G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001799
Gene symbol
MAP6 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
microtubule-associated protein 6
Orthologue
G00000550 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000171533 (Ensembl human gene)
4135 (Entrez Gene)
328 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
MAP6 (GeneCards)
Literature
601783 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:6868 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q6P3T0 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • FLJ41346
  • KIAA1878
  • STOP

Literature (13)

Pubmed - other

  • Prefrontal cortex shotgun proteome analysis reveals altered calcium homeostasis and immune system imbalance in schizophrenia.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Rewerts C, Maccarrone G, Dias-Neto E and Turck CW

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua. Dr. Ovidio Pires de Campos, no 785, Consolação, São Paulo, SP 05403-010, Brazil.

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease, likely to be caused by a combination of serial alterations in a number of genes and environmental factors. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46) is involved in schizophrenia and executes high-level functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts and attitudes, correct social behavior and personality expression. Global proteomic analysis of post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples from schizophrenia patients and non-schizophrenic individuals was performed using stable isotope labeling and shotgun proteomics. The analysis resulted in the identification of 1,261 proteins, 84 of which showed statistically significant differential expression, reinforcing previous data supporting the involvement of the immune system, calcium homeostasis, cytoskeleton assembly, and energy metabolism in schizophrenia. In addition a number of new potential markers were found that may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

    European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience 2009;259;3;151-63

  • Genetic and expression analyses of the STOP (MAP6) gene in schizophrenia.

    Shimizu H, Iwayama Y, Yamada K, Toyota T, Minabe Y, Nakamura K, Nakajima M, Hattori E, Mori N, Osumi N and Yoshikawa T

    Laboratory for Molecular Psychiatry, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the pathologic lesions of schizophrenia may in part be due to the altered cytoskeletal architecture of neurons. Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) that bind to cytoskeletal microtubules to stabilize their assembly are prominently expressed in neurons. Of the MAPs, MAP6 (STOP) has a particular relevance to schizophrenia pathology, since mice deficient in the gene display neuroleptic-responsive behavioral defects. Here we examined the genetic contribution of MAP6 to schizophrenia in a case (n = 570) -control (n = 570) study, using dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. We detected nominal allelic (p = 0.0291) and haplotypic (global p = 0.0343 for 2 SNP-window, global p = 0.0138 for 3 SNP-window) associations between the 3' genomic interval of the gene and schizophrenia. MAP6 transcripts are expressed as two isoforms. A postmortem brain expression study showed up-regulation of mRNA isoform 2 in the prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 46) of patients with schizophrenia. These data suggest that the contribution of MAP6 to the processes that lead to schizophrenia should be further investigated.

    Schizophrenia research 2006;84;2-3;244-52

  • Automated yeast two-hybrid screening for nuclear receptor-interacting proteins.

    Albers M, Kranz H, Kober I, Kaiser C, Klink M, Suckow J, Kern R and Koegl M

    PheneX Pharmaceuticals AG, Im Neuenheimer Feld 515, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

    High throughput analysis of protein-protein interactions is an important sector of hypothesis-generating research. Using an improved and automated version of the yeast two-hybrid system, we completed a large interaction screening project with a focus on nuclear receptors and their cofactors. A total of 425 independent yeast two-hybrid cDNA library screens resulted in 6425 potential interacting protein fragments involved in 1613 different interaction pairs. We show that simple statistical parameters can be used to narrow down the data set to a high confidence set of 377 interaction pairs where validated interactions are enriched to 61% of all pairs. Within the high confidence set, there are 64 novel proteins potentially binding to nuclear receptors or their cofactors. We discuss several examples of high interest, and we expect that communication of this huge data set will help to complement our knowledge of the protein interaction repertoire of this family of transcription factors and instigate the characterization of the various novel candidate interactors.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2005;4;2;205-13

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Stable tubule only polypeptides (STOP) proteins co-aggregate with spheroid neurofilaments in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Letournel F, Bocquet A, Dubas F, Barthelaix A and Eyer J

    Laboratoire Neurobiologie & Transgenese, Université D'Angers, Angers, France.

    A major cytopathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the presence of axonal spheroids containing abnormally accumulated neurofilaments. The mechanism of their formation, their contribution to the disease, and the possibility of other co-aggregated components are still enigmatic. Here we analyze the composition of such lesions with special reference to stable tubule only polypeptide (STOP), a protein responsible for microtubule cold stabilization. In normal human brain and spinal cord, the distribution of STOP proteins is uniform between the cytoplasm and neurites of neurons. However, all the neurofilament-rich spheroids present in the tissues of affected patients are intensely labeled with 3 different anti-STOP antibodies. Moreover, when neurofilaments and microtubules are isolated from spinal cord and brain, STOP proteins are systematically co-purified with neurofilaments. By SDS-PAGE analysis, no alteration of the migration profile of STOP proteins is observed in pathological samples. Other microtubular proteins, like tubulin or kinesin, are inconstantly present in spheroids, suggesting that a microtubule destabilizing process may be involved in the pathogenesis of ALS. These results indicate that the selective co-aggregation of neurofilament and STOP proteins represent a new cytopathological marker for spheroids.

    Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology 2003;62;12;1211-9

  • STOP proteins.

    Bosc C, Andrieux A and Job D

    Laboratoire du Cytosquelette, INSERM U366, DRDC/CS, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France. cbosc@cea.fr

    Microtubules assembled from purified tubulin in vitro are labile, rapidly disassembling when exposed to a variety of depolymerizing conditions such as cold temperature. In contrast, in many cell types, microtubules seem to be unaffected when the cell is exposed to the cold. This resistance of microtubules to the cold has been intriguing because the earliest and by far most studied microtubule-associated proteins such as MAP2 and tau are devoid of microtubule cold stabilizing activity. Over the past several years, it has been shown that resistance of microtubules to the cold is largely due to polymer association with a class of microtubule-associated proteins called STOPs. STOPs are calmodulin-binding and calmodulin-regulated proteins which, in mammals, are encoded by a single gene but exhibit substantial cell specific variability due to mRNA splicing and alternative promoter use. STOP microtubule stabilizing activity has been ascribed to two classes of new bifunctional calmodulin- and microtubule-binding motifs, with distinct microtubule binding properties in vivo. STOPs seem to be restricted to vertebrates and are composed of a conserved domain split by the apparent insertion of variable sequences that are completely unrelated among species. Recently, STOP suppression in mice has been found to induce synaptic defects associated with neuroleptic-sensitive behavioral disorders. Thus, STOPs are important for synaptic plasticity. Additionally, STOP-deficient mice may yield a pertinent model for the study of neuroleptics in illnesses such as schizophrenia, currently thought to result from defects in synapse function.

    Biochemistry 2003;42;42;12125-32

  • The suppression of brain cold-stable microtubules in mice induces synaptic defects associated with neuroleptic-sensitive behavioral disorders.

    Andrieux A, Salin PA, Vernet M, Kujala P, Baratier J, Gory-Fauré S, Bosc C, Pointu H, Proietto D, Schweitzer A, Denarier E, Klumperman J and Job D

    Laboratoire du Cytosquelette, INSERM U366, Département Réponse et Dynamique Cellulaire, CEA-Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble, France.

    Neurons contain abundant subsets of highly stable microtubules that resist depolymerizing conditions such as exposure to the cold. Stable microtubules are thought to be essential for neuronal development, maintenance, and function. Previous work has indicated an important role of the microtubule-associated protein STOP in the induction of microtubule cold stability. Here, we developed STOP null mice. These mice were devoid of cold-stable microtubules. In contrast to our expectations, STOP-/- mice had no detectable defects in brain anatomy but showed synaptic defects, with depleted synaptic vesicle pools and impaired synaptic plasticity, associated with severe behavioral disorders. A survey of the effects of psychotropic drugs on STOP-/- mice behavior showed a remarkable and specific effect of long-term administration of neuroleptics in alleviating these disorders. This study demonstrates that STOP is a major factor responsible for the intriguing stability properties of neuronal microtubules and is important for synaptic plasticity. Additionally, STOP-/- mice may yield a pertinent model for study of neuroleptics in illnesses such as schizophrenia, currently thought to result from synaptic defects.

    Genes & development 2002;16;18;2350-64

  • A diverse family of proteins containing tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor domains.

    Zapata JM, Pawlowski K, Haas E, Ware CF, Godzik A and Reed JC

    Burnham Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    We have identified three new tumor necrosis factor-receptor associated factor (TRAF) domain-containing proteins in humans using bioinformatics approaches, including: MUL, the product of the causative gene in Mulibrey Nanism syndrome; USP7 (HAUSP), an ubiquitin protease; and SPOP, a POZ domain-containing protein. Unlike classical TRAF family proteins involved in TNF family receptor (TNFR) signaling, the TRAF domains (TDs) of MUL, USP7, and SPOP are located near the NH(2) termini or central region of these proteins, rather than carboxyl end. MUL and USP7 are capable of binding in vitro via their TDs to all of the previously identified TRAF family proteins (TRAF1, TRAF2, TRAF3, TRAF4, TRAF5, and TRAF6), whereas the TD of SPOP interacts weakly with TRAF1 and TRAF6 only. The TD of MUL also interacted with itself, whereas the TDs of USP7 and SPOP did not self-associate. Analysis of various MUL and USP7 mutants by transient transfection assays indicated that the TDs of these proteins are necessary and sufficient for suppressing NF-kappaB induction by TRAF2 and TRAF6 as well as certain TRAF-binding TNF family receptors. In contrast, the TD of SPOP did not inhibit NF-kappaB induction. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy indicated that MUL localizes to cytosolic bodies, with targeting to these structures mediated by a RBCC tripartite domain within the MUL protein. USP7 localized predominantly to the nucleus, in a TD-dependent manner. Data base searches revealed multiple proteins containing TDs homologous to those found in MUL, USP7, and SPOP throughout eukaryotes, including yeast, protists, plants, invertebrates, and mammals, suggesting that this branch of the TD family arose from an ancient gene. We propose the moniker TEFs (TD-encompassing factors) for this large family of proteins.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-69381

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;26;24242-52

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XX. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.

    Nagase T, Nakayama M, Nakajima D, Kikuno R and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan. nagase@kazusa.or.jp

    To accumulate information on the coding sequences of unidentified genes, we have carried out a sequencing project of human cDNA clones which encode large proteins. We herein present the entire sequences of 100 cDNA clones of unidentified human genes, named KIAA1776 and KIAA1780-KIAA1878, from size-fractionated cDNA libraries derived from human fetal brain, adult whole brain, hippocampus and amygdala. Most of the cDNA clones to be entirely sequenced were selected as cDNAs which were shown to have coding potentiality by in vitro transcription/translation experiments, and some clones were chosen by using computer-assisted analysis of terminal sequences of cDNAs. Three of these clones (fibrillin2/KIAA1776, MEGF10/KIAA1780 and MEGF11/KIAA1781) were isolated as genes encoding proteins with multiple EGF-like domains by motif-trap screening. The average sizes of the inserts and corresponding open reading frames of eDNA clones analyzed here reached 4.7 kb and 2.4 kb (785 amino acid residues), respectively. From the results of homology and motif searches against the public databases, the functional categories of the predicted gene products of 54 genes were determined; 93% of these predicted gene products (50 gene products) were classified as proteins related to cell signaling/communication, nucleic acid management, or cell structure/motility. To collect additional information on these genes, their expression profiles were also studied in 10 human tissues, 8 brain regions, spinal cord, fetal brain and fetal liver by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction, products of which were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2001;8;2;85-95

  • Assignment of the STOP gene (MAP6) to human chromosome bands 6p12-->p11 by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Jolly C, Denarier E, Mongelard F, Robert-Nicoud M, Vourc'h C, Bosc C and Job D

    DyOGen, INSERM U309, Institut Albert Bonniot, Domaine de la Merci, La Tronche, France.

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1999;86;1;25

  • Genomic structure and chromosomal mapping of the mouse STOP gene (Mtap6).

    Denarier E, Aguezzoul M, Jolly C, Vourc'h C, Roure A, Andrieux A, Bosc C and Job D

    CEA Laboratoire du Cytosquelette, INSERM Unité 366, Département de Biologie Moléculaire et Structurale, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique de Grenoble, France.

    The microtubule associated protein STOP (Stable Tubule Only Polypeptide) is a calmodulin-regulated protein able to induce a high degree of microtubule stability. STOP is abundant in neurons which contain large subpopulations of stable microtubules. Genomic clones spanning 67 kb and encompassing the mouse STOP gene (Mtap6) have been isolated and characterized. These clones derive from a single gene mapping to the E2-F1 region of mouse chromosome 7. The gene is composed of 4 exons that exhibit conventional vertebrate splicing sequences. Transcription of the gene initiate at multiple sites in a 85 nucleotide region located 530 bases upstream the translation initiation codon. Accordingly, the 5' flanking region of the gene lacks a TATA box or an initiator element at usual position. The protein encoded by the mouse STOP gene (Mtap6) is composed of 906 amino acids and presents a 91% identities with the rat brain STOP.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1998;243;3;791-6

  • Cloning, expression, and properties of the microtubule-stabilizing protein STOP.

    Bosc C, Cronk JD, Pirollet F, Watterson DM, Haiech J, Job D and Margolis RL

    Laboratoire du Cytosquelette, Institut Nationale de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Grenoble, France.

    Nerve cells contain abundant subpopulations of cold-stable microtubules. We have previously isolated a calmodulin-regulated brain protein, STOP (stable tubule-only polypeptide), which reconstitutes microtubule cold stability when added to cold-labile microtubules in vitro. We have now cloned cDNA encoding STOP. We find that STOP is a 100.5-kDa protein with no homology to known proteins. The primary structure of STOP includes two distinct domains of repeated motifs. The central region of STOP contains 5 tandem repeats of 46 amino acids, 4 with 98% homology to the consensus sequence. The STOP C terminus contains 28 imperfect repeats of an 11-amino acid motif. STOP also contains a putative SH3-binding motif close to its N terminus. In vitro translated STOP binds to both microtubules and Ca2+-calmodulin. When STOP cDNA is expressed in cells that lack cold-stable microtubules, STOP associates with microtubules at 37 degrees C, and stabilizes microtubule networks, inducing cold stability, nocodazole resistance, and tubulin detyrosination on microtubules in transfected cells. We conclude that STOP must play an important role in the generation of microtubule cold stability and in the control of microtubule dynamics in brain.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM28189, GM32022

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1996;93;5;2125-30

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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