G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00000550
Gene symbol
Mtap6 (MGI)
Species
Mus musculus
Description
microtubule-associated protein 6
Orthologue
G00001799 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (9)

Gene
ENSMUSG00000055407 (Ensembl mouse gene)
17760 (Entrez Gene)
328 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
NM_010837 (Allen Brain Atlas)
g02718 (BGEM)
17760 (Genepaint)
Literature
601783 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:1201690 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
O55129 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • F-STOP
  • STOP

Alleles (2)

Literature (31)

Pubmed - other

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • Abnormal nociception and opiate sensitivity of STOP null mice exhibiting elevated levels of the endogenous alkaloid morphine.

    Charlet A, Muller AH, Laux A, Kemmel V, Schweitzer A, Deloulme JC, Stuber D, Delalande F, Bianchi E, Van Dorsselaer A, Aunis D, Andrieux A, Poisbeau P and Goumon Y

    Institut des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Intégratives, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, F-67084, France.

    Background: Mice deficient for the stable tubule only peptide (STOP) display altered dopaminergic neurotransmission associated with severe behavioural defects including disorganized locomotor activity. Endogenous morphine, which is present in nervous tissues and synthesized from dopamine, may contribute to these behavioral alterations since it is thought to play a role in normal and pathological neurotransmission.

    Results: In this study, we showed that STOP null brain structures, including cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and spinal cord, contain high endogenous morphine amounts. The presence of elevated levels of morphine was associated with the presence of a higher density of mu opioid receptor with a higher affinity for morphine in STOP null brains. Interestingly, STOP null mice exhibited significantly lower nociceptive thresholds to thermal and mechanical stimulations. They also had abnormal behavioural responses to the administration of exogenous morphine and naloxone. Low dose of morphine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a significant mechanical antinociception in STOP null mice whereas it has no effect on wild-type mice. High concentration of naloxone (1 mg/kg) was pronociceptive for both mice strain, a lower concentration (0.1 mg/kg) was found to increase the mean mechanical nociceptive threshold only in the case of STOP null mice.

    Conclusions: Together, our data show that STOP null mice displayed elevated levels of endogenous morphine, as well as an increase of morphine receptor affinity and density in brain. This was correlated with hypernociception and impaired pharmacological sensitivity to mu opioid receptor ligands.

    Molecular pain 2010;6;96

  • The deletion of the microtubule-associated STOP protein affects the serotonergic mouse brain network.

    Fournet V, Jany M, Fabre V, Chali F, Orsal D, Schweitzer A, Andrieux A, Messanvi F, Giros B, Hamon M, Lanfumey L, Deloulme JC and Martres MP

    INSERM UMRS 952, CNRS UMR 7224, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.

    The deletion of microtubule-associated protein stable tubule only polypeptide (STOP) leads to neuroanatomical, biochemical and severe behavioral alterations in mice, partly alleviated by antipsychotics. Therefore, STOP knockout (KO) mice have been proposed as a model of some schizophrenia-like symptoms. Preliminary data showed decreased brain serotonin (5-HT) tissue levels in STOP KO mice. As literature data demonstrate various interactions between microtubule-associated proteins and 5-HT, we characterized some features of the serotonergic neurotransmission in STOP KO mice. In the brainstem, mutant mice displayed higher tissue 5-HT levels and in vivo synthesis rate, together with marked increases in 5-HT transporter densities and 5-HT1A autoreceptor levels and electrophysiological sensitivity, without modification of the serotonergic soma number. Conversely, in projection areas, STOP KO mice exhibited lower 5-HT levels and in vivo synthesis rate, associated with severe decreases in 5-HT transporter densities, possibly related to reduced serotonergic terminals. Mutant mice also displayed a deficit of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, probably related to both STOP deletion and 5-HT depletion. Finally, STOP KO mice exhibited a reduced anxiety- and, probably, an increased helpness-status, that could be because of the strong imbalance of the serotonin neurotransmission between somas and terminals. Altogether, these data suggested that STOP deletion elicited peculiar 5-HT disconnectivity.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2010;115;6;1579-94

  • Loss of STOP protein impairs peripheral olfactory neurogenesis.

    Benardais K, Kasem B, Couegnas A, Samama B, Fernandez S, Schaeffer C, Antal MC, Job D, Schweitzer A, Andrieux A, Giersch A, Nehlig A and Boehm N

    INSERM U666, Strasbourg, France.

    Background: STOP (Stable Tubulin-Only Polypeptide) null mice show behavioral deficits, impaired synaptic plasticity, decrease in synaptic vesicular pools and disturbances in dopaminergic transmission, and are considered a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Olfactory neurons highly express STOP protein and are continually generated throughout life. Experimentally-induced loss of olfactory neurons leads to epithelial regeneration within two months, providing a useful model to evaluate the role played by STOP protein in adult olfactory neurogenesis.

    Immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy were used to study the structure of the glomerulus in the main olfactory bulb and neurogenesis in the neurosensorial epithelia. In STOP null mice, olfactory neurons showed presynaptic swellings with tubulovesicular profiles and autophagic-like structures. In olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia, there was an increase in neurons turnover, as shown by the increase in number of proliferating, apoptotic and immature cells with no changes in the number of mature neurons. Similar alterations in peripheral olfactory neurogenesis have been previously described in schizophrenia patients. In STOP null mice, regeneration of the olfactory epithelium did not modify these anomalies; moreover, regeneration resulted in abnormal organisation of olfactory terminals within the olfactory glomeruli in STOP null mice.

    In conclusion, STOP protein seems to be involved in the establishment of synapses in the olfactory glomerulus. Our results indicate that the olfactory system of STOP null mice is a well-suited experimental model (1) for the study of the mechanism of action of STOP protein in synaptic function/plasticity and (2) for pathophysiological studies of the mechanisms of altered neuronal connections in schizophrenia.

    PloS one 2010;5;9;e12753

  • Nitric oxide synthase mediates the ability of darbepoetin alpha to improve the cognitive performance of STOP null mice.

    Kajitani K, Thorne M, Samson M and Robertson GS

    Department of Psychiatry, Sir Charles Tupper Medical Building, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    STOP (stable tubule only polypeptide) null mice display neurochemical and behavioral abnormalities that resemble several well-recognized features of schizophrenia. Recent evidence suggests that the hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin improves the cognitive performance of schizophrenics. The mechanism, however, by which erythropoietin is able to improve the cognition of schizophrenics is unclear. To address this question, we first determined whether acute administration of the erythropoietin analog known as darbepoetin alpha (D. alpha) improved performance deficits of STOP null mice in the novel objective recognition task (NORT). NORT performance of STOP null mice, but not wild-type littermates, was enhanced 3 h after a single injection of D. alpha (25 microg/kg, i.p.). Improved NORT performance was accompanied by elevated NADPH diaphorase staining in the ventral hippocampus as well as medial and cortical aspects of the amygdala, indicative of increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in these structures. NOS generates the intracellular messenger nitric oxide (NO) implicated in learning and memory. In keeping with this hypothesis, D. alpha significantly increased NO metabolite levels (nitrate and nitrite, NOx) in the hippocampus of both wild-type and STOP null mice. The NOS inhibitor, N (G)-nitro-L- arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 25 mg/kg, i.p.), completely reversed the increase in hippocampal NOx levels produced by D. alpha. Moreover, L-NAME also inhibited the ability of D. alpha to improve the NORT performance of STOP null mice. Taken together, these observations suggest D. alpha enhances the NORT performance of STOP null mice by increasing production of NO.

    Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 2010;35;8;1718-28

  • Study of possible interactions of tubulin, microtubular network, and STOP protein with mitochondria in muscle cells.

    Guerrero K, Monge C, Brückner A, Puurand U, Kadaja L, Käämbre T, Seppet E and Saks V

    Laboratory of Fundamental and Applied Bioenergetics, INSERM E221, Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble, France.

    We studied possible connections of tubulin, microtubular system, and microtubular network stabilizing STOP protein with mitochondria in rat and mouse cardiac and skeletal muscles by confocal microscopy and oxygraphy. Intracellular localization and content of tubulin was found to be muscle type-specific, with high amounts in oxidative muscles, and much lower in glycolytic skeletal muscle. STOP protein localization and content in muscle cells was also muscle type-specific. In isolated heart mitochondria, addition of 1 microM tubulin heterodimer increased apparent K(m) for ADP significantly. Dissociation of microtubular system into free tubulin by colchicine treatment only slightly decreased initially high apparent K(m) for ADP in permeabilized cells, and diffusely distributed free tubulin stayed inside the cells, obviously connected to the intracellular structures. To identify the genes that are specific for oxidative muscle, we developed and applied a method of kindred DNA. The results of sequencing and bioinformatic analysis of isolated cDNA pool common for heart and m. soleus showed that in adult mice the beta-tubulin gene is expressed predominantly in oxidative muscle cells. It is concluded that whereas dimeric tubulin may play a significant role in regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeability in the cells in vivo, its organization into microtubular network has a minor significance on that process.

    Molecular and cellular biochemistry 2010;337;1-2;239-49

  • The stop null mice model for schizophrenia displays [corrected] cognitive and social deficits partly alleviated by neuroleptics.

    Bégou M, Volle J, Bertrand JB, Brun P, Job D, Schweitzer A, Saoud M, D'Amato T, Andrieux A and Suaud-Chagny MF

    Institut Fédératif des Neurosciences de Lyon, 69677 Bron cedex, France.

    Recently evidence has accumulated that schizophrenia can arise from primary synaptic defects involving structural proteins particularly, microtubule associated proteins. Previous experiments have demonstrated that a STOP (stable tubule only peptide) gene deletion in mice leads to a phenotype mimicking some aspects of positive symptoms classically observed in schizophrenic patients. In the current study, we determined if STOP null mice demonstrate behavioral abnormalities related to the social and cognitive impairments of schizophrenia. Compared with wild-type mice, STOP null mice exhibited deficits in the non-aggressive component of social recognition, short term working memory and social and spatial learning. As described in humans, learning deficits in STOP null mice were poorly sensitive to long term treatment with typical neuroleptics. Since social and cognitive dysfunction have consistently been considered as central features of schizophrenia, we propose that STOP null mice may provide a useful model to understand the neurobiological correlates of social and cognitive defects in schizophrenia and to develop treatments that better target these symptoms.

    Neuroscience 2008;157;1;29-39

  • Proteomics analysis identifies phosphorylation-dependent alpha-synuclein protein interactions.

    McFarland MA, Ellis CE, Markey SP and Nussbaum RL

    National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20891, USA.

    Mutations and copy number variation in the SNCA gene encoding the neuronal protein alpha-synuclein have been linked to familial Parkinson disease (Thomas, B., and Beal, M. F. (2007) Parkinson's disease. Hum. Mol. Genet. 16, R183-R194). The carboxyl terminus of alpha-synuclein can be phosphorylated at tyrosine 125 and serine 129, although only a small fraction of the protein is phosphorylated under normal conditions (Okochi, M., Walter, J., Koyama, A., Nakajo, S., Baba, M., Iwatsubo, T., Meijer, L., Kahle, P. J., and Haass, C. (2000) Constitutive phosphorylation of the Parkinson's disease associated alpha-synuclein. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 390-397). Under pathological conditions, such as in Parkinson disease, alpha-synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of Parkinson disease, and is mostly phosphorylated at Ser-129 (Anderson, J. P., Walker, D. E., Goldstein, J. M., de Laat, R., Banducci, K., Caccavello, R. J., Barbour, R., Huang, J. P., Kling, K., Lee, M., Diep, L., Keim, P. S., Shen, X. F., Chataway, T., Schlossmacher, M. G., Seubert, P., Schenk, D., Sinha, S., Gai, W. P., and Chilcote, T. J. (2006) Phosphorylation of Ser-129 is the dominant pathological modification of alpha-synuclein in familial and sporadic Lewy body disease. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 29739-29752). Controversy exists over the extent to which phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein and/or the visible protein aggregation in Lewy bodies are steps in disease pathogenesis, are protective, or are neutral markers for the disease process. Here we used the combination of peptide pulldown assays and mass spectrometry to identify and compare protein-protein interactions of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated alpha-synuclein. We showed that non-phosphorylated alpha-synuclein carboxyl terminus pulled down protein complexes that were highly enriched for mitochondrial electron transport proteins, whereas alpha-synuclein carboxyl terminus phosphorylated on either Ser-129 or Tyr-125 did not. Instead the set of proteins pulled down by phosphorylated alpha-synuclein was highly enriched in certain cytoskeletal proteins, in vesicular trafficking proteins, and in a small number of enzymes involved in protein serine phosphorylation. This targeted comparative proteomics approach for unbiased identification of protein-protein interactions suggests that there are functional consequences when alpha-synuclein is phosphorylated.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; NIMH NIH HHS: Z01 MH000279

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;11;2123-37

  • Deletion of the STOP gene, a microtubule stabilizing factor, leads only to discrete cerebral metabolic changes in mice.

    Hanaya R, Koning E, Ferrandon A, Schweitzer A, Andrieux A and Nehlig A

    INSERM U 666, Strasbourg, France.

    In mice, deletion of the STOP protein leads to subtle anatomic changes and induces depleted synaptic vesicle pools, impaired synaptic plasticity, hyperdopaminergy, and major behavioral disorders alleviated by neuroleptics, hence leading to a schizophrenic-like phenotype. In this study, we applied the quantitative autoradiographic [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose technique to study to what extent the basal rate of cerebral glucose utilization in STOP-knockout (STOP-KO) mice occurs in regions where metabolic changes have been reported in schizophrenic patients. Studies were performed on wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous STOP-KO mice (7-8 per group). Mice were implanted with femoral artery and vein catheters, and cerebral glucose utilization was quantified over 45 min. Compared with that in wild-type mice, glucose utilization in STOP-KO mice was significantly increased in the olfactory cortex, ventromedial and anterolateral hypothalamus, ventral tegmental area, and substantia nigra pars compacta. Nonsignificant increases, ranging between 9% and 19%, were recorded in the whole auditory system, CA1 pyramidal cell layer, and dorsal raphe. Glucose utilization was also significantly increased in heterozygous mice compared with that in wild-type mice in olfactory cortex. These data might reflect hyperdopaminergic activity, olfactory deficits, and sleep disturbances in STOP-KO mice that have also been reported in schizophrenic patients.

    Journal of neuroscience research 2008;86;4;813-20

  • Microtubule-associated STOP protein deletion triggers restricted changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission.

    Bouvrais-Veret C, Weiss S, Hanoun N, Andrieux A, Schweitzer A, Job D, Hamon M, Giros B and Martres MP

    Inserm, U513, Créteil, France, and Univ Paris 12, Faculté de Médecine Henri Mondor, Créteil, France.

    The microtubule-associated stable tubule only polypeptide (STOP) protein plays a key-role in neuron architecture and synaptic plasticity. Recent studies suggest that schizophrenia is associated with alterations in the synaptic connectivity. Mice invalidated for the STOP gene display phenotype reminiscent of some schizophrenic-like symptoms, such as behavioral disturbances, dopamine (DA) hyper-reactivity, and possible hypoglutamatergia, partly improved by antipsychotic treatment. In the present work, we examined potential alterations in some DAergic key proteins and behaviors in STOP knockout mice. Whereas the densities of the DA transporter, the vesicular monoamine transporter and the D(1) receptor were not modified, the densities of the D(2) and D(3) receptors were decreased in some DAergic regions in mutant versus wild-type mice. Endogenous DA levels were selectively decreased in DAergic terminals areas, although the in vivo DA synthesis was diminished both in cell bodies and terminal areas. The DA uptake was decreased in accumbic synaptosomes, but not significantly altered in striatal synaptosomes. Finally, STOP knockout mice were hypersensitive to acute and subchronic locomotor effects of cocaine, although the drug equally inhibited DA uptake in mutant and wild-type mice. Altogether, these data showed that deletion of the ubiquitous STOP protein elicited restricted alterations in DAergic neurotransmission, preferentially in the meso-limbic pathway.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2008;104;3;745-56

  • Cognitive impairments in the STOP null mouse model of schizophrenia.

    Powell KJ, Hori SE, Leslie R, Andrieux A, Schellinck H, Thorne M and Robertson GS

    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.

    Cognitive dysfunction is a primary and persisting core deficit of schizophrenia that is marginally improved by antipsychotic treatment. Adult mice that lack the stable tubule-only polypeptide (STOP) have neurochemical and behavioral abnormalities that model some features of schizophrenia. Recognition and long-term memory in the STOP null mouse were tested with the novel object recognition task and an olfactory discrimination task, respectively. Researchers examined the brains from STOP null mice to determine whether differences in task performance were associated with alterations in brain morphology. STOP null mice displayed deficits in both recognition and long-term memory. These behavioral deficits were accompanied by a massive enlargement of the cerebral ventricular system as well as by reductions in volume of cortical and diencephalic structures. In addition to deficits in recognition and long-term memory, STOP null mice displayed exaggerated neuroanatomical deficits somewhat reminiscent of those observed among individuals with schizophrenia.

    Behavioral neuroscience 2007;121;5;826-35

  • Post-pubertal emergence of alterations in locomotor activity in stop null mice.

    Bégou M, Brun P, Bertrand JB, Job D, Schweitzer A, D'Amato T, Saoud M, Andrieux A and Suaud-Chagny MF

    Institut Fédératif des Neurosciences de Lyon, Bron, France. melina.begou@u-clermont1.fr

    Overt schizophrenia is preceded by a prodromal phase during which juvenile patients display attenuated schizophrenia-related symptoms. Here, we have looked for evidence of a prodromal phase in juvenile STOP null mice, which, during adulthood, imitate features of schizophrenia. We have principally examined locomotor activity, which is abnormal in adult STOP null mice, and its apparent relationship with perturbed glutamatergic and dopaminergic transmission. When compared to corresponding wild-type mice, juvenile STOP null mice did not exhibit the basal hyperlocomotion or locomotor hypersensitivity to mild stress observed in adult mice. Juvenile STOP null mice also lacked disturbed locomotor sensitivity to MK-801, which was evident in adult mice. In contrast, juvenile STOP null mice exhibited a similar hypersensitivity to amphetamine as that found in adult mice. Thus, STOP null mice exhibited both a progression of locomotor activity defects over time and subtle alterations in the prepubertal period. We suggest that the pattern of locomotor disturbances observed in this study is related to altered dopaminergic reactivity in juvenile mice without major disturbance in glutamatergic transmission, whereas both neurotransmitter systems are impaired in adult mice.

    Synapse (New York, N.Y.) 2007;61;9;689-97

  • Altered expression of synaptic protein mRNAs in STOP (MAP6) mutant mice.

    Eastwood SL, Lyon L, George L, Andrieux A, Job D and Harrison PJ

    University of Oxford, Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK. sharon.eastwood@psych.ox.ac.uk

    Stable tubule-only polypeptide (STOP) proteins are a family of microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) important in microtubule stabilization. Data indicating a role for microtubules in synaptic function has come from studies of the STOP null mouse, which exhibits synaptic deficits, in association with behavioural changes that are alleviated by antipsychotic treatment. These findings suggested that STOP mutant mice may be useful in studies of synaptic function, and could be especially relevant to schizophrenia, postulated to be a disorder of the synapse. Moreover, a genetic association between STOP and schizophrenia has been reported. This study aimed to further characterize synaptic alterations in STOP null and heterozygous mice. Using in situ hybridization histochemistry, the mRNA expression of three pre-synaptic (synaptophysin; growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43); vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (VGlut1)) and two post-synaptic (spinophilin; MAP2) proteins, was quantified in female STOP null (n = 7), heterozygous (n = 5) and wild type (n = 6) mice. For STOP null and heterozygous mice, synaptophysin, VGlut1, GAP-43 and spinophilin mRNAs were decreased in the hippocampus, whilst in addition in the null mice, synaptophysin, VGlut1 and spinophilin mRNAs were decreased in the cerebellum. Alterations in synaptic protein mRNA expression were also detected in the frontal and occipital cortex. MAP2 mRNA expression was unchanged in all brain regions. The profile of mRNA changes is broadly similar to that observed in schizophrenia. Together the data provide supporting evidence for a role for microtubules in synaptic function, and suggest that STOP, or other microtubule proteins, may contribute to the synaptic pathology of schizophrenia.

    Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England) 2007;21;6;635-44

  • Sustained increase of alpha7 nicotinic receptors and choline-induced improvement of learning deficit in STOP knock-out mice.

    Bouvrais-Veret C, Weiss S, Andrieux A, Schweitzer A, McIntosh JM, Job D, Giros B and Martres MP

    Inserm, U513, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie et Psychiatrie, Créteil, F-94000 France.

    Mice deficient in the microtubule stabilizing protein STOP (stable tubule only polypeptide) show synaptic plasticity anomalies in hippocampus, dopamine hyper-reactivity in the limbic system and severe behavioral deficits. Some of these disturbances are alleviated by long-term antipsychotic treatment. Therefore, this mouse line represents a pertinent model for some aspects of schizophrenia symptomatology. Numerous data support dysfunction of nicotinic neurotransmission in schizophrenia and epidemiological studies show increased tobacco use in schizophrenic patients, in whom nicotine has been reported to improve cognitive deficits and impairment in sensory gating. In this study, we examined potential alterations in cholinergic (ACh) and nicotinic components and functions in STOP mutant mice. STOP KO mice displayed no variation of the density of ACh esterase and beta2* nicotinic receptors (nAChRs), large reductions in the density of vesicular ACh transporter and alpha6* nAChRs and marked increases in the density of alpha7 nAChRs, in some brain areas. STOP KO mice were hypersensitive to the stimulating locomotor effect of nicotine and, interestingly, their impaired performance in learning the cued version of the water maze were improved by administration of the preferential alpha7 nAChR agonist choline. Altogether, our data show that the deletion of the ubiquitous STOP protein elicited restricted alterations in ACh components. They also suggest that nicotinic neurotransmission can be deficient in STOP KO mice and that mutant mice can represent a meaningful model to study some nicotinic dysfunctions and therapeutic treatments.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA12242; NIMH NIH HHS: MH 53631, R01 MH053631, R01 MH053631-11S1, R01 MH053631-12

    Neuropharmacology 2007;52;8;1691-700

  • Expression pattern of STOP lacZ reporter gene in adult and developing mouse brain.

    Couégnas A, Schweitzer A, Andrieux A, Ghandour MS and Boehm N

    INSERM U666 and Institut d'Histologie, Faculté de Médecine, Strasbourg, France.

    Stable tubulin-only polypeptide (STOP) proteins are microtubule-associated proteins responsible for microtubule stabilization in neurons. STOP null mice show apparently normal cerebral anatomy but display synaptic defects associated with neuroleptic-sensitive behavioral disorders. STOP null mice have therefore been proposed as an animal model for the study of schizophrenia. In the present study, the expression pattern of STOP gene in developing and adult brain has been examined by using lacZ gene inserted in the STOP locus, as a reporter gene. beta-Galactosidase (beta-gal) immunostaining was confined to neuronal cells and projections. Strong labeling was observed in the whole olfactory system, cortical layer VII, hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, habenula, fasciculus retroflexus, and interpeduncular nucleus in adults. Additionally, ventral thalamic nucleus, clusters of positive cells in striatum, and Cajal-Retzius cells of cortical layer I were labeled in young mice. The strong expression of STOP lacZ reporter gene observed in brain is confined to areas that may be involved in the schizophrenia-related symptoms observed in STOP-deficient mice.

    Journal of neuroscience research 2007;85;7;1515-27

  • STOP-like protein 21 is a novel member of the STOP family, revealing a Golgi localization of STOP proteins.

    Gory-Fauré S, Windscheid V, Bosc C, Peris L, Proietto D, Franck R, Denarier E, Job D and Andrieux A

    INSERM U366, Département Recherche et Dynamique Cellulaire/Cytosquelette, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, cedex 9, France.

    Neuronal microtubules are stabilized by two calmodulin-regulated microtubule-associated proteins, E-STOP and N-STOP, which when suppressed in mice induce severe synaptic and behavioral deficits. Here we show that mature neurons also contain a 21-kDa STOP-like protein, SL21, which shares calmodulin-binding and microtubule-stabilizing homology domains with STOP proteins. Accordingly, in different biochemical or cellular assays, SL21 has calmodulin binding and microtubule stabilizing activity. However, in cultured hippocampal neurons, SL21 antibodies principally stain the somatic Golgi and punctate Golgi material in neurites. In cycling cells, transfected SL21 decorates microtubules when expressed at high levels but is otherwise principally visible at the Golgi. The Golgi targeting of SL21 depends on the presence of cysteine residues located within the SL21 N-terminal domain, suggesting that Golgi targeting may require SL21 palmitoylation. Accordingly we find that SL21 is palmitoylated in vivo. N-STOP and E-STOP, which contain the Golgi targeting sequences present in SL21, also display distinct Golgi staining when expressed at low level in cycling cells. Thus neuronal proteins of the STOP family have the capacity to associate with Golgi material, which could be important for STOP synaptic functions.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;38;28387-96

  • Myelin basic protein functions as a microtubule stabilizing protein in differentiated oligodendrocytes.

    Galiano MR, Andrieux A, Deloulme JC, Bosc C, Schweitzer A, Job D and Hallak ME

    CIQUIBIC-Dpto. Química Biológica, Facultad Ciencias Químicas, Haya de la Torre S/N, Córdoba, Argentina.

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) is an oligodendrocyte-specific protein essential for oligodendrocyte morphogenesis at late stages of cell differentiation. There is evidence that the morphogenetic function of MBP is mediated by MBP interaction with the cytoskeleton. Thus, an MBP/cytoplasmic microtubule association has been reported, and MBP has Ca(2+)/calmodulin-regulated microtubule cold-stabilizing activity in vitro. However, the unambiguous demonstration of a microtubule-stabilizing activity for MBP in cells has been difficult because oligodendrocytes contain variants of STOP (stable tubule only polypeptide) proteins, which are responsible for microtubule cold stability in different cell types. Herein, we have used genetic mouse models and RNA interference to assay independently the microtubule cold-stabilizing activities of MBP and of STOP in developing oligodendrocytes. In wild-type oligodendrocytes, microtubules were cold stable throughout maturation, which is consistent with the presence of STOP proteins from early stages of differentiation. In contrast, in oligodendrocytes from STOP-deficient mice, microtubules were cold labile in the absence of MBP expression or when MBP expression was restricted to the cell body and became stable in fully differentiated oligodendrocytes, where MBP is expressed in cell extensions. The suppression of MBP by RNA interference in STOP-deficient oligodendrocytes suppressed microtubule cold stability. Additionally, STOP suppression in oligodendrocytes derived from shiverer mice that lack MBP led to the complete suppression of microtubule cold stability at all stages of cell differentiation. These results demonstrate that both STOP and MBP function as microtubule-stabilizing proteins in differentiating oligodendrocytes and could be important for the morphogenetic function of MBP.

    Journal of neuroscience research 2006;84;3;534-41

  • Phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein STOP by calmodulin kinase II.

    Baratier J, Peris L, Brocard J, Gory-Fauré S, Dufour F, Bosc C, Fourest-Lieuvin A, Blanchoin L, Salin P, Job D and Andrieux A

    Laboratoire du Cytosquelette, INSERM U366, DRDC/CS, CEA-Grenoble, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9, France.

    STOP proteins are microtubule-associated, calmodulin-regulated proteins responsible for the high degree of stabilization displayed by neuronal microtubules. STOP suppression in mice induces synaptic defects affecting both short and long term synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons. Interestingly, STOP has been identified as a component of synaptic structures in neurons, despite the absence of microtubules in nerve terminals, indicating the existence of mechanisms able to induce a translocation of STOP from microtubules to synaptic compartments. Here we have tested STOP phosphorylation as a candidate mechanism for STOP relocalization. We show that, both in vitro and in vivo, STOP is phosphorylated by the multifunctional enzyme calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), which is a key enzyme for synaptic plasticity. This phosphorylation occurs on at least two independent sites. Phosphorylated forms of STOP do not bind microtubules in vitro and do not co-localize with microtubules in cultured differentiating neurons. Instead, phosphorylated STOP co-localizes with actin assemblies along neurites or at branching points. Correlatively, we find that STOP binds to actin in vitro. Finally, in differentiated neurons, phosphorylated STOP co-localizes with clusters of synaptic proteins, whereas unphosphorylated STOP does not. Thus, STOP phosphorylation by CaMKII may promote STOP translocation from microtubules to synaptic compartments where it may interact with actin, which could be important for STOP function in synaptic plasticity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;28;19561-9

  • BGEM: an in situ hybridization database of gene expression in the embryonic and adult mouse nervous system.

    Magdaleno S, Jensen P, Brumwell CL, Seal A, Lehman K, Asbury A, Cheung T, Cornelius T, Batten DM, Eden C, Norland SM, Rice DS, Dosooye N, Shakya S, Mehta P and Curran T

    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: 5R37NS036558, N01-NS-0-2331, R37 NS036558

    PLoS biology 2006;4;4;e86

  • STOP knockout and NMDA NR1 hypomorphic mice exhibit deficits in sensorimotor gating.

    Fradley RL, O'Meara GF, Newman RJ, Andrieux A, Job D and Reynolds DS

    Merck, Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories, Neuroscience Research Centre, Terlings Park, Harlow, Essex, UK. rosa_fradley@merck.com

    Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating disease which is thought to arise from a neuro-developmental disorder. Both the stable tubule-only polypeptide (STOP) protein and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) NR1 subunit are involved in neuronal development and physiology. It has therefore been postulated that transgenic mice lacking either the STOP or the NMDAR1 gene would show a 'schizophrenic-like' phenotype. Here, STOP knockout and NMDA NR1 hypomorphic mice were assessed in a behavioural measure that can be used to detect schizophrenic-like phenotypes: a change in sensorimotor gating, measured through prepulse inhibition (PPI). STOP knockout mice were further assessed in another measure of 'schizophrenic-like behaviour': hyperlocomotion. The PPI deficit exhibited by both the STOP knockout and NMDA knockdown mice could not be reversed by acute treatment with the atyptical antipsychotic, clozapine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) but the hyperlocomotion shown by the STOP knockout mice was reversed with the same acute dose of clozapine.

    Behavioural brain research 2005;163;2;257-64

  • Dopaminergic transmission in STOP null mice.

    Brun P, Bégou M, Andrieux A, Mouly-Badina L, Clerget M, Schweitzer A, Scarna H, Renaud B, Job D and Suaud-Chagny MF

    Institut Fédératif des Neurosciences de Lyon; UCBL, Faculté de Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Neuropharmacologie et Neurochimie, Lyon, France. pbrun@sante.univ-lyon1.fr

    Neuroleptics are thought to exert their anti-psychotic effects by counteracting a hyper-dopaminergic transmission. Here, we have examined the dopaminergic status of STOP (stable tubule only polypeptide) null mice, which lack a microtubule-stabilizing protein and which display neuroleptic-sensitive behavioural disorders. Dopamine transmission was investigated using both behavioural analysis and measurements of dopamine efflux in different conditions. Compared to wild-type mice in basal conditions or following mild stress, STOP null mice showed a hyper-locomotor activity, which was erased by neuroleptic treatment, and an increased locomotor reactivity to amphetamine. Such a behavioural profile is indicative of an increased dopaminergic transmission. In STOP null mice, the basal dopamine concentrations, measured by quantitative microdialysis, were normal in both the nucleus accumbens and the striatum. When measured by electrochemical techniques, the dopamine efflux evoked by electrical stimulations mimicking physiological stimuli was dramatically increased in the nucleus accumbens of STOP null mice, apparently due to an increased dopamine release, whereas dopaminergic uptake and auto-inhibition mechanisms were normal. In contrast, dopamine effluxes were slightly diminished in the striatum. Together with previous results, the present study indicates the association in STOP null mice of hippocampal hypo-glutamatergy and of limbic hyper-dopaminergy. Such neurotransmission defects are thought to be central to mental diseases such as schizophrenia.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2005;94;1;63-73

  • Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes express different STOP protein isoforms.

    Galiano MR, Bosc C, Schweitzer A, Andrieux A, Job D and Hallak ME

    Department Química Biológica, Facultad Ciencias Químicas, Haya de la Torre S/N, 5000 Córdoba, Argentina.

    Many cell types contain subpopulations of microtubules that resist depolymerizing conditions, such as exposure to cold or to the drug nocodazole. This stabilization is due mainly to polymer association with STOP proteins. In mouse, neurons express two major variants of these proteins, N-STOP and E-STOP (120 kDa and 79 kDa, respectively), whereas fibroblasts express F-STOP (42 kDa) and two minor variants of 48 and 89 kDa. N- and E-STOP induce microtubule resistance to both cold and nocodazole exposure, whereas F-STOP confers microtubule stability only to the cold. Here, we investigated the expression of STOP proteins in oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in culture. We found that STOP proteins were expressed in precursor cells, in immature and mature oligodendrocytes, and in astrocytes. We found that oligodendrocytes express a major STOP variant of 89 kDa, which we called O-STOP, and two minor variants of 42 and 48 kDa. The STOP variants expressed by oligodendrocytes induce microtubule resistance to the cold and to nocodazole. For astrocytes, we found the expression of two STOP variants of 42 and 48 kDa and a new STOP isoform of 60 kDa, which we called A-STOP. The STOP variants expressed by astrocytes induce microtubule resistance to the cold but not to nocodazole, as fibroblast variants. In conclusion, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes express different isoforms of STOP protein, which show different microtubule-stabilizing capacities.

    Journal of neuroscience research 2004;78;3;329-37

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • STOP proteins.

    Bosc C, Andrieux A and Job D

    Laboratoire du Cytosquelette, INSERM U366, DRDC/CS, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France. cbosc@cea.fr

    Microtubules assembled from purified tubulin in vitro are labile, rapidly disassembling when exposed to a variety of depolymerizing conditions such as cold temperature. In contrast, in many cell types, microtubules seem to be unaffected when the cell is exposed to the cold. This resistance of microtubules to the cold has been intriguing because the earliest and by far most studied microtubule-associated proteins such as MAP2 and tau are devoid of microtubule cold stabilizing activity. Over the past several years, it has been shown that resistance of microtubules to the cold is largely due to polymer association with a class of microtubule-associated proteins called STOPs. STOPs are calmodulin-binding and calmodulin-regulated proteins which, in mammals, are encoded by a single gene but exhibit substantial cell specific variability due to mRNA splicing and alternative promoter use. STOP microtubule stabilizing activity has been ascribed to two classes of new bifunctional calmodulin- and microtubule-binding motifs, with distinct microtubule binding properties in vivo. STOPs seem to be restricted to vertebrates and are composed of a conserved domain split by the apparent insertion of variable sequences that are completely unrelated among species. Recently, STOP suppression in mice has been found to induce synaptic defects associated with neuroleptic-sensitive behavioral disorders. Thus, STOPs are important for synaptic plasticity. Additionally, STOP-deficient mice may yield a pertinent model for the study of neuroleptics in illnesses such as schizophrenia, currently thought to result from defects in synapse function.

    Biochemistry 2003;42;42;12125-32

  • Overlap of promoter and coding sequences in the mouse STOP gene (Mtap6).

    Aguezzoul M, Andrieux A and Denarier E

    Laboratoire du Cytosquelette, INSERM U366, Départment Réponse et Dynamique Cellulaires, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.

    The microtubule-associated proteins STOP are essential for synaptic plasticity and integrated brain function. The STOP gene (Mtap6) is composed of 4 exons and presents different developmental and tissue specific alternative transcripts resulting in the neuronal isoforms E- and N-STOP, and in the fibroblastic F-STOP isoform. We now characterize the transcription initiation sites for neuronal and non neuronal STOP transcripts. Our results show that there is a single neuronal specific promoter for transcription of E- and N-STOP mRNAs. F-STOP mRNA transcription is regulated by a distinct promoter. A remarkable feature of this promoter is that it lies within coding sequences expressed in neuronal E- and N-STOP isoforms.

    Genomics 2003;81;6;623-7

  • Interaction of STOP with neuronal tubulin is independent of polyglutamylation.

    Bonnet C, Denarier E, Bosc C, Lazereg S, Denoulet P and Larcher JC

    Laboratoire de Biochimie Cellulaire-CNRS UMR 7098, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 9 quai Saint Bernard, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France.

    In eukaryotes, the coordinated progress of the various cellular tasks along with the assembly of adapted cytoskeletal networks requires a tight regulation of the interactions between microtubules and their associated proteins. Polyglutamylation is the major post-translational modification of neuronal tubulin. Due to its oligomeric structure, polyglutamylation can serve as a potentiometer to modulate binding of diverse MAPs. In addition, it can exert a differential mode of regulation towards distinct microtubule protein partners. To find out to what extent polyglutamylation is a general regulator, we have analyzed its ability to affect the binding of STOPs, the major factors that confer cold- and nocodazole-resistance to microtubules. We have shown by blot overlay experiments that binding of STOP does not depend on the length of the polyglutamyl chains carried by tubulins. And contrary to the other microtubule-associated proteins tested so far, STOP can bind quantitatively to any tubulin isoform whatever its degree of polyglutamylation.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2002;297;4;787-93

  • The suppression of brain cold-stable microtubules in mice induces synaptic defects associated with neuroleptic-sensitive behavioral disorders.

    Andrieux A, Salin PA, Vernet M, Kujala P, Baratier J, Gory-Fauré S, Bosc C, Pointu H, Proietto D, Schweitzer A, Denarier E, Klumperman J and Job D

    Laboratoire du Cytosquelette, INSERM U366, Département Réponse et Dynamique Cellulaire, CEA-Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble, France.

    Neurons contain abundant subsets of highly stable microtubules that resist depolymerizing conditions such as exposure to the cold. Stable microtubules are thought to be essential for neuronal development, maintenance, and function. Previous work has indicated an important role of the microtubule-associated protein STOP in the induction of microtubule cold stability. Here, we developed STOP null mice. These mice were devoid of cold-stable microtubules. In contrast to our expectations, STOP-/- mice had no detectable defects in brain anatomy but showed synaptic defects, with depleted synaptic vesicle pools and impaired synaptic plasticity, associated with severe behavioral disorders. A survey of the effects of psychotropic drugs on STOP-/- mice behavior showed a remarkable and specific effect of long-term administration of neuroleptics in alleviating these disorders. This study demonstrates that STOP is a major factor responsible for the intriguing stability properties of neuronal microtubules and is important for synaptic plasticity. Additionally, STOP-/- mice may yield a pertinent model for study of neuroleptics in illnesses such as schizophrenia, currently thought to result from synaptic defects.

    Genes & development 2002;16;18;2350-64

  • Construction of long-transcript enriched cDNA libraries from submicrogram amounts of total RNAs by a universal PCR amplification method.

    Piao Y, Ko NT, Lim MK and Ko MS

    Developmental Genomics and Aging Section, Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

    Here we report a novel design of linker primer that allows one to differentially amplify long tracts (average 3.0 kb with size ranges of 1-7 kb) or short DNAs (average 1.5 kb with size ranges of 0.5-3 kb) from a complex mixture. The method allows one to generate cDNA libraries enriched for long transcripts without size selection of insert DNAs. One representative library from newborn kidney includes 70% of clones bearing ATG start codons. A comparable library has been generated from 20 mouse blastocysts, containing only approximately 40 ng of total RNA. This universal PCR amplification scheme can provide a route to isolate very large cDNAs, even if they are expressed at very low levels.

    Genome research 2001;11;9;1553-8

  • The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Adams MD, Celniker SE, Holt RA, Evans CA, Gocayne JD, Amanatides PG, Scherer SE, Li PW, Hoskins RA, Galle RF, George RA, Lewis SE, Richards S, Ashburner M, Henderson SN, Sutton GG, Wortman JR, Yandell MD, Zhang Q, Chen LX, Brandon RC, Rogers YH, Blazej RG, Champe M, Pfeiffer BD, Wan KH, Doyle C, Baxter EG, Helt G, Nelson CR, Gabor GL, Abril JF, Agbayani A, An HJ, Andrews-Pfannkoch C, Baldwin D, Ballew RM, Basu A, Baxendale J, Bayraktaroglu L, Beasley EM, Beeson KY, Benos PV, Berman BP, Bhandari D, Bolshakov S, Borkova D, Botchan MR, Bouck J, Brokstein P, Brottier P, Burtis KC, Busam DA, Butler H, Cadieu E, Center A, Chandra I, Cherry JM, Cawley S, Dahlke C, Davenport LB, Davies P, de Pablos B, Delcher A, Deng Z, Mays AD, Dew I, Dietz SM, Dodson K, Doup LE, Downes M, Dugan-Rocha S, Dunkov BC, Dunn P, Durbin KJ, Evangelista CC, Ferraz C, Ferriera S, Fleischmann W, Fosler C, Gabrielian AE, Garg NS, Gelbart WM, Glasser K, Glodek A, Gong F, Gorrell JH, Gu Z, Guan P, Harris M, Harris NL, Harvey D, Heiman TJ, Hernandez JR, Houck J, Hostin D, Houston KA, Howland TJ, Wei MH, Ibegwam C, Jalali M, Kalush F, Karpen GH, Ke Z, Kennison JA, Ketchum KA, Kimmel BE, Kodira CD, Kraft C, Kravitz S, Kulp D, Lai Z, Lasko P, Lei Y, Levitsky AA, Li J, Li Z, Liang Y, Lin X, Liu X, Mattei B, McIntosh TC, McLeod MP, McPherson D, Merkulov G, Milshina NV, Mobarry C, Morris J, Moshrefi A, Mount SM, Moy M, Murphy B, Murphy L, Muzny DM, Nelson DL, Nelson DR, Nelson KA, Nixon K, Nusskern DR, Pacleb JM, Palazzolo M, Pittman GS, Pan S, Pollard J, Puri V, Reese MG, Reinert K, Remington K, Saunders RD, Scheeler F, Shen H, Shue BC, Sidén-Kiamos I, Simpson M, Skupski MP, Smith T, Spier E, Spradling AC, Stapleton M, Strong R, Sun E, Svirskas R, Tector C, Turner R, Venter E, Wang AH, Wang X, Wang ZY, Wassarman DA, Weinstock GM, Weissenbach J, Williams SM, WoodageT, Worley KC, Wu D, Yang S, Yao QA, Ye J, Yeh RF, Zaveri JS, Zhan M, Zhang G, Zhao Q, Zheng L, Zheng XH, Zhong FN, Zhong W, Zhou X, Zhu S, Zhu X, Smith HO, Gibbs RA, Myers EW, Rubin GM and Venter JC

    Celera Genomics, 45 West Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.

    The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of nearly all of the approximately 120-megabase euchromatic portion of the Drosophila genome using a whole-genome shotgun sequencing strategy supported by extensive clone-based sequence and a high-quality bacterial artificial chromosome physical map. Efforts are under way to close the remaining gaps; however, the sequence is of sufficient accuracy and contiguity to be declared substantially complete and to support an initial analysis of genome structure and preliminary gene annotation and interpretation. The genome encodes approximately 13,600 genes, somewhat fewer than the smaller Caenorhabditis elegans genome, but with comparable functional diversity.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50-HG00750

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2000;287;5461;2185-95

  • Nonneuronal isoforms of STOP protein are responsible for microtubule cold stability in mammalian fibroblasts.

    Denarier E, Fourest-Lieuvin A, Bosc C, Pirollet F, Chapel A, Margolis RL and Job D

    Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, Laboratoire du Cytosquelette, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 366, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9, France. denarier@dsvgre.cea.fr

    A number of cycling mammalian cells, such as NIH 3T3, contain abundant subsets of cold-stable microtubules. The origin of such microtubule stabilization in nonneuronal cells is unknown. We have previously described a neuronal protein, stable tubule-only polypeptide (STOP), that binds to microtubules and induces cold stability. We find that NIH 3T3 fibroblasts contain a major 42-kDa isoform of STOP (fibroblastic STOP, F-STOP). F-STOP contains the central repeats characteristic of brain STOP but shows extensive deletions of N- and C-terminal protein domains that are present in brain STOP. These deletions arise from differences in STOP RNA splicing. Despite such deletions, F-STOP has full microtubule stabilizing activity. F-STOP accumulates on cold-stable microtubules of interphase arrays and is present on stable microtubules within the mitotic spindle of NIH 3T3 cells. STOP inhibition by microinjection of affinity-purified STOP central repeat antibodies into NIH 3T3 cells abolishes both interphase and spindle microtubule cold stability. Similar results were obtained with Rat2 cells. These results show that STOP proteins have nonneuronal isoforms that are responsible for the microtubule cold stability observed in mammalian fibroblasts.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1998;95;11;6055-60

  • Genomic structure and chromosomal mapping of the mouse STOP gene (Mtap6).

    Denarier E, Aguezzoul M, Jolly C, Vourc'h C, Roure A, Andrieux A, Bosc C and Job D

    CEA Laboratoire du Cytosquelette, INSERM Unité 366, Département de Biologie Moléculaire et Structurale, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique de Grenoble, France.

    The microtubule associated protein STOP (Stable Tubule Only Polypeptide) is a calmodulin-regulated protein able to induce a high degree of microtubule stability. STOP is abundant in neurons which contain large subpopulations of stable microtubules. Genomic clones spanning 67 kb and encompassing the mouse STOP gene (Mtap6) have been isolated and characterized. These clones derive from a single gene mapping to the E2-F1 region of mouse chromosome 7. The gene is composed of 4 exons that exhibit conventional vertebrate splicing sequences. Transcription of the gene initiate at multiple sites in a 85 nucleotide region located 530 bases upstream the translation initiation codon. Accordingly, the 5' flanking region of the gene lacks a TATA box or an initiator element at usual position. The protein encoded by the mouse STOP gene (Mtap6) is composed of 906 amino acids and presents a 91% identities with the rat brain STOP.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1998;243;3;791-6

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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