G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Add2 (MGI)
Mus musculus
adducin 2 (beta)
G00001824 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (8)

ENSMUSG00000030000 (Ensembl mouse gene)
11519 (Entrez Gene)
989 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
NM_013458 (Allen Brain Atlas)
11519 (Genepaint)
102681 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:87919 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
Q9QYB8 (UniProt)

Alleles (2)

Literature (31)

Pubmed - other

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • Severe anemia in the Nan mutant mouse caused by sequence-selective disruption of erythroid Kruppel-like factor.

    Siatecka M, Sahr KE, Andersen SG, Mezei M, Bieker JJ and Peters LL

    Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Black Family Stem Cell Institute, and Tisch Cancer Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.

    Studies of mouse models of anemia have long provided fundamental insights into red blood cell formation and function. Here we show that the semidominant mouse mutation Nan ("neonatal anemia") carries a single amino acid change (E339D) within the second zinc finger of the erythroid Krüppel-like factor (EKLF), a critical erythroid regulatory transcription factor. The mutation alters the DNA-binding specificity of EKLF so that it no longer binds promoters of a subset of its DNA targets. Remarkably, even when mutant Nan and wild-type EKLF alleles are expressed at equivalent levels, the mutant form selectively interferes with expression of EKLF target genes whose promoter elements it no longer binds. This interference yields a distorted genetic output and selective protein deficiencies that differ from those seen in EKLF-heterozygous and EKLF-null red blood cells and presents a unique and unexpected mechanism of inherited disease.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL088468, R01 HL088468; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK46865, DK77822, R01 DK046865, R01 DK077822

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2010;107;34;15151-6

  • Analysis of novel sph (spherocytosis) alleles in mice reveals allele-specific loss of band 3 and adducin in alpha-spectrin-deficient red cells.

    Robledo RF, Lambert AJ, Birkenmeier CS, Cirlan MV, Cirlan AF, Campagna DR, Lux SE and Peters LL

    The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME, USA.

    Five spontaneous, allelic mutations in the alpha-spectrin gene, Spna1, have been identified in mice (spherocytosis [sph], sph(1J), sph(2J), sph(2BC), sph(Dem)). All cause severe hemolytic anemia. Here, analysis of 3 new alleles reveals previously unknown consequences of red blood cell (RBC) spectrin deficiency. In sph(3J), a missense mutation (H2012Y) in repeat 19 introduces a cryptic splice site resulting in premature termination of translation. In sph(Ihj), a premature stop codon occurs (Q1853Stop) in repeat 18. Both mutations result in markedly reduced RBC membrane spectrin content, decreased band 3, and absent beta-adducin. Reevaluation of available, previously described sph alleles reveals band 3 and adducin deficiency as well. In sph(4J), a missense mutation occurs in the C-terminal EF hand domain (C2384Y). Notably, an equally severe hemolytic anemia occurs despite minimally decreased membrane spectrin with normal band 3 levels and present, although reduced, beta-adducin. The severity of anemia in sph(4J) indicates that the highly conserved cysteine residue at the C-terminus of alpha-spectrin participates in interactions critical to membrane stability. The data reinforce the notion that a membrane bridge in addition to the classic protein 4.1-p55-glycophorin C linkage exists at the RBC junctional complex that involves interactions between spectrin, adducin, and band 3.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA34196, P30 CA034196; NCRR NIH HHS: P40 RR001183, RR01183; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL075714, HL081608, HL088468, R01 HL075714, R01 HL081608, R01 HL088468

    Blood 2010;115;9;1804-14

  • beta-adducin (Add2) KO mice show synaptic plasticity, motor coordination and behavioral deficits accompanied by changes in the expression and phosphorylation levels of the alpha- and gamma-adducin subunits.

    Porro F, Rosato-Siri M, Leone E, Costessi L, Iaconcig A, Tongiorgi E and Muro AF

    ICGEB, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste, Italy.

    Adducins are a family of proteins found in cytoskeleton junctional complexes, which bind and regulate actin filaments and actin-spectrin complexes. In brain, adducin is expressed at high levels and is identified as a constituent of synaptic structures, such as dendritic spines and growth cones of neurons. Adducin-induced changes in dendritic spines are involved in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity processes associated with learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying these functions remain to be elucidated. Here, beta-adducin knockout (KO) mice were used to obtain a deeper insight into the role of adducin in these processes. We showed that beta-adducin KO mice showed behavioral, motor coordination and learning deficits together with an altered expression and/or phosphorylation levels of alpha-adducin and gamma-adducin. We found that beta-adducin KO mice exhibited deficits in learning and motor performances associated with an impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in the hippocampus. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in phosphorylation of adducin, a reduction in alpha-adducin expression levels and upregulation of gamma-adducin in hippocampus, cerebellum and neocortex of mutant mice. In addition, we found that the mRNA encoding beta-adducin is also located in dendrites, where it may participate in the fine modulation of LTP and LTD. These results strongly suggest coordinated expression and phosphorylation of adducin subunits as a key mechanism underlying synaptic plasticity, motor coordination performance and learning behaviors.

    Genes, brain, and behavior 2010;9;1;84-96

  • Proteomic analysis of optic nerve lipid rafts reveals new paranodal proteins.

    Ogawa Y and Rasband MN

    Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

    Neuron-glia interactions at paranodal junctions play important roles in action potential propagation. Among their many functions, they contribute to the passive electrical properties of myelinated nerve fibers and actively regulate the polarized distribution of ion channels along axons. Despite their importance, relatively little is known about the molecules responsible for paranode formation and function. Paranodal junction formation apparently depends on interactions among three cell adhesion molecules: caspr and contactin on the axon and neurofascin 155 (NF-155) on the glial membrane. Using Caspr-null paranodal mutant mice, we demonstrate that loss of paranodal junctions causes failure of NF-155 to partition into lipid rafts, indicating that proteins located at paranodal junctions have biochemical characteristics of lipid raft-associated proteins. Based on this property of paranodal junctions, mass spectrometry of lipid rafts isolated from a pure white matter tract (optic nerve) was used to search for new paranodal proteins. Because we used a relatively crude biochemical preparation, we identified several hundred different proteins. Among these, we found all previously described paranodal proteins. Further analysis based on antibody staining of central and peripheral nerves revealed beta-adducin, septin 2, and sh3p8 as putative paranodal proteins. We describe the localization of these proteins in relation to other markers of nodes, paranodes, and juxtaparanodes in adult and developing nerve fibers. Finally, we describe their distribution in dysmyelinating TremblerJ mice, a model for the peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS044916, R01 NS044916, R01 NS044916-08, R01 NS044916-09S1, R37 NS044916

    Journal of neuroscience research 2009;87;15;3502-10

  • The level of the transcription factor Pax6 is essential for controlling the balance between neural stem cell self-renewal and neurogenesis.

    Sansom SN, Griffiths DS, Faedo A, Kleinjan DJ, Ruan Y, Smith J, van Heyningen V, Rubenstein JL and Livesey FJ

    Gurdon Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

    Neural stem cell self-renewal, neurogenesis, and cell fate determination are processes that control the generation of specific classes of neurons at the correct place and time. The transcription factor Pax6 is essential for neural stem cell proliferation, multipotency, and neurogenesis in many regions of the central nervous system, including the cerebral cortex. We used Pax6 as an entry point to define the cellular networks controlling neural stem cell self-renewal and neurogenesis in stem cells of the developing mouse cerebral cortex. We identified the genomic binding locations of Pax6 in neocortical stem cells during normal development and ascertained the functional significance of genes that we found to be regulated by Pax6, finding that Pax6 positively and directly regulates cohorts of genes that promote neural stem cell self-renewal, basal progenitor cell genesis, and neurogenesis. Notably, we defined a core network regulating neocortical stem cell decision-making in which Pax6 interacts with three other regulators of neurogenesis, Neurog2, Ascl1, and Hes1. Analyses of the biological function of Pax6 in neural stem cells through phenotypic analyses of Pax6 gain- and loss-of-function mutant cortices demonstrated that the Pax6-regulated networks operating in neural stem cells are highly dosage sensitive. Increasing Pax6 levels drives the system towards neurogenesis and basal progenitor cell genesis by increasing expression of a cohort of basal progenitor cell determinants, including the key transcription factor Eomes/Tbr2, and thus towards neurogenesis at the expense of self-renewal. Removing Pax6 reduces cortical stem cell self-renewal by decreasing expression of key cell cycle regulators, resulting in excess early neurogenesis. We find that the relative levels of Pax6, Hes1, and Neurog2 are key determinants of a dynamic network that controls whether neural stem cells self-renew, generate cortical neurons, or generate basal progenitor cells, a mechanism that has marked parallels with the transcriptional control of embryonic stem cell self-renewal.

    Funded by: Cancer Research UK; Medical Research Council: MC_U127527199; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS034661, R01 NS099099; Wellcome Trust

    PLoS genetics 2009;5;6;e1000511

  • Targeted deletion of the gamma-adducin gene (Add3) in mice reveals differences in alpha-adducin interactions in erythroid and nonerythroid cells.

    Sahr KE, Lambert AJ, Ciciotte SL, Mohandas N and Peters LL

    The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine 04606, USA.

    In red blood cells (RBCs) adducin heterotetramers localize to the spectrin-actin junction of the peripheral membrane skeleton. We previously reported that deletion of beta-adducin results in osmotically fragile, microcytic RBCs and a phenotype of hereditary spherocytosis (HS). Notably, alpha-adducin was significantly reduced, while gamma-adducin, normally present in limited amounts, was increased approximately 5-fold, suggesting that alpha-adducin requires a heterologous binding partner for stability and function, and that gamma-adducin can partially substitute for the absence of beta-adducin. To test these assumptions we generated gamma-adducin null mice. gamma-adducin null RBCs appear normal on Wright's stained peripheral blood smears and by scanning electron microscopy. All membrane skeleton proteins examined are present in normal amounts, and all hematological parameters measured are normal. Despite a loss of approximately 70% of alpha-adducin in gamma-adducin null platelets, no bleeding defect is observed and platelet structure appears normal. Moreover, systemic blood pressure and pulse are normal in gamma-adducin null mice. gamma- and beta-adducin null mice were intercrossed to generate double null mice. Loss of gamma-adducin does not exacerbate the beta-adducin null HS phenotype although the amount alpha-adducin is reduced to barely detectable levels. The stability of alpha-adducin in the absence of a heterologous binding partner varies considerably in various tissues. The amount of alpha-adducin is modestly reduced ( approximately 15%) in the kidney, while in the spleen and brain is reduced by approximately 50% with the loss of a heterologous beta- or gamma-adducin binding partner. These results suggest that the structural properties of adducin differ significantly between erythroid and various nonerythroid cell types.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA34196, P30 CA034196, P30 CA034196-24; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL075714, R01 HL075714, R01 HL075714-04

    American journal of hematology 2009;84;6;354-61

  • Targeted deletion of alpha-adducin results in absent beta- and gamma-adducin, compensated hemolytic anemia, and lethal hydrocephalus in mice.

    Robledo RF, Ciciotte SL, Gwynn B, Sahr KE, Gilligan DM, Mohandas N and Peters LL

    The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME, USA.

    In the red blood cell (RBC), adducin is present primarily as tetramers of alpha- and beta-subunits at spectrin-actin junctions, or junctional complexes. Mouse RBCs also contain small amounts of gamma-adducin. Platelets contain alpha- and gamma-adducin only. Adducin functions as a barbed-end actin capping protein to regulate actin filament length and recruits spectrin to the ends of actin filaments. To further define adducin's role in vivo, we generated alpha-adducin knockout mice. alpha-Adducin is absent in all tissues examined in homozygous null mice. In RBCs, beta- and gamma-adducin are also absent, indicating that alpha-adducin is the limiting subunit in tetramer formation at the spectrin-actin junction. Similarly, gamma-adducin is absent in alpha-null platelets. alpha-Adducin-null mice display compensated hemolytic anemia with features characteristic of RBCs in hereditary spherocytosis (HS), including spherocytes with significant loss of surface area, decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV), cell dehydration, and increased osmotic fragility. Platelets maintain their normal discoid shape, and bleeding times are normal. alpha-Adducin-null mice show growth retardation at birth and throughout adulthood. Approximately 50% develop lethal communicating hydrocephalus with striking dilation of the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles. These data indicate that adducin plays a role in RBC membrane stability and in cerebrospinal fluid homeostasis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA34196, P30 CA034196; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL075714, R01 HL075714

    Blood 2008;112;10;4298-307

  • Combined deletion of mouse dematin-headpiece and beta-adducin exerts a novel effect on the spectrin-actin junctions leading to erythrocyte fragility and hemolytic anemia.

    Chen H, Khan AA, Liu F, Gilligan DM, Peters LL, Messick J, Haschek-Hock WM, Li X, Ostafin AE and Chishti AH

    Department of Pharmacology/Cancer Center, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.

    Dematin and adducin are actin-binding proteins of the erythrocyte "junctional complex." Individually, they exert modest effects on erythrocyte shape and membrane stability, and their homologues are expressed widely in non-erythroid cells. Here we report generation and characterization of double knock-out mice lacking beta-adducin and the headpiece domain of dematin. The combined mutations result in altered erythrocyte morphology, increased membrane instability, and severe hemolysis. Peripheral blood analysis shows evidence of severe hemolytic anemia with reduced number of erythrocytes/hematocrit/hemoglobin and an approximately 12-fold increase in the number of circulating reticulocytes. The presence of a variety of misshapen and fragmented erythrocytes correlates with increased osmotic fragility and reduced in vivo life span. Despite the apparently normal protein composition of the mutant erythrocyte membrane, the retention of the spectrin-actin complex in the membrane under low ionic strength conditions is significantly reduced by the double mutation. Atomic force microscopy reveals an increase in grain size and a decrease in filament number of the mutant membrane cytoskeleton, although the volume parameter is similar to wild type erythrocytes. Aggregated, disassembled, and irregular features are visualized in the mutant membrane, consistent with the presence of large protein aggregates. Importantly, purified dematin binds to the stripped inside-out vesicles in a saturable manner, and dematin-membrane binding is abolished upon pretreatment of membrane vesicles with trypsin. Together, these results reveal an essential role of dematin and adducin in the maintenance of erythrocyte shape and membrane stability, and they suggest that the dematin-membrane interaction could link the junctional complex to the plasma membrane in erythroid cells.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL051445, HL075714, R01 HL075714

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;6;4124-35

  • Qualitative and quantitative analyses of protein phosphorylation in naive and stimulated mouse synaptosomal preparations.

    Munton RP, Tweedie-Cullen R, Livingstone-Zatchej M, Weinandy F, Waidelich M, Longo D, Gehrig P, Potthast F, Rutishauser D, Gerrits B, Panse C, Schlapbach R and Mansuy IM

    Brain Research Institute, Medical Faculty of the University of Zürich, Switzerland.

    Activity-dependent protein phosphorylation is a highly dynamic yet tightly regulated process essential for cellular signaling. Although recognized as critical for neuronal functions, the extent and stoichiometry of phosphorylation in brain cells remain undetermined. In this study, we resolved activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry at specific sites in distinct subcellular compartments of brain cells. Following highly sensitive phosphopeptide enrichment using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we isolated and identified 974 unique phosphorylation sites on 499 proteins, many of which are novel. To further explore the significance of specific phosphorylation sites, we used isobaric peptide labels and determined the absolute quantity of both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated peptides of candidate phosphoproteins and estimated phosphorylation stoichiometry. The analyses of phosphorylation dynamics using differentially stimulated synaptic terminal preparations revealed activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry of target proteins. Using this method, we were able to differentiate between distinct isoforms of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) and identify a novel activity-regulated phosphorylation site on the glutamate receptor subunit GluR1. Together these data illustrate that mass spectrometry-based methods can be used to determine activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry on candidate phosphopeptides following large scale phosphoproteome analysis of brain tissue.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;2;283-93

  • Comprehensive identification of phosphorylation sites in postsynaptic density preparations.

    Trinidad JC, Specht CG, Thalhammer A, Schoepfer R and Burlingame AL

    Mass Spectrometry Facility, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

    In the mammalian central nervous system, the structure known as the postsynaptic density (PSD) is a dense complex of proteins whose function is to detect and respond to neurotransmitter released from presynaptic axon terminals. Regulation of protein phosphorylation in this molecular machinery is critical to the activity of its components, which include neurotransmitter receptors, kinases/phosphatases, scaffolding molecules, and proteins regulating cytoskeletal structure. To characterize the phosphorylation state of proteins in PSD samples, we combined strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography with IMAC. Initially, tryptic peptides were separated by cation exchange and analyzed by reverse phase chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, which led to the identification of phosphopeptides in most SCX fractions. Because each of these individual fractions was too complex to characterize completely in single LC-MS/MS runs, we enriched for phosphopeptides by performing IMAC on each SCX fraction, yielding at least a 3-fold increase in identified phosphopeptides relative to either approach alone (SCX or IMAC). This enabled us to identify at least one site of phosphorylation on 23% (287 of 1,264) of all proteins found to be present in the postsynaptic density preparation. In total, we identified 998 unique phosphorylated peptides, mapping to 723 unique sites of phosphorylation. At least one exact site of phosphorylation was determined on 62% (621 of 998) of all phosphopeptides, and approximately 80% of identified phosphorylation sites are novel.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR14606; Wellcome Trust

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2006;5;5;914-22

  • Unexpected rescue of alpha-synuclein and multimerin1 deletion in C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice by beta-adducin knockout.

    Gajović S, Mitrecić D, Augustincić L, Iaconcig A and Muro AF

    Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, Univeristy of Zagreb, Croatia. srecko.gajovic@hiim.hr

    Uniform genetic background of inbred mouse strains is essential in experiments with genetically modified mice. In order to assess Add2 (beta-adducin) function, its null mutation was produced in embryonic stem cells derived from 129Sv mouse and the subsequently obtained mouse mutants were backcrossed for 6 generations with C57BL/6JOlaHsd strain. Comparison of brain proteins between mutated and control animals by two-dimensional gels linked to mass spectroscopy analysis showed expression of Snca (alpha-synuclein) in the mutated animals, but unexpectedly not in the control C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice. Comparison between C57BL/6JOlaHsd and C57BL/6NCrl mice confirmed the presence of a deletion encompassing Snca and in addition Mmrn1 (multimerin1) loci in C57BL/6JOlaHsd strain. The segregation of mutated Add2 together with an adjacent part of the chromosome 6 derived from 129Sv mice, rescued the loss of these two genes in knockout mice on C57BL/6JOlaHsd background. The fact that Add2 knockout was compared with the C57BL/6JOlaHsd mouse strain, which is actually a double knockout of Snca and Mmrn1 emphasizes a need for information provided by commercial suppliers and of exact denominations of substrains used in research.

    Transgenic research 2006;15;2;255-9

  • Evidence for a protective role of the Gardos channel against hemolysis in murine spherocytosis.

    De Franceschi L, Rivera A, Fleming MD, Honczarenko M, Peters LL, Gascard P, Mohandas N and Brugnara C

    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Internal Medicine, University of Verona, Italy.

    It has been shown that mice with complete deficiency of all 4.1R protein isoforms (4.1-/-) exhibit moderate hemolytic anemia, with abnormal erythrocyte morphology (spherocytosis) and decreased membrane stability. Here, we characterized the Gardos channel function in vitro and in vivo in erythrocytes of 4.1-/- mice. Compared with wild-type, the Gardos channel of 4.1-/- erythrocytes showed an increase in Vmax (9.75 +/- 1.06 vs 6.08 +/- 0.09 mM cell x minute; P < .04) and a decrease in Km (1.01 +/- 0.06 vs 1.47 +/- 1.02 microM; P < .03), indicating an increased sensitivity to activation by intracellular calcium. In vivo function of the Gardos channel was assessed by the oral administration of clotrimazole, a well-characterized Gardos channel blocker. Clotrimazole treatment resulted in worsening of anemia and hemolysis, with decreased red cell survival and increased numbers of circulating hyperchromic spherocytes and microspherocytes. Clotrimazole induced similar changes in 4.2-/- and band 3+/- mice, indicating that these effects of the Gardos channel are shared in different models of murine spherocytosis. Thus, potassium and water loss through the Gardos channel may play an important protective role in compensating for the reduced surface-membrane area of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) erythrocytes and reducing hemolysis in erythrocytes with cytoskeletal impairments.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL31579, HL64885, R01 HL064885; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK50422

    Blood 2005;106;4;1454-9

  • Impaired synaptic plasticity and learning in mice lacking beta-adducin, an actin-regulating protein.

    Rabenstein RL, Addy NA, Caldarone BJ, Asaka Y, Gruenbaum LM, Peters LL, Gilligan DM, Fitzsimonds RM and Picciotto MR

    Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06508, USA.

    The adducin family of proteins interacts with the actin cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane in a calcium- and cAMP-dependent manner. Thus, adducins may be involved in changes in cytoskeletal organization resulting from synaptic stimulation. beta-Adducin knock-out mice were examined in physiological and behavioral paradigms related to synaptic plasticity to elucidate the role the adducin family plays in processes underlying learning and memory. In situ hybridization for alpha- and beta-adducin demonstrates that these mRNAs are found throughout the brain, with high levels of expression in the hippocampus. Schaffer collateral-CA1 tetanic long-term potentiation decayed rapidly in acute hippocampal slices from beta-adducin knock-out mice, although baseline spine morphology and postsynaptic density were normal. Interestingly, the input-output relationship was significantly increased in hippocampal slices from beta-adducin knock-out mice. Furthermore, beta-adducin knock-out mice were impaired in performance of fear conditioning and the water maze paradigm. The current results indicate that beta-adducin may play an important role in the cellular mechanisms underlying activity-dependent synaptic plasticity associated with learning and memory.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL75714, R01 HL075714; NIDA NIH HHS: DA00436, DA14331, K02 DA000436, K23 DA014331, R01 DA014241; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK55005, R01 DK055005; NIMH NIH HHS: MH59800, R01 MH059800

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2005;25;8;2138-45

  • Phosphoproteomic analysis of the developing mouse brain.

    Ballif BA, Villén J, Beausoleil SA, Schwartz D and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Proper development of the mammalian brain requires the precise integration of numerous temporally and spatially regulated stimuli. Many of these signals transduce their cues via the reversible phosphorylation of downstream effector molecules. Neuronal stimuli acting in concert have the potential of generating enormous arrays of regulatory phosphoproteins. Toward the global profiling of phosphoproteins in the developing brain, we report here the use of a mass spectrometry-based methodology permitting the first proteomic-scale phosphorylation site analysis of primary animal tissue, identifying over 500 protein phosphorylation sites in the developing mouse brain.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2004;3;11;1093-101

  • The erythrocyte skeletons of beta-adducin deficient mice have altered levels of tropomyosin, tropomodulin and EcapZ.

    Porro F, Costessi L, Marro ML, Baralle FE and Muro AF

    International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Padriciano 99, I 34012, Trieste, Italy.

    The erythrocyte membrane cytoskeleton is organized as a polygonal spectrin network linked to short actin filaments that are capped by adducin at the barbed ends. We have constructed a mouse strain deficient in beta-adducin having abnormal erythrocytes. We show here that the levels of several skeletal proteins from beta-adducin mutant erythrocytes are altered. In fact, CapZ, the main muscle actin-capping protein of the barbed ends that in the erythrocytes is cytoplasmic, is 9-fold upregulated in mutant skeletons of erythrocytes suggesting a compensatory mechanism. We also detected upregulation of tropomodulin and downregulation of alpha-tropomyosin and actin. In addition, purified adducin can be re-incorporated into adducin-deficient ghosts.

    FEBS letters 2004;576;1-2;36-40

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • Rh-RhAG/ankyrin-R, a new interaction site between the membrane bilayer and the red cell skeleton, is impaired by Rh(null)-associated mutation.

    Nicolas V, Le Van Kim C, Gane P, Birkenmeier C, Cartron JP, Colin Y and Mouro-Chanteloup I

    INSERM U76, Institut National de la Transfusion Sanguine, 6 Rue Alexandre Cabanel, 75015 Paris, France.

    Several studies suggest that the Rh complex represents a major interaction site between the membrane lipid bilayer and the red cell skeleton, but little is known about the molecular basis of this interaction. We report here that ankyrin-R is capable of interacting directly with the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of Rh and RhAG polypeptides. We first show that the primary defect of ankyrin-R in normoblastosis (nb/nb) spherocytosis mutant mice is associated with a sharp reduction of RhAG and Rh polypeptides. Secondly, our flow cytometric analysis of the Triton X-100 extractability of recombinant fusion proteins expressed in erythroleukemic cell lines suggests that the C-terminal cytoplasmic domains of Rh and RhAG are sufficient to mediate interaction with the erythroid membrane skeleton. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we demonstrate a direct interaction between the cytoplasmic tails of Rh and RhAG and the second repeat domain (D2) of ankyrin-R. This finding is supported by the demonstration that the substitution of Asp-399 in the cytoplasmic tail of RhAG, a mutation associated with the deficiency of the Rh complex in one Rhnull patient, totally impaired interaction with domain D2 of ankyrin-R. These results identify the Rh/RhAG-ankyrin complex as a new interaction site between the red cell membrane and the spectrin-based skeleton, the disruption of which might result in the stomato-spherocytosis typical of Rhnull red cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;28;25526-33

  • RNomics: an experimental approach that identifies 201 candidates for novel, small, non-messenger RNAs in mouse.

    Hüttenhofer A, Kiefmann M, Meier-Ewert S, O'Brien J, Lehrach H, Bachellerie JP and Brosius J

    Institute of Experimental Pathology/Molecular Neurobiology, ZMBE, 48149 Münster, Max-Planck-Institute of Molecular Genetics, 14195 Berlin-Dahlem, Germany. huttenh@uni-muenster.de

    In mouse brain cDNA libraries generated from small RNA molecules we have identified a total of 201 different expressed RNA sequences potentially encoding novel small non-messenger RNA species (snmRNAs). Based on sequence and structural motifs, 113 of these RNAs can be assigned to the C/D box or H/ACA box subclass of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), known as guide RNAs for rRNA. While 30 RNAs represent mouse homologues of previously identified human C/D or H/ACA snoRNAs, 83 correspond to entirely novel snoRNAS: Among these, for the first time, we identified four C/D box snoRNAs and four H/ACA box snoRNAs predicted to direct modifications within U2, U4 or U6 small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). Furthermore, 25 snoRNAs from either class lacked antisense elements for rRNAs or snRNAS: Therefore, additional snoRNA targets have to be considered. Surprisingly, six C/D box snoRNAs and one H/ACA box snoRNA were expressed exclusively in brain. Of the 88 RNAs not belonging to either snoRNA subclass, at least 26 are probably derived from truncated heterogeneous nuclear RNAs (hnRNAs) or mRNAS: Short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) are located on five RNA sequences and may represent rare examples of transcribed SINES: The remaining RNA species could not as yet be assigned either to any snmRNA class or to a part of a larger hnRNA/mRNA. It is likely that at least some of the latter will represent novel, unclassified snmRNAS:

    The EMBO journal 2001;20;11;2943-53

  • Hypertension in beta-adducin-deficient mice.

    Marro ML, Scremin OU, Jordan MC, Huynh L, Porro F, Roos KP, Gajovic S, Baralle FE and Muro AF

    International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste, Italy.

    Polymorphic variants of the cytoskeletal protein adducin have been associated with hypertension in humans and rats. However, the direct role of this protein in modulating arterial blood pressure has never been demonstrated. To assess the effect of beta-adducin on blood pressure, a beta-adducin-deficient mouse strain (-/-) was studied and compared with wild-type controls (+/+). Aortic blood pressure was measured in nonanesthetized, freely moving animals with the use of telemetry implants. It is important to note that these mice have at least 98% of C57Bl/6 genetic background, with the only difference from wild-type animals being the beta-adducin mutation. We found statistically significant higher levels of systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) (mean+/-SE values: -/-: 126.94+/-1.14, n=5; +/+: 108.06+/-2. 34, n=6; P:</=0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (-/-: 83.54+/-1.07; +/+: 74.87+/-2.23; P:</=0.005), and pulse blood pressure (-/-: 43. 32+/-1.10; +/+: 33.19+/-1.96; P:</=0.001) in beta-adducin-deficient mice. Western blot analysis showed that as a result of the introduced genetic modification, beta-adducin was not present in heart protein extracts from -/- mice. Consequently, this deficiency produced a sharp decrease of alpha-adducin and a lesser reduction in gamma-adducin levels. However, we found neither cardiac remodeling nor modification of the heart function in these animals. This is the first report showing direct evidence that hypertension is triggered by a mutation in the adducin gene family.

    Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 2000;36;3;449-53

  • Mild spherocytic hereditary elliptocytosis and altered levels of alpha- and gamma-adducins in beta-adducin-deficient mice.

    Muro AF, Marro ML, Gajović S, Porro F, Luzzatto L and Baralle FE

    International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste, Italy.

    The membrane skeleton, a dynamic network of proteins associated with the plasma membrane, determines the shape and mechanical properties of erythrocytes. Deficiencies or defects in membrane skeletal proteins are associated with inherited disorders of erythrocyte morphology and function. Adducin is one of the proteins localized at the spectrin-actin junction of the membrane skeleton. In this work we show that deficiency of beta-adducin produces an 80% decrease of alpha-adducin and a fourfold up-regulation of gamma-adducin in erythrocytes. beta-Adducin or any other isoform generated by translation of abnormally spliced messenger RNAs could not be detected by our antibodies either in ghosts or in cytoplasm of -/- erythrocytes. Actin levels were diminished in mutant mice, suggesting alterations in the actin-spectrin junctional complexes due to the absence of adducin. Elliptocytes, ovalocytes, and occasionally spherocytes were found in the blood film of -/- mice. Hematological values showed an increase in reticulocyte counts and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, decreased mean corpuscular volume and hematocrit, and normal erythrocyte counts that, associated to splenomegaly, indicate that the mice suffer from mild anemia with compensated hemolysis. These modifications are due to a loss of membrane surface and dehydration that result in an increase in the osmotic fragility of red blood cells. The marked alteration in osmotic fragility together with the predominant presence of elliptocytes is reminiscent of the human disorder called spherocytic hereditary elliptocytosis. Our results suggest that the amount of adducin remaining in the mutant animals (presumably alphagamma adducin) could be functional and might account for the mild phenotype. (Blood. 2000;95:3978-3985)

    Blood 2000;95;12;3978-85

  • The mouse adducin gene family: alternative splicing and chromosomal localization.

    Suriyapperuma SP, Lozovatsky L, Ciciotte SL, Peters LL and Gilligan DM

    Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, WWW 403, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA.

    Mouse cDNA sequences encoding alpha, beta, and gamma adducins were cloned from a mouse reticulocyte cDNA library. The purified clones contain alternatively spliced exons from all three adducin genes. In the case of alpha and beta, the inclusion of the alternatively spliced exons results in truncated polypeptide isoforms (called alpha-2 and beta-2). The mouse predicted amino acid sequences are compared with published rat and human sequences. For completion of this comparison, cDNA encoding the rat beta-1 carboxy terminus was cloned by PCR. The carboxy terminal region containing MARCKS homology, calmodulin-binding region-2, and spectrin-actin-binding site, is conserved among alpha-1, beta-1, and gamma-1 isoforms in mouse, rat, and humans. We also report here the localization of the gene encoding gamma adducin (Add3) to murine Chr 19, in a region that shows conserved synteny with human Chr 10.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL064885

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 2000;11;1;16-23

  • Targeted disruption of the beta adducin gene (Add2) causes red blood cell spherocytosis in mice.

    Gilligan DM, Lozovatsky L, Gwynn B, Brugnara C, Mohandas N and Peters LL

    Department of Internal Medicine (Hematology), Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA. Diana.Gilligan@yale.edu

    Adducins are a family of cytoskeleton proteins encoded by three genes (alpha, beta, gamma). In a comprehensive assay of gene expression, we show the ubiquitous expression of alpha- and gamma-adducins in contrast to the restricted expression of beta-adducin. beta-adducin is expressed at high levels in brain and hematopoietic tissues (bone marrow in humans, spleen in mice). To elucidate adducin's role in vivo, we created beta-adducin null mice by gene targeting, deleting exons 9-13. A 55-kDa chimeric polypeptide is produced from the first eight exons of beta-adducin and part of the neo cassette in spleen but is not detected in peripheral RBCs or brain. beta-adducin null RBCs are osmotically fragile, spherocytic, and dehydrated compared with the wild type, resembling RBCs from patients with hereditary spherocytosis. The lack of beta-adducin in RBCs leads to decreased membrane incorporation of alpha-adducin (30% of normal) and unexpectedly promotes a 5-fold increase in gamma-adducin incorporation into the RBC membrane skeleton. This study demonstrates adducin's importance to RBC membrane stability in vivo.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL55321, R01 HL055321; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK02070, DK26263, R01 DK026263, R37 DK026263

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1999;96;19;10717-22

  • cDNA cloning and mapping of a novel subtype of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT2) in human and mouse.

    Oki T, Yamazaki K, Kuromitsu J, Okada M and Tanaka I

    Tsukuba Research Laboratories, Eisai Company, Ltd., 5-1-3, Tokodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 300-2635, Japan.

    We subcloned human and mouse full-length cDNAs of a novel subtype of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT), which was designated GFAT2 (the previously reported GFAT was named GFAT1). Both the human and the mouse GFAT2 proteins deduced from their open reading frame sequences are composed of 682 amino acids of approximately 77.0 kDa. At the amino acid level, homologies between the human GFAT1 and GFAT2, between the mouse GFAT1 and GFAT2, and between the human GFAT2 and the mouse GFAT2 were 75.6, 74.7, and 97. 2%, respectively. Northern blot analysis using probe specific to human GFAT1 or GFAT2 showed that major transcripts were approximately 3.0 kb in both the human GFAT subtypes. The analysis also revealed different tissue distribution between GFAT1 and GFAT2: GFAT1 was more highly expressed in the placenta, pancreas, and testis than GFAT2; GFAT2 was expressed throughout the central nervous system, especially in the spinal cord, but GFAT1 expression was weak. The locus was mapped to human chromosome 5q and mouse chromosome 11, where a synteny between the two species has been known. GFAT2 can provide insights into understanding the roles of the hexosamine pathway in various tissues, particularly with the development of glucose toxicity and diabetes complications.

    Genomics 1999;57;2;227-34

  • High-resolution genetic, physical, and transcript map of the mnd2 region of mouse chromosome 6.

    Weber JS, Jang W, Simin K, Lu W, Yu J and Meisler MH

    Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48109-0618, USA.

    The autosomal recessive mutation mnd2 is responsible for a lethal neuromuscular wasting disorder in the mouse. A high-resolution genetic map of the mnd2 region of mouse chromosome 6 was generated by analysis of 1147 F2 offspring from an intersubspecific cross between strains C57BL/6J-mnd2/+ and CAST/Ei. The results localize mnd2 to the 0.2-cM interval between D6Mit164 and D6Mit128. A contig of overlapping YAC, BAC, and P1 clones spanning the nonrecombinant interval was constructed. One novel gene isolated from the contig, D6Mm3e, is a new member of the WD repeat gene family. The observed gene order for the five positional candidate genes previously mapped to the region and five newly isolated genes is centromere-Hexokinase II-D6Mm5e-p62 Dok-Aup1-Rhotekin, D6Mm3e-Dynactin 1-Smooth muscle gamma actin-D6Mm4e-beta-adducin-telomere. Seven of these genes are located within the 400-kb nonrecombinant interval for mnd2. Comparison between wildtype and mutant failed to detect any differences in mRNA size, abundance, or coding sequence for these seven genes. The genes described here are positional candidates for the Parkinson disease susceptibility locus PARK3 that was recently mapped to the corresponding region of human chromosome band 2p13.1.

    Genomics 1998;54;1;107-15

  • Dok1 encoding p62(dok) maps to mouse chromosome 6 and human chromosome 2 in a region of translocation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Nelms K, Snow AJ and Noben-Trauth K

    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892-1892, USA.

    Funded by: ODCDC CDC HHS: ZO1 CD00036-01

    Genomics 1998;53;2;243-5

  • Gata2 maps to mouse chromosome 6.

    Ciciotte SL, Tsai FY and Peters LL

    Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL55321, R01 HL055321

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1997;8;1;69-70

  • Chromosomal localization of the beta-adducin gene to mouse chromosome 6 and human chromosome 2.

    White RA, Angeloni SV and Pasztor LM

    Section of Genetics, Children's Mercy Hospital/UMKC School of Medicine, Kansas City, Missouri 64108, USA.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1995;6;10;741-3

  • Calmodulin-binding domain of recombinant erythrocyte beta-adducin.

    Scaramuzzino DA and Morrow JS

    Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510.

    Adducin is a 200-kDa heterodimeric protein of the cortical cytoskeleton of mammalian erythrocytes. Analogs are also abundant in brain and several other tissues. In vitro, adducin bundles F-actin and enhances the binding of spectrin to actin. Previous studies have established that the beta subunit of adducin binds calmodulin (CaM) in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion with intermediate affinity (approximately 200 nM) and that this activity is destroyed by proteolysis. We have confirmed the trypsin sensitivity of CaM binding by beta-adducin and the existence of a 38- to 39-kDa protease-resistant core. Calpain I digestion generates a larger core fragment (49 kDa) that is also devoid of CaM-binding activity. Use of recombinant beta-adducin peptides generated from partial cDNA clones identified strong CaM-binding activity within the protease-sensitive domain in residues 425-461: KQQKEKTRWLNTPNTYLRVNVADEVQRNMGSPRPKTT in single-letter amino acid codes. This region of the molecule is highly conserved between mouse, rat, and human and shares structural features with CaM-binding sequences in other proteins. Multiple flanking PEST sequences (sequences rich in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine residues that enhance proteolytic sensitivity) may contribute to the protease sensitivity of this region. Consensus sequences for phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent kinases and by protein kinase C (or CaM-dependent kinase) are also found within or near this CaM-binding domain. Collectively, these data suggest a structural basis for the regulation of adducin by Ca(2+)-dependent CaM binding and possibly by covalent phosphorylation and calpain I-mediated proteolysis as well.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL28560; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK07556, DK43812

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1993;90;8;3398-402

  • Immunofluorescence localization of an adducin-like protein in the chromosomes of mouse oocytes.

    Pinto-Correia C, Goldstein EG, Bennett V and Sobel JS

    Department of Anatomical Sciences, State University of New York, Buffalo 14214.

    The mouse oocyte expresses a polypeptide of Mr 120,000 that cross-reacts with an antibody to the brain membrane skeletal protein adducin. Immunofluorescence localization showed a bright chromosomal staining reaction in metaphase I and metaphase II oocytes. Following in vitro fertilization the maternal chromosomes lost their immunoreactivity during pronuclear development. The fertilizing sperm chromatin and male pronucleus did not show any detectable staining reaction. Bright chromosomal fluorescence was again observed in the first mitotic metaphase when both maternal and paternal chromosomes gave a positive staining reaction. In contrast to the immunoreactivity of the maternal meiotic chromosomes, the meiotic chromosomes of male germ line cells failed to exhibit any detectable staining reaction and this difference was confirmed by immunolabeling of oocyte and spermatocyte karyotypes. Mitotic chromosomes in preimplantation embryos, fetal liver, adult intestinal epithelium, and MDCK cells also failed to show any detectable labeling reaction. The results suggest that expression of the immunoreactive chromosomal adducin may be a unique feature of oogenesis.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD 1869504

    Developmental biology 1991;146;2;301-11

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000005 G2C Mus musculus Mouse mGluR5 Mouse mGluR5 complex adapted from Collins et al (2006) 52
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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