G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Pkp4 (MGI)
Mus musculus
plakophilin 4
G00001844 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (9)

Curated Gene
OTTMUSG00000012706 (Vega mouse gene)
ENSMUSG00000026991 (Ensembl mouse gene)
227937 (Entrez Gene)
1032 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
NM_026361 (Allen Brain Atlas)
pkp4 (gensat)
604276 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:109281 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
Q68FH0 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • Armrp
  • p0071

Literature (18)

Pubmed - other

  • EUCOMM--the European conditional mouse mutagenesis program.

    Friedel RH, Seisenberger C, Kaloff C and Wurst W

    GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Developmental Genetics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    Functional analysis of the mammalian genome is an enormous challenge for biomedical scientists. To facilitate this endeavour, the European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program (EUCOMM) aims at generating up to 12 000 mutations by gene trapping and up to 8000 mutations by gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. These mutations can be rendered into conditional alleles, allowing Cre recombinase-mediated disruption of gene function in a time- and tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, the EUCOMM program will generate up to 320 mouse lines from the EUCOMM resource and up to 20 new Cre driver mouse lines. The EUCOMM resource of vectors, mutant ES cell lines and mutant mice will be openly available to the scientific community. EUCOMM will be one of the cornerstones of an international effort to create a global mouse mutant resource.

    Briefings in functional genomics & proteomics 2007;6;3;180-5

  • Qualitative and quantitative analyses of protein phosphorylation in naive and stimulated mouse synaptosomal preparations.

    Munton RP, Tweedie-Cullen R, Livingstone-Zatchej M, Weinandy F, Waidelich M, Longo D, Gehrig P, Potthast F, Rutishauser D, Gerrits B, Panse C, Schlapbach R and Mansuy IM

    Brain Research Institute, Medical Faculty of the University of Zürich, Switzerland.

    Activity-dependent protein phosphorylation is a highly dynamic yet tightly regulated process essential for cellular signaling. Although recognized as critical for neuronal functions, the extent and stoichiometry of phosphorylation in brain cells remain undetermined. In this study, we resolved activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry at specific sites in distinct subcellular compartments of brain cells. Following highly sensitive phosphopeptide enrichment using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we isolated and identified 974 unique phosphorylation sites on 499 proteins, many of which are novel. To further explore the significance of specific phosphorylation sites, we used isobaric peptide labels and determined the absolute quantity of both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated peptides of candidate phosphoproteins and estimated phosphorylation stoichiometry. The analyses of phosphorylation dynamics using differentially stimulated synaptic terminal preparations revealed activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry of target proteins. Using this method, we were able to differentiate between distinct isoforms of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) and identify a novel activity-regulated phosphorylation site on the glutamate receptor subunit GluR1. Together these data illustrate that mass spectrometry-based methods can be used to determine activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry on candidate phosphopeptides following large scale phosphoproteome analysis of brain tissue.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;2;283-93

  • Comprehensive identification of phosphorylation sites in postsynaptic density preparations.

    Trinidad JC, Specht CG, Thalhammer A, Schoepfer R and Burlingame AL

    Mass Spectrometry Facility, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

    In the mammalian central nervous system, the structure known as the postsynaptic density (PSD) is a dense complex of proteins whose function is to detect and respond to neurotransmitter released from presynaptic axon terminals. Regulation of protein phosphorylation in this molecular machinery is critical to the activity of its components, which include neurotransmitter receptors, kinases/phosphatases, scaffolding molecules, and proteins regulating cytoskeletal structure. To characterize the phosphorylation state of proteins in PSD samples, we combined strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography with IMAC. Initially, tryptic peptides were separated by cation exchange and analyzed by reverse phase chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, which led to the identification of phosphopeptides in most SCX fractions. Because each of these individual fractions was too complex to characterize completely in single LC-MS/MS runs, we enriched for phosphopeptides by performing IMAC on each SCX fraction, yielding at least a 3-fold increase in identified phosphopeptides relative to either approach alone (SCX or IMAC). This enabled us to identify at least one site of phosphorylation on 23% (287 of 1,264) of all proteins found to be present in the postsynaptic density preparation. In total, we identified 998 unique phosphorylated peptides, mapping to 723 unique sites of phosphorylation. At least one exact site of phosphorylation was determined on 62% (621 of 998) of all phosphopeptides, and approximately 80% of identified phosphorylation sites are novel.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR14606; Wellcome Trust

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2006;5;5;914-22

  • BGEM: an in situ hybridization database of gene expression in the embryonic and adult mouse nervous system.

    Magdaleno S, Jensen P, Brumwell CL, Seal A, Lehman K, Asbury A, Cheung T, Cornelius T, Batten DM, Eden C, Norland SM, Rice DS, Dosooye N, Shakya S, Mehta P and Curran T

    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: 5R37NS036558, N01-NS-0-2331, R37 NS036558

    PLoS biology 2006;4;4;e86

  • Characterization of an exchangeable gene trap using pU-17 carrying a stop codon-beta geo cassette.

    Taniwaki T, Haruna K, Nakamura H, Sekimoto T, Oike Y, Imaizumi T, Saito F, Muta M, Soejima Y, Utoh A, Nakagata N, Araki M, Yamamura K and Araki K

    Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, Kuhonji 4-24-1, Kumamoto 862-0976, Japan.

    We have developed a new exchangeable gene trap vector, pU-17, carrying the intron-lox71-splicing acceptor (SA)-beta geo-loxP-pA-lox2272-pSP73-lox511. The SA contains three stop codons in-frame with the ATG of beta galactosidase/neomycin-resistance fusion gene (beta geo) that can function in promoter trapping. We found that the trap vector was highly selective for integrations in the introns adjacent to the exon containing the start codon. Furthermore, by using the Cre-mutant lox system, we successfully replaced the beta geo gene with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene, established mouse lines with the replaced clones, removed the selection marker gene by mating with Flp-deleter mice, and confirmed that the replaced EGFP gene was expressed in the same pattern as the beta geo gene. Thus, using this pU-17 trap vector, we can initially carry out random mutagenesis, and then convert it to a gain-of-function mutation by replacing the beta geo gene with any gene of interest to be expressed under the control of the trapped promoter through Cre-mediated recombination.

    Development, growth & differentiation 2005;47;3;163-72

  • Ethanol-responsive brain region expression networks: implications for behavioral responses to acute ethanol in DBA/2J versus C57BL/6J mice.

    Kerns RT, Ravindranathan A, Hassan S, Cage MP, York T, Sikela JM, Williams RW and Miles MF

    Department of Pharmacology/Toxicology and the Center for Study of Biological Complexity, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA.

    Activation of the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway by acute ethanol produces reinforcement and changes in gene expression that appear to be crucial to the molecular basis for adaptive behaviors and addiction. The inbred mouse strains DBA/2J and C57BL/6J exhibit contrasting acute behavioral responses to ethanol. We used oligonucleotide microarrays and bioinformatics methods to characterize patterns of gene expression in three brain regions of the mesolimbic reward pathway of these strains. Expression profiling included examination of both differences in gene expression 4 h after saline injection or acute ethanol (2 g/kg). Using a rigorous stepwise method for microarray analysis, we identified 788 genes differentially expressed in control DBA/2J versus C57BL/6J mice and 307 ethanol-regulated genes in the nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and ventral tegmental area. There were strikingly divergent patterns of ethanol-responsive gene expression in the two strains. Ethanol-responsive genes also showed clustering at discrete chromosomal regions, suggesting local chromatin effects in regulation. Ethanol-regulated genes were generally related to neuroplasticity, but regulation of discrete functional groups and pathways was brain region specific: glucocorticoid signaling, neurogenesis, and myelination in the prefrontal cortex; neuropeptide signaling and developmental genes, including factor Bdnf, in the nucleus accumbens; and retinoic acid signaling in the ventral tegmental area. Bioinformatics analysis identified several potential candidate genes for quantitative trait loci linked to ethanol behaviors, further supporting a role for expression profiling in identifying genes for complex traits. Brain region-specific changes in signaling and neuronal plasticity may be critical components in development of lasting ethanol behavioral phenotypes such as dependence, sensitization, and craving.

    Funded by: NIAAA NIH HHS: AA11853, AA13499, AA13513, AA13678; NIMH NIH HHS: P20-MH 62009

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2005;25;9;2255-66

  • Proteomic analysis of in vivo phosphorylated synaptic proteins.

    Collins MO, Yu L, Coba MP, Husi H, Campuzano I, Blackstock WP, Choudhary JS and Grant SG

    Division of Neuroscience, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK.

    In the nervous system, protein phosphorylation is an essential feature of synaptic function. Although protein phosphorylation is known to be important for many synaptic processes and in disease, little is known about global phosphorylation of synaptic proteins. Heterogeneity and low abundance make protein phosphorylation analysis difficult, particularly for mammalian tissue samples. Using a new approach, combining both protein and peptide immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry data acquisition strategies, we have produced the first large scale map of the mouse synapse phosphoproteome. We report over 650 phosphorylation events corresponding to 331 sites (289 have been unambiguously assigned), 92% of which are novel. These represent 79 proteins, half of which are novel phosphoproteins, and include several highly phosphorylated proteins such as MAP1B (33 sites) and Bassoon (30 sites). An additional 149 candidate phosphoproteins were identified by profiling the composition of the protein immobilized metal affinity chromatography enrichment. All major synaptic protein classes were observed, including components of important pre- and postsynaptic complexes as well as low abundance signaling proteins. Bioinformatic and in vitro phosphorylation assays of peptide arrays suggest that a small number of kinases phosphorylate many proteins and that each substrate is phosphorylated by many kinases. These data substantially increase existing knowledge of synapse protein phosphorylation and support a model where the synapse phosphoproteome is functionally organized into a highly interconnected signaling network.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;7;5972-82

  • Libraries enriched for alternatively spliced exons reveal splicing patterns in melanocytes and melanomas.

    Watahiki A, Waki K, Hayatsu N, Shiraki T, Kondo S, Nakamura M, Sasaki D, Arakawa T, Kawai J, Harbers M, Hayashizaki Y and Carninci P

    Genome Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako main campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 Japan.

    It is becoming increasingly clear that alternative splicing enables the complex development and homeostasis of higher organisms. To gain a better understanding of how splicing contributes to regulatory pathways, we have developed an alternative splicing library approach for the identification of alternatively spliced exons and their flanking regions by alternative splicing sequence enriched tags sequencing. Here, we have applied our approach to mouse melan-c melanocyte and B16-F10Y melanoma cell lines, in which 5,401 genes were found to be alternatively spliced. These genes include those encoding important regulatory factors such as cyclin D2, Ilk, MAPK12, MAPK14, RAB4, melastatin 1 and previously unidentified splicing events for 436 genes. Real-time PCR further identified cell line-specific exons for Tmc6, Abi1, Sorbs1, Ndel1 and Snx16. Thus, the ASL approach proved effective in identifying splicing events, which suggest that alternative splicing is important in melanoma development.

    Nature methods 2004;1;3;233-9

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • A large-scale, gene-driven mutagenesis approach for the functional analysis of the mouse genome.

    Hansen J, Floss T, Van Sloun P, Füchtbauer EM, Vauti F, Arnold HH, Schnütgen F, Wurst W, von Melchner H and Ruiz P

    Institute of Developmental Genetics, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    A major challenge of the postgenomic era is the functional characterization of every single gene within the mammalian genome. In an effort to address this challenge, we assembled a collection of mutations in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, which is the largest publicly accessible collection of such mutations to date. Using four different gene-trap vectors, we generated 5,142 sequences adjacent to the gene-trap integration sites (gene-trap sequence tags; http://genetrap.de) from >11,000 ES cell clones. Although most of the gene-trap vector insertions occurred randomly throughout the genome, we found both vector-independent and vector-specific integration "hot spots." Because >50% of the hot spots were vector-specific, we conclude that the most effective way to saturate the mouse genome with gene-trap insertions is by using a combination of gene-trap vectors. When a random sample of gene-trap integrations was passaged to the germ line, 59% (17 of 29) produced an observable phenotype in transgenic mice, a frequency similar to that achieved by conventional gene targeting. Thus, gene trapping allows a large-scale and cost-effective production of ES cell clones with mutations distributed throughout the genome, a resource likely to accelerate genome annotation and the in vivo modeling of human disease.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;17;9918-22

  • BayGenomics: a resource of insertional mutations in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Stryke D, Kawamoto M, Huang CC, Johns SJ, King LA, Harper CA, Meng EC, Lee RE, Yee A, L'Italien L, Chuang PT, Young SG, Skarnes WC, Babbitt PC and Ferrin TE

    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    The BayGenomics gene-trap resource (http://baygenomics.ucsf.edu) provides researchers with access to thousands of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines harboring characterized insertional mutations in both known and novel genes. Each cell line contains an insertional mutation in a specific gene. The identity of the gene that has been interrupted can be determined from a DNA sequence tag. Approximately 75% of our cell lines contain insertional mutations in known mouse genes or genes that share strong sequence similarities with genes that have been identified in other organisms. These cell lines readily transmit the mutation to the germline of mice and many mutant lines of mice have already been generated from this resource. BayGenomics provides facile access to our entire database, including sequence tags for each mutant ES cell line, through the World Wide Web. Investigators can browse our resource, search for specific entries, download any portion of our database and BLAST sequences of interest against our entire set of cell line sequence tags. They can then obtain the mutant ES cell line for the purpose of generating knockout mice.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR001081, P41 RR01081; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL066621, U01 HL66621

    Nucleic acids research 2003;31;1;278-81

  • ERBIN associates with p0071, an armadillo protein, at cell-cell junctions of epithelial cells.

    Izawa I, Nishizawa M, Tomono Y, Ohtakara K, Takahashi T and Inagaki M

    Division of Biochemistry, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8681, Japan.

    Background: ERBIN, an ErbB2 receptor-interacting protein, belongs to a recently described family of proteins termed the LAP [leucine-rich repeats and PSD-95/dLg-A/ZO-1 (PDZ) domains] family which has essential roles in establishment of cell polarity.

    Results: To identify new ERBIN-binding proteins, we screened a yeast two-hybrid library, using the carboxyl-terminal fragment of ERBIN containing PDZ domain as the bait, and we isolated p0071 (also called plakophilin-4) as an ERBIN-interacting protein. p0071 is a member of the p120 catenin family, which are defined as proteins with 10 armadillo repeats, and localizes along the cell-cell border. The ERBIN PDZ domain binds the COOH-terminus of p0071 containing the PDZ domain-binding sequence. Endogenous ERBIN was co-immunoprecipitated with p0071. In fully polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, ERBIN co-localized largely with beta-catenin and partly with desmoplakin along the lateral plasma membrane domain. At these cell-cell contact regions, ERBIN co-localizes with p0071. Over-expression of the dominant active forms of Cdc42, Rac1 or RhoA, Rho family small GTPases, resulted in a marked accumulation of ERBIN at the cell-cell contacts of MDCK and HeLa cells.

    Conclusion: These results show that ERBIN interacts in vivo with p0071 and that it may be involved in the organization of adherens junctions and the desmosomes of epithelia. In addition, we demonstrated that the subcellular localization of ERBIN might be regulated by Rho family small GTPases.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2002;7;5;475-85

  • Interaction between Erbin and a Catenin-related protein in epithelial cells.

    Jaulin-Bastard F, Arsanto JP, Le Bivic A, Navarro C, Vély F, Saito H, Marchetto S, Hatzfeld M, Santoni MJ, Birnbaum D and Borg JP

    U119 INSERM, Molecular Oncology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Molecular Pharmacology, 27 boulevard Lei Roure 13009 Marseille, France.

    Integrity of epithelial tissues relies on the proper apical-basolateral polarity of epithelial cells. Members of the LAP (LRR and PDZ) protein family such as LET-413 and Scribble are involved in maintaining epithelial cell polarity in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. We previously described Erbin as a mammalian LET-413 homologue interacting with ERBB2/HER2, an epidermal growth factor receptor family member. Erbin and ERBB2/HER2 are located in the basolateral membranes of epithelial cells. We show here that Erbin interacts with p0071 (also called plakophilin-4), an armadillo repeat protein linked to the cytoskeleton. Erbin binds to p0071 in vitro and in vivo in a PDZ domain-dependent manner, and both proteins colocalized in desmosomes of epithelial cells. Using a dominant negative approach, we found that integrity of epithelial cell monolayer is impaired when interaction between Erbin and p0071 is disrupted. We propose that Erbin is connected by p0071 to cytoskeletal networks in an interaction crucial for epithelial homeostasis.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;4;2869-75

  • Genome-wide expression profiling of mid-gestation placenta and embryo using a 15,000 mouse developmental cDNA microarray.

    Tanaka TS, Jaradat SA, Lim MK, Kargul GJ, Wang X, Grahovac MJ, Pantano S, Sano Y, Piao Y, Nagaraja R, Doi H, Wood WH, Becker KG and Ko MS

    Laboratory of Genetics and DNA Array Unit, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224-6820, USA.

    cDNA microarray technology has been increasingly used to monitor global gene expression patterns in various tissues and cell types. However, applications to mammalian development have been hampered by the lack of appropriate cDNA collections, particularly for early developmental stages. To overcome this problem, a PCR-based cDNA library construction method was used to derive 52,374 expressed sequence tags from pre- and peri-implantation embryos, embryonic day (E) 12.5 female gonad/mesonephros, and newborn ovary. From these cDNA collections, a microarray representing 15,264 unique genes (78% novel and 22% known) was assembled. In initial applications, the divergence of placental and embryonic gene expression profiles was assessed. At stage E12.5 of development, based on triplicate experiments, 720 genes (6.5%) displayed statistically significant differences in expression between placenta and embryo. Among 289 more highly expressed in placenta, 61 placenta-specific genes encoded, for example, a novel prolactin-like protein. The number of genes highly expressed (and frequently specific) for placenta has thereby been increased 5-fold over the total previously reported, illustrating the potential of the microarrays for tissue-specific gene discovery and analysis of mammalian developmental programs.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;16;9127-32

  • Exchangeable gene trap using the Cre/mutated lox system.

    Araki K, Imaizumi T, Sekimoto T, Yoshinobu K, Yoshimuta J, Akizuki M, Miura K, Araki M and Yamamura K

    Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Japan. yamamura@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp

    The gene trap technique is a powerful approach for characterizing and mutating genes involved in mouse development. However, one shortcoming of gene trapping is the relative inability to induce subtle mutations. This problem can be overcome by introducing a knock-in system into the gene trap strategy. Here, we have constructed a new gene trap vector, pU-Hachi, employing the Cre-mutated lox system (Araki et al., 1997), in which a pair of mutant lox, lox71 and lox66, was used to promote targeted integrative reaction by Cre recombinase. The pU-Hachi carries splicing acceptor (SA)-lox71-internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-beta-geo-pA-loxP-pA-pUC. By using this vector, we can carry out random insertional mutagenesis as the first step, and then we can replace the beta-geo gene with any gene of interest through Cre-mediated integration. We have isolated 109 trap clones electroporated with pU-Hachi, and analyzed their integration patterns by Southern blotting to select those carrying a single copy of the trap vector. By use of some of these clones, we have succeeded in exchanging the reporter gene at high efficiency, ranging between 20-80%. This integration system is also quite useful for plasmid rescue to recover flanking genomic sequences, because a plasmid vector sequence can be introduced even when the pUC sequence of the trap vector is lost through integration into the genome. Thus, this method, termed exchangeable gene trapping, has many advantages as the trapped clones can be utilized to express genes with any type of mutation.

    Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France) 1999;45;5;737-50

  • Identification and localization of a neurally expressed member of the plakoglobin/armadillo multigene family.

    Paffenholz R and Franke WW

    Division of Cell Biology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.

    The plakoglobin/armadillo multigene family comprises many proteins widely differing in sizes and functions which have in common a variable number of tandemly repeated arm sequences of about 42 amino acids (aa). In a search for proteins with sequence homology to the desmosomal-plaque-associated arm-repeat-containing protein, plakophilin 1, we have identified a novel plakoglobin/armadillo protein. This new member of the multigene family is predominantly, if not exclusively, expressed in neural and neuroendocrine tissues, hence the name neural plakophilin-related arm-repeat protein (NPRAP). The murine cDNA codes for a protein of 1247 aa, with a predicted molecular weight of 135 kDa and a pI of 7.57. The orthologous human protein differs only in a few aa, indicative of the evolutionary stability of NPRAP. In human and murine cDNAs, we have found different transcripts of the NPRAP gene, suggesting that in each species the protein exists in at least two isoforms. The NPRA protein contains three different regions: a 528-aa amino-terminal "head" domain, including a potential coiled-coil-forming alpha-helix segment, a central domain with 10 imperfect arm-repeat units, and a 212-aa carboxy-terminal "tail" domain. By aa sequence, NPRAP is highly homologous to three proteins: p120cas, p0071 and ARVCP, which represent a distinct subgroup within the plakoglobin/armadillo family. By in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence microscopy using NPRAP-specific antibodies, we have demonstrated NPRAP and its mRNA in the perikarya of various kinds of CNS neurons in embryonic and adult mice, but minimal amounts have also been detected by immunoblot analysis in some other tissues containing neural or neuroendocrine elements. We have not seen significant enrichment of NPRAP at cell junctions or in nuclei. Possible NPRAP functions are discussed and the correlation of NPRAP synthesis with neuronal differentiation processes is emphasized.

    Differentiation; research in biological diversity 1997;61;5;293-304

  • Cloning and characterization of a new armadillo family member, p0071, associated with the junctional plaque: evidence for a subfamily of closely related proteins.

    Hatzfeld M and Nachtsheim C

    Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Göttingen, FRG. gwdg@gwdg.de

    Cell contacts of the adherens type are organized around transmembrane proteins of the cadherin family. Whereas the extracellular domains mediate homophilic interactions between cadherins of neighbouring cells the cytoplasmic domains organize a set of proteins into the junctional plaque. Among these junctional plaque proteins are members of the armadillo gene family, beta-catenin, plakoglobin (gamma-catenin), B6P/plakophilin and p120. These proteins are assumed to play a key role in cell cell signalling through intercellular junctions. Here we report cloning of a cDNA encoding a new armadillo family member, p0071, closely related to p120 and B6P/plakophilin and more distantly related to armadillo, plakoglobin, beta-catenin and other members of the gene family. The deduced amino acid sequence encodes a basic protein of 1,211 amino acids with a central armadillo repeat region which is conserved in sequence and organization of its ten individual motifs between p120, B6P/plakophilin and p0071. In contrast the end domains of the three proteins are variable in size and sequence. The RNA coding for p0071 is expressed in all tissues examined. Using antibodies generated against the armadillo repeat region of the protein we show that p0071 is localized at cell-cell borders and is expressed in the desmosomal plaque of some cultured epithelial cells. The protein seems to be an accessory component of the desmosomal plaque as well as of other adhesion plaques and might be involved in regulating junctional plaque organization and cadherin function. Our data provide evidence for a subfamily of armadillo related proteins that share not only structural features but also have in common their localisation in the junctional plaque. We therefore suggest that family members exert similar functions and might be involved in cell signalling through cell contacts.

    Journal of cell science 1996;109 ( Pt 11);2767-78

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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