai Y

    Takai Biotimer Project, Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o JCR Pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd., Kobe 651-2241, Japan.

    A neural plakophilin-related armadillo repeat protein (NPRAP)/delta-catenin interacts with one of Alzheimer disease-related gene products, presenilin 1. We have previously reported the interaction of NPRAP/delta-catenin with synaptic scaffolding molecule, which is involved in the assembly of synaptic components. NPRAP/delta-catenin also interacts with E-cadherin and beta-catenin and is implicated in the organization of cell-cell junctions. p0071, a ubiquitous isoform of NPRAP/delta-catenin, is localized at desmosomes in HeLa and A431 cells and at adherens junctions in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells. We have identified here a novel protein interacting with NPRAP/delta-catenin and p0071 and named this protein plakophilin-related armadillo repeat protein-interacting PSD-95/Dlg-A/ZO-1 (PDZ) protein (PAPIN). PAPIN has six PDZ domains and binds to NPRAP/delta-catenin and p0071 via the second PDZ domain. PAPIN and p0071 are ubiquitously expressed in various tissues and are localized at cell-cell junctions in normal rat kidney cells and bronchial epithelial cells. PAPIN may be a scaffolding protein connecting components of epithelial junctions with p0071.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;38;29875-80

  • p0071, a member of the armadillo multigene family, is a constituent of sarcomeric I-bands in human skeletal muscle.

    Schröder R, van der Ven PF, Warlo I, Schumann H, Fürst DO, Blümcke I, Schmidt MC and Hatzfeld M

    Department of Neurology, University Hospital Bonn, Germany.

    p0071 is a member of the armadillo gene family that is expressed in a wide variety of mammalian tissues and cell types with a prominent cell-cell contact association in epithelial cells. Here, we report the expression and localization patterns of p0071 in differentiating human skeletal muscle cells and in normal and diseased human skeletal muscle tissues. Northern blots revealed expression of p0071 mRNA in adult skeletal muscle tissue. RT-PCR analysis and Western blotting experiments identified two differentially spliced isoforms of p0071. The balance between these isoforms shifted during in vitro differentiation of isolated muscle cells from predominant expression of the short variant to a preponderance of the larger variant from day 6 onwards. Immunolocalization studies in mature skeletal muscle tissue revealed that p0071 is a constituent of myofibrils with a distinct localization at the level of sarcomeric N2-lines. During myofibrillogenesis, p0071 was not detected in non-striated nascent myofibrils, but became apparent shortly after the development of compact Z-discs in early myotubes. Furthermore, we studied the expression of p0071 in a wide variety of neuromuscular disorders by indirect immunofluorescence. Here, the myofibrillar staining of p0071 was preserved in all the disease entities included in our study. Our results provide the first evidence that a member of the armadillo multigene family is a constituent of the contractile apparatus in human skeletal muscle. The localization of p0071 at the level of I-bands and the timepoint of its integration into developing myofibrils suggest a possible role in the organization of thin filaments.

    Journal of muscle research and cell motility 2000;21;6;577-86

  • Direct interaction of Alzheimer's disease-related presenilin 1 with armadillo protein p0071.

    Stahl B, Diehlmann A and Südhof TC

    Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine, 37075 Göttingen, Germany. stahl@mail.mpiem.gwdg.de

    Alzheimer's disease-related presenilins are thought to be involved in Notch signaling during embryonic development and/or cellular differentiation. Proteins mediating the cellular functions of the presenilins are still unknown. We utilized the yeast two-hybrid system to identify an interacting armadillo protein, termed p0071, that binds specifically to the hydrophilic loop of presenilin 1. In vivo, the presenilins constitutively undergo proteolytic processing, forming two stable fragments. Here, we show that the C-terminal fragment of presenilin 1 directly binds to p0071. Nine out of 10 armadillo repeats in p0071 are essential for mediating this interaction. Since armadillo proteins, like beta-catenin and APC, are known to participate in cellular signaling, p0071 may function as a mediator of presenilin 1 in signaling events.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;14;9141-8

  • Presenilins interact with armadillo proteins including neural-specific plakophilin-related protein and beta-catenin.

    Levesque G, Yu G, Nishimura M, Zhang DM, Levesque L, Yu H, Xu D, Liang Y, Rogaeva E, Ikeda M, Duthie M, Murgolo N, Wang L, VanderVere P, Bayne ML, Strader CD, Rommens JM, Fraser PE and St George-Hyslop P

    Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, Department of Medicine (Neurology), University of Toronto, and Toronto Hospital, Ontario, Canada.

    Missense substitutions in the presenilin 1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 (PS2) proteins are associated with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. We have used yeast-two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation methods to show that the large cytoplasmic loop domains of PS1 and PS2 interact specifically with three members of the armadillo protein family, including beta-catenin, p0071, and a novel neuronal-specific armadillo protein--neural plakophilin-related armadillo protein (NPRAP). The PS1:NPRAP interaction occurs between the arm repeats of NPRAP and residues 372-399 at the C-terminal end of the large cytoplasmic loop of PS1. The latter residues contain a single arm-like domain and are highly conserved in the presenilins, suggesting that they form a functional armadillo protein binding site for the presenilins.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: 37920

    Journal of neurochemistry 1999;72;3;999-1008

  • Chromosomal mapping of human armadillo genes belonging to the p120(ctn)/plakophilin subfamily.

    Bonné S, van Hengel J and van Roy F

    Department of Molecular Biology, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Gent, Belgium.

    Armadillo-like proteins are characterized by a series of armadillo repeats that are typically 42 to 45 amino acids in length. Three major subfamilies of Armadillo-like proteins can be distinguished on the basis of their number of repeats, their overall sequence similarity, and dispersion of the repeats throughout the protein. One of these is the p120(ctn)/plakophilin subfamily, which contains at least six members. We mapped the corresponding human genes by PCR on a monochromosomal cell hybrid mapping panel and by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The gene for plakophilin-1 (PKP1) was located at 1q32, the plakophilin-2 gene (PKP2) was located at 12p13, while the gene for p0071 was located at 2q23-q31. We confirmed the chromosomal localization of the p120(ctn) gene (CTNND1) at 11q11, the ARVCF gene at 22q11, and the delta-catenin/NPRAP gene (CTNND2) at 5p15. Although some of the Armadillo proteins are highly related to one another, the corresponding genes are dispersed throughout the human genome.

    Genomics 1998;51;3;452-4

  • Identification and localization of a neurally expressed member of the plakoglobin/armadillo multigene family.

    Paffenholz R and Franke WW

    Division of Cell Biology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.

    The plakoglobin/armadillo multigene family comprises many proteins widely differing in sizes and functions which have in common a variable number of tandemly repeated arm sequences of about 42 amino acids (aa). In a search for proteins with sequence homology to the desmosomal-plaque-associated arm-repeat-containing protein, plakophilin 1, we have identified a novel plakoglobin/armadillo protein. This new member of the multigene family is predominantly, if not exclusively, expressed in neural and neuroendocrine tissues, hence the name neural plakophilin-related arm-repeat protein (NPRAP). The murine cDNA codes for a protein of 1247 aa, with a predicted molecular weight of 135 kDa and a pI of 7.57. The orthologous human protein differs only in a few aa, indicative of the evolutionary stability of NPRAP. In human and murine cDNAs, we have found different transcripts of the NPRAP gene, suggesting that in each species the protein exists in at least two isoforms. The NPRA protein contains three different regions: a 528-aa amino-terminal "head" domain, including a potential coiled-coil-forming alpha-helix segment, a central domain with 10 imperfect arm-repeat units, and a 212-aa carboxy-terminal "tail" domain. By aa sequence, NPRAP is highly homologous to three proteins: p120cas, p0071 and ARVCP, which represent a distinct subgroup within the plakoglobin/armadillo family. By in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence microscopy using NPRAP-specific antibodies, we have demonstrated NPRAP and its mRNA in the perikarya of various kinds of CNS neurons in embryonic and adult mice, but minimal amounts have also been detected by immunoblot analysis in some other tissues containing neural or neuroendocrine elements. We have not seen significant enrichment of NPRAP at cell junctions or in nuclei. Possible NPRAP functions are discussed and the correlation of NPRAP synthesis with neuronal differentiation processes is emphasized.

    Differentiation; research in biological diversity 1997;61;5;293-304

  • Cloning and characterization of a new armadillo family member, p0071, associated with the junctional plaque: evidence for a subfamily of closely related proteins.

    Hatzfeld M and Nachtsheim C

    Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Göttingen, FRG. gwdg@gwdg.de

    Cell contacts of the adherens type are organized around transmembrane proteins of the cadherin family. Whereas the extracellular domains mediate homophilic interactions between cadherins of neighbouring cells the cytoplasmic domains organize a set of proteins into the junctional plaque. Among these junctional plaque proteins are members of the armadillo gene family, beta-catenin, plakoglobin (gamma-catenin), B6P/plakophilin and p120. These proteins are assumed to play a key role in cell cell signalling through intercellular junctions. Here we report cloning of a cDNA encoding a new armadillo family member, p0071, closely related to p120 and B6P/plakophilin and more distantly related to armadillo, plakoglobin, beta-catenin and other members of the gene family. The deduced amino acid sequence encodes a basic protein of 1,211 amino acids with a central armadillo repeat region which is conserved in sequence and organization of its ten individual motifs between p120, B6P/plakophilin and p0071. In contrast the end domains of the three proteins are variable in size and sequence. The RNA coding for p0071 is expressed in all tissues examined. Using antibodies generated against the armadillo repeat region of the protein we show that p0071 is localized at cell-cell borders and is expressed in the desmosomal plaque of some cultured epithelial cells. The protein seems to be an accessory component of the desmosomal plaque as well as of other adhesion plaques and might be involved in regulating junctional plaque organization and cadherin function. Our data provide evidence for a subfamily of armadillo related proteins that share not only structural features but also have in common their localisation in the junctional plaque. We therefore suggest that family members exert similar functions and might be involved in cell signalling through cell contacts.

    Journal of cell science 1996;109 ( Pt 11);2767-78

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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