G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 3, 30kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase)
G00000308 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000110536 (Ensembl human gene)
4722 (Entrez Gene)
646 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
NDUFS3 (GeneCards)
603846 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:7710 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O75489 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • CI-30

Literature (23)

Pubmed - other

  • Association study between single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 199 drug-related genes and commonly measured quantitative traits of 752 healthy Japanese subjects.

    Saito A, Kawamoto M and Kamatani N

    Division of Genomic Medicine, Department of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan. a-saito@horae.dti.ne.jp

    With dense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps for 199 drug-related genes, we examined associations between 4190 SNPs and 38 commonly measured quantitative traits using data from 752 healthy Japanese subjects. On analysis, we observed a strong association between five SNPs within the uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) gene and serum total bilirubin levels (minimum P-value in Mann-Whitney test=1.82 x 10(10)). UGT1A1 catalyzes the conjugation of bilirubin with glucuronic acid, thus enhancing bilirubin elimination. This enzyme is known to play an important role in the variation of serum bilirubin levels. The five SNPs, including a nonsynonymous SNP-rs4148323 (211G>A or G71R variant allele known as UGT1A1*6)-showed strong linkage disequilibrium with each other. No other genes were clearly associated with serum total bilirubin levels. Results of linear multiple regression analysis on serum total bilirubin levels followed by analysis of variance showed that at least 13% of the variance in serum total bilirubin levels could be explained by three haplotype-tagging SNPs in the UGT1A1 gene.

    Journal of human genetics 2009;54;6;317-23

  • Mutations in NDUFAF3 (C3ORF60), encoding an NDUFAF4 (C6ORF66)-interacting complex I assembly protein, cause fatal neonatal mitochondrial disease.

    Saada A, Vogel RO, Hoefs SJ, van den Brand MA, Wessels HJ, Willems PH, Venselaar H, Shaag A, Barghuti F, Reish O, Shohat M, Huynen MA, Smeitink JA, van den Heuvel LP and Nijtmans LG

    Metabolic Disease Unit, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

    Mitochondrial complex I deficiency is the most prevalent and least understood disorder of the oxidative phosphorylation system. The genetic cause of many cases of isolated complex I deficiency is unknown because of insufficient understanding of the complex I assembly process and the factors involved. We performed homozygosity mapping and gene sequencing to identify the genetic defect in five complex I-deficient patients from three different families. All patients harbored mutations in the NDUFAF3 (C3ORF60) gene, of which the pathogenic nature was assessed by NDUFAF3-GFP baculovirus complementation in fibroblasts. We found that NDUFAF3 is a genuine mitochondrial complex I assembly protein that interacts with complex I subunits. Furthermore, we show that NDUFAF3 tightly interacts with NDUFAF4 (C6ORF66), a protein previously implicated in complex I deficiency. Additional gene conservation analysis links NDUFAF3 to bacterial-membrane-insertion gene cluster SecF/SecD/YajC and to C8ORF38, also implicated in complex I deficiency. These data not only show that NDUFAF3 mutations cause complex I deficiency but also relate different complex I disease genes by the close cooperation of their encoded proteins during the assembly process.

    American journal of human genetics 2009;84;6;718-27

  • Alterations in oligodendrocyte proteins, calcium homeostasis and new potential markers in schizophrenia anterior temporal lobe are revealed by shotgun proteome analysis.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Rewerts C, Marangoni S, Novello JC, Maccarrone G, Turck CW and Dias-Neto E

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Dr. Ovídio Pires de Campos, No 785, s/n Consolação, São Paulo, SP, CEP 05403-010, Brazil. danms90@gmail.com

    Global proteomic analysis of post-mortem anterior temporal lobe samples from schizophrenia patients and non-schizophrenia individuals was performed using stable isotope labeling and shotgun proteomics. Our analysis resulted in the identification of 479 proteins, 37 of which showed statistically significant differential expression. Pathways affected by differential protein expression include transport, signal transduction, energy pathways, cell growth and maintenance and protein metabolism. The collection of protein alterations identified here reinforces the importance of myelin/oligodendrocyte and calcium homeostasis in schizophrenia, and reveals a number of new potential markers that may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

    Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) 2009;116;3;275-89

  • Oxidative stress, telomere length and biomarkers of physical aging in a cohort aged 79 years from the 1932 Scottish Mental Survey.

    Starr JM, Shiels PG, Harris SE, Pattie A, Pearce MS, Relton CL and Deary IJ

    MRC Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Royal Victoria Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2DN, UK. jstarr@staffmail.ed.ac.uk

    Telomere shortening is a biomarker of cellular senescence and is associated with a wide range of age-related disease. Oxidative stress is also associated with physiological aging and several age-related diseases. Non-human studies suggest that variants in oxidative stress genes may contribute to both telomere shortening and biological aging. We sought to test whether oxidative stress-related gene polymorphisms contribute to variance in both telomere length and physical biomarkers of aging in humans. Telomere lengths were calculated for 190 (82 men, 108 women) participants aged 79 years and associations with 384 SNPs, from 141 oxidative stress genes, identified 9 significant SNPS, of which those from 5 genes (GSTZ1, MSRA, NDUFA3, NDUFA8, VIM) had robust associations with physical aging biomarkers, respiratory function or grip strength. Replication of associations in a sample of 318 (120 males, 198 females) participants aged 50 years confirmed significant associations for two of the five SNPs (MSRA rs4841322, p=0.008; NDUFA8 rs6822, p=0.048) on telomere length. These data indicate that oxidative stress genes may be involved in pathways that lead to both telomere shortening and physiological aging in humans. Oxidative stress may explain, at least in part, associations between telomere shortening and physiological aging.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: S18386; Chief Scientist Office: CZB/4/505, ETM/55; Medical Research Council; Wellcome Trust

    Mechanisms of ageing and development 2008;129;12;745-51

  • Granzyme A cleaves a mitochondrial complex I protein to initiate caspase-independent cell death.

    Martinvalet D, Dykxhoorn DM, Ferrini R and Lieberman J

    Immune Disease Institute and Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    The killer lymphocyte protease granzyme A (GzmA) triggers caspase-independent target cell death with morphological features of apoptosis. We previously showed that GzmA acts directly on mitochondria to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disrupt the transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) but does not permeabilize the mitochondrial outer membrane. Mitochondrial damage is critical to GzmA-induced cell death since cells treated with superoxide scavengers are resistant to GzmA. Here we find that GzmA accesses the mitochondrial matrix to cleave the complex I protein NDUFS3, an iron-sulfur subunit of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex I, after Lys56 to interfere with NADH oxidation and generate superoxide anions. Target cells expressing a cleavage site mutant of NDUFS3 are resistant to GzmA-mediated cell death but remain sensitive to GzmB.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: T32 HL066987, T32 HL66987; NIAID NIH HHS: AI45587, R01 AI045587, R01 AI045587-10, R56 AI045587

    Cell 2008;133;4;681-92

  • A genetic association analysis of cognitive ability and cognitive ageing using 325 markers for 109 genes associated with oxidative stress or cognition.

    Harris SE, Fox H, Wright AF, Hayward C, Starr JM, Whalley LJ and Deary IJ

    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. Sarah.Harris@hgu.mrc.ac.uk <Sarah.Harris@hgu.mrc.ac.uk&gt;

    Background: Non-pathological cognitive ageing is a distressing condition affecting an increasing number of people in our 'ageing society'. Oxidative stress is hypothesised to have a major role in cellular ageing, including brain ageing.

    Results: Associations between cognitive ageing and 325 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located in 109 genes implicated in oxidative stress and/or cognition, were examined in a unique cohort of relatively healthy older people, on whom we have cognitive ability scores at ages 11 and 79 years (LBC1921). SNPs showing a significant positive association were then genotyped in a second cohort for whom we have cognitive ability scores at the ages of 11 and 64 years (ABC1936). An intronic SNP in the APP gene (rs2830102) was significantly associated with cognitive ageing in both LBC1921 and a combined LBC1921/ABC1936 analysis (p < 0.01), but not in ABC1936 alone.

    Conclusion: This study suggests a possible role for APP in normal cognitive ageing, in addition to its role in Alzheimer's disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MRC_MC_U127561128

    BMC genetics 2007;8;43

  • Identification of mitochondrial complex I assembly intermediates by tracing tagged NDUFS3 demonstrates the entry point of mitochondrial subunits.

    Vogel RO, Dieteren CE, van den Heuvel LP, Willems PH, Smeitink JA, Koopman WJ and Nijtmans LG

    Nijmegen Centre for Mitochondrial Disorders, Department of Paediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

    Biogenesis of human mitochondrial complex I (CI) requires the coordinated assembly of 45 subunits derived from both the mitochondrial and nuclear genome. The presence of CI subcomplexes in CI-deficient cells suggests that assembly occurs in distinct steps. However, discriminating between products of assembly or instability is problematic. Using an inducible NDUFS3-green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression system in HEK293 cells, we here provide direct evidence for the stepwise assembly of CI. Upon induction, six distinct NDUFS3-GFP-containing subcomplexes gradually appeared on a blue native Western blot also observed in wild type HEK293 mitochondria. Their stability was demonstrated by differential solubilization and heat incubation, which additionally allowed their distinction from specific products of CI instability and breakdown. Inhibition of mitochondrial translation under conditions of steady state labeling resulted in an accumulation of two of the NDUFS3-GFP-containing subcomplexes (100 and 150 kDa) and concomitant disappearance of the fully assembled complex. Lifting inhibition reversed this effect, demonstrating that these two subcomplexes are true assembly intermediates. Composition analysis showed that this event was accompanied by the incorporation of at least one mitochondrial DNA-encoded subunit, thereby revealing the first entry point of these subunits.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;10;7582-90

  • Coupling mitochondrial respiratory chain to cell death: an essential role of mitochondrial complex I in the interferon-beta and retinoic acid-induced cancer cell death.

    Huang G, Chen Y, Lu H and Cao X

    Signal Transduction Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore, Republic of Singapore.

    Combination of retinoic acids (RAs) and interferons (IFNs) has synergistic apoptotic effects and is used in cancer treatment. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) plays an essential role in the IFN-beta/RA-induced cancer cell death. We found that IFN-beta/RA upregulates the expression of MRC complex subunits. Mitochondrial-nuclear translocation of these subunits was not observed, but overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which causes loss of mitochondrial function, was detected upon IFN-beta/RA treatment. Knockdown of GRIM-19 (gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality-19) and NDUFS3 (NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 3), two subunits of MRC complex I, by siRNA in two cancer cell lines conferred resistance to IFN-beta/RA-induced apoptosis and reduced ROS production. In parallel, expression of late genes induced by IFN-beta/RA that are directly involved in growth inhibition and cell death was also repressed in the knockdown cells. Our data suggest that the MRC regulates IFN-beta/RA-induced cell death by modulating ROS production and late gene expression.

    Cell death and differentiation 2007;14;2;327-37

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Structural organization of mitochondrial human complex I: role of the ND4 and ND5 mitochondria-encoded subunits and interaction with prohibitin.

    Bourges I, Ramus C, Mousson de Camaret B, Beugnot R, Remacle C, Cardol P, Hofhaus G and Issartel JP

    UMR 5090 CNRS-DRDC, CEA Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9, France.

    Mitochondria-encoded ND (NADH dehydrogenase) subunits, as components of the hydrophobic part of complex I, are essential for NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity. Mutations or lack of expression of these subunits have significant pathogenic consequences in humans. However, the way these events affect complex I assembly is poorly documented. To understand the effects of particular mutations in ND subunits on complex I assembly, we studied four human cell lines: ND4 non-expressing cells, ND5 non-expressing cells, and rho degrees cells that do not express any ND subunits, in comparison with normal complex I control cells. In control cells, all the seven analysed nuclear-encoded complex I subunits were found to be attached to the mitochondrial inner membrane, except for the 24 kDa subunit, which was nearly equally partitioned between the membranes and the matrix. Absence of a single ND subunit, or even all the seven ND subunits, caused no major changes in the nuclear-encoded complex I subunit content of mitochondria. However, in cells lacking ND4 or ND5, very low amounts of 24 kDa subunit were found associated with the membranes, whereas most of the other nuclear-encoded subunits remained attached. In contrast, membrane association of most of the nuclear subunits was significantly reduced in the absence of all seven ND proteins. Immunopurification detected several subcomplexes. One of these, containing the 23, 30 and 49 kDa subunits, also contained prohibitin. This is the first description of prohibitin interaction with complex I subunits and suggests that this protein might play a role in the assembly or degradation of mitochondrial complex I.

    The Biochemical journal 2004;383;Pt. 3;491-9

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Mutant NDUFS3 subunit of mitochondrial complex I causes Leigh syndrome.

    Bénit P, Slama A, Cartault F, Giurgea I, Chretien D, Lebon S, Marsac C, Munnich A, Rötig A and Rustin P

    Unité de Recherche sur les Handicaps Génétiques de l'Enfant (INSERM U393) and Département de Génétique, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris Cedex 15, France.

    Respiratory chain complex I deficiency represents a genetically heterogeneous group of diseases resulting from mutations in mitochondrial or nuclear genes. Mutations have been reported in 13 of the 14 subunits encoding the core of complex I (seven mitochondrial and six nuclear genes) and these result in Leigh or Leigh-like syndromes or cardiomyopathy. In this study, a combination of denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and sequence analysis was used to study the NDUFS3 gene in a series of complex I deficient patients. Mutations found in this gene (NADH dehydrogenase iron-sulphur protein 3), coding for the seventh and last subunit of complex I core, were shown to cause late onset Leigh syndrome, optic atrophy, and complex I deficiency. A biochemical diagnosis of complex I deficiency on cultured amniocytes from a later pregnancy was confirmed through the identification of disease causing NDUFS3 mutations in these cells. While mutations in the NDUFS3 gene thus result in Leigh syndrome, a dissimilar clinical phenotype is observed in mutations in the NDUFV2 and NDUFS2 genes, resulting in encephalomyopathy and cardiomyopathy. The reasons for these differences are uncertain.

    Journal of medical genetics 2004;41;1;14-7

  • Human complex I defects can be resolved by monoclonal antibody analysis into distinct subunit assembly patterns.

    Triepels RH, Hanson BJ, van den Heuvel LP, Sundell L, Marusich MF, Smeitink JA and Capaldi RA

    Department of Pediatrics, Nijmegen Center for Mitochondrial Disorders, University Hospital Nijmegen St. Radboud, 6500 HB Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

    Complex I defects are one of the most frequent causes of mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders. Therefore, it is important to find new approaches for detecting and characterizing Complex I deficiencies. In this paper, we introduce a new set of monoclonal antibodies that react with 39-, 30-, 20-, 18-, 15-, and 8-kDa subunits of Complex I. These antibodies are shown to aid in diagnosis of Complex I deficiencies and add understanding to the genotype-phenotype relationships of different mutations. A total of 11 different patients were examined. Four patients had undefined Complex I defects, whereas the other patients had defects in NDUFV1, NDUFS2 (two patients), NDUFS4 (two patients), NDUFS7, and NDUFS8. We show here that Western blotting with these antibodies, particularly when used in conjunction with sucrose gradient studies and enzymatic activity measurements, helps distinguish catalytic versus assembly defects and further distinguishes between mutations in different subunits. Furthermore, different mutations in the same gene are shown to give very similar subunit profiles, and we show that one of the patients is a good candidate for having a defect in a Complex I assembly factor.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL24526; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM07759

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;12;8892-7

  • Decreased protein levels of complex I 30-kDa subunit in fetal Down syndrome brains.

    Kim SH, Fountoulakis M, Dierssen M and Lubec G

    Department of Pediatrics, University of Vienna, Austria.

    Defects of mitochondrial electron transport enzymes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. In previous work, we reported decreased protein levels of mitochondrial electron transport enzyme subunits in adult brain with Down syndrome (DS). However it is not clear whether cellular damage due to mitochondrial defects in brain of DS fetus begins in utero. Here we investigated the protein levels of mitochondrial electron transport enzymes in fetal DS brain using the proteomic technologies. Two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectroscopy (MALDI-MS) and specific software for quantification were used. The protein levels of complex I 30-kDa subunit were significantly decreased in cerebral cortex of fetal DS brain. We conclude that decreased mitochondrial electron transport enzyme subunits in fetal DS brains could contribute to the impaired energy and free radical metabolism affecting brain development in DS fetus. Furthermore, the defects of mitochondrial electron enzymes shown in adult DS brains could begin in utero and continue during the life span of the individual with DS.

    Journal of neural transmission. Supplementum 2001;61;109-16

  • Human NDUFS3 gene coding for the 30-kDa subunit of mitochondrial complex I: genomic organization and expression.

    Procaccio V, Lescuyer P, Bourges I, Beugnot R, Duborjal H, Depetris D, Mousson B, Montfort MF, Smeets H, De Coo R and Issartel JP

    Laboratoire BECP-EA2943 UJF/LRA6V CEA-DBMS, CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, cedex 9, France.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 2000;11;9;808-10

  • Gene expression profiling in the human hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and full-length cDNA cloning.

    Hu RM, Han ZG, Song HD, Peng YD, Huang QH, Ren SX, Gu YJ, Huang CH, Li YB, Jiang CL, Fu G, Zhang QH, Gu BW, Dai M, Mao YF, Gao GF, Rong R, Ye M, Zhou J, Xu SH, Gu J, Shi JX, Jin WR, Zhang CK, Wu TM, Huang GY, Chen Z, Chen MD and Chen JL

    Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Institute of Endocrinology, Shanghai Second Medical University, China.

    The primary neuroendocrine interface, hypothalamus and pituitary, together with adrenals, constitute the major axis responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis and the response to the perturbations in the environment. The gene expression profiling in the human hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis was catalogued by generating a large amount of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), followed by bioinformatics analysis (http://www.chgc.sh.cn/ database). Totally, 25,973 sequences of good quality were obtained from 31,130 clones (83.4%) from cDNA libraries of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands. After eliminating 5,347 sequences corresponding to repetitive elements and mtDNA, 20,626 ESTs could be assembled into 9, 175 clusters (3,979, 3,074, and 4,116 clusters in hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands, respectively) when overlapping ESTs were integrated. Of these clusters, 2,777 (30.3%) corresponded to known genes, 4,165 (44.8%) to dbESTs, and 2,233 (24.3%) to novel ESTs. The gene expression profiles reflected well the functional characteristics of the three levels in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, because most of the 20 genes with highest expression showed statistical difference in terms of tissue distribution, including a group of tissue-specific functional markers. Meanwhile, some findings were made with regard to the physiology of the axis, and 200 full-length cDNAs of novel genes were cloned and sequenced. All of these data may contribute to the understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of human life.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;17;9543-8

  • cDNA of eight nuclear encoded subunits of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase: human complex I cDNA characterization completed.

    Loeffen JL, Triepels RH, van den Heuvel LP, Schuelke M, Buskens CA, Smeets RJ, Trijbels JM and Smeitink JA

    University Hospital Nijmegen, Nijmegen Center for Mitochondrial Disorders, The Netherlands.

    NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is an extremely complicated multiprotein complex located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Its main function is the transport of electrons from NADH to ubiquinone, which is accompanied by translocation of protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space. Human complex I appears to consist of 41 subunits of which 34 are encoded by nDNA. Here we report the cDNA sequences of the hitherto uncharacterized 8 nuclear encoded subunits, all located within the hydrophobic protein (HP) fraction of complex I. Now all currently known 41 proteins of human NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase have been characterized and reported in literature, which enables more complete mutational analysis studies of isolated complex I-deficient patients.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1998;253;2;415-22

  • cDNA sequence and chromosomal localization of the remaining three human nuclear encoded iron sulphur protein (IP) subunits of complex I: the human IP fraction is completed.

    Loeffen J, van den Heuvel L, Smeets R, Triepels R, Sengers R, Trijbels F and Smeitink J

    Nijmegen Center for Mitochondrial Disorders, University Children's Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

    NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain can be fragmented in a flavoprotein (FP), iron-sulfur protein (IP), and hydrophobic protein (HP) subfraction. The IP subfraction is hypothesized to be significant, since it contains important prosthetic groups highly conserved among species. We cloned the cDNA of three remaining human NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunits of this IP fraction: the NDUFS2 (49 kDa), NDUFS3 (30 kDa), and NDUFS6 (13 kDa) subunits. All presented cDNAs include the complete open reading frame (ORF), which consist of 1392, 795, and 375 base pairs, coding for 463, 264, and 124 amino acids, respectively. The latter show 96, 90, and 83% homology with the corresponding bovine translation products. The 3' untranslated regions (UTR) are complete in all three cDNAs. Polymerase chain reaction performed with DNA isolated from somatic human-rodent cell hybrids containing defined human chromosomes as template gave a human-specific signal which mapped the NDUFS2 and NDUFS3 subunits to chromosomes 1 and 11, respectively. In the case of the NDUFS6 subunit a pseudogene may be present since signals were seen in the lanes containing chromosomes 5 and 6. The NDUFS2 contains a highly conserved protein kinase C phosphorylation site and the NDUFS3 subunit contains a highly conserved casein kinase II phosphorylation site which make them strong candidates for future mutation detection studies in enzymatic complex I-deficient patients.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1998;247;3;751-8

  • Intron based radiation hybrid mapping of 15 complex I genes of the human electron transport chain.

    Emahazion T, Beskow A, Gyllensten U and Brookes AJ

    Medical Genetics Unit, Department of Genetics and Pathology, Biomedical Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

    At least 34 complex I subunits of the electron transport chain are encoded by the nuclear genome, but only 14 of these have been mapped in the human. To rapidly map additional subunits, we have performed a combination of database mining and direct "wet" experimentation to identify intron and/or 5' upstream genomic DNA regions for 16 complex I genes. Wet experimentation was applied to 5 genes, and involved direct PCR amplification of introns by inter-exon PCR or splinkerette based PCR walking. Database mining was applied to 11 genes, and entailed the identification of incompletely spliced mRNAs and genomic CpG island clone sequences. This data was in files that carried no documentary description of the non-exon regions. Non-exon sequences were thus derived for 15 complex I genes and used to design functional gene specific PCR assays. Radiation hybrid mapping of these PCRs located 15 complex I genes to chromosomes l, 4, 5 (2 genes), 7 (2 genes), 8, 9 (2 genes), 11, 14, 16 (2 genes), 18, and 19.

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1998;82;1-2;115-9

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • Treatment of Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis with ciprofloxacin.

    Dawson SJ and White LA

    Department of Microbiology, Southampton General Hospital, U.K.

    A patient with Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. The response to treatment with cefotaxime and netilmicin for 12 days was poor but was satisfactory to a 6 weeks' course of ciprofloxacin.

    The Journal of infection 1992;24;3;317-20

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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