G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001553
Gene symbol
ATP6V1C1 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 42kDa, V1 subunit C1
Orthologue
G00000304 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000155097 (Ensembl human gene)
528 (Entrez Gene)
635 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ATP6V1C1 (GeneCards)
Literature
603097 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:856 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P21283 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • VATC
  • Vma5

Literature (19)

Pubmed - other

  • V-ATPase interacts with ARNO and Arf6 in early endosomes and regulates the protein degradative pathway.

    Hurtado-Lorenzo A, Skinner M, El Annan J, Futai M, Sun-Wada GH, Bourgoin S, Casanova J, Wildeman A, Bechoua S, Ausiello DA, Brown D and Marshansky V

    Program in Membrane Biology & Nephrology Division, Richard Simches Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

    The recruitment of the small GTPase Arf6 and ARNO from cytosol to endosomal membranes is driven by V-ATPase-dependent intra-endosomal acidification. The molecular mechanism that mediates this pH-sensitive recruitment and its role are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Arf6 interacts with the c-subunit, and ARNO with the a2-isoform of V-ATPase. The a2-isoform is targeted to early endosomes, interacts with ARNO in an intra-endosomal acidification-dependent manner, and disruption of this interaction results in reversible inhibition of endocytosis. Inhibition of endosomal acidification abrogates protein trafficking between early and late endosomal compartments. These data demonstrate the crucial role of early endosomal acidification and V-ATPase/ARNO/Arf6 interactions in the regulation of the endocytic degradative pathway. They also indicate that V-ATPase could modulate membrane trafficking by recruiting and interacting with ARNO and Arf6; characteristics that are consistent with the role of V-ATPase as an essential component of the endosomal pH-sensing machinery.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK38452, DK42956, DK43341, DK57521

    Nature cell biology 2006;8;2;124-36

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T 5a8 , Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Neurotransmitter release: the dark side of the vacuolar-H+ATPase.

    Morel N

    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire, CNRS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France. nicolas.morel@nbcm.cnrs-gif.fr

    Vacuolar-H+ATPase (V-ATPase) is a complex enzyme with numerous subunits organized in two domains. The membrane domain V0 contains a proteolipid hexameric ring that translocates protons when ATP is hydrolysed by the catalytic cytoplasmic sector (V1). In nerve terminals, V-ATPase generates an electrochemical proton gradient that is acid and positive inside synaptic vesicles. It is used by specific neurotransmitter-proton antiporters to accumulate neurotransmitters inside their storage organelles. During synaptic activity, neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles docked at specialized portions of the presynaptic plasma membrane, the active zones. A fusion pore opens that allows the neurotransmitter to be released from the synaptic vesicle lumen into the synaptic cleft. We briefly review experimental data suggesting that the membrane domain of V-ATPase could be such a fusion pore. We also discuss the functional implications for quantal neurotransmitter release of the sequential use of the same V-ATPase membrane domain in two different events, neurotransmitter accumulation in synaptic vesicles first, and then release from these organelles during synaptic activity.

    Biology of the cell 2003;95;7;453-7

  • Revised nomenclature for mammalian vacuolar-type H+ -ATPase subunit genes.

    Smith AN, Lovering RC, Futai M, Takeda J, Brown D and Karet FE

    To date, the nomenclature of mammalian genes encoding the numerous subunits and their many isoforms that comprise the family of vacuolar H(+)-ATPases has not been systematic, resulting in confusion both in the literature and among investigators. We present the official new system for these genes, approved by both Human and Mouse Gene Nomenclature Committees.

    Molecular cell 2003;12;4;801-3

  • Structural and functional characterization of two human V-ATPase subunit gene promoters.

    Izumi H, Ise T, Murakami T, Torigoe T, Ishiguchi H, Uramoto H, Yoshida Y, Yoshida T, Tanabe M and Kohno K

    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi-ku, 807-8555, Kitakyushu, Japan.

    The vacuolar-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a multi-subunit enzyme that couples ATP hydrolysis to proton pumping across membranes. V-ATPase genes are considered to be housekeeping genes and are expressed in human neoplastic tissue and in cell lines. We have isolated and characterized several genomic clones containing the 5'-end of the human V-ATPase genes. DNA sequence analysis of the promoters of two V-ATPase subunit genes, encoding C (ATP6C) and c (ATP6F), reveals GC-rich regions in the region of the first exon. Neither TATA- nor CCAAT-boxes were found in these promoters, but both GC-boxes and E-boxes were identified. Transient transfection analysis, using a series of 5' nested deletions of promoter-luciferase constructs in human cancer cells, demonstrated that a positive cis-acting regulatory region was present in these TATA-less promoters. The regions between -79 and -40 of the ATP6C promoter and between -245 and -99 of the ATP6F promoter were identified as being likely to be extremely important for basal promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) of these cis-regulatory regions revealed the basal promoter to be highly complex, with cooperative binding of several transcription factors, including Sp family members. These data identify the critical regulatory regions for both the ATP6C and ATP6F basal promoters and stress the functional importance of multiple protein complexes, involving the Sp family of transcription factors, in regulating gene expression.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2003;1628;2;97-104

  • Proton translocation driven by ATP hydrolysis in V-ATPases.

    Kawasaki-Nishi S, Nishi T and Forgac M

    Department of Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Ave., Boston, MA 02111, USA.

    The vacuolar H(+)-ATPases (or V-ATPases) are a family of ATP-dependent proton pumps responsible for acidification of intracellular compartments and, in certain cases, proton transport across the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. They are multisubunit complexes composed of a peripheral domain (V(1)) responsible for ATP hydrolysis and an integral domain (V(0)) responsible for proton translocation. Based upon their structural similarity to the F(1)F(0) ATP synthases, the V-ATPases are thought to operate by a rotary mechanism in which ATP hydrolysis in V(1) drives rotation of a ring of proteolipid subunits in V(0). This review is focused on the current structural knowledge of the V-ATPases as it relates to the mechanism of ATP-driven proton translocation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 34478, R01 GM034478, R37 GM034478

    FEBS letters 2003;545;1;76-85

  • The vacuolar (H+)-ATPases--nature's most versatile proton pumps.

    Nishi T and Forgac M

    Department of Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.

    The pH of intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells is a carefully controlled parameter that affects many cellular processes, including intracellular membrane transport, prohormone processing and transport of neurotransmitters, as well as the entry of many viruses into cells. The transporters responsible for controlling this crucial parameter in many intracellular compartments are the vacuolar (H+)-ATPases (V-ATPases). Recent advances in our understanding of the structure and regulation of the V-ATPases, together with the mapping of human genetic defects to genes that encode V-ATPase subunits, have led to tremendous excitement in this field.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM034478, R37 GM034478

    Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology 2002;3;2;94-103

  • Insight into hepatocellular carcinogenesis at transcriptome level by comparing gene expression profiles of hepatocellular carcinoma with those of corresponding noncancerous liver.

    Xu XR, Huang J, Xu ZG, Qian BZ, Zhu ZD, Yan Q, Cai T, Zhang X, Xiao HS, Qu J, Liu F, Huang QH, Cheng ZH, Li NG, Du JJ, Hu W, Shen KT, Lu G, Fu G, Zhong M, Xu SH, Gu WY, Huang W, Zhao XT, Hu GX, Gu JR, Chen and Han ZG

    Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai, 351 Guo Shou-Jing Road, Shanghai 201203, China.

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. In this work, we report on a comprehensive characterization of gene expression profiles of hepatitis B virus-positive HCC through the generation of a large set of 5'-read expressed sequence tag (EST) clusters (11,065 in total) from HCC and noncancerous liver samples, which then were applied to a cDNA microarray system containing 12,393 genes/ESTs and to comparison with a public database. The commercial cDNA microarray, which contains 1,176 known genes related to oncogenesis, was used also for profiling gene expression. Integrated data from the above approaches identified 2,253 genes/ESTs as candidates with differential expression. A number of genes related to oncogenesis and hepatic function/differentiation were selected for further semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis in 29 paired HCC/noncancerous liver samples. Many genes involved in cell cycle regulation such as cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, and cell cycle negative regulators were deregulated in most patients with HCC. Aberrant expression of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway and enzymes for DNA replication also could contribute to the pathogenesis of HCC. The alteration of transcription levels was noted in a large number of genes implicated in metabolism, whereas a profile change of others might represent a status of dedifferentiation of the malignant hepatocytes, both considered as potential markers of diagnostic value. Notably, the altered transcriptome profiles in HCC could be correlated to a number of chromosome regions with amplification or loss of heterozygosity, providing one of the underlying causes of the transcription anomaly of HCC.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001;98;26;15089-94

  • Animal plasma membrane energization by proton-motive V-ATPases.

    Wieczorek H, Brown D, Grinstein S, Ehrenfeld J and Harvey WR

    Department of Biology/Chemistry, University of Osnabrück, D-49069, Osnabrück, Germany.

    Proton-translocating, vacuolar-type ATPases, well known energizers of eukaryotic, vacuolar membranes, now emerge as energizers of many plasma membranes. Just as Na(+) gradients, imposed by Na(+)/K(+) ATPases, energize basolateral plasma membranes of epithelia, so voltage gradients, imposed by H(+) V-ATPases, energize apical plasma membranes. The energized membranes acidify or alkalinize compartments, absorb or secrete ions and fluids, and underwrite cellular homeostasis. V-ATPases acidify extracellular spaces of single cells such as phagocytes and osteoclasts and of polarized epithelia, such as vertebrate kidney and epididymis. They alkalinize extracellular spaces of lepidopteran midgut. V-ATPases energize fluid secretion by insect Malpighian tubules and fluid absorption by insect oocytes. They hyperpolarize external plasma membranes for Na(+) uptake by amphibian skin and fish gills. Indeed, it is likely that ion uptake by osmotically active membranes of all fresh water organisms is energized by V-ATPases. Awareness of plasma membrane energization by V-ATPases provides new perspectives for basic science and presents new opportunities for medicine and agriculture.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI22444; NIDCD NIH HHS: DC42956

    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology 1999;21;8;637-48

  • Structure and properties of the vacuolar (H+)-ATPases.

    Forgac M

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 34478, R01 GM034478

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;19;12951-4

  • Vacuolar and plasma membrane proton-adenosinetriphosphatases.

    Nelson N and Harvey WR

    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is one of the most fundamental enzymes in nature. It functions in almost every eukaryotic cell and energizes a wide variety of organelles and membranes. V-ATPases have similar structure and mechanism of action with F-ATPase and several of their subunits evolved from common ancestors. In eukaryotic cells, F-ATPases are confined to the semi-autonomous organelles, chloroplasts, and mitochondria, which contain their own genes that encode some of the F-ATPase subunits. In contrast to F-ATPases, whose primary function in eukaryotic cells is to form ATP at the expense of the proton-motive force (pmf), V-ATPases function exclusively as ATP-dependent proton pumps. The pmf generated by V-ATPases in organelles and membranes of eukaryotic cells is utilized as a driving force for numerous secondary transport processes. The mechanistic and structural relations between the two enzymes prompted us to suggest similar functional units in V-ATPase as was proposed to F-ATPase and to assign some of the V-ATPase subunit to one of four parts of a mechanochemical machine: a catalytic unit, a shaft, a hook, and a proton turbine. It was the yeast genetics that allowed the identification of special properties of individual subunits and the discovery of factors that are involved in the enzyme biogenesis and assembly. The V-ATPases play a major role as energizers of animal plasma membranes, especially apical plasma membranes of epithelial cells. This role was first recognized in plasma membranes of lepidopteran midgut and vertebrate kidney. The list of animals with plasma membranes that are energized by V-ATPases now includes members of most, if not all, animal phyla. This includes the classical Na+ absorption by frog skin, male fertility through acidification of the sperm acrosome and the male reproductive tract, bone resorption by mammalian osteoclasts, and regulation of eye pressure. V-ATPase may function in Na+ uptake by trout gills and energizes water secretion by contractile vacuoles in Dictyostelium. V-ATPase was first detected in organelles connected with the vacuolar system. It is the main if not the only primary energy source for numerous transport systems in these organelles. The driving force for the accumulation of neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles is pmf generated by V-ATPase. The acidification of lysosomes, which are required for the proper function of most of their enzymes, is provided by V-ATPase. The enzyme is also vital for the proper function of endosomes and the Golgi apparatus. In contrast to yeast vacuoles that maintain an internal pH of approximately 5.5, it is believed that the vacuoles of lemon fruit may have a pH as low as 2. Similarly, some brown and red alga maintain internal pH as low as 0.1 in their vacuoles. One of the outstanding questions in the field is how such a conserved enzyme as the V-ATPase can fulfill such diverse functions.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI-22444

    Physiological reviews 1999;79;2;361-85

  • Introduction: V-ATPases 1992-1998.

    Kane PM

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, SUNY Health Science Center, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA.

    Journal of bioenergetics and biomembranes 1999;31;1;3-5

  • The vacuolar H+-ATPase: a universal proton pump of eukaryotes.

    Finbow ME and Harrison MA

    CRC Beatson Laboratories, Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Garscube Estate, Switchback Road, Bearsden, Glasgow G61 1BD, Scotland, U.K.

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a universal component of eukaryotic organisms. It is present in the membranes of many organelles, where its proton-pumping action creates the low intra-vacuolar pH found, for example, in lysosomes. In addition, there are a number of differentiated cell types that have V-ATPases on their surface that contribute to the physiological functions of these cells. The V-ATPase is a multi-subunit enzyme composed of a membrane sector and a cytosolic catalytic sector. It is related to the familiar FoF1 ATP synthase (F-ATPase), having the same basic architectural construction, and many of the subunits from the two display identity with one another. All the core subunits of the V-ATPase have now been identified and much is known about the assembly, regulation and pharmacology of the enzyme. Recent genetic analysis has shown the V-ATPase to be a vital component of higher eukaryotes. At least one of the subunits, i.e. subunit c (ductin), may have multifunctional roles in membrane transport, providing a possible pathway of communication between cells. The structure of the membrane sector is known in some detail, and it is possible to begin to suggest how proton pumping is coupled to ATP hydrolysis.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Biochemical journal 1997;324 ( Pt 3);697-712

  • Structure, function and regulation of the vacuolar (H+)-ATPase.

    Stevens TH and Forgac M

    Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene 97403-1229, USA. stevens@molbio.uoregon.edu

    The vacuolar (H+)-ATPases (or V-ATPases) function in the acidification of intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells. The V-ATPases are multisubunit complexes composed of two functional domains. The peripheral V1 domain, a 500-kDa complex responsible for ATP hydrolysis, contains at least eight different subunits of molecular weight 70-13 (subunits A-H). The integral V0 domain, a 250-kDa complex, functions in proton translocation and contains at least five different subunits of molecular weight 100-17 (subunits a-d). Biochemical and genetic analysis has been used to identify subunits and residues involved in nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, proton translocation, and coupling of these activities. Several mechanisms have been implicated in the regulation of vacuolar acidification in vivo, including control of pump density, regulation of assembly of V1 and V0 domains, disulfide bond formation, activator or inhibitor proteins, and regulation of counterion conductance. Recent information concerning targeting and regulation of V-ATPases has also been obtained.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM034478

    Annual review of cell and developmental biology 1997;13;779-808

  • Cloning and tissue distribution of subunits C, D, and E of the human vacuolar H(+)-ATPase.

    van Hille B, Vanek M, Richener H, Green JR and Bilbe G

    Pharma Research, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.

    The vacuolar proton ATPase (V-ATPase) translocates protons into intracellular organelles or across the plasma membrane of specialised cells such as osteoclast and renal intercalated cells. The catalytic site of the V-ATPase consists of a hexamer of three A subunits and three B subunits which bind and hydrolyse ATP and are regulated by accessory subunits C, D and E. cDNAs encoding subunits C, D, and E were cloned from human osteoclastoma, a tissue highly enriched in osteoclasts, as a first step in the characterisation of the V-ATPase used by the osteoclast. By Northern blot analysis only one mRNA species were detected for each of these subunits, which is consistent the constant transcription level in all tissues irrespective of the presence of specialised cells highly enriched in V-ATPases.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1993;197;1;15-21

  • Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding the C subunit of H(+)-ATPase from bovine chromaffin granules.

    Nelson H, Mandiyan S, Noumi T, Moriyama Y, Miedel MC and Nelson N

    Roche Institute of Molecular Biology, Roche Research Center, Nutley, New Jersey 07110.

    A cDNA encoding subunit C of the V-ATPase from bovine chromaffin granules was cloned and sequenced. The gene encodes a hydrophilic protein of 382 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 43,989. Hydropathy plots revealed no apparent transmembrane segments and a rather high helix content was detected. A cDNA encoding most of the C subunit of the V-ATPase of human brain was also cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of this gene is almost identical to the bovine polypeptide with only one change of tyrosine 336 that was replaced by histidine in the human gene. Two polypeptide fragments derived from subunit E of V-ATPase from chromaffin granules were sequenced and found to be identical to the predicted amino acid sequence of this subunit from bovine kidney. These observations support the idea that the amino acid sequences of corresponding subunits from different V-ATPases are highly conserved. Unlike the A and B subunits of V-ATPases, that are homologous to the beta and alpha subunits of F-ATPases, subunits C and E showed no homology with analogous subunits of the F-ATPase family. It is proposed that the addition of the C and gamma subunits to the respective V- and F-ATPases during evolution defined them as two separate families of H(+)-ATPases.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1990;265;33;20390-3

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

Cookies Policy | Terms and Conditions. This site is hosted by Edinburgh University and the Genes to Cognition Programme.