G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
deleted in bladder cancer 1
G00000332 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000021020 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000078725 (Ensembl human gene)
1620 (Entrez Gene)
669 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
DBC1 (GeneCards)
602865 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:2687 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O60477 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • FAM5A

Literature (26)

Pubmed - other

  • Genome-wide association study confirms SNPs in SNCA and the MAPT region as common risk factors for Parkinson disease.

    Edwards TL, Scott WK, Almonte C, Burt A, Powell EH, Beecham GW, Wang L, Züchner S, Konidari I, Wang G, Singer C, Nahab F, Scott B, Stajich JM, Pericak-Vance M, Haines J, Vance JM and Martin ER

    John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami, FL 33136, USA.

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with a cumulative prevalence of greater than one per thousand. To date three independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have investigated the genetic susceptibility to PD. These studies implicated several genes as PD risk loci with strong, but not genome-wide significant, associations. In this study, we combined data from two previously published GWAS of Caucasian subjects with our GWAS of 604 cases and 619 controls for a joint analysis with a combined sample size of 1752 cases and 1745 controls. SNPs in SNCA (rs2736990, p-value = 6.7 x 10(-8); genome-wide adjusted p = 0.0109, odds ratio (OR) = 1.29 [95% CI: 1.17-1.42] G vs. A allele, population attributable risk percent (PAR%) = 12%) and the MAPT region (rs11012, p-value = 5.6 x 10(-8); genome-wide adjusted p = 0.0079, OR = 0.70 [95% CI: 0.62-0.79] T vs. C allele, PAR%= 8%) were genome-wide significant. No other SNPs were genome-wide significant in this analysis. This study confirms that SNCA and the MAPT region are major genes whose common variants are influencing risk of PD.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: U24 AG021886; NINDS NIH HHS: NS39764, P50 NS039764, P50 NS039764-10S40003

    Annals of human genetics 2010;74;2;97-109

  • Genomewide association study of movement-related adverse antipsychotic effects.

    Aberg K, Adkins DE, Bukszár J, Webb BT, Caroff SN, Miller DD, Sebat J, Stroup S, Fanous AH, Vladimirov VI, McClay JL, Lieberman JA, Sullivan PF and van den Oord EJ

    Center for Biomarker Research and Personalized Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA. kaaberg@vcu.edu

    Background: Understanding individual differences in the development of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) as a response to antipsychotic therapy is essential to individualize treatment.

    Methods: We performed genomewide association studies to search for genetic susceptibility to EPS. Our sample consisted of 738 schizophrenia patients, genotyped for 492K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We studied three quantitative measures of antipsychotic adverse drug reactions-the Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS) for Parkinsonism, the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale, and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS)-as well as a clinical diagnosis of probable tardive dyskinesia.

    Results: Two SNPs for SAS, rs17022444 and rs2126709 with p = 1.2 x 10(-10) and p = 3.8 x 10(-7), respectively, and one for AIMS, rs7669317 with p = 7.7 x 10(-8), reached genomewide significance (Q value < .1). rs17022444 and rs7669317 were located in intergenic regions and rs2126709 was located in ZNF202 on 11q24. Fourteen additional signals were potentially interesting (Q value < .5). The ZNF202 is a transcriptional repressor controlling, among other genes, PLP1, which is the major protein in myelin. Mutations in PLP1 cause Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, which has Parkinsonism as an occurring symptom. Altered mRNA expression of PLP1 is associated with schizophrenia.

    Conclusions: Although our findings require replication and validation, this study demonstrates the potential of genomewide association studies to discover genes and pathways that mediate adverse effects of antipsychotics.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG004240, R01 HG004240; NICHD NIH HHS: R24 HD050924; NIMH NIH HHS: MH074027, MH077139, MH078069, N01 MH90001, R01 MH074027, R01 MH077139, R01 MH078069, R01 MH080015

    Biological psychiatry 2010;67;3;279-82

  • Deleted in breast cancer-1 regulates SIRT1 activity and contributes to high-fat diet-induced liver steatosis in mice.

    Escande C, Chini CC, Nin V, Dykhouse KM, Novak CM, Levine J, van Deursen J, Gores GJ, Chen J, Lou Z and Chini EN

    Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55902, USA.

    The enzyme sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a critical regulator of many cellular functions, including energy metabolism. However, the precise mechanisms that modulate SIRT1 activity remain unknown. As SIRT1 activity in vitro was recently found to be negatively regulated by interaction with the deleted in breast cancer-1 (DBC1) protein, we set out to investigate whether DBC1 regulates SIRT1 activity in vivo. We found that DBC1 and SIRT1 colocalized and interacted, and that DBC1 modulated SIRT1 activity, in multiple cell lines and tissues. In mouse liver, increased SIRT1 activity, concomitant with decreased DBC1-SIRT1 interaction, was detected after 24 hours of starvation, whereas decreased SIRT1 activity and increased interaction with DBC1 was observed with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Consistent with the hypothesis that DBC1 is crucial for HFD-induced inhibition of SIRT1 and for the development of experimental liver steatosis, genetic deletion of Dbc1 in mice led to increased SIRT1 activity in several tissues, including liver. Furthermore, DBC1-deficient mice were protected from HFD-induced liver steatosis and inflammation, despite the development of obesity. These observations define what we believe to be a new role for DBC1 as an in vivo regulator of SIRT1 activity and liver steatosis. We therefore propose that the DBC1-SIRT1 interaction may serve as a new target for therapies aimed at nonalcoholic liver steatosis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA129344, R01 CA129344-03; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-084055, P30 DK084567, R01 DK084055

    The Journal of clinical investigation 2010;120;2;545-58

  • Replication of CD58 and CLEC16A as genome-wide significant risk genes for multiple sclerosis.

    Hoppenbrouwers IA, Aulchenko YS, Janssens AC, Ramagopalan SV, Broer L, Kayser M, Ebers GC, Oostra BA, van Duijn CM and Hintzen RQ

    Department of Neurology, MS Centre ErasMS, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    A recent genome-wide association study by the International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium (IMSGC) reported association of 17 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 14 loci with multiple sclerosis (MS). Only two loci, HLA-DRA and IL2RA, reached genome-wide significance (P<5E-08). In our study, we determined whether we could replicate the results of the IMSGC and whether more SNPs are genome-wide significantly associated with MS. We assessed the association between the 17 IMSGC SNPs and MS in three cohorts (total number of subjects 3981, among these 1853 cases). We performed a meta-analysis of the results of our study, the original IMSGC results and the results of a recent replication study performed in the Australian population. Of the 17 IMSGC SNPs, five SNPs showed genome-wide significant association with MS: HLA-DRA (P=8E-124), IL7R (P=6E-09), IL2RA (P=1E-11), CD58 (P=4E-09) and CLEC16A (P=3E-12). Therefore, genome-wide significance has now been shown for SNPs in different non-HLA MS risk genes. Several of these risk genes, including CD58 and CLEC16A, are shared by different autoimmune diseases. Fine mapping studies will be needed to determine the functional contributions to distinct autoimmune phenotypes.

    Journal of human genetics 2009;54;11;676-80

  • Expression of DBC1 and SIRT1 is associated with poor prognosis of gastric carcinoma.

    Cha EJ, Noh SJ, Kwon KS, Kim CY, Park BH, Park HS, Lee H, Chung MJ, Kang MJ, Lee DG, Moon WS and Jang KY

    Departments of Pathology, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine and Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, Republic of Korea.

    Purpose: SIRT1 (silent mating-type information regulation 2 homologue 1) expression has been reported to predict poor survival in some cancers. We therefore investigated the expression levels of SIRT1 and its negative regulator, DBC1 (deleted in breast cancer 1), in gastric cancer patients.

    We evaluated immunohistochemical expression of DBC1, SIRT1, and p53 using 3-mm tumor cores from 177 gastric cancer patients for tissue microarray.

    Results: Positive expressions of DBC1 and SIRT1 were seen in 62% (109 of 177) and in 73% (130 of 177) of patients, respectively. Expression of DBC1 was significantly correlated with tumor stage (P = 0.007), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), tumor invasion (P = 0.001), venous invasion (P = 0.001), histologic types (P < 0.001), p53 expression (P < 0.001), and SIRT1 expression (P < 0.001). SIRT1 expression was also significantly correlated with tumor stage (P < 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), tumor invasion (P < 0.001), histologic types (P < 0.001), and p53 expression (P = 0.001). In addition, expression of DBC1 was significantly associated with shorter overall survival and relapse-free survival by univariate analysis (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). SIRT1 expression was also significantly associated with shorter overall survival and relapse-free survival by univariate analysis (P = 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor stage and expression of DBC1 were independent prognostic factors significantly associated with overall survival and relapse-free survival.

    Conclusion: This study shows that expression of DBC1 and SIRT1 is a significant prognostic indicator for gastric carcinoma patients.

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2009;15;13;4453-9

  • Risk alleles for multiple sclerosis in multiplex families.

    D'Netto MJ, Ward H, Morrison KM, Ramagopalan SV, Dyment DA, DeLuca GC, Handunnetthi L, Sadovnick AD and Ebers GC

    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, UK.

    Objective: We assessed the hypotheses that non-major histocompatibility complex multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility loci would be common to sporadic cases and multiplex families, that they would have larger effects in multiplex families, and that the aggregation of susceptibility loci contributes to the increased prevalence of MS in such families.

    Methods: A set of 43 multiplex families comprising 732 individuals and 211 affected subjects was genotyped for 13 MS candidate genes identified by genome-wide association. A control data set of 182 healthy individuals was also genotyped to perform a case-control analysis alongside the family-based pedigree disequilibrium association test, although this may have been underpowered.

    Results: An effect of the IL2RA and CD58 loci was shown in multiplex families as in sporadic MS. The aggregate of the IL2RA, IL7R, EVI5, KIAA0350, and CD58 risk genotypes in affected individuals from multiplex families was found to be notably different from controls (chi(2) = 112, p = 1 x 10(-22)).

    Conclusions: Although differences between individual families can only be suggested, the aggregate results in multiplex families demonstrate effect sizes that are increased as compared with those reported in previous studies for sporadic cases. In addition, they imply that concentrations of susceptibility alleles at IL2RA, IL7R, EVI5, KIAA0350, and CD58 are partly responsible for the heightened prevalence of multiple sclerosis within multiplex families.

    Neurology 2009;72;23;1984-8

  • Inhibition of SUV39H1 methyltransferase activity by DBC1.

    Li Z, Chen L, Kabra N, Wang C, Fang J and Chen J

    Department of Molecular Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA.

    SUV39H1 is a histone H3K9-specific methyltransferase important for heterochromatin formation, regulation of gene expression, and induction of senescence in premalignant cells. SUV39H1 forms a complex with SirT1, and its activity is stimulated by SirT1 binding. Here we present evidence that the product of the DBC1 (deleted in breast cancer 1) gene disrupts the SUV39H1-SirT1 complex. Furthermore, DBC1 binds to the SUV39H1 catalytic domain and inhibits its ability to methylate histone H3 in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of endogenous DBC1 increased the level of cellular H3K9 methylation. As expected, DBC1 also binds to SirT1 and inhibits the deacetylase activity of SirT1. These results identify DBC1 as a novel cellular inhibitor of SUV39H1 activity. DBC1 may be an important regulator of heterochromatin formation and genomic stability by disrupting the SUV39H1-SirT1 complex and inactivating both enzymes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA121291

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;16;10361-6

  • Identification and characterization of a novel nuclear protein complex involved in nuclear hormone receptor-mediated gene regulation.

    Garapaty S, Xu CF, Trojer P, Mahajan MA, Neubert TA and Samuels HH

    Department of Pharmacology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.

    NRC/NCoA6 plays an important role in mediating the effects of ligand-bound nuclear hormone receptors as well as other transcription factors. NRC interacting factor 1 (NIF-1) was cloned as a novel factor that interacts in vivo with NRC. Although NIF-1 does not directly interact with nuclear hormone receptors, it enhances activation by nuclear hormone receptors presumably through its interaction with NRC. To further understand the cellular and biological function of NIF-1, we identified NIF-1-associated proteins by in-solution proteolysis followed by mass spectrometry. The identified components revealed factors involved in histone methylation and cell cycle control and include Ash2L, RbBP5, WDR5, HCF-1, DBC-1, and EMSY. Although the NIF-1 complex contains Ash2L, RbBP5, and WDR5, suggesting that the complex might methylate histone H3-Lys-4, we found that the complex contains a H3 methyltransferase activity that modifies a residue other than H3-Lys-4. The identified components form at least two distinctly sized NIF-1 complexes. DBC-1 and EMSY were identified as integral components of an NIF-1 complex of approximately 1.5 MDa and were found to play an important role in the regulation of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription. Stimulation of the Sox9 and HoxA1 genes by retinoic acid receptor-alpha was found to require both DBC-1 and EMSY in addition to NIF-1 for maximal transcriptional activation. Interestingly, NRC was not identified as a component of the NIF-1 complex, suggesting that NIF-1 and NRC do not exist as stable in vitro purified complexes, although the separate NIF-1 and NRC complexes appear to functionally interact in the cell.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30CA016087-239025; NCRR NIH HHS: 1S10 RR017990-01; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK16636

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;12;7542-52

  • Frequent hypermethylation of DBC1 in malignant lymphoproliferative neoplasms.

    Grønbaek K, Ralfkiaer U, Dahl C, Hother C, Burns JS, Kassem M, Worm J, Ralfkiaer EM, Knudsen LM, Hokland P and Guldberg P

    Institute of Cancer Biology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark. kirsten.groenbaek@rh.regionh.dk

    Allelic loss at chromosome 9q31-34 is a frequent event in many lymphoproliferative malignancies. Here, we examined DBC1 at 9q33.1 as a potential target in lymphomagenesis. DBC1 is a putative tumor suppressor that has been shown to be involved in the regulation of cell growth and programmed cell death. The methylation status of the DBC1 promoter CpG island was examined by methylation-specific PCR, bisulfite sequencing, and methylation-specific melting curve analysis. DBC1 was hypermethylated in 5 of 5 B-cell-derived lymphoma cell lines, 41 of 42 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, 24 of 24 follicular lymphomas, 5 of 5 mantle cell lymphomas, 4 of 4 small lymphocytic lymphomas, 1 of 2 lymphoplasmacytoid lymphomas, and in 12 of 12 acute lymphoblastic leukemias, but was unmethylated in 1 case of splenic marginal zone lymphoma, in 12 of 12 multiple myelomas, in 24 of 24 reactive lymph nodes, and in 12 of 12 samples of blood lymphocytes from random donors. DBC1 hypermethylation was associated with transcriptional silencing in lymphoma cell lines, and reexpression of this gene could be induced by treatment with the demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Our data suggest that hypermethylation of the DBC1 promoter region is a frequent event during the development of lymphoproliferative malignancies, and that DBC1 hypermethylation may serve as a marker for these cancers.

    Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc 2008;21;5;632-8

  • Risk alleles for multiple sclerosis identified by a genomewide study.

    International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium, Hafler DA, Compston A, Sawcer S, Lander ES, Daly MJ, De Jager PL, de Bakker PI, Gabriel SB, Mirel DB, Ivinson AJ, Pericak-Vance MA, Gregory SG, Rioux JD, McCauley JL, Haines JL, Barcellos LF, Cree B, Oksenberg JR and Hauser SL

    Division of Molecular Immunology, Center for Neurologic Diseases, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.

    Background: Multiple sclerosis has a clinically significant heritable component. We conducted a genomewide association study to identify alleles associated with the risk of multiple sclerosis.

    Methods: We used DNA microarray technology to identify common DNA sequence variants in 931 family trios (consisting of an affected child and both parents) and tested them for association. For replication, we genotyped another 609 family trios, 2322 case subjects, and 789 control subjects and used genotyping data from two external control data sets. A joint analysis of data from 12,360 subjects was performed to estimate the overall significance and effect size of associations between alleles and the risk of multiple sclerosis.

    Results: A transmission disequilibrium test of 334,923 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 931 family trios revealed 49 SNPs having an association with multiple sclerosis (P<1x10(-4)); of these SNPs, 38 were selected for the second-stage analysis. A comparison between the 931 case subjects from the family trios and 2431 control subjects identified an additional nonoverlapping 32 SNPs (P<0.001). An additional 40 SNPs with less stringent P values (<0.01) were also selected, for a total of 110 SNPs for the second-stage analysis. Of these SNPs, two within the interleukin-2 receptor alpha gene (IL2RA) were strongly associated with multiple sclerosis (P=2.96x10(-8)), as were a nonsynonymous SNP in the interleukin-7 receptor alpha gene (IL7RA) (P=2.94x10(-7)) and multiple SNPs in the HLA-DRA locus (P=8.94x10(-81)).

    Conclusions: Alleles of IL2RA and IL7RA and those in the HLA locus are identified as heritable risk factors for multiple sclerosis.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: U54-RR020278-1; NIAID NIH HHS: AI067152, P01-AI039671, U19 AI067152; NINDS NIH HHS: NS032830, NS049477, NS2427, NS26799; Wellcome Trust: 076113

    The New England journal of medicine 2007;357;9;851-62

  • DBC1 re-expression alters the expression of multiple components of the plasminogen pathway.

    Louhelainen JP, Hurst CD, Pitt E, Nishiyama H, Pickett HA and Knowles MA

    Cancer Research UK Clinical Centre, St James's University Hospital, Leeds, West Yorkshire, UK.

    Deleted in bladder cancer 1 (DBC1) is a candidate gene for the bladder tumour suppressor locus at 9q33.1. The function of the gene is currently unknown but a cross-species sequence comparison suggests an important role, as it is highly evolutionarily conserved. Here, we transfected a nonexpressing human bladder cancer cell line with a set of human DBC1 cDNA constructs. The effect on global expression patterns was assessed using cDNA microarrays. The cell clone with the lowest level of DBC1 expression showed induced expression of 26 genes including plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (SERPINB5; 4.6-fold), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor precursor (DTR; 4.2-fold), small proline-rich protein 2B (SPRR2B; 3.6-fold), metallothionein 1 isoforms (MT1B/MT1A/MT-1F; from 2.9- to 3.2-fold), tissue-type plasminogen activator precursor (PLAT; 2.8-fold) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator precursor (PLAU; 2.7-fold). In clustering analysis, both PLAT and PLAU clustered with the functionally related urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor (PLAUR; 1.9-fold). Furthermore, 14 human bladder tumours were analysed by real-time quantitative PCR using gene-specific primers for selected (n=20) genes. The expression levels of SERPINB5, PLAU, PLAUR and MT1 correlated with the DBC1 levels, suggesting previously unknown involvement of DBC1 in the urokinase-plasminogen pathway.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Oncogene 2006;25;16;2409-19

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Frequent silencing of DBC1 is by genetic or epigenetic mechanisms in non-small cell lung cancers.

    Izumi H, Inoue J, Yokoi S, Hosoda H, Shibata T, Sunamori M, Hirohashi S, Inazawa J and Imoto I

    Department of Molecular Cytogenetics, Medical Research Institute and School of Biomedical Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan.

    Genome-wide screening of DNA copy number aberrations in 27 cell lines derived from non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), using a custom-made comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-array, identified a homozygous deletion of the deleted in bladder cancer 1 gene (DBC1) in one cell line. Homozygous deletion of DBC1, located at 9q33.1, was also observed in two of 53 primary NSCLC tumors examined. Moreover, 21 of the other 26 cell lines showed complete loss of DBC1 expression, although normal lung tissues express this gene, and treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored expression of DBC1. Hypermethylation in part of a CpG island around the exon 1 of DBC1 has been reported in urothelial cancers, but the potential association between methylation and expression status was never clarified in that disease. In our experiments, a different part of the same CpG island showed promoter activity in vitro and was frequently methylated in our cell lines and primary tumors of NSCLC, where methylation status correlated inversely with gene expression. Among our primary NSCLC cases, methylation of the DBC1 promoter occurred more frequently in men, elderly patients and smokers than in women, younger patients and nonsmokers respectively, but it was not correlated with tumor stage or histology. Exogenous overexpression of DBC1 in NSCLC cell lines lacking its expression inhibited cell growth. Our results provide the first evidence that DBC1 is a likely tumor suppressor for NSCLC; silencing of the gene through homozygous deletion or methylation of its promoter region may be associated with progression of this disease.

    Human molecular genetics 2005;14;8;997-1007

  • Low expression but infrequent genomic loss of the putative tumour suppressor DBCCR1 in astrocytoma.

    Beetz C, Brodoehl S, Patt S, Kalff R and Deufel T

    Institut für Pathologie, Klinikum der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, D-07740 Jena, Germany.

    DBCCR1 (deleted in bladder cancer chromosomal region 1) has been reported as the gene functionally affected by frequent loss of 9q32-33 in transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. For these particular tumours, its proposed role in tumour suppression is supported both by the observation of methylation-based silencing of DBCCR1 in a large fraction of bladder cancers and by re-expression studies in bladder cancer-derived cell lines. A more general involvement of DBCCR1 in tumour development might be inferred from recent chip-based expression studies in other tumours. The present study addressed expression of DBCCR1 in gliomas, specifically in astrocytomas, using semi-quantitative RT-PCR on 25 tumours of different malignancy grade and on 5 control brain tissue samples. Genomic deletion of the DBCCR1 locus at 9q32-33 was also investigated, together with the CDKN2A locus at 9p21, by loss of heterozygosity analysis in a second series of 26 astrocytic tumours. We found that DBCCR1 mRNA expression is markedly reduced in the majority of tumour samples compared to controls, and that this reduction significantly correlates with tumour grade. Genomic loss of the DBCCR1 region was found in only 5 of 24 (21%) informative samples, with no obvious correlation to tumour grade, while loss of the CDKN2A locus was observed in 13 of 21 (62%) informative samples with high-grade tumours being affected more often. If present, LOH at 9q coincided with LOH at 9p and is then likely to reflect loss of the entire chromosome rather than a specific, potentially causative event. In contrast to the situation in bladder cancer, the prevalent inactivation of DBCCR1 seen at the expression level in astrocytomas is not primarily caused by genomic loss of the gene. Our findings support a more general role for DBCCR1 in tumour suppression with mechanisms of inactivation differing between tumour types.

    Oncology reports 2005;13;2;335-40

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 9.

    Humphray SJ, Oliver K, Hunt AR, Plumb RW, Loveland JE, Howe KL, Andrews TD, Searle S, Hunt SE, Scott CE, Jones MC, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Babbage S, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Barker DJ, Barlow KF, Bates K, Beasley H, Beasley O, Bird CP, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford D, Burrill W, Burton J, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Chen Y, Clarke G, Clark SY, Clee CM, Clegg S, Collier RE, Corby N, Crosier M, Cummings AT, Davies J, Dhami P, Dunn M, Dutta I, Dyer LW, Earthrowl ME, Faulkner L, Fleming CJ, Frankish A, Frankland JA, French L, Fricker DG, Garner P, Garnett J, Ghori J, Gilbert JG, Glison C, Grafham DV, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Griffiths-Jones S, Grocock R, Guy J, Hall RE, Hammond S, Harley JL, Harrison ES, Hart EA, Heath PD, Henderson CD, Hopkins BL, Howard PJ, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Johnson C, Johnson D, Joy AA, Kay M, Keenan S, Kershaw JK, Kimberley AM, King A, Knights A, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Leversha M, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Lovell J, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, McLaren S, McLay KE, McMurray A, Milne S, Nickerson T, Nisbett J, Nordsiek G, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Porter KM, Pandian R, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Povey S, Ramsey Y, Rand V, Scharfe M, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Sims SK, Skuce CD, Smith M, Steward CA, Swarbreck D, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thorpe A, Tracey A, Tromans A, Thomas DW, Wall M, Wallis JM, West AP, Whitehead SL, Willey DL, Williams SA, Wilming L, Wray PW, Young L, Ashurst JL, Coulson A, Blöcker H, Durbin R, Sulston JE, Hubbard T, Jackson MJ, Bentley DR, Beck S, Rogers J and Dunham I

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. sjh@sanger.ac.uk

    Chromosome 9 is highly structurally polymorphic. It contains the largest autosomal block of heterochromatin, which is heteromorphic in 6-8% of humans, whereas pericentric inversions occur in more than 1% of the population. The finished euchromatic sequence of chromosome 9 comprises 109,044,351 base pairs and represents >99.6% of the region. Analysis of the sequence reveals many intra- and interchromosomal duplications, including segmental duplications adjacent to both the centromere and the large heterochromatic block. We have annotated 1,149 genes, including genes implicated in male-to-female sex reversal, cancer and neurodegenerative disease, and 426 pseudogenes. The chromosome contains the largest interferon gene cluster in the human genome. There is also a region of exceptionally high gene and G + C content including genes paralogous to those in the major histocompatibility complex. We have also detected recently duplicated genes that exhibit different rates of sequence divergence, presumably reflecting natural selection.

    Nature 2004;429;6990;369-74

  • DBCCR1 mediates death in cultured bladder tumor cells.

    Wright KO, Messing EM and Reeder JE

    Department of Pathology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA.

    Chromosome 9, which is often partially or fully reduced to homozygosity in bladder cancer cells, harbors several tumor suppressor loci including deleted in bladder cancer chromosome region 1 (DBCCR1) at 9q32-33. To study DBCCR1 function, stable cell lines, inducible for DBCCR1 expression by tetracycline, were made, but the DBCCR1 protein was not expressed at detectable levels. To understand the fate of DBCCR1-expressing cells, human bladder tumor cells were transiently transfected with an expression vector containing DBCCR1 fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Initially, DBCCR1-EGFP-expressing cells demonstrated diffuse cytoplasmic green fluorescence with nuclear exclusion patterns. After time, the intensity level of green fluorescence increased and a granular distribution of protein became visible in the cells. At this point, cells rounded up and detached from the tissue culture dish. Cells transfected with a control vector, containing only EGFP, and partial DBCCR1-EGFP fusion constructs did not demonstrate this behavior. DBCCR1-mediated cell death in cultured tumor cells was independent of caspase-3 activation and did not result in detectable DNA strand breaks by TUNEL staining that are hallmarks of the classical apoptotic pathway.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA33148-16

    Oncogene 2004;23;1;82-90

  • Increased expression of the acid sphingomyelinase-like protein ASML3a in bladder tumors.

    Wright KO, Messing EM and Reeder JE

    Department of Pathology, University of Rochester, New York, USA.

    Purpose: The function of the tumor suppressor gene DBCCR1 (deleted in bladder cancer chromosome region 1) is unknown despite data supporting an important role for DBCCR1 in bladder tumorigenesis. DBCCR1 has not yet been placed in a protein family or functional pathway. Protein-protein interactions are crucial for almost every aspect of cellular function. We hypothesized that the discovery of DBCCR1 protein binding partners would yield important clues for solving the mystery of DBCCR1 function.

    We used the yeast 2-hybrid system to screen an adult human bladder cDNA library for DBCCR1 interacting proteins.

    Results: In the screen ASML3a (acid sphingomyelinase-like phosphodiesterase 3a) was identified as a novel DBCCR1 binding partner. Transient transfection of bladder tumor cell lines showed that DBCCR1 over expression in human bladder tumor cells results in the up-regulation of ASML3a RNA and protein expression. ASML3a protein was also differentially expressed in 8 of 12 bladder tumors relative to corresponding normal urothelial tissue.

    Conclusions: It appears that DBCCR1 and ASML3a are involved in the process of bladder tumorigenesis. Their interaction may provide clues to discern their functions.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 33148-16

    The Journal of urology 2002;168;6;2645-9

  • Negative regulation of G(1)/S transition by the candidate bladder tumour suppressor gene DBCCR1.

    Nishiyama H, Gill JH, Pitt E, Kennedy W and Knowles MA

    ICRF Clinical Centre, St. James's University Hospital, Beckett Street, Leeds, LS9 7TF, UK.

    Deletion of all or part of chromosome 9q is the most common genetic alteration in all stages and grades of bladder cancer. DBCCR1 (deleted in bladder cancer chromosome region candidate 1) maps to the chromosome region 9q32-33, a candidate tumour suppressor locus for bladder cancer. Although no mutations of DBCCR1 have been detected in bladder tumours, expression of DBCCR1 is silenced by promoter hypermethylation in 50% of bladder cancer cell lines analysed. Here we sought to provide functional evidence to authenticate DBCCR1 as a tumour suppressor using gene-transfer methods. Exogenous expression of DBCCR1 protein or an HA epitope-tagged fusion protein, HA-DBCCR1 in NIH3T3 cells and human bladder tumour cell lines resulted in suppression of proliferation. Cell cycle analyses in NIH3T3 cells revealed that DBCCR1-mediated growth inhibition was due to an increase in the number of cells in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. The levels of apoptosis were not altered. These results demonstrate a role for DBCCR1 in cell cycle control, thereby supporting the hypothesis that this is the tumour suppressor gene targeted by 9q32-33 deletion in bladder cancer.

    Oncogene 2001;20;23;2956-64

  • Homozygous deletion at the 9q32-33 candidate tumor suppressor locus in primary human bladder cancer.

    Nishiyama H, Takahashi T, Kakehi Y, Habuchi T and Knowles MA

    ICRF Cancer Medicine Research Unit, St. James's University Hospital, Leeds, U.K.

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome arm 9q is the most frequent genetic alteration found in superficial and invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in a previous microsatellite-based deletion mapping study of the bladder and upper urinary tract, indicating the presence of one or more important tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). One of the putative tumor suppressor loci on 9q (DBC1) was mapped to 9q32-33 and the candidate region was localized within a single YAC. We report here a case of superficial papillary TCC, which showed a homozygous deletion encompassing this candidate tumor suppressor region. The region of homozygous deletion spanned the interval between D9S275 and AFMA239XA9 at 9q32-33, and was estimated to be </=6 cM. Although homozygous deletion mapping did not narrow down the candidate tumor suppressor region, this case provides further support for the presence of a TSG for TCC in this chromosomal region. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show homozygous deletion at 9q32-33 in TCC or any other type of human tumor. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 26:171-175, 1999.

    Genes, chromosomes & cancer 1999;26;2;171-5

  • A sequence-ready 840-kb PAC contig spanning the candidate tumor suppressor locus DBC1 on human chromosome 9q32-q33.

    Nishiyama H, Hornigold N, Davies AM and Knowles MA

    ICRF Cancer Medicine Research Unit, St. James's University Hospital, Beckett Street, Leeds, LS9 7TF, United Kingdom.

    A putative tumor suppressor locus involved in bladder cancer has been mapped to human chromosome 9q32-q33 and designated DBC1. Our previous microsatellite-based deletion mapping study indicated that DBC1 was localized between D9S1848 and AFMA239XA9. We have constructed an 840-kb sequence-ready contig composed of bacteriophage P1-derived artificial chromosomes (PACs), which encompasses DBC1. Clones were initially identified by screening a PAC library with markers localized to the region by physical mapping, and subsequently PAC end probes were used to complete the contig. This contig contains a minimum tiling path of six PAC clones between D9S1848 and AFMA239XA9. Three expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were mapped to the DBC1 region by screening 24 ESTs mapped to the surrounding area by radiation hybrids. One represented the gene for DBCCR1, a known candidate for DBC1, and the other two were novel. This contig and preliminary expression map form the basis for the identification of the bladder cancer tumor suppressor gene in this region.

    Genomics 1999;59;3;335-8

  • Structure and methylation-based silencing of a gene (DBCCR1) within a candidate bladder cancer tumor suppressor region at 9q32-q33.

    Habuchi T, Luscombe M, Elder PA and Knowles MA

    Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Marie Curie Research Institute, Oxted, Surrey, United Kingdom.

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 9q is the most frequent genetic alteration in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder, indicating the presence of one or more relevant tumor suppressor genes. We previously mapped one of these putative tumor suppressor loci to 9q32-q33 and localized the candidate region within a single YAC 840 kb in size. This locus has been designated DBC1 (for deleted in bladder cancer gene 1). We have identified a novel gene, DBCCR1, in this candidate region by searching for expressed sequence tags (ESTs) that map to YACs spanning the region. Database searching using the entire DBCCR1 cDNA sequence identified several human ESTs and a few homologous mouse. ESTs. However, the predicted 761-amino-acid sequence had no significant homology to known protein sequences. Mutation analysis of the coding region and Southern blot analysis detected neither somatic mutations nor gross genetic alterations in primary TCCs. Although DBCCR1 was expressed in multiple normal human tissues including urothelium, mRNA expression was absent in 5 of 10 (50%) bladder cancer cell lines. Methylation analysis of the CpG island at the 5' region of the gene and the induction of de novo expression by a demethylating agent indicated that this island might be a frequent target for hypermethylation and that hypermethylation-based silencing of the gene occurs in TCC. These findings make DBCCR1 a good candidate for DBC1.

    Genomics 1998;48;3;277-88

  • A novel candidate tumour suppressor locus at 9q32-33 in bladder cancer: localization of the candidate region within a single 840 kb YAC.

    Habuchi T, Yoshida O and Knowles MA

    Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Marie Curie Research Institute, Surrey, UK.

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 9q is the most frequent genetic alteration in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder, implicating the presence of a tumour suppressor gene or genes on 9q. To define the location of a tumour suppressor locus on 9q in TCC, we screened 156 TCCs of the bladder and upper urinary tract by detailed deletion mapping using 31 microsatellite markers on 9q. Partial deletions of 9q were found in 10 TCCs (6%), and LOH at all informative loci on 9q was found in 77 TCCs (49%). In five low grade superficial bladder tumours, the partial deletion was localized to D9S195 located at 9q32-33, with retention of heterozygosity at all other informative loci including D9S103, D9S258, D9S275 and GSN. We constructed a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig covering the deleted region in these five tumours and placed another four unmapped microsatellite markers on this contig map. Using these markers, we further defined the common deleted region to the interval between D9S1848 and AFMA239XA9. The region is covered by a single YAC (852e11), whose size is estimated to be 840 kb. Our data should expedite further fine mapping and identification of the candidate tumour suppressor gene at 9q32-33.

    Human molecular genetics 1997;6;6;913-9

  • [IMAGE: molecular integration of the analysis of the human genome and its expression].

    Auffray C, Behar G, Bois F, Bouchier C, Da Silva C, Devignes MD, Duprat S, Houlgatte R, Jumeau MN, Lamy B et al.

    Genexpress, Généthon, Evry, France.

    We have developed an integrated approach for the analysis of human cDNA libraries from neuromuscular tissues, based on the acquisition of primary structural, expression and mapping data. 26,938 sequence signatures (over 7 million bases) have been derived from both ends of skeletal muscle and brain cDNA clones. Primary redundancy analysis and classification of database similarities made it possible to characterize by structural data about 8,000 human gene transcripts, the majority of which is catalogued for the first time. Collecting hybridization signatures of complex cDNA probes derived from the tissues of origin to cDNA clones arrayed on high density filters provided a global and quantifiable view of the complexity and level of expression of the different transcripts. The development of 2,792 eSTS markers amplifiable by PCR defined the chromosomal localization of some 2,500 genes corresponding to the transcripts sequenced. The data collected are part of the corpus of the human gene transcript catalog and the genic map of the human genome.

    Comptes rendus de l'Academie des sciences. Serie III, Sciences de la vie 1995;318;2;263-72

OMIM - other

Gene lists (4)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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