G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
adducin 2 (beta)
G00000575 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000075340 (Ensembl human gene)
119 (Entrez Gene)
989 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ADD2 (GeneCards)
102681 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
Protein Sequence
P35612 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • ADDB

Literature (38)

Pubmed - other

  • alpha- and beta-Adducin polymorphisms affect podocyte proteins and proteinuria in rodents and decline of renal function in human IgA nephropathy.

    Ferrandi M, Cusi D, Molinari I, Del Vecchio L, Barlassina C, Rastaldi MP, Schena FP, Macciardi F, Marcantoni C, Roccatello D, Peters LL, Armelloni S, Min L, Giardino L, Mattinzoli D, Camisasca C, Palazzo F, Manunta P, Ferrari P and Bianchi G

    Prassis sigma-tau Research Institute, Settimo Milanese, Milan, Italy.

    Adducins are cytoskeletal actin-binding proteins (alpha, beta, gamma) that function as heterodimers and heterotetramers and are encoded by distinct genes. Experimental and clinical evidence implicates alpha- and beta-adducin variants in hypertension and renal dysfunction. Here, we have addressed the role of alpha- and beta-adducin on glomerular function and disease using beta-adducin null mice, congenic substrains for alpha- and beta-adducin from the Milan hypertensive (MHS) and Milan normotensive (MNS) rats and patients with IgA nephropathy. Targeted deletion of beta-adducin in mice reduced urinary protein excretion, preceded by an increase of podocyte protein expression (phospho-nephrin, synaptopodin, alpha-actinin, ZO-1, Fyn). The introgression of polymorphic MHS beta-adducin locus into MNS (Add2, 529R) rats was associated with an early reduction of podocyte protein expression (nephrin, synaptopodin, alpha-actinin, ZO-1, podocin, Fyn), followed by severe glomerular and interstitial lesions and increased urinary protein excretion. These alterations were markedly attenuated when the polymorphic MHS alpha-adducin locus was also present (Add1, 316Y). In patients with IgA nephropathy, the rate of decline of renal function over time was associated to polymorphic beta-adducin (ADD2, 1797T, rs4984) with a significant interaction with alpha-adducin (ADD1, 460W, rs4961). These findings suggest that adducin genetic variants participate in the development of glomerular lesions by modulating the expression of specific podocyte proteins.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: 1 R01 HL075714, R01 HL075714; Telethon: E.C0861

    Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany) 2010;88;2;203-17

  • Arterial properties in relation to genetic variations in the adducin subunits in a white population.

    Seidlerová J, Staessen JA, Bochud M, Nawrot T, Casamassima N, Citterio L, Kuznetsova T, Jin Y, Manunta P, Richart T, Struijker-Boudier HA, Fagard R, Filipovský J and Bianchi G

    Studies Coordinating Centre, Division of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation, Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

    Background: Adducin is a membrane skeleton protein, which consists of either alpha- and beta- or alpha- and gamma-subunits. We investigated whether arterial characteristics might be related to the genes encoding ADD1 (Gly460Trp-rs4961), ADD2 (C1797T-rs4984), and ADD3 (IVS11+386A>G-rs3731566).

    Methods: We randomly recruited 1,126 Flemish subjects (mean age, 43.8 years; 50.3% women). Using a wall-tracking ultrasound system, we measured the properties of the carotid, femoral, and brachial arteries. We studied multivariate-adjusted phenotype-genotype associations, using a population- and family-based approach.

    Results: In single-gene analyses, brachial diameter was 0.15 mm (P = 0.0022) larger, and brachial distensibility and cross-sectional compliance were 1.55 x 10(-3)/kPa (P = 0.013) and 0.017 mm(2)/kPa (P = 0.0029) lower in ADD3 AA than ADD3 GG homozygotes with an additive effect of the G allele. In multiple-gene analyses, the association of brachial diameter and distensibility with the ADD3 G allele occurred only in ADD1 GlyGly homozygotes. Otherwise, the associations between the arterial phenotypes in the three vascular beds and the ADD1 or ADD2 polymorphisms were not significant. In family-based analyses, the multivariate-adjusted heritability was 0.52, 0.38, and 0.30 for brachial diameter, distensibility, and cross-sectional compliance, respectively (P < 0.001). There was no evidence for population stratification (0.07 < or = P < or = 0.96). Transmission of the mutated ADD3 G allele was associated with smaller brachial diameter in 342 informative offspring (-0.12 +/- 0.04 mm; P = 0.0085) and in 209 offspring, who were ADD1 GlyGly homozygotes (-0.14 +/- 0.06 mm; P = 0.018).

    Conclusions: In ADD1 GlyGly homozygotes, the properties of the brachial artery are related to the ADD3 (A386G) polymorphism, but the underlying mechanism needs further clarification.

    American journal of hypertension 2009;22;1;21-6

  • Gly460Trp alpha-adducin mutation as a possible mechanism leading to endolymphatic hydrops in Ménière's syndrome.

    Teggi R, Lanzani C, Zagato L, Delli Carpini S, Manunta P, Bianchi G and Bussi M

    ENT Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute University San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. teggi.roberto@hsr.it

    Objective: Ménière's disease (MD) is an inner ear disorder characterized by recurrent episodic vertigo, hearing loss that is fluctuating in the first stages, aural fullness, and tinnitus. Raised endolymphatic pressure (hydrops) is commonly accepted as a causal condition. Approximately 90% of cases of MD are sporadic, whereas the remaining 10% of cases are linked to genetic factors. The ionic composition of endolymph may also depend on the activity of Na, K-ATPase. Adducin is a heterodimeric cytoskeleton protein consisting of 3 subunits (alpha, beta, and gamma) coded by 3 different genes (ADD1, ADD2, and ADD3). ADD1 Gly460Trp polymorphism is associated with salt-sensitive hypertension and increased Na-K pump activity in transfected cells. This study aims to verify the role of adducin in the development of MD.

    Methods: We genotyped 28 patients affected by definite MD according to American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation criteria. Results were compared with those from 2 different control populations (normotensive control group from San Raffaele Hospital and general population group).

    Results: We have not found any significant difference in the distribution of ADD2 C1797T and ADD3 IVS11+386A/G polymorphism genotypes. On the other hand, the frequency of ADD1 Trp allele is significantly increased in patients with MD compared with controls.

    Conclusion: We present data supporting the possibility that increased Na, K-ATPase activity may be one of the pathologic mechanisms inducing hyperosmolarity in endolymph which, in turn, may lead to hydrops.

    Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 2008;29;6;824-8

  • Investigation of Adducin 2 (beta) DNA polymorphisms in genetic predisposition to diabetic nephropathy in Type 1 diabetes.

    Currie D, Maxwell AP, Sadlier D, McKnight AJ and Warren 3/UK GoKinD Study Group

    Nephrology Research Group, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.

    Aims: Adducin 2 (beta) (ADD2) is a biological and positional candidate gene proposed to confer genetic risk for diabetic nephropathy. This study aimed to comprehensively investigate all common and putatively functional polymorphisms in the genomic region encompassing this gene.

    Methods: Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (n = 23) derived from phase II of the International HapMap Project and in silico functional variants (n = 2) were genotyped in 1467 White individuals from the British Isles (cases, n = 718; control subjects, n = 749) by a combination of Sequenom iPLEX and TaqMan technologies.

    Results: Chi(2) analysis of genotype and allele frequencies in cases vs. control subjects revealed weak evidence for association of one variant at the 5% level of significance (rs10164951, P = 0.02). Adjusting for multiple testing in the present case-control collection negated this association.

    Conclusions: We selected an appropriate subset of variants suitable for genetic investigations of the ADD2 gene and report the first investigation of polymorphisms in ADD2 with diabetic nephropathy. Our results suggest that common polymorphisms and putatively functional variants in the ADD2 gene do not strongly influence genetic susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in this White population with Type 1 diabetes.

    Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association 2008;25;8;1001-5

  • High-density association study and nomination of susceptibility genes for hypertension in the Japanese National Project.

    Kato N, Miyata T, Tabara Y, Katsuya T, Yanai K, Hanada H, Kamide K, Nakura J, Kohara K, Takeuchi F, Mano H, Yasunami M, Kimura A, Kita Y, Ueshima H, Nakayama T, Soma M, Hata A, Fujioka A, Kawano Y, Nakao K, Sekine A, Yoshida T, Nakamura Y, Saruta T, Ogihara T, Sugano S, Miki T and Tomoike H

    Department of Gene Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo, Japan. nokato@ri.imcj.go.jp

    Essential hypertension is one of the most common, complex diseases, of which considerable efforts have been made to unravel the pathophysiological mechanisms. Over the last decade, multiple genome-wide linkage analyses have been conducted using 300-900 microsatellite markers but no single study has yielded definitive evidence for 'principal' hypertension susceptibility gene(s). Here, we performed a three-tiered, high-density association study of hypertension, which has been recently made possible. For tier 1, we genotyped 80 795 SNPs distributed throughout the genome in 188 male hypertensive subjects and two general population control groups (752 subjects per group). For tier 2 (752 hypertensive and 752 normotensive subjects), we genotyped a panel of 2676 SNPs selected (odds ratio >or= 1.4 and P <or= 0.015 in tier 1) and identified 75 SNPs that showed similar tendency of association in tier 1 and tier 2 samples (P <or= 0.05 for allele frequency and P <or= 0.01 for genotype distribution tests). For tier 3 (619 hypertensive and 1406 normotensive subjects), we genotyped the 75 SNPs and found nine SNPs from seven genomic loci to be associated with hypertension (P <or= 0.05). In three of these loci, the lowest P-values were observed for rs3755351 (P = 1.7 x 10(-5)) in ADD2, rs3794260 (P = 0.0001) in KIAA0789 and rs1805762 (P = 0.0003) in M6PR when case-control comparison was made in the combined data. An SNP (rs3755351) within ADD2 had the lowest P-value and its experiment-wide significance level is 0.13. Thus, these results have nominated several susceptibility genes for hypertension, and independent replication will clarify their etiological relevance.

    Human molecular genetics 2008;17;4;617-27

  • Interactions between the adducin 2 gene and antihypertensive drug therapies in determining blood pressure in people with hypertension.

    Kardia SL, Sun YV, Hamon SC, Barkley RA, Boerwinkle E and Turner ST

    Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. skardia@umich.edu

    Background: As part of the NHLBI Family Blood Pressure Program, the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) recruited 575 sibships (n = 1583 individuals) from Rochester, MN who had at least two hypertensive siblings diagnosed before age 60. Linkage analysis identified a region on chromosome 2 that was investigated using 70 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) typed in 7 positional candidate genes, including adducin 2 (ADD2).

    Method: To investigate whether blood pressure (BP) levels in these hypertensives (n = 1133) were influenced by gene-by-drug interactions, we used cross-validation statistical methods (i.e., estimating a model for predicting BP levels in one subgroup and testing it in a different subgroup). These methods greatly reduced the chance of false positive findings.

    Results: Eight SNPs in ADD2 were significantly associated with systolic BP in untreated hypertensives (p-value < 0.05). Moreover, we also identified SNPs associated with gene-by-drug interactions on systolic BP in drug-treated hypertensives. The TT genotype at SNP rs1541582 was associated with an average systolic BP of 133 mmHg in the beta-blocker subgroup and 148 mmHg in the diuretic subgroup after adjusting for overall mean differences among drug classes.

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that hypertension candidate gene variation may influence BP responses to specific antihypertensive drug therapies and measurement of genetic variation may assist in identifying subgroups of hypertensive patients who will benefit most from particular antihypertensive drug therapies.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL54457, HL68737, R01 HL068737, U01 HL054457, U10 HL054457

    BMC medical genetics 2007;8;61

  • Intra-erythrocyte cation concentrations in relation to the C1797T beta-adducin polymorphism in a general population.

    Richart T, Thijs L, Kuznetsova T, Tikhonoff V, Zagato L, Lijnen P, Fagard R, Wang J, Bianchi G and Staessen JA

    Division of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation, Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Studies Coordinating Centre, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

    Genetic variability in the ADD1 (Gly460Trp) and ADD2 (C1797T) subunits of the cytoskeleton protein adducin plays a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, possibly via changes in intracellular cation concentrations. ADD2 1797CC homozygous men have decreased erythrocyte count and hematocrit. We investigated possible association between intra-erythrocyte cations and the adducin polymorphisms. In 259 subjects (mean age 47.7 years), we measured intra-erythrocyte Na(+) [iNa], K(+) [iK] and Mg(2+) [iMg], serum cations and adducin genotypes. Genotype frequencies (ADD1: GlyGly 61.5%, Trp 38.5%; ADD2: CC 80.4%, T 19.6%) complied with Hardy-Weinberg proportions. In men, ADD2 CC homozygotes (n=100) compared to T-carriers (n=23) had slightly lower iK (85.8 versus 87.5 mmol/l cells; P=0.107), higher iMg (1.92 versus 1.80 mmol/l cells; P=0.012), but similar iNa (6.86 versus 6.88 mmol/l cells; P=0.93). In men, iK, iMg and iNa did not differ according to ADD1 genotypes. In men, iK (R(2)=0.128) increased with age and serum Na(+), but decreased with serum total calcium and the daily intake of alcohol. iMg (R(2)=0.087) decreased with age, but increased with serum total calcium. After adjustment for these covariates (P<or=0.04 for all), findings in men for iK (CC versus T: 85.8 versus 87.3 mmol/l; P=0.14) and iMg (1.91 versus 1.82 mmol/l; P=0.03) remained consistent. In 136 women, none of the phenotype-genotype relations reached significance. Changes in intra-erythrocyte cations in ADD2 1797CC homozygous men might lead to osmotic fragility of erythrocytes, but to what extent they reflect systemic changes or are possibly involved in blood pressure regulation remains unknown.

    Journal of human hypertension 2007;21;5;387-92

  • Polymorphisms in four candidate genes in young patients with essential hypertension.

    Marcun Varda N, Zagradisnik B, Herodez SS, Kokalj Vokac N and Gregoric A

    Department of Paediatrics, Maribor Teaching Hospital, Maribor, Slovenia. natasa.marcunvarda@amis.net

    Aim: To determine whether four potential genetic factors (polymorphisms in genes for alpha-adducin, beta-adducin, the G-protein beta-3 subunit and nitric oxide synthase) are important for the development of essential hypertension (EH) in Slovenian children and young adults with EH.

    Methods: Both a nuclear families approach and case-control study have been performed. Genotyping of common polymorphisms in these genes using polymerase chain reaction was carried out in 104 nuclear families (an affected child, both parents) and in 200 control patients.

    Results: Using the transmission disequilibrium test, no statistically significant differences were found between the frequencies of transmitted and non-transmitted alleles in nuclear families for all four investigated polymorphisms. In addition, the distributions of genotypes and alleles for the four polymorphisms did not differ significantly between our children and 200 healthy control patients. The allele frequencies of all polymorphisms were concordant with those observed in some other Caucasian populations.

    Conclusion: We found no association between the investigated gene variants and EH, so we conclude that they do not confer a significantly increased risk of the development of EH in the Slovenian population of hypertensive children.

    Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) 2006;95;3;353-8

  • Pleiotrophin stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of beta-adducin through inactivation of the transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta.

    Pariser H, Perez-Pinera P, Ezquerra L, Herradon G and Deuel TF

    Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    Pleiotrophin (PTN the protein, Ptn the gene) signals through a unique mechanism; it inactivates the tyrosine phosphatase activity of its receptor, the transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP)beta/zeta, and increases tyrosine phosphorylation of the substrates of RPTPbeta/zeta through the continued activity of a yet to be described protein tyrosine kinase(s) in PTN-stimulated cells. We have now found that the cytoskeletal protein beta-adducin interacts with the intracellular domain of RPTPbeta/zeta in a yeast two-hybrid system, that beta-adducin is a substrate of RPTPbeta/zeta, that beta-adducin is phosphorylated in tyrosine in cells not stimulated by PTN, and that tyrosine phosphorylation of beta-adducin is sharply increased in PTN-stimulated cells, suggesting that beta-adducin is a downstream target of and regulated by the PTN/RPTPbeta/zeta signaling pathway. beta-Catenin was the first downstream target of the PTN/RPTPbeta/zeta signaling pathway to be identified; these data thus also suggest that PTN coordinately regulates steady state levels of tyrosine phosphorylation of the important cytoskeletal proteins beta-adducin and beta-catenin and, through PTN-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation, beta-adducin may contribute to the disruption of cytoskeletal structure, increased plasticity, and loss of homophilic cell-cell adhesion that are the consequences of PTN stimulation of cells and a characteristic feature of different malignant cells with mutations that activate constitutive expression of the endogenous Ptn gene.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 66029, CA 84400; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 53557; PHS HHS: 31102

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;335;1;232-9

  • Pleiotrophin regulates serine phosphorylation and the cellular distribution of beta-adducin through activation of protein kinase C.

    Pariser H, Herradon G, Ezquerra L, Perez-Pinera P and Deuel TF

    Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) was found to regulate tyrosine phosphorylation of beta-adducin through the PTN/receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP)beta/zeta signaling pathway. We now demonstrate that PTN stimulates the phosphorylation of serines 713 and 726 in the myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase (PK) C substrate domain of beta-adducin through activation of either PKC alpha or beta. We also demonstrate that PTN stimulates translocation of phosphoserine 713 and 726 beta-adducin either to nuclei, where it associates with nuclear chromatin and with centrioles of dividing cells, or to a membrane-associated site, depending on the phase of cell growth. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PTN stimulates the degradation of beta-adducin in PTN-stimulated cells. Phosphorylation of serines 713 and 726 in beta-adducin is known to markedly reduce the affinity of beta-adducin for spectrin and actin and to uncouple actin/spectrin/beta-adducin multimeric complexes needed for cytoskeletal stability. The data thus suggest that the PTN-stimulated phosphorylation of serines 713 and 726 in beta-adducin disrupts cytoskeletal protein complexes and integrity, features demonstrated in both PTN-stimulated cells and of highly malignant cells that constitutively express the endogenous Ptn gene. The data also support the important conclusion that PTN determines the cellular location of beta-adducin phosphorylated in serines 713 and 726 and raise the possibility that beta-adducin functions in support of structure of heterochromatin and centrioles during mitosis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA66029, CA88440, R01 CA066029; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK53557, R01 DK053557; PHS HHS: 31102

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2005;102;35;12407-12

  • Expression of adducin genes during erythropoiesis: a novel erythroid promoter for ADD2.

    Yenerel MN, Sundell IB, Weese J, Bulger M and Gilligan DM

    Puget Sound Blood Center, University of Washington, Seattle, 98104, USA.

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to examine the differences in levels of adducin (ADD1, ADD2, ADD3) mRNA expression during human erythropoiesis. The second objective was to determine whether the rapid induction of ADD2 expression could be attributed to a novel erythroid-specific promoter.

    Methods: Expression of mRNA was quantified using real-time RT-PCR. Primary erythroid precursors were isolated from normal human bone marrow using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Two model systems were compared: CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells induced to differentiate with erythropoietin and HEL cells induced to differentiate with hemin. 5'RACE analysis was performed using primary human erythroblasts as starting material.

    Results: All three adducin genes showed different patterns of expression during erythropoietic differentiation of cultured CD34(+) stem cells. Levels of ADD3 mRNA were higher than levels of ADD2 mRNA at early stages of erythropoiesis. Expression of ADD2 was induced to very high levels (100 times baseline) in erythropoietin-stimulated cultures. 5'RACE analysis identified a novel starting exon and putative erythroid promoter for ADD2.

    Conclusion: These results suggest that expression of each adducin gene is regulated in a gene-specific manner during erythropoiesis. The early expression of ADD3 suggests that it may have a role in erythroblasts but is replaced by ADD2 in later stages of erythropoiesis. The very high levels of expression of ADD2 suggest that its promoter may be useful for directing erythroid-specific gene expression.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01-DK55005

    Experimental hematology 2005;33;7;758-66

  • Epistatic interaction between alpha- and gamma-adducin influences peripheral and central pulse pressures in white Europeans.

    Cwynar M, Staessen JA, Tichá M, Nawrot T, Citterio L, Kuznetsova T, Wojciechowska W, Stolarz K, Filipovský J, Kawecka-Jaszcz K, Grodzicki T, Struijker-Boudier HA, Thijs L, Van Bortel LM, Bianchi G and European Project On Genes in Hypertension (EPOGH) Investigators

    Department of Internal Medicine and Gerontology, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland.

    Background: Adducin is a membrane skeleton protein consisting of alpha- and beta- or alpha- and gamma-subunits. Mutations in alpha- and beta-adducin are associated with hypertension. In the European Project on Genes in Hypertension, we investigated whether polymorphisms in the genes encoding alpha-adducin (Gly460Trp), beta-adducin (C1797T) and gamma-adducin (A386G), alone or in combination, affected pulse pressure (PP), an index of vascular stiffness.

    Methods: We measured peripheral and central PP by conventional sphygmomanometry and applanation tonometry, respectively. We randomly recruited 642 subjects (162 nuclear families and 70 unrelated individuals) from three European populations. In multivariate analyses, we used generalized estimating equations and the quantitative transmission disequilibrium test.

    Results: Peripheral and central PP averaged 46.1 and 32.6 mmHg, respectively. Among carriers of the alpha-adducin Trp allele, peripheral and central PP were 5.8 and 4.7 mmHg higher in gamma-adducin GG homozygotes than in their AA counterparts, due to an increase in systolic pressure. gamma-Adducin GG homozygosity was associated with lower urinary Na/K ratio among alpha-adducin Trp allele carriers and with higher urinary aldosterone excretion among alpha-adducin GlyGly homozygotes. Sensitivity analyses in founders and offspring separately, and tests based on the transmission of the gamma-adducin G allele across families, confirmed the interaction between the alpha- and gamma-adducin genes.

    Conclusions: In alpha-adducin Trp allele carriers, peripheral and central PP increased with the gamma-adducin G allele. This epistatic interaction is physiologically consistent with the heterodimeric structure of the protein and its influence on transmembranous sodium transport.

    Journal of hypertension 2005;23;5;961-9

  • Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4.

    Hillier LW, Graves TA, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Pepin KH, Minx P, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Kremitzki C, Oddy L, Du H, Sun H, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Carter J, Cordes M, Harris A, Isak A, van Brunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Abbott S, Armstrong J, Belter EA, Caruso L, Cedroni M, Cotton M, Davidson T, Desai A, Elliott G, Erb T, Fronick C, Gaige T, Haakenson W, Haglund K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Kim K, Kruchowski SS, Strong CM, Grewal N, Goyea E, Hou S, Levy A, Martinka S, Mead K, McLellan MD, Meyer R, Randall-Maher J, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Shah N, Swearengen-Shahid S, Snider J, Strong JT, Thompson J, Yoakum M, Leonard S, Pearman C, Trani L, Radionenko M, Waligorski JE, Wang C, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Maupin R, Latreille P, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Pohl C, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Berkowicz N, Nelson JO, Osborne J, Ding L, Meyer R, Sabo A, Shotland Y, Sinha P, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Jones TA, She X, Ciccarelli FD, Izaurralde E, Taylor J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Cox DR, Huang X, McPherson JD, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Warren WC, Chinwalla AT, Eddy SR, Marra MA, Ovcharenko I, Furey TS, Miller W, Eichler EE, Bork P, Suyama M, Torrents D, Waterston RH and Wilson RK

    Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8501, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.

    Human chromosome 2 is unique to the human lineage in being the product of a head-to-head fusion of two intermediate-sized ancestral chromosomes. Chromosome 4 has received attention primarily related to the search for the Huntington's disease gene, but also for genes associated with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, polycystic kidney disease and a form of muscular dystrophy. Here we present approximately 237 million base pairs of sequence for chromosome 2, and 186 million base pairs for chromosome 4, representing more than 99.6% of their euchromatic sequences. Our initial analyses have identified 1,346 protein-coding genes and 1,239 pseudogenes on chromosome 2, and 796 protein-coding genes and 778 pseudogenes on chromosome 4. Extensive analyses confirm the underlying construction of the sequence, and expand our understanding of the structure and evolution of mammalian chromosomes, including gene deserts, segmental duplications and highly variant regions.

    Nature 2005;434;7034;724-31

  • Role of the adducin family genes in human essential hypertension.

    Lanzani C, Citterio L, Jankaricova M, Sciarrone MT, Barlassina C, Fattori S, Messaggio E, Serio CD, Zagato L, Cusi D, Hamlyn JM, Stella A, Bianchi G and Manunta P

    Division of Nephrology, Dialysis and Hypertension University Vita-Salute, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milano, Italy. lanzani.chiara@hsr.it

    Objective: In both humans and rats, polymorphisms of the alpha adducin (ADD1) gene are involved in renal sodium handling, essential hypertension and some of its organ complications. Adducin functions within cells as a heterodimer composed of various combinations of three subunits that are coded by three genes (ADD1, 2, 3) each located on a different chromosome.

    Design: These characteristics provide the biochemical basis for investigating epistatic interactions among these loci.

    Methods: We examined the three adducin gene polymorphisms and their association with ambulatory blood pressure (ABPM) and with plasma levels of renin activity (PRA), endogenous ouabain (EO), in 512 newly discovered and never-treated hypertensive patients.

    Results: Relative to carriers of the wild type (Gly/Gly) ADD1 gene, patients carrying the mutated Trp ADD1 allele had higher blood pressure (systolic blood pressure (SBP) 143.2 +/- 1.0 versus 140.6 +/- 0.6 mmHg P = 0.027 and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 94.2 +/- 0.77 versus 92.3 +/- 0.5 mmHg, P = 0.03), lower PRA and EO, consistent with the hypothesis of the renal sodium retaining effect of the Trp allele. Polymorphisms in the ADD2 and ADD3 genes taken alone were not associated with these variables. However, the differences in SBP and DBP between the two ADD1 genotypes were greatest in carriers of the ADD3 G allele (around + 8 mmHg). The significance of the interaction between ADD1 and ADD3 ranged between P = 0.020 to P = 0.006 according to the genetic model applied.

    Conclusions: The interaction of ADD1 and ADD3 gene variants in humans is statistically associated with variation in blood pressure, suggesting the presence of epistatic effects among these loci.

    Journal of hypertension 2005;23;3;543-9

  • Hypertension-linked mutation in the adducin alpha-subunit leads to higher AP2-mu2 phosphorylation and impaired Na+,K+-ATPase trafficking in response to GPCR signals and intracellular sodium.

    Efendiev R, Krmar RT, Ogimoto G, Zwiller J, Tripodi G, Katz AI, Bianchi G, Pedemonte CH and Bertorello AM

    Department of Medicine, Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Membrane Signaling Networks, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, S-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Alpha-adducin polymorphism in humans is associated with abnormal renal sodium handling and high blood pressure. The mechanisms by which mutations in adducin affect the renal set point for sodium excretion are not known. Decreases in Na+,K+-ATPase activity attributable to endocytosis of active units in renal tubule cells by dopamine regulates sodium excretion during high-salt diet. Milan rats carrying the hypertensive adducin phenotype have a higher renal tubule Na+,K+-ATPase activity, and their Na+,K+-ATPase molecules do not undergo endocytosis in response to dopamine as do those of the normotensive strain. Dopamine fails to promote the interaction between adaptins and the Na+,K+-ATPase because of adaptin-mu2 subunit hyperphosphorylation. Expression of the hypertensive rat or human variant of adducin into normal renal epithelial cells recreates the hypertensive phenotype with higher Na+,K+-ATPase activity, mu2-subunit hyperphosphorylation, and impaired Na+,K+-ATPase endocytosis. Thus, increased renal Na+,K+-ATPase activity and altered sodium reabsorption in certain forms of hypertension could be attributed to a mutant form of adducin that impairs the dynamic regulation of renal Na+,K+-ATPase endocytosis in response to natriuretic signals.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK062195, DK53460

    Circulation research 2004;95;11;1100-8

  • Phosphoproteomic analysis of the developing mouse brain.

    Ballif BA, Villén J, Beausoleil SA, Schwartz D and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Proper development of the mammalian brain requires the precise integration of numerous temporally and spatially regulated stimuli. Many of these signals transduce their cues via the reversible phosphorylation of downstream effector molecules. Neuronal stimuli acting in concert have the potential of generating enormous arrays of regulatory phosphoproteins. Toward the global profiling of phosphoproteins in the developing brain, we report here the use of a mass spectrometry-based methodology permitting the first proteomic-scale phosphorylation site analysis of primary animal tissue, identifying over 500 protein phosphorylation sites in the developing mouse brain.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2004;3;11;1093-101

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation.

    Brandenberger R, Wei H, Zhang S, Lei S, Murage J, Fisk GJ, Li Y, Xu C, Fang R, Guegler K, Rao MS, Mandalam R, Lebkowski J and Stanton LW

    Geron Corporation, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. rbrandenberger@geron.com

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells hold promise for generating an unlimited supply of cells for replacement therapies. To characterize hES cells at the molecular level, we obtained 148,453 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from undifferentiated hES cells and three differentiated derivative subpopulations. Over 32,000 different transcripts expressed in hES cells were identified, of which more than 16,000 do not match closely any gene in the UniGene public database. Queries to this EST database revealed 532 significantly upregulated and 140 significantly downregulated genes in undifferentiated hES cells. These data highlight changes in the transcriptional network that occur when hES cells differentiate. Among the differentially regulated genes are several components of signaling pathways and transcriptional regulators that likely play key roles in hES cell growth and differentiation. The genomic data presented here may facilitate the derivation of clinically useful cell types from hES cells.

    Nature biotechnology 2004;22;6;707-16

  • beta-Adducin polymorphisms, blood pressure, and sodium excretion in three European populations.

    Tikhonoff V, Kuznetsova T, Stolarz K, Bianchi G, Casiglia E, Kawecka-Jaszcz K, Nikitin Y, Tizzone L, Wang JG and Staessen JA

    Hypertension and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Unit, Department of Molecular and Cardiovascular Research, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. valerie.tikhonoff@unipd.it

    The associations of the beta-adducin C1797T polymorphism with blood pressure (BP) and various indexes of sodium homeostasis were investigated in 388 men and 456 women, aged 18 to 60 years, recruited from three European populations (Cracow, Poland, n = 300; Novosibirsk, Russian Federation, n = 274; Mirano, Italy; n = 270). Phenotypes included 24-h ambulatory BP and urinary excretion of electrolytes and aldosterone. Subjects were genotyped for the beta-adducin polymorphism. Both a population-based association study and a family-based analysis were performed. Urinary sodium excretion was higher in Cracow than in Mirano (241 v 185 mmol/24 h, P <.05) and intermediate in Novosibirsk (206 mmol/24 h). The beta-adducin T allele (15.2% v 9.1%, P <.0001) was more prevalent in Mirano than in the two Slavic centers. In both population-based and family-based association analyses, there was significant heterogeneity between Slavic and Italian subjects in the phenotype-genotype relationships with beta-adducin. In the Slavic centers, 24-h systolic BP was higher in T allele carriers than in CC homozygotes (122.3 v 119.7 mm Hg, P =.03), whereas this was not the case in Mirano (121.8 v 122.9 mm Hg, P =.42). In Slavic (212.6 v 233.1 mmol/24 h) as well as in Italian (166.1 v 191.5 mmol/24 h) participants, 24-h sodium excretion was lower (P =.01) in T allele carriers than in CC homozygotes. These results were confirmed in the family-based analysis of offspring using a quantitative transmission disequilibrium test. In conclusion, the frequency of the beta-adducin T allele and salt intake differ across European populations. Thus, both variation in genetic background and salt intake may explain the observed heterogeneity in the phenotype-genotype relationships. Genetic determinants of complex quantitative traits such as BP can only be investigated within their epidemiologic context.

    American journal of hypertension 2003;16;10;840-6

  • Expression analysis of the human adducin gene family and evidence of ADD2 beta4 multiple splicing variants.

    Citterio L, Tizzoni L, Catalano M, Zerbini G, Bianchi G and Barlassina C

    Division of Nephrology, Dialysis and Hypertension, Università Vita-Salute, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy. lorena.citterio@hsr.it

    Adducin is a cytoskeleton heterodimeric protein. Its subunits are encoded by three related genes (ADD1, ADD2, and ADD3) which show alternative spliced variants. Adducin polymorphisms are involved in blood pressure regulation in humans and rats. We have analyzed mRNA distribution of ADD gene family in human tissues and cells with Real-Time TaqMan RT-PCR. Whereas ADD1 is ubiquitously distributed, ADD3 is more expressed in kidney medulla and cortex than in fetal kidney, while in adult liver it is less abundant than in fetal liver. ADD2 beta1 and beta4 variants show the same pattern of distribution with the highest expression in brain, fetal liver, and kidney. Conventional RT-PCR identified new beta4 variants. Beta4a is characterized by an in-frame insertion of 21 nucleotides upstream exon 15 predicting a 7 amino acids longer protein with a similar C-terminus region. It is coexpressed with beta1 and beta4 in several tissues. Fetal kidney shows further beta4b, beta4c and beta4d variants containing internal exon deletions that enormously modify the predicted NH(2) and central regions. Our findings could help one to understand the functional role of adducin variants in specific tissues and cells.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;309;2;359-67

  • Blood pressure phenotypes in relation to the beta-adducin C1797T polymorphism in the European Project on Genes in Hypertension (EPOGH).

    Tikhonoff V, Kuznetsova T, Stolarz K, Bianchi G, Casiglia E, Kawecka-Jaszcz K, Nikitin Y, Tizzone L, Wang JG, Staessen JA and European Project on Genes in Hypertension Investigators

    Study Coordinating Centre, Hypertension and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Unit, Department of Molecular and Cardiovascular Research, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. valerie.tikhonoff@unipd.it

    Methods: The association of blood pressure (BP) with the beta-adducin C1797 T polymorphism was investigated in 388 men and 456 women aged 18-60 years recruited from three European populations (Cracow, Poland, n=300; Novosibirsk, Russian Federation, n=274; Mirano, Italy; n=270). Phenotypes included conventional measurements of BP obtained at the second contact with the subjects and 24-h ambulatory BP. Subjects were genotyped for the beta-adducin C1797 T polymorphism. Both a population-based association study and a family-based analysis were performed.

    Results: Urinary sodium excretion was higher in Cracow than in Mirano (241 versus 185 mmol/day, P<0.05) and intermediate in Novosibirsk (206 mmol/day). The beta-adducin T allele (15.2 versus 9.1%, P<0.0001) was more prevalent in Mirano than in the two Slavic centres. In both population-based and family-based association analyses, there was significant heterogeneity between Slavic and Italian subjects in the phenotype-genotype relationships with beta-adducin. Adjusted population-based analyses demonstrated that in the two Slavic centres, values of systolic pressure obtained by 24-h, daytime and night-time ambulatory monitoring, but not those measured by conventional sphygmomanometry at home, were significantly higher in T allele carriers than in CC homozygotes. These results were confirmed in the family-based analysis of offspring using a quantitative transmission disequilibrium test.

    Conclusions: Phenotype-genotype associations involving blood pressure are influenced by the technique and conditions of the BP measurement as well as by the overall ecogenetic context.

    Blood pressure monitoring 2003;8;4;151-4

  • Haematological phenotypes in relation to the C1797T beta-adducin polymorphism in a Caucasian population.

    Wang JG, Barlassina C, Bianchi G, Fagard R, Zagato L and Staessen JA

    Hypertensie en Cardiovasculaire Revalidatie Eenheid, Departement voor Moleculair en Cardiovasculair Onderzoek, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

    beta-Adducin plays a role in maintaining the structural integrity of the red blood cell (erythrocyte) membrane. Moreover, beta-adducin-deficient knock-out mice show a phenotype characterized by mild anaemia and compensated haemolysis. We therefore investigated whether, in humans, common haematological phenotypes of red blood cells were associated with a polymorphism in exon 15 of the human beta-adducin gene (C1797T). We studied 802 unrelated individuals and 294 families (459 parents and 609 offspring) randomly selected from a Caucasian population. We employed generalized estimating equations to allow for the non-independence of the observations within families, while controlling for co-variables. In 917 men, with adjustments applied for age, body mass index, serum total cholesterol, smoking and alcohol intake, CC homozygotes had significantly ( P =0.02) lower values for red blood cell count (4.93 x 10(12)/l compared with 4.86 x 10(12)/l), haemoglobin level (9.30 compared with 9.18 mmol/l) and haematocrit (45.0% compared with 44.4%) than T allele carriers. In the 329 men who consumed alcohol, the differences between CC homozygotes and T allele carriers were 0.13 x 10(12)/l ( P =0.02) for red blood cell count, 0.23 mmol/l ( P =0.005) for haemoglobin and 1.08% ( P =0.02) for haematocrit. In 953 women, none of these associations was significant ( P >/=0.06), regardless of alcohol intake [13.3% of women ( n =127) consmued alcohol]. In conclusion, in men consuming alcohol, the beta-adducin CC genotype was associated with lower red blood cell count, haemoglobin level and haematocrit. We hypothesize that, in CC homozygotes, alcohol consumption may unveil the greater fragility of the red blood cell membrane. This genotype may slightly potentiate the structural and functional haematological disturbances associated with alcohol intake.

    Clinical science (London, England : 1979) 2003;104;4;369-76

  • Association between hypertension and variation in the alpha- and beta-adducin genes in a white population.

    Wang JG, Staessen JA, Barlassina C, Fagard R, Kuznetsova T, Struijker-Boudier HA, Zagato L, Citterio L, Messaggio E and Bianchi G

    Studiecoördinatiecentrum, Hypertensie en Cardiovasculaire Revalidatie Eenheid, Departement voor Moleculair en Cardiovasculair Onderzoek, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

    Background: The substitution of tryptophan for glycine at amino acid 460 (Gly460Trp polymorphism) of the alpha-subunit of the heterodimeric cytoskeleton protein adducin increases renal sodium reabsorption and may be involved in the pathophysiology of essential hypertension. In the present study, we investigated in multivariate analyses whether the risk of hypertension was associated with the C1797T polymorphism of the beta-adducin gene.

    Methods: A total of 1848 subjects randomly selected from a white population were genotyped. Study nurses measured blood pressure at the participants' homes.

    Results: The frequencies of the alpha-adducin Trp and beta-adducin T alleles were 0.23 and 0.11, respectively. In men (N = 904), the beta-adducin T allele was not associated with hypertension [adjusted relative risk (RR) vs. CC homozygotes 0.94, P = 0.77], but T allele carriers had lower plasma renin activity (PRA) and 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion (P < 0.04). In all women (N = 944), beta-adducin T allele carriers had a higher risk of hypertension than CC homozygotes (RR 1.81, CI 1.18-2.77, P = 0.007), but similar PRA and 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion (P> 0.29). In 345 post-menopausal women and 190 users of oral contraceptives, the RRs of hypertension were 2.47 (CI 1.34-4.64, P = 0.003) and 2.56 (CI 0.83-7.86, P = 0.10), respectively. For systolic pressure in women, there was a significant interaction (P = 0.02) between the alpha- and beta-adducin polymorphisms. Only in female carriers of the mutated alpha-adducin Trp allele was the systolic pressure significantly higher in beta-adducin T allele carriers compared with CC homozygotes (+3.8 mm Hg, P = 0.02). Furthermore, in the presence of the mutated alpha-adducin Trp allele, the RRs associated with the beta-adducin T allele were 2.35 (P = 0.01) in all women, 2.92 (P = 0.03) in post-menopausal subjects, and 3.79 (P = 0.09) in users of oral contraceptives.

    Conclusions: The 1797T allele of the beta-adducin gene is associated with increased risk of hypertension in post-menopausal women and in users of oral contraceptives, particularly in the presence of the mutated alpha-adducin Trp allele. We hypothesize that inhibition of the renin-aldosterone system in men and absence of such a compensatory mechanism in women may explain, at least to some extent, the sexual dimorphism of the blood pressure phenotype in relation to the C1797T beta-adducin polymorphism.

    Kidney international 2002;62;6;2152-9

  • Interaction of the SH2 domain of Fyn with a cytoskeletal protein, beta-adducin.

    Shima T, Okumura N, Takao T, Satomi Y, Yagi T, Okada M and Nagai K

    Divisions of Protein Metabolism and Organic Chemistry, Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

    Fyn is a Src family tyrosine kinase expressed abundantly in neurons and believed to have specific functions in the brain. To understand the function of Fyn tyrosine kinase, we attempted to identify Fyn Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-binding proteins from a Nonidet P-40-insoluble fraction of the mouse brain. beta-Adducin, an actin filament-associated cytoskeletal protein, was isolated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. beta-Adducin was tyrosine phosphorylated by coexpression with wild type but not with a kinase-negative form of Fyn in COS-7 cells. Cell staining analysis showed that coexpression of beta-adducin with Fyn induced translocation of beta-adducin from the cytoplasm to the periphery of the cells where it was colocalized with actin filaments and Fyn. These findings suggest that tyrosine-phosphorylated beta-adducin associates with the SH2 domain of Fyn and colocalizes under plasma membranes.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;45;42233-40

  • Targeted disruption of the beta adducin gene (Add2) causes red blood cell spherocytosis in mice.

    Gilligan DM, Lozovatsky L, Gwynn B, Brugnara C, Mohandas N and Peters LL

    Department of Internal Medicine (Hematology), Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA. Diana.Gilligan@yale.edu

    Adducins are a family of cytoskeleton proteins encoded by three genes (alpha, beta, gamma). In a comprehensive assay of gene expression, we show the ubiquitous expression of alpha- and gamma-adducins in contrast to the restricted expression of beta-adducin. beta-adducin is expressed at high levels in brain and hematopoietic tissues (bone marrow in humans, spleen in mice). To elucidate adducin's role in vivo, we created beta-adducin null mice by gene targeting, deleting exons 9-13. A 55-kDa chimeric polypeptide is produced from the first eight exons of beta-adducin and part of the neo cassette in spleen but is not detected in peripheral RBCs or brain. beta-adducin null RBCs are osmotically fragile, spherocytic, and dehydrated compared with the wild type, resembling RBCs from patients with hereditary spherocytosis. The lack of beta-adducin in RBCs leads to decreased membrane incorporation of alpha-adducin (30% of normal) and unexpectedly promotes a 5-fold increase in gamma-adducin incorporation into the RBC membrane skeleton. This study demonstrates adducin's importance to RBC membrane stability in vivo.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL55321, R01 HL055321; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK02070, DK26263, R01 DK026263, R37 DK026263

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1999;96;19;10717-22

  • Adducin is an in vivo substrate for protein kinase C: phosphorylation in the MARCKS-related domain inhibits activity in promoting spectrin-actin complexes and occurs in many cells, including dendritic spines of neurons.

    Matsuoka Y, Li X and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Departments of Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    Adducin is a heteromeric protein with subunits containing a COOH-terminal myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS)-related domain that caps and preferentially recruits spectrin to the fast-growing ends of actin filaments. The basic MARCKS-related domain, present in alpha, beta, and gamma adducin subunits, binds calmodulin and contains the major phosphorylation site for protein kinase C (PKC). This report presents the first evidence that phosphorylation of the MARCKS-related domain modifies in vitro and in vivo activities of adducin involving actin and spectrin, and we demonstrate that adducin is a prominent in vivo substrate for PKC or other phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-activated kinases in multiple cell types, including neurons. PKC phosphorylation of native and recombinant adducin inhibited actin capping measured using pyrene-actin polymerization and abolished activity of adducin in recruiting spectrin to ends and sides of actin filaments. A polyclonal antibody specific to the phosphorylated state of the RTPS-serine, which is the major PKC phosphorylation site in the MARCKS-related domain, was used to evaluate phosphorylation of adducin in cells. Reactivity with phosphoadducin antibody in immunoblots increased twofold in rat hippocampal slices, eight- to ninefold in human embryonal kidney (HEK 293) cells, threefold in MDCK cells, and greater than 10-fold in human erythrocytes after treatments with PMA, but not with forskolin. Thus, the RTPS-serine of adducin is an in vivo phosphorylation site for PKC or other PMA-activated kinases but not for cAMP-dependent protein kinase in a variety of cell types. Physiological consequences of the two PKC phosphorylation sites in the MARCKS-related domain were investigated by stably transfecting MDCK cells with either wild-type or PKC-unphosphorylatable S716A/S726A mutant alpha adducin. The mutant alpha adducin was no longer concentrated at the cell membrane at sites of cell-cell contact, and instead it was distributed as a cytoplasmic punctate pattern. Moreover, the cells expressing the mutant alpha adducin exhibited increased levels of cytoplasmic spectrin, which was colocalized with the mutant alpha adducin in a punctate pattern. Immunofluorescence with the phosphoadducin-specific antibody revealed the RTPS-serine phosphorylation of adducin in postsynaptic areas in the developing rat hippocampus. High levels of the phosphoadducin were detected in the dendritic spines of cultured hippocampal neurons. Spectrin also was a component of dendritic spines, although at distinct sites from the ones containing phosphoadducin. These data demonstrate that adducin is a significant in vivo substrate for PKC or other PMA-activated kinases in a variety of cells, and that phosphorylation of adducin occurs in dendritic spines that are believed to respond to external signals by changes in morphology and reorganization of cytoskeletal structures.

    The Journal of cell biology 1998;142;2;485-97

  • Organization of the human beta-adducin gene (ADD2).

    Gilligan DM, Lozovatsky L and Silberfein A

    Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA.

    The intron-exon organization of the human beta-adducin gene (ADD2) has been determined from overlapping genomic clones. The gene spans over 100 kb on chromosome 2p13 and comprises 17 exons. Seven of the exons are identical in size to the corresponding exons of the alpha-adducin gene (4p16.3), suggesting gene duplication. A 275-bp fragment 5' to exon 1 demonstrates strong promoter activity in a transient transfection assay. Within 333 bp 5' of the first exon can be found several putative transcription factor-binding sites: three SP1 sites, one GATA site, three MZF1 sites, one p300 site, and one c-Ets site. Alternatively spliced exons in the 3' region are described and contain distinct coding regions, stop codons, and 3'UTR, corresponding to previously published beta-adducin cDNA sequences beta-1 and beta-2. The alternative splice sites for the smallest adducin isoform, beta-3, are alternative donor and acceptor sites within exons 7 and 12. The most recently described isoform, beta-4, includes an alternative exon (exon 15) that results in a frame shift and early termination. Intron-exon splice sites are presented for all 17 exons and conform to the consensus sequences for mammalian splice sites. These results will be useful in further analysis of tissue-specific expression of adducin isoforms and in analysis of DNA from patients with diseases mapping to this region of chromosome 2.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: K08-DK02070

    Genomics 1997;43;2;141-8

  • Adducin regulation. Definition of the calmodulin-binding domain and sites of phosphorylation by protein kinases A and C.

    Matsuoka Y, Hughes CA and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    Adducin promotes association of spectrin with actin and caps the fast growing end of actin filaments. Adducin contains N-terminal core, neck, and C-terminal tail domains, is a substrate for protein kinases A (PKA) and C (PKC), and binds to Ca2+/calmodulin. Ser-726 and Ser-713 in the C-terminal MARCKS-related domains of alpha- and beta-adducin, respectively, were identified as the major phosphorylation sites common for PKA and PKC. PKA, in addition, phosphorylated alpha-adducin at Ser-408, -436, and -481 in the neck domain. Phosphorylation by PKA, but not PKC, reduced the affinity of adducin for spectrin-F-actin complexes as well as the activity of adducin in promoting binding of spectrin to F-actin. The myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate-related domain of beta-adducin was identified as the dominant Ca2+-dependent calmodulin-binding site. Calmodulin-binding was inhibited by phosphorylation of beta-adducin and of a MARCKS-related domain peptide by PKA and PKC. Calmodulin in turn inhibited the rate, but not the extent, of phosphorylation of beta-adducin, but not alpha-adducin, by PKA and that of each subunit by PKC. These findings suggest a complex reciprocal relationship between regulation of adducin function by calmodulin binding and phosphorylation by PKA and PKC.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;41;25157-66

  • A new function for adducin. Calcium/calmodulin-regulated capping of the barbed ends of actin filaments.

    Kuhlman PA, Hughes CA, Bennett V and Fowler VM

    Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    Adducin is a membrane skeleton protein originally described in human erythrocytes that promotes the binding of spectrin to actin and also binds directly to actin and bundles actin filaments. Adducin is associated with regions of cell-cell contact in nonerythroid cells, where it is believed to play a role in regulating the assembly of the spectrin-actin membrane skeleton. In this study we demonstrate a novel function for adducin; it completely blocks elongation and depolymerization at the barbed (fast growing) ends of actin filaments, thus functioning as a barbed end capping protein (Kcap approximately 100 nM). This barbed end capping activity requires the intact adducin molecule and is not provided by the NH2-terminal globular head domains alone nor by the COOH-terminal extended tail domains, which were previously shown to contain the spectrin-actin binding, calmodulin binding, and phosphorylation sites. A novel difference between adducin and other previously described capping proteins is that it is down-regulated by calmodulin in the presence of calcium. The association of stoichiometric amounts of adducin with the short erythrocyte actin filaments in the membrane skeleton indicates that adducin could be the functional barbed end capper in erythrocytes and play a role in restricting actin filament length. Our experiments also suggest novel possibilities for calcium regulation of actin filament assembly by adducin in erythrocytes and at cell-cell contact sites in nonerythroid cells.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK29808; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM34225

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;14;7986-91

  • Genomic organisation and chromosomal localisation of the gene encoding human beta adducin.

    Tisminetzky S, Devescovi G, Tripodi G, Muro A, Bianchi G, Colombi M, Moro L, Barlati S, Tuteja R and Baralle FE

    International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology-UNIDO, Trieste, Italy.

    Adducin (ADD) is a heterodimeric protein of the membrane skeleton with subunits of 103 (alpha) and 97 kDa (beta). It promotes the assembly of the spectrin-actin network. We have previously shown that one point mutation in each of the alpha and beta rat ADD-encoding genes is associated with blood pressure variation in an animal model for hypertension, the Milan hypertensive strain of rats, probably due to a change in the phosphorylation pattern. In fact, the rat mutations, Y to F for alpha and R to Q for beta, are located, respectively, in a tyrosine kinase and a protein kinase A phosphorylation site. We have now determined, for the human beta-ADD-encoding gene, its chromosomal localisation, exon-intron organisation and alternative splicing patterns. We report here that human beta-ADD is localised on chromosome 2 and we also show a characteristic 3' end alternative splicing of the beta-ADD RNA that generates two distinct beta-ADD families, namely ADD 63 and 97; both of them in turn present a very complex differential splicing pattern in the internal exons.

    Gene 1995;167;1-2;313-6

  • Chromosomal localization of the beta-adducin gene to mouse chromosome 6 and human chromosome 2.

    White RA, Angeloni SV and Pasztor LM

    Section of Genetics, Children's Mercy Hospital/UMKC School of Medicine, Kansas City, Missouri 64108, USA.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1995;6;10;741-3

  • Adducin: a physical model with implications for function in assembly of spectrin-actin complexes.

    Hughes CA and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    Adducin binds to spectrin-actin complexes, promotes association of spectrin with actin, and is subject to regulation by calmodulin as well as protein kinases A and C. Adducin is a heteromer comprised of homologous alpha and beta-subunits with an NH2-terminal protease-resistant head domain, connected by a neck region to a COOH-terminal hydrophilic, protease-sensitive region. This study provides evidence that adducin in solution is a mixture of heterodimers and tetramers. CD spectroscopy of COOH-terminal domains of alpha- and beta-adducin bacterial recombinants provides direct evidence for an unstructured random coil configuration. Cross-linking, proteolysis, and blot-binding experiments suggest a model for the adducin tetramer in which four head domains contact one another to form a globular core with extended interacting alpha- and beta-adducin tails. The site for binding to spectrin-actin complexes on adducin was identified as the COOH-terminal tail of both the alpha- and beta-adducin subunits. The capacity of native adducin to recruit spectrin to actin filaments is similar to that of adducin tail domains. Thus, adducin tail domains alone are sufficient to interact with F-actin and a single spectrin and to recruit additional spectrin molecules to the ternary complex.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;32;18990-6

  • Assignment of the human beta-adducin gene (ADD2) to 2p13-p14 by in situ hybridization.

    Gilligan DM, Lieman J and Bennett V

    Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06512, USA.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: K08

    Genomics 1995;28;3;610-2

  • Rabphilin-3A binds to a M(r) 115,000 polypeptide in a phosphatidylserine- and Ca(2+)-dependent manner.

    Miyazaki M, Kaibuchi K, Shirataki H, Kohno H, Ueyama T, Nishikawa J and Takai Y

    Department of Biochemistry, Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan.

    Rabphilin-3A is a putative target protein for Rab3A/Smg 25A, which is a member of the Ras-related small GTP-binding protein and implicated in neurotransmitter release from the synapse. Rabphilin-3A is composed of two functionally different domains: the N-terminal Rab3A-binding and the C-terminal phosphatidylserine- and Ca(2+)-binding domains. The C-terminal domain has two copies of an internal repeat that are homologous to the C2 domains of protein kinase C, synaptotagmin, and phospholipase A2 and C-gamma 1, which are known to bind phosphatidylserine and Ca2+. In this study, we attempted to identify the Rabphilin-3A-interacting molecule in bovine brain by use of an overlay assay technique. The 32P-labeled C-terminal fragment of Rabphilin-3A (281-704 amino acids) bound to a protein molecule with a M(r) of about 115 kDa which was immobilized on a nitrocellulose sheet. This protein was highly purified and characterized. The binding of the 32P-labeled C-terminal fragment to this protein was dependent on both phosphatidylserine and Ca2+, and inhibited by an excess amount of the C-terminal fragment and the C2 domain fragment (396-704 amino acids) but not by the N-terminal fragment (1-280 amino acids). These results indicate that Rabphilin-3A binds to a protein molecule with a M(r) of 115 kDa through the C2 domain in the presence of phosphatidylserine and Ca2+.

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 1995;28;1;29-36

  • Identification as beta-adducin of a protein interacting with rabphilin-3A in the presence of Ca2+ and phosphatidylserine.

    Miyazaki M, Shirataki H, Kohno H, Kaibuchi K, Tsugita A and Takai Y

    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Osaka University Medical School, Japan.

    Rabphilin-3A is a putative target protein for Rab3A small GTP-binding protein implicated in neurotransmitter release. We have previously identified a Rabphilin-3A-interacting protein with a Mr of about 115 kDa in bovine brain. We have attempted here to purify this protein and to determine its primary structure. Amino acid sequence analysis has revealed that this protein is a bovine counterpart of human beta-adducin which is known to be a good substrate for protein kinase C. The Rabphilin-3A-interacting protein also binds to protein kinase C in the presence of Ca2+ and phosphatidylserine. These results indicate that Rabphilin-3A binds to beta-adducin in the presence of Ca2+ and phosphatidylserine.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1994;205;1;460-6

  • Primary structure and domain organization of human alpha and beta adducin.

    Joshi R, Gilligan DM, Otto E, McLaughlin T and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.

    Adducin is a membrane-skeletal protein which is a candidate to promote assembly of a spectrin-actin network in erythrocytes and at sites of cell-cell contact in epithelial tissues. The complete sequence of both subunits of human adducin, alpha (737 amino acids), and beta (726 amino acids) has been deduced by analysis of the cDNAs. The two subunits have strikingly conserved amino acid sequences with 49% identity and 66% similarity, suggesting evolution by gene duplication. Each adducin subunit has three distinct domains: a 39-kD NH2-terminal globular protease-resistant domain, connected by a 9-kD domain to a 33-kD COOH-terminal protease-sensitive tail comprised almost entirely of hydrophilic amino acids. The tail is responsible for the high frictional ratio of adducin noted previously, and was visualized by EM. The head domains of both adducin subunits exhibit a limited sequence similarity with the NH2-terminal actin-binding motif present in members of the spectrin superfamily and actin gelation proteins. The COOH-termini of both subunits contain an identical, highly basic stretch of 22 amino acids with sequence similarity to the MARCKS protein. Predicted sites of phosphorylation by protein kinase C include the COOH-terminus and sites at the junction of the head and tail. Northern blot analysis of mRNA from rat tissues, K562 erythroleukemia cells and reticulocytes has shown that alpha adducin is expressed in all the tissues tested as a single message size of 4 kb. In contrast, beta adducin shows tissue specific variability in size of mRNA and level of expression. A striking divergence between alpha and beta mRNAs was noted in reticulocytes, where alpha adducin mRNA is present in at least 20-fold higher levels than that of beta adducin. The beta subunit thus is a candidate to perform a limiting role in assembly of functional adducin molecules.

    The Journal of cell biology 1991;115;3;665-75

  • Erythrocyte adducin: a calmodulin-regulated actin-bundling protein that stimulates spectrin-actin binding.

    Mische SM, Mooseker MS and Morrow JS

    Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510.

    Adducin is an erythrocyte membrane skeletal phosphoprotein comprised of two related subunits of 105,000 and 100,000 Mr. These peptides form a functional heterodimer, and the smaller of the two binds calmodulin in a calcium-dependent fashion. Although this protein has been physicochemically characterized, its function remains unknown. We have examined the interaction of human adducin with actin and with human erythrocyte spectrin using sedimentation, electrophoretic, and morphologic techniques. Purified adducin binds actin at physiologic ionic strength and bundles it into arrays of laterally arranged filaments, the adducin forming cross-bridges between the filaments at 35.2 /- 3.8 (2 SD) nm intervals. The stoichiometry of high affinity adducin binding to actin at saturation is 1:7, corresponding to a dimer of adducin for every actin helical unit. Adducin also promotes the binding of spectrin to actin independently of protein 4.1. At saturation, each adducin promotes the association of one spectrin heterodimer. The formation of this ternary spectrin-actin-adducin complex is independent of the assembly path, and the complex exists in a readily reversible equilibrium with the free components. The binding of adducin to actin and its ability to stimulate spectrin-actin binding is down-regulated by calmodulin in a calcium-dependent fashion. These results thus identify a putative role for adducin, and define a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent mechanism whereby higher states of actin association and its interaction with spectrin in the erythrocyte may be controlled.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL28560; NIADDK NIH HHS: AM25387

    The Journal of cell biology 1987;105;6 Pt 1;2837-45

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000013 G2C Homo sapiens Human mGluR5 Human orthologues of mouse mGluR5 complex adapted from Collins et al (2006) 52
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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