G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001441
Gene symbol
PPP1CC (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme
Orthologue
G00000192 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000186298 (Ensembl human gene)
5501 (Entrez Gene)
183 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PPP1CC (GeneCards)
Literature
176914 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:9283 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P36873 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • PP1gamma

Literature (55)

Pubmed - other

  • Identification of potentially damaging amino acid substitutions leading to human male infertility.

    Kuzmin A, Jarvi K, Lo K, Spencer L, Chow GY, Macleod G, Wang Q and Varmuza S

    Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    There are a number of known genetic alterations found in men with nonobstructive azoospermia, or testicular failure, such as Y microdeletions and cytogenetic abnormalities. However, the etiology of nonobstructive azoospermia is unknown in the majority of men. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility that unexplained cases of nonobstructive azoospermia are caused by nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding regions of autosomal genes associated with sperm production and fertility. Using a candidate gene approach based on genetics of male infertility in mice, we resequenced nine autosomal genes from 78 infertile men displaying testicular failure using custom-made next-generation resequencing chips. Analysis of the data revealed several novel heterozygous nonsynonymous SNPs in four of nine sequenced genes in 14 of 78 infertile men. Eight SNPs in SBF1, three SNPs in LIMK2, two SNPs in LIPE, and one SNP in TBPL1 were identified. All of the novel mutations were in a heterozygous configuration, suggesting that they may be de novo mutations with dominant negative properties.

    Biology of reproduction 2009;81;2;319-26

  • GlcNAcylation of a histone methyltransferase in retinoic-acid-induced granulopoiesis.

    Fujiki R, Chikanishi T, Hashiba W, Ito H, Takada I, Roeder RG, Kitagawa H and Kato S

    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan.

    The post-translational modifications of histone tails generate a 'histone code' that defines local and global chromatin states. The resultant regulation of gene function is thought to govern cell fate, proliferation and differentiation. Reversible histone modifications such as methylation are under mutual controls to organize chromosomal events. Among the histone modifications, methylation of specific lysine and arginine residues seems to be critical for chromatin configuration and control of gene expression. Methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) changes chromatin into a transcriptionally active state. Reversible modification of proteins by beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in response to serum glucose levels regulates diverse cellular processes. However, the epigenetic impact of protein GlcNAcylation is unknown. Here we report that nuclear GlcNAcylation of a histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMT), MLL5, by O-GlcNAc transferase facilitates retinoic-acid-induced granulopoiesis in human HL60 promyelocytes through methylation of H3K4. MLL5 is biochemically identified in a GlcNAcylation-dependent multi-subunit complex associating with nuclear retinoic acid receptor RARalpha (also known as RARA), serving as a mono- and di-methyl transferase to H3K4. GlcNAcylation at Thr 440 in the MLL5 SET domain evokes its H3K4 HKMT activity and co-activates RARalpha in target gene promoters. Increased nuclear GlcNAcylation by means of O-GlcNAc transferase potentiates retinoic-acid-induced HL60 granulopoiesis and restores the retinoic acid response in the retinoic-acid-resistant HL60-R2 cell line. Thus, nuclear MLL5 GlcNAcylation triggers cell lineage determination of HL60 through activation of its HKMT activity.

    Nature 2009;459;7245;455-9

  • Mutually exclusive binding of PP1 and RNA to AKAP149 affects the mitochondrial network.

    Rogne M, Stokka AJ, Taskén K, Collas P and Küntziger T

    1Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oslo, Post Box 1112, Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway.

    A-kinase-anchoring protein 149 (AKAP149) is a membrane protein of the mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope network. AKAP149 controls the subcellular localization and temporal order of protein phosphorylation by tethering protein kinases and phosphatases to these compartments. AKAP149 also includes an RNA-binding K homology (KH) domain, the loss of function of which has been associated in other proteins with neurodegenerative syndromes. We show here that protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) binding occurs through a conserved RVXF motif found in the KH domain of AKAP149 and that PP1 and RNA binding to this same site is mutually exclusive and controlled through a novel, phosphorylation-dependent mechanism. A collapse of the mitochondrial network is observed upon introduction of RNA-binding deficient mutants of AKAP149, pointing to the importance of RNA tethering to the mitochondrial membrane by AKAP149 for mitochondrial distribution.

    Human molecular genetics 2009;18;5;978-87

  • Identification of a protective role for protein phosphatase 1cgamma1 against oxidative stress-induced vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis.

    Tchivilev I, Madamanchi NR, Vendrov AE, Niu XL and Runge MS

    Department of Medicine, Carolina Cardiovascular Biology Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7126, USA.

    The development of therapeutic strategies to inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated damage in blood vessels has been limited by a lack of specific targets for intervention. Targeting ROS-mediated events in the vessel wall is of interest, because ROS play important roles throughout atherogenesis. In early atherosclerosis, ROS stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth, whereas in late stages of lesion development, ROS induce VSMC apoptosis, causing atherosclerotic plaque instability. To identify putative protective genes against oxidative stress, mouse aortic VSMC were infected with a retroviral human heart cDNA expression library, and apoptosis was induced in virus-infected cells by 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ) treatment. A total of 17 different, complete cDNAs were identified from the DMNQ-resistant VSMC clones by PCR amplification and sequencing. The cDNA encoding PP1cgamma1 (catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1) was present in several independent DMNQ-resistant VSMC clones. DMNQ increased mitochondrial ROS production, caspase-3/7 activity, DNA fragmentation, and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential in VSMC while decreasing PP1cgamma1 activity and expression. Depletion of PP1cgamma1 expression by short hairpin RNA significantly enhanced basal as well as DMNQ-induced VSMC apoptosis. PP1cgamma1 overexpression abrogated DMNQ-induced JNK1 activity, p53 Ser(15) phosphorylation, and Bax expression and protected VSMC against DMNQ-induced apoptosis. In addition, PP1cgamma1 overexpression attenuated DMNQ-induced caspase-3/7 activation and DNA fragmentation. Inhibition of p53 protein expression using small interfering RNA abrogated DMNQ-induced Bax expression and significantly attenuated VSMC apoptosis. Together, these data indicate that PP1cgamma1 overexpression promotes VSMC survival by interfering with JNK1 and p53 phosphorylation cascades involved in apoptosis.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-57352; NIA NIH HHS: AG 024282

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;32;22193-205

  • NOM1 targets protein phosphatase I to the nucleolus.

    Gunawardena SR, Ruis BL, Meyer JA, Kapoor M and Conklin KF

    Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

    Protein phosphatase I (PP1) is an essential eukaryotic serine/threonine phosphatase required for many cellular processes, including cell division, signaling, and metabolism. In mammalian cells there are three major isoforms of the PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1alpha, PP1beta, and PP1gamma) that are over 90% identical. Despite this high degree of identity, the PP1 catalytic subunits show distinct localization patterns in interphase cells; PP1alpha is primarily nuclear and largely excluded from nucleoli, whereas PP1gamma and to a lesser extent PP1beta concentrate in the nucleoli. The subcellular localization and the substrate specificity of PP1 catalytic subunits are determined by their interaction with targeting subunits, most of which bind PP1 through a so-called "RVXF" sequence. Although PP1 targeting subunits have been identified that direct PP1 to a number of subcellular locations and/or substrates, no targeting subunit has been identified that localizes PP1 to the nucleolus. Identification of nucleolar PP1 targeting subunit(s) is important because all three PP1 isoforms are included in the nucleolar proteome, enzymatically active PP1 is present in nucleoli, and PP1gamma is highly concentrated in nucleoli of interphase cells. In this study, we identify NOM1 (nucleolar protein with MIF4G domain 1) as a PP1-interacting protein and further identify the NOM1 RVXF motif required for its binding to PP1. We also define the NOM1 nucleolar localization sequence. Finally, we demonstrate that NOM1 can target PP1 to the nucleolus and show that a specific NOM1 RVXF motif and the NOM1 nucleolar localization sequence are required for this targeting activity. We therefore conclude that NOM1 is a PP1 nucleolar targeting subunit, the first identified in eukaryotic cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;1;398-404

  • Confluence induced threonine41/serine45 phospho-beta-catenin dephosphorylation via ceramide-mediated activation of PP1cgamma.

    Marchesini N, Jones JA and Hannun YA

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, 175 Ashley Ave., POB 250509, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.

    It was previously observed that cell confluence induced up-regulation of neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) and increased ceramide levels [Marchesini N., Osta W., Bielawski J., Luberto C., Obeid L.M. and Hannun Y.A. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 25101-11]. In this study, we show that, in MCF7 cells, confluence induces the dephosphorylation of phosphorylated-beta-catenin at threonine41/serine45. The effect of confluence on beta-catenin dephosphorylation was prevented by down regulation of nSMase2 using siRNA; reciprocally, exogenous addition of short or very long chain ceramides induced dephosphorylation of beta-catenin. The serine/threonine protein phosphatase inhibitors calyculin A and okadaic acid prevented beta-catenin dephosphorylation during confluence. The specific phosphatase involved was determined by studies using siRNA against the major serine/threonine phosphatases, and the results showed that a specific siRNA against PP1cgamma prevented dephosphorylation of beta-catenin. Moreover, exogenous ceramides and confluence were found to induce the translocation of PP1cgamma to the plasma membrane. All together these results establish: A) a specific intracellular pathway involving the activation of PP1 to mediate the effects of confluence-induced beta-catenin dephosphorylation and B) PP1 as a lipid-regulated protein phosphatase downstream of nSMase2/ceramide. Finally, evidence is provided for a role for this pathway in regulating cell motility during confluence.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA87584, R01 CA087584; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 43825, R01 GM043825, R37 GM043825, R37 GM043825-18

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2007;1771;12;1418-28

  • S6K1-mediated disassembly of mitochondrial URI/PP1gamma complexes activates a negative feedback program that counters S6K1 survival signaling.

    Djouder N, Metzler SC, Schmidt A, Wirbelauer C, Gstaiger M, Aebersold R, Hess D and Krek W

    Institute of Cell Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland.

    S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) acts to integrate nutrient and growth factor signals to promote cell growth but also cell survival as a mitochondria-tethered protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates the proapoptotic molecule BAD. Here we report that the prefoldin chaperone URI represents a mitochondrial substrate of S6K1. In growth factor-deprived or rapamycin-treated cells, URI forms stable complexes with protein phosphatase (PP)1gamma at mitochondria, thereby inhibiting the activity of the bound enzyme. Growth factor stimulation induces disassembly of URI/PP1gamma complexes through S6K1-mediated phosphorylation of URI at serine 371. This activates a PP1gamma-dependent negative feedback program that decreases S6K1 activity and BAD phosphorylation, thereby altering the threshold for apoptosis. These findings establish URI and PP1gamma as integral components of an S6K1-regulated mitochondrial pathway dedicated, in part, to oppose sustained S6K1 survival signaling and to ensure that the mitochondrial threshold for apoptosis is set in accord with nutrient and growth factor availability.

    Molecular cell 2007;28;1;28-40

  • The interaction of PP1 with BRCA1 and analysis of their expression in breast tumors.

    Winter SL, Bosnoyan-Collins L, Pinnaduwage D and Andrulis IL

    Fred A, Litwin Centre for Cancer Genetics, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. sherry.winter@moffitt.org

    Background: The breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA1, is implicated in multiple cellular processes including DNA repair, the transactivation of genes, and the ubiquitination of proteins; however its precise functions remain to be fully understood. Identification and characterization of BRCA1 protein interactions may help to further elucidate the function and regulation of BRCA1. Additionally, detection of changes in the expression levels of BRCA1 and its interacting proteins in primary human breast tumors may further illuminate their role in the development of breast cancer.

    Methods: We performed a yeast two-hybrid study to identify proteins that interact with exon11 of BRCA1 and identified Protein Phosphatase 1beta (PP1beta), an isoform of the serine threonine phosphatase, PP1. GST-pull down and co-immunoprecipitation assays were performed to further characterize this interaction. Additionally, Real-Time PCR was utilized to determine the expression of BRCA1, PP1alpha, beta and gamma in primary human breast tumors and normal breast tissue to identify alterations in the expression of these genes in breast cancer.

    Results: PP1 and BRCA1 co-immunoprecipitate and the region within BRCA1 as well as the specific PP1 interacting domain mediating this interaction were identified. Following mRNA expression analysis, we identified low levels of BRCA1 and variable levels of PP1alpha and beta in primary sporadic human breast tumors. Furthermore, BRCA1, PP1beta and PP1gamma were significantly higher in normal tissue specimens (BRCA1 p = 0.01, PP1beta: p = 0.03, PP1gamma, p = 1.9 x 10(-6)) compared to sporadic breast tumor samples. Interestingly, we also identified that ER negative tumors are associated with low levels of PP1alpha expression.

    Conclusion: The identification and characterization of the interaction of BRCA1 with PP1 and detection of changes in the expression of PP1 and genes encoding other BRCA1 associated proteins identifies important genetic pathways that may be significant to breast tumorigenesis. Alterations in the expression of genes, particularly phosphatases that operate in association with BRCA1, could negatively affect the function of BRCA1 or BRCA1 associated proteins, contributing to the development of breast cancer.

    BMC cancer 2007;7;85

  • A limited screen for protein interactions reveals new roles for protein phosphatase 1 in cell cycle control and apoptosis.

    Flores-Delgado G, Liu CW, Sposto R and Berndt N

    Division Of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA.

    Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) catalytic subunits typically combine with other proteins that modulate their activity, direct them to distinct substrates, or serve as substrates for PP1. More than 50 PP1-interacting proteins (PIPs) have been identified so far. Given there are approximately 10 000 phosphoproteins in mammals, many PIPs remain to be discovered. We have used arrays containing 100 carefully selected antibodies to identify novel PIPs that are important in cell proliferation and cell survival in murine fetal lung epithelial cells and human A549 lung cancer cells. The antibody arrays identified 31 potential novel PIPs and 11 of 17 well-known PIPs included as controls, suggesting a sensitivity of at least 65%. A majority of the interactions between PP1 and putative PIPs were isoform- or cell type-specific. We confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation that 9 of these proteins associate with PP1: APAF-1, Bax, E-cadherin, HSP-70, Id2, p19Skp1, p53, PCNA, and PTEN. We examined two of these interactions in greater detail in A549 cells. Exposure to nicotine enhanced association of PP1 with Bax (and Bad), but also induced inhibitory phosphorylation of PP1. In addition to p19Skp1, PP1alpha antibodies also coprecipitated cullin 1, suggesting that PP1alpha is associated with the SCF1 complex. This interaction was only detectable during the G1/S transition and S phase. Forced loss of PP1 function decreased the levels of p27Kip1, a well-known SCF1 substrate, suggesting that PP1 may rescue proteins from ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated destruction. Both of these novel interactions are consistent with PP1 facilitating cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01-CA54167

    Journal of proteome research 2007;6;3;1165-75

  • The MyD116 African swine fever virus homologue interacts with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 and activates its phosphatase activity.

    Rivera J, Abrams C, Hernáez B, Alcázar A, Escribano JM, Dixon L and Alonso C

    Departamento de Biotecnología, INIA, Ctra. La Coruña km 7.5, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

    The DP71L protein of African swine fever virus (ASFV) shares sequence similarity with the herpes simplex virus ICP34.5 protein over a C-terminal domain. We showed that the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) interacts specifically with the ASFV DP71L protein in a yeast two-hybrid screen. The chimeric full-length DP71L protein, from ASFV strain Badajoz 71 (BA71V), fused to glutathione S-transferase (DP71L-GST) was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to bind specifically to the PP1-alpha catalytic subunit expressed as a histidine fusion protein (6xHis-PP1alpha) in E. coli. The functional effects of this interaction were investigated by measuring the levels of PP1 and PP2A in ASFV-infected Vero cells. This showed that infection with wild-type ASFV strain BA71V activated PP1 between two- and threefold over that of mock-infected cells. This activation did not occur in cells infected with the BA71V isolate in which the DP71L gene had been deleted, suggesting that expression of DP71L leads to PP1 activation. In contrast, no effect was observed on the activity of PP2A following ASFV infection. We showed that infection of cells with wild-type BA71V virus resulted in decreased phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2alpha). ICP34.5 recruits PP1 to dephosphorylate the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translational initiation factor 2 (also known as eIF-2alpha); possibly the ASFV DP71L protein has a similar function.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: BBS/E/I/00001003, BBS/E/I/00001040; Wellcome Trust: WT0075813/C/04/Z

    Journal of virology 2007;81;6;2923-9

  • Regulation of protein phosphatase 1gamma activity in hypoxia through increased interaction with NIPP1: implications for cellular metabolism.

    Comerford KM, Leonard MO, Cummins EP, Fitzgerald KT, Beullens M, Bollen M and Taylor CT

    School of Medicine and Medical Science, UCD Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Ireland.

    Eukaryotic cells sense decreased oxygen levels and respond by altering their metabolic strategy to sustain non-respiratory ATP production through glycolysis, and thus promote cell survival in a hypoxic environment. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) has been recently implicated in the governance of the rational use of energy when metabolic substrates are abundant and contributes to cellular recovery following metabolic stress. Under conditions of hypoxia, the expression of the gamma isoform of PP1 (PP1gamma), is diminished, an event we have hypothesized to be involved in the adaptive cellular response to hypoxia. Decreased PP1gamma activity in hypoxia has a profound impact on the activity of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), a major transcriptional regulator of metabolic genes and processes. Here, we demonstrate a further mechanism leading to inhibition of PP1 activity in hypoxia which occurs at least in part through increased association with the nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP1), an event dependent upon decreased basal cAMP/PKA-dependent signaling. Using a dominant negative NIPP1 construct, we provide evidence that NIPP1 plays a major role in the regulation of both CREB protein expression and CREB-dependent transcription in hypoxia. Furthermore, we demonstrate functional sequellae of such events including altered gene expression and recovery of cellular ATP levels. In summary, we demonstrate that interaction with NIPP1 mediates decreased PP1gamma activity in hypoxia, an event which may constitute an inherent part of the cellular oxygen-sensing machinery and may play a role in physiologic adaptation to hypoxia.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Journal of cellular physiology 2006;209;1;211-8

  • Crystal structures of protein phosphatase-1 bound to motuporin and dihydromicrocystin-LA: elucidation of the mechanism of enzyme inhibition by cyanobacterial toxins.

    Maynes JT, Luu HA, Cherney MM, Andersen RJ, Williams D, Holmes CF and James MN

    Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Group in Protein Structure and Function Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta, Canada T6G 2H7.

    The microcystins and nodularins are tumour promoting hepatotoxins that are responsible for global adverse human health effects and wildlife fatalities in countries where drinking water supplies contain cyanobacteria. The toxins function by inhibiting broad specificity Ser/Thr protein phosphatases in the host cells, thereby disrupting signal transduction pathways. A previous crystal structure of a microcystin bound to the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1c) showed distinct changes in the active site region when compared with protein phosphatase-1 structures bound to other toxins. We have elucidated the crystal structures of the cyanotoxins, motuporin (nodularin-V) and dihydromicrocystin-LA bound to human protein phosphatase-1c (gamma isoform). The atomic structures of these complexes reveal the structural basis for inhibition of protein phosphatases by these toxins. Comparisons of the structures of the cyanobacterial toxin:phosphatase complexes explain the biochemical mechanism by which microcystins but not nodularins permanently modify their protein phosphatase targets by covalent addition to an active site cysteine residue.

    Journal of molecular biology 2006;356;1;111-20

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T 5a8 , Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Nuclear targeting of protein phosphatase-1 by HIV-1 Tat protein.

    Ammosova T, Jerebtsova M, Beullens M, Lesage B, Jackson A, Kashanchi F, Southerland W, Gordeuk VR, Bollen M and Nekhai S

    Center for Sickle Cell Disease, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA.

    Transcription of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genes is activated by HIV-1 Tat protein, which induces phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase-II by CDK9/cyclin T1. We previously showed that Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription is regulated by protein phosphatase-1 (PP1). In the present study we demonstrate that Tat interacts with PP1 and that disruption of this interaction prevents induction of HIV-1 transcription. We show that PP1 interacts with Tat in part through the binding of Val36 and Phe38 of Tat to PP1 and that Tat is involved in the nuclear and subnuclear targeting of PP1. The PP1 binding mutant Tat-V36A/F38A displayed a decreased affinity for PP1 and was a poor activator of HIV-1 transcription. Surprisingly, Tat-Q35R mutant that had a higher affinity for PP1 was also a poor activator of HIV-1 transcription, because strong PP1 binding competed out binding of Tat to CDK9/cyclin T1. Our results suggest that Tat might function as a nuclear regulator of PP1 and that interaction of Tat with PP1 is critical for activation of HIV-1 transcription by Tat.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: 5G12RR03048; NHLBI NIH HHS: UH1 HL03679; NIAID NIH HHS: AI056973-01, AI43894, AI44357, R21 AI056973, R21 AI056973-02

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;43;36364-71

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Identification of a novel phosphatidic acid binding domain in protein phosphatase-1.

    Jones JA, Rawles R and Hannun YA

    Molecular and Cellular Biology and Pathobiology Program, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA.

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) has been recognized as a lipid second messenger, yet few cellular targets for PA have been identified. Previous work demonstrated PA as a potent and noncompetitive tight-binding inhibitor of the catalytic subunit (gamma isoform) of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1c gamma) in vitro. The high potency of inhibition, coupled with high specificity for PA over other phospholipids, suggested the presence of a high-affinity PA binding domain on PP1c gamma. In the current study, quantification of the binding interaction and identification of the binding domain were pursued. Surface plasmon resonance was employed to quantitate the interaction between PP1c gamma and immobilized mixed lipid vesicles of PA/phosphatidylcholine (PC) or PC alone. The data disclosed a high-affinity interaction with a KD measured in the low (1-40) nanomolar range, consistent with the range of Ki previously obtained from in vitro enzymatic assays. Next, identification of the segment of PP1 necessary for PA binding was determined using a deletion mutagenesis strategy. Binding assays revealed that PP1c gamma residues between 274 and 299 were required for the interaction with the lipid. When fusions of PP1c gamma fragments with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were generated, it was then determined that PP1c gamma residues 286-296 were sufficient to confer PA binding to GFP, a protein that does not interact with PA. The minimal PA binding domain of PP1c gamma lacked similarity to the previously described PA binding segments of Raf-1 kinase and cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase 4A1. When these results were taken together with the known crystallographic structure of PP1, they identified a novel PA binding region on PP1c gamma that contains a unique loop-strand structural fold responsible for the interaction with PA.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-87584

    Biochemistry 2005;44;40;13235-45

  • Dephosphorylation of CDK9 by protein phosphatase 2A and protein phosphatase-1 in Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription.

    Ammosova T, Washington K, Debebe Z, Brady J and Nekhai S

    Center for Sickle Cell Disease, Howard University, 2121 Georgia Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20059, USA. tammosova@mail.ru

    Background: HIV-1 Tat protein recruits human positive transcription elongation factor P-TEFb, consisting of CDK9 and cyclin T1, to HIV-1 transactivation response (TAR) RNA. CDK9 is maintained in dephosphorylated state by TFIIH and undergo phosphorylation upon the dissociation of TFIIH. Thus, dephosphorylation of CDK9 prior to its association with HIV-1 preinitiation complex might be important for HIV-1 transcription. Others and we previously showed that protein phosphatase-2A and protein phosphatase-1 regulates HIV-1 transcription. In the present study we analyze relative contribution of PP2A and PP1 to dephosphorylation of CDK9 and to HIV-1 transcription in vitro and in vivo.

    Results: In vitro, PP2A but not PP1 dephosphorylated autophosphorylated CDK9 and reduced complex formation between P-TEFb, Tat and TAR RNA. Inhibition of PP2A by okadaic acid inhibited basal as well as Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription whereas inhibition of PP1 by recombinant nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP1) inhibited only Tat-induced transcription in vitro. In cultured cells, low concentration of okadaic acid, inhibitory for PP2A, only mildly inhibited Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription. In contrast Tat-mediated HIV-1 transcription was strongly inhibited by expression of NIPP1. Okadaic acid induced phosphorylation of endogenous as well transiently expressed CDK9, but this induction was not seen in the cells expressing NIPP1. Also the okadaic acid did not induce phosphorylation of CDK9 with mutation of Thr 186 or with mutations in Ser-329, Thr-330, Thr-333, Ser-334, Ser-347, Thr-350, Ser-353, and Thr-354 residues involved in autophosphorylation of CDK9.

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that although PP2A dephosphorylates autophosphorylated CDK9 in vitro, in cultured cells PP1 is likely to dephosphorylate CDK9 and contribute to the regulation of activated HIV-1 transcription.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: UH1 HL003679, UH1 HL03679; NIAID NIH HHS: AI 056973-01S1, AI 156973-01, R21 AI056973

    Retrovirology 2005;2;47

  • Nucleolar proteome dynamics.

    Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, Ong SE, Lyon CE, Lamond AI and Mann M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.

    The nucleolus is a key organelle that coordinates the synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits and forms in the nucleus around the repeated ribosomal gene clusters. Because the production of ribosomes is a major metabolic activity, the function of the nucleolus is tightly linked to cell growth and proliferation, and recent data suggest that the nucleolus also plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, senescence and stress responses. Here, using mass-spectrometry-based organellar proteomics and stable isotope labelling, we perform a quantitative analysis of the proteome of human nucleoli. In vivo fluorescent imaging techniques are directly compared to endogenous protein changes measured by proteomics. We characterize the flux of 489 endogenous nucleolar proteins in response to three different metabolic inhibitors that each affect nucleolar morphology. Proteins that are stably associated, such as RNA polymerase I subunits and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle complexes, exit from or accumulate in the nucleolus with similar kinetics, whereas protein components of the large and small ribosomal subunits leave the nucleolus with markedly different kinetics. The data establish a quantitative proteomic approach for the temporal characterization of protein flux through cellular organelles and demonstrate that the nucleolar proteome changes significantly over time in response to changes in cellular growth conditions.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 073980

    Nature 2005;433;7021;77-83

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Functional proteomics mapping of a human signaling pathway.

    Colland F, Jacq X, Trouplin V, Mougin C, Groizeleau C, Hamburger A, Meil A, Wojcik J, Legrain P and Gauthier JM

    Hybrigenics SA, 75014 Paris, France. fcolland@hybrigenics.fr

    Access to the human genome facilitates extensive functional proteomics studies. Here, we present an integrated approach combining large-scale protein interaction mapping, exploration of the interaction network, and cellular functional assays performed on newly identified proteins involved in a human signaling pathway. As a proof of principle, we studied the Smad signaling system, which is regulated by members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily. We used two-hybrid screening to map Smad signaling protein-protein interactions and to establish a network of 755 interactions, involving 591 proteins, 179 of which were poorly or not annotated. The exploration of such complex interaction databases is improved by the use of PIMRider, a dedicated navigation tool accessible through the Web. The biological meaning of this network is illustrated by the presence of 18 known Smad-associated proteins. Functional assays performed in mammalian cells including siRNA knock-down experiments identified eight novel proteins involved in Smad signaling, thus validating this integrated functional proteomics approach.

    Genome research 2004;14;7;1324-32

  • Protein 14-3-3zeta binds to protein phosphatase PP1gamma2 in bovine epididymal spermatozoa.

    Huang Z, Myers K, Khatra B and Vijayaraghavan S

    Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242, USA.

    The protein phosphatase PP1gamma2 is critical in the regulation of sperm motility and fertility. Its activity is regulated by its binding proteins and by phosphorylation. We have recently shown that PP1gamma2 is phosphorylated and that the amount of phosphorylated PP1gamma2 increases during sperm epididymal maturation (Huang et al., Biol Reprod 2004; 70:439-447). Microsequencing revealed that protein 14-3-3 coeluted with phosphorylated PP1gamma2 during column chromatography of bovine sperm extracts. Western blot analyses confirmed the presence of protein 14-3-3 not only in bovine spermatozoa but also in spermatozoa of diverse species-bull, hamster, horseshoe crab, monkey, rat, turkey, and Xenopus. The binding between PP1gamma2 and protein 14-3-3 was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation experiments and in pull-down assays with recombinant GST-14-3-3. Western blot analysis and protein 14-3-3 immunoprecipitates with antibodies against the consensus binding domain of protein 14-3-3 reveal that, in addition to PP1gamma2, at least two other protein 14-3-3 binding partners are present in spermatozoa. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry results indicate that phosphorylated PP1gamma2 and protein 14-3-3 both localize to the postacrosomal region of the head and principal piece of bovine spermatozoa. Together, these results provide conclusive evidence that protein 14-3-3 is present in mature spermatozoa and that PP1gamma2 is one of its binding partners.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: R01 HD38520

    Biology of reproduction 2004;71;1;177-84

  • SIPP1, a novel pre-mRNA splicing factor and interactor of protein phosphatase-1.

    Llorian M, Beullens M, Andrés I, Ortiz JM and Bollen M

    Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Cantabria, Unidad Asociada al CIB-CSIC, 39011 Santander, Spain.

    We have identified a polypeptide that was already known to interact with polyglutamine-tract-binding protein (PQBP)-1/Npw38 as a novel splicing factor and interactor of protein phosphatase-1, hence the name SIPP1 for splicing factor that interacts with PQBP-1 and PP1 (protein phosphotase 1). SIPP1 was inhibitory to PP1, and its inhibitory potency was increased by phosphorylation with protein kinase CK1. Two-hybrid and co-sedimentation analysis revealed that SIPP1 has two distinct PP1-binding domains and that the binding of SIPP1 with PP1 involves a RVXF (Arg-Val-Xaa-Phe) motif, which functions as a PP1-binding sequence in most interactors of PP1. Enhanced-green-fluorescent-protein-tagged SIPP1 was targeted exclusively to the nucleus and was enriched in the nuclear speckles, which represent storage/assembly sites of splicing factors. We have mapped a nuclear localization signal in the N-terminus of SIPP1, while the proline-rich C-terminal domain appeared to be required for its subnuclear targeting to the speckles. Finally, we found that SIPP1 is also a component of the spliceosomes and that a SIPP1-fragment inhibits splicing catalysis by nuclear extracts independent of its ability to interact with PP1.

    The Biochemical journal 2004;378;Pt 1;229-38

  • Nuclear protein phosphatase-1 regulates HIV-1 transcription.

    Ammosova T, Jerebtsova M, Beullens M, Voloshin Y, Ray PE, Kumar A, Bollen M and Nekhai S

    Center for Sickle Cell Disease and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Howard University, Washington, D. C. 20059, USA.

    We recently reported that protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) dephosphorylates RNA polymerase II C-terminal repeats and regulates HIV-1 transcription in vitro. Here we provide evidence that PP1 is also required for Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription and for viral replication in cultured cells. Inhibition of PP1 by overexpression of nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP1) inhibited Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription in transient transfection assays. A mutant of NIPP1 that was defective in binding to PP1 did not have this effect. Also the co-expression of PP1 gamma reversed the inhibitory effect of NIPP1. Adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of NIPP1 significantly reduced HIV-1 transcription induced by Tat-expressing adenovirus in CD4+ HeLa cells that contained an integrated HIV-1 promoter (HeLa MAGI cells). In addition, infection of HeLa MAGI cells with adeno-associated virus-NIPP1 prior to the infection with HIV-1 significantly reduced the level of HIV-1 replication. Our results indicate that PP1 might be a host cell factor that is required for HIV-1 viral transcription. Therefore, nuclear PP1 may represent a novel target for anti-HIV-1 therapeutics.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL055605, R01 HL55605, UH1 HL03679; NIAID NIH HHS: R21 AI 156973-01, R21 AI056973, R21 AI056973-01; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK49414

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;34;32189-94

  • Usage of tautomycetin, a novel inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), reveals that PP1 is a positive regulator of Raf-1 in vivo.

    Mitsuhashi S, Shima H, Tanuma N, Matsuura N, Takekawa M, Urano T, Kataoka T, Ubukata M and Kikuchi K

    Division of Biochemical Oncology and Immunology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-15, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0815, Japan.

    Protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1), together with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), is a major eukaryotic serine/threonine protein phosphatase involved in regulation of numerous cell functions. Although the roles of PP2A have been studied extensively using okadaic acid, a well known inhibitor of PP2A, biological analysis of PP1 has remained restricted because of lack of a specific inhibitor. Recently we reported that tautomycetin (TC) is a highly specific inhibitor of PP1. To elucidate the biological effects of TC, we demonstrated in preliminary experiments that treatment of COS-7 cells with 5 microm TC for 5 h inhibits endogenous PP1 by more than 90% without affecting PP2A activity. Therefore, using TC as a specific PP1 inhibitor, the biological effect of PP1 on MAPK signaling was examined. First, we found that inhibition of PP1 in COS-7 cells by TC specifically suppresses activation of ERK, among three MAPK kinases (ERK, JNK, and p38). TC-mediated inhibition of PP1 also suppressed activation of Raf-1, resulting in the inactivation of the MEK-ERK pathway. To examine the role of PP1 in regulation of Raf-1, we overexpressed the PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1C) in COS-7 cells and found that PP1C enhanced activation of Raf-1 activity, whereas phosphatase-dead PP1C blocked Raf-1 activation. Furthermore, a physical interaction between PP1C and Raf-1 was also observed. These data strongly suggest that PP1 positively regulates Raf-1 in vivo.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;1;82-8

  • Binding of the concave surface of the Sds22 superhelix to the alpha 4/alpha 5/alpha 6-triangle of protein phosphatase-1.

    Ceulemans H, Vulsteke V, De Maeyer M, Tatchell K, Stalmans W and Bollen M

    Afdeling Biochemie, Faculteit Geneeskunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. Hugo.Ceulemans@med.kuleuven.ac.be

    Functional studies of the protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) regulator Sds22 suggest that it is indirectly and/or directly involved in one of the most ancient functions of PP1, i.e. reversing phosphorylation by the Aurora-related protein kinases. We predict that the conserved portion of Sds22 folds into a curved superhelix and demonstrate that mutation to alanine of any of eight residues (Asp(148), Phe(170), Glu(192), Phe(214), Asp(280), Glu(300), Trp(302), or Tyr(327)) at the concave surface of this superhelix thwarts the interaction with PP1. Furthermore, we show that all mammalian isoforms of PP1 have the potential to bind Sds22. Interaction studies with truncated versions of PP1 and with chimeric proteins comprising fragments of PP1 and the yeast PP1-like protein phosphatase Ppz1 suggest that the site(s) required for the binding of Sds22 reside between residues 43 and 173 of PP1gamma(1). Within this region, a major interaction site was mapped to a triangular region delineated by the alpha4-, alpha5-, and alpha6-helices. Our data also show that well known regulatory binding sites of PP1, such as the RVXF-binding channel, the beta12/beta13-loop, and the acidic groove, are not essential for the interaction with Sds22.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;49;47331-7

  • Inhibitor-2 regulates protein phosphatase-1 complexed with NimA-related kinase to induce centrosome separation.

    Eto M, Elliott E, Prickett TD and Brautigan DL

    Center for Cell Signaling, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville 22908, USA. me2h@virginia.edu

    Centrosome separation is regulated by balance of in situ protein kinase/phosphatase activities during the cell cycle. The mammalian NimA-related kinase Nek2 forms a complex with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1C). This complex is located at centrosomes and has been implicated in regulation of the cycle of duplication and separation. Inhibitor-2 (Inh2) is an inhibitor protein specific for PP1C, and its expression level fluctuates during the cell cycle. Here we report cellular regulation of the Nek2.PP1C complex by Inh2. PP1C-binding segments of Nek2 were isolated by yeast two-hybrid screening using Inh2 bait. Inh2 indirectly associates with Nek2 via PP1C, which binds to both proteins, forming a bridged heterotrimeric complex. Double Ala mutation of the PP1C-binding site (KVHF) in Nek2 eliminated both PP1C and Inh2 interactions in both a yeast conjugation assay and an in vitro binding assay. The kinase activity of Nek2.PP1C was enhanced 2-fold by addition of recombinant Inh2, with EC(50) = 10 nm. Immunofluorescence showed concentration of endogenous Inh2 at centrosomes and in a region surrounding the centrosomes. Transient expression of wild-type Inh2 increased by 5-fold dispersed/split centrosomes in fibroblasts, mimicking the phenotype produced by overexpression of Nek2. Deletion of the Inh2 C-terminal domain yielded Inh2-(1-118), which failed to interact with or activate the Nek2.PP1C complex, suggesting that the C-terminal region of Inh2 is required for regulation of the Nek2.PP1C complex. Thus, Inh2 can enhance the kinase activity of the Nek2.PP1C complex via inhibition of phosphatase activity to initiate centrosome separation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA40042; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM56362

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;46;44013-20

  • A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP220 binds to glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta ) and mediates protein kinase A-dependent inhibition of GSK-3beta.

    Tanji C, Yamamoto H, Yorioka N, Kohno N, Kikuchi K and Kikuchi A

    Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3, Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan.

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is regulated by various extracellular ligands and phosphorylates many substrates, thereby regulating cellular functions. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we found that GSK-3beta binds to AKAP220, which is known to act as an A-kinase anchoring protein. GSK-3beta formed a complex with AKAP220 in intact cells at the endogenous level. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1) were also detected in this complex, suggesting that AKAP220, GSK-3beta, PKA, and PP1 form a quaternary complex. It has been reported that PKA phosphorylates GSK-3beta, thereby decreasing its activity. When COS cells were treated with dibutyryl cyclic AMP to activate PKA, the activity of GSK-3beta bound to AKAP220 decreased more markedly than the total GSK-3beta activity. Calyculin A, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, also inhibited the activity of GSK-3beta bound to AKAP220 more strongly than the total GSK-3beta activity. These results suggest that PKA and PP1 regulate the activity of GSK-3beta efficiently by forming a complex with AKAP220.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;40;36955-61

  • The direct binding of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 to the PKR protein kinase is necessary but not sufficient for inactivation and disruption of enzyme dimer formation.

    Tan SL, Tareen SU, Melville MW, Blakely CM and Katze MG

    Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195, USA. tan_seng-lai@lilly.com

    The PKR protein kinase is among the best-studied effectors of the host interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral and antiproliferative response system. In response to stress signals, including virus infection, the normally latent PKR becomes activated through autophosphorylation and dimerization and phosphorylates the eIF2alpha translation initiation factor subunit, leading to an inhibition of mRNA translation initiation. While numerous virally encoded or modulated proteins that bind and inhibit PKR during virus infection have been studied, little is known about the cellular proteins that counteract PKR activity in uninfected cells. Overexpression of PKR in yeast also leads to an inhibition of eIF2alpha-dependent protein synthesis, resulting in severe growth suppression. Screening of a human cDNA library for clones capable of counteracting the PKR-mediated growth defect in yeast led to the identification of the catalytic subunit (PP1(C)) of protein phosphatase 1alpha. PP1(C) reduced double-stranded RNA-mediated auto-activation of PKR and inhibited PKR transphosphorylation activities. A specific and direct interaction between PP1(C) and PKR was detected, with PP1(C) binding to the N-terminal regulatory region regardless of the double-stranded RNA-binding activity of PKR. Importantly, a consensus motif shared by many PP1(C)-interacting proteins was necessary for PKR binding to PP1(C). The PKR-interactive site was mapped to a C-terminal non-catalytic region that is conserved in the PP1(C)2 isoform. Indeed, co-expression of PP1(C) or PP1(C)2 inhibited PKR dimer formation in Escherichia coli. Interestingly, co-expression of a PP1(C) mutant lacking the catalytic domain, despite retaining its ability to bind PKR, did not prevent PKR dimerization. Our findings suggest that PP1(C) modulates PKR activity via protein dephosphorylation and subsequent disruption of PKR dimers.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI22646

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;39;36109-17

  • The human SNF5/INI1 protein facilitates the function of the growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein (GADD34) and modulates GADD34-bound protein phosphatase-1 activity.

    Wu DY, Tkachuck DC, Roberson RS and Schubach WH

    Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Veterans Administration Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle Division, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA. danielw@u.washington.edu

    The growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein (GADD34) mediates growth arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damage, negative growth signals, and protein malfolding. GADD34 binds to protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) and can attenuate translational elongation of key transcriptional factors through dephosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha. We reported previously that the human trithorax leukemia fusion protein (HRX) can bind to GADD34 and abrogate GADD34-mediated apoptosis in response to UV irradiation. We found that hSNF5/INI1, a component of the hSWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, also binds to GADD34 and can coexist with GADD34 and HRX fusion proteins as a trimolecular complexes in vivo. In the present report, we demonstrate that hSNF5/INI1 binds to GADD34 in part through the PP1 docking site within a domain homologous to herpes simplex virus-1 ICP34.5. We found that hSNF5/INI1 can bind PP1 independently and weakly stimulate its phosphatase activity in solution and in complex with GADD34. hSNF5/INI1 and PP1 do not compete for binding to GADD34 but rather form a stable heterotrimeric complex with GADD34. We also show that Epstein-Barr nuclear protein 2, which binds hSNF5/INI1, can disrupt hSNF5/INI1 binding to GADD34 and partially reverse the GADD34-mediated growth suppression function in Ha-ras expressing HIH-3T3 (3T3-ras) cells. These results implicate hSNF5/INI1 in the function of GADD34 and suggest that hSNF5/INI1 may regulate PP1 activity in vivo.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 5K08CA71928-01

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;31;27706-15

  • Tight binding inhibition of protein phosphatase-1 by phosphatidic acid. Specificity of inhibition by the phospholipid.

    Jones JA and Hannun YA

    Molecular and Cellular Biology & Pathobiology Program and the Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA.

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) has been identified as a bioactive lipid second messenger, yet despite extensive investigation, no cellular target has emerged as a mediator of its described biological effects. In this study, we identify the gamma isoform of the human protein phosphatase-1 catalytic subunit (PP1c gamma) as a high affinity in vitro target of PA. PA inhibited the enzyme dose-dependently with an IC(50) of 15 nm. Mechanistically, PA inhibited the enzyme noncompetitively with the kinetics of a tight binding inhibitor and a K(i) value of 0.97 +/- 0.24 nm. Together, these data describe one of the most potent in vitro effects of PA. To further elucidate the interaction between PA and PP1c gamma, structure/function analysis of the lipid was carried out using commercially available and synthetically generated analogs of PA. These studies disclosed that the lipid-protein interaction is dependent on the presence of the lipid phosphate as well as the presence of the fatty acid side chains, because lipids lacking either of these substituents resulted in complete loss of inhibition. However, the specific composition of the fatty acid side chains was not important for inhibition. Using 1-O-hexadecyl,2-oleoyl-PA, it was also shown that the carbonyl group of the sn-1 acyl linkage is not required for the lipid-protein interaction. Finally, using a lipid-protein overlay assay, it was demonstrated that PP1c gamma specifically and directly interacts with phosphatidic acid while not significantly binding other phospholipids. These results identify PA as a tight binding and specific inhibitor of PP1, and they raise the hypothesis that PP1c gamma may function as a mediator of PA action in cells. They also argue for the existence of a specific high affinity PA-binding domain on the enzyme.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-87584; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-43825

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;18;15530-8

  • A protein phosphatase from human T cells augments tat transactivation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long-terminal repeat.

    Bharucha DC, Zhou M, Nekhai S, Brady JN, Shukla RR and Kumar A

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20037, USA.

    HIV-1 Tat protein regulates viral gene expression by modulating the activity and association of cellular transcription factors with RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Possible mechanisms include Tat-associated protein kinase(s) and phosphatase(s) that regulate phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of RNAPII. Hypophosphorylated RNAPII (RNAPIIa) is recruited to promoters during formation of a preinitiation complex, whereas hyperphosphorylated RNAPII (RNAPIIo) is associated with the elongation complex. The role of phosphatases in maintaining the equilibrium between the two phosphorylated states of RNAPII, which is required for sustained transcriptional activation from the HIV-1 LTR, is not clear. In this study, we discuss the properties of a Tat-associated CTD phosphatase fractionated from Jurkat T cells. The Tat-associated protein phosphatase (TAPP) is related to the serine/threonine, type 1, protein phosphatase (PP1) family. TAPP dephosphorylates the hyperphosphorylated form of recombinant CTD specifically on serine 2, and augments Tat-mediated transcriptional transactivation of HIV-1 LTR in an in vitro transcription reaction. TAPP is associated with the transcription complex during the early initiation steps, and its release from the HIV-1 promoter coincides with the Tat-specific activation of CDK9. The results suggest a unique role of the Tat-associated phosphatase which regulates viral transcription by target-specific dephosphorylation of RNAPII during the early stages of elongation.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI42491

    Virology 2002;296;1;6-16

  • Directed proteomic analysis of the human nucleolus.

    Andersen JS, Lyon CE, Fox AH, Leung AK, Lam YW, Steen H, Mann M and Lamond AI

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230, Odense M, Denmark.

    Background: The nucleolus is a subnuclear organelle containing the ribosomal RNA gene clusters and ribosome biogenesis factors. Recent studies suggest it may also have roles in RNA transport, RNA modification, and cell cycle regulation. Despite over 150 years of research into nucleoli, many aspects of their structure and function remain uncharacterized.

    Results: We report a proteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Using a combination of mass spectrometry (MS) and sequence database searches, including online analysis of the draft human genome sequence, 271 proteins were identified. Over 30% of the nucleolar proteins were encoded by novel or uncharacterized genes, while the known proteins included several unexpected factors with no previously known nucleolar functions. MS analysis of nucleoli isolated from HeLa cells in which transcription had been inhibited showed that a subset of proteins was enriched. These data highlight the dynamic nature of the nucleolar proteome and show that proteins can either associate with nucleoli transiently or accumulate only under specific metabolic conditions.

    Conclusions: This extensive proteomic analysis shows that nucleoli have a surprisingly large protein complexity. The many novel factors and separate classes of proteins identified support the view that the nucleolus may perform additional functions beyond its known role in ribosome subunit biogenesis. The data also show that the protein composition of nucleoli is not static and can alter significantly in response to the metabolic state of the cell.

    Current biology : CB 2002;12;1;1-11

  • Interaction and feedback regulation between STK15/BTAK/Aurora-A kinase and protein phosphatase 1 through mitotic cell division cycle.

    Katayama H, Zhou H, Li Q, Tatsuka M and Sen S

    Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    STK15 is an Aurora/Ipl-1 related serine/threonine kinase that is associated with centrosomes and induces aneuploidy when overexpressed in mammalian cells. It is well known that phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of kinases are important for regulation of their activity. But mechanisms by which STK15 activity is regulated have not been elucidated. We report that STK15 contains two functional binding sites for protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1), and the binding of these proteins is cell cycle-regulated peaking at mitosis. Activated STK15 at mitosis phosphorylates PP1 and inhibits PP1 activity in vitro. In vivo, PP1 activity co-immunoprecipitated with STK15 is also reduced. These data indicate that STK15 inhibits PP1 activity during mitosis. Also, PP1 is shown to dephosphorylate active STK15 and abolish its activity in vitro. Furthermore, we show that non-binding mutants of STK15 for PP1 are superphosphorylated, but their kinase activities are markedly reduced. Cells transfected with these non-binding mutants manifest aberrant chromosome alignment during mitosis. Our results suggest that a feedback regulation through phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events between STK15 kinase and PP1 phosphatase operates through the cell cycle. Deregulation of this balance may contribute to anomalous segregation of chromosomes during mitotic progression of cancer cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 61979, P30 CA 16672-24, U01CA85078

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;49;46219-24

  • Dynamic targeting of protein phosphatase 1 within the nuclei of living mammalian cells.

    Trinkle-Mulcahy L, Sleeman JE and Lamond AI

    MSI/WTB Complex, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland. l.trinklemulcahy@dundee.ac.uk

    Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is expressed in mammalian cells as three closely related isoforms, alpha, beta/delta and gamma1, which are encoded by separate genes. It has yet to be determined whether the separate isoforms behave in a similar fashion or play distinct roles in vivo. We report here on analyses by fluorescence microscopy of functional and fluorescently tagged PP1 isoforms in live cells. PP1alpha and PP1gamma fluorescent protein fusions show largely complimentary localization patterns, particularly within the nucleus where tagged PP1gamma accumulates in the nucleolus, whereas tagged PP1alpha is primarily found in the nucleoplasm. Overexpression of NIPP1 (nuclear inhibitor of PP1), a PP1 targeting subunit that accumulates at interchromatin granule clusters in the nucleoplasm, results in a retargeting of both isoforms to these structures, indicating that steady-state localization is based, at least in part, on relative affinities for various targeting subunits. Photobleaching analyses show that PP1gamma is rapidly exchanging between the nucleolar, nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic compartments. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analyses indicate that the direct interaction of the two proteins predominantly occurs at or near interchromatin granule clusters. These data indicate that PP1 isoforms are highly mobile in cells and can be dynamically (re)localized through direct interaction with targeting subunits.

    Journal of cell science 2001;114;Pt 23;4219-28

  • Myr 8, a novel unconventional myosin expressed during brain development associates with the protein phosphatase catalytic subunits 1alpha and 1gamma1.

    Patel KG, Liu C, Cameron PL and Cameron RS

    Section of Neurobiology, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia, 30912-3175, USA.

    Directed neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendroglial cell migrations comprise a prominent feature of mammalian brain development. Because molecular motor proteins have been implicated in a wide spectrum of processes associated with cell motility, we initiated studies to define the pool of myosins in migrating cerebellar granule neurons and type-1 neocortical astrocytes. Our analyses identified two isoforms of a novel unconventional myosin, which we have cloned, sequenced, and designated myr 8a and 8b (eighth unconventional myosin from rat). Phylogenetic analysis indicates that myr 8 myosins comprise a new class of myosins, which we have designated class XVI. The head domain contains a large N-terminal extension composed of multiple ankyrin repeats, which are implicated in mediating an association with the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) catalytic subunits 1alpha and 1gamma. The motor domain is followed by a single putative light-chain binding domain. The tail domain of myr 8a is comparatively short with a net positive charge, whereas the tail domain of myr 8b is extended, bears an overall neutral charge, and reveals several stretches of poly-proline residues. Neither the myr 8a nor the myr 8b sequence reveals alpha-helical coiled-coil motifs, suggesting that these myosins exist as monomers. Both immunoblot and Northern blot analyses indicate that myr 8b is the predominant isoform expressed in brain, principally at developmental time periods. The structural features and restricted expression patterns suggest that members of this novel class of unconventional myosins comprise a mechanism to target selectively the protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunits 1alpha and/or 1gamma in developing brain.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS34763

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2001;21;20;7954-68

  • Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD34 assembles a novel signaling complex containing protein phosphatase 1 and inhibitor 1.

    Connor JH, Weiser DC, Li S, Hallenbeck JM and Shenolikar S

    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    The growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein, GADD34, was identified by its interaction with human inhibitor 1 (I-1), a protein kinase A (PKA)-activated inhibitor of type 1 protein serine/threonine phosphatase (PP1), in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human brain cDNA library. Recombinant GADD34 (amino acids 233 to 674) bound both PKA-phosphorylated and unphosphorylated I-1(1-171). Serial truncations mapped the C terminus of I-1 (amino acids 142 to 171) as essential for GADD34 binding. In contrast, PKA phosphorylation was required for PP1 binding and inhibition by the N-terminal I-1(1-80) fragment. Pulldowns of GADD34 proteins expressed in HEK293T cells showed that I-1 bound the central domain of GADD34 (amino acids 180 to 483). By comparison, affinity isolation of cellular GADD34/PP1 complexes showed that PP1 bound near the C terminus of GADD34 (amino acids 483 to 619), a region that shows sequence homology with the virulence factors ICP34.5 of herpes simplex virus and NL-S of avian sarcoma virus. While GADD34 inhibited PP1-catalyzed dephosphorylation of phosphorylase a, the GADD34-bound PP1 was an active eIF-2alpha phosphatase. In brain extracts from active ground squirrels, GADD34 bound both I-1 and PP1 and eIF-2alpha was largely dephosphorylated. In contrast, the I-1/GADD34 and PP1/GADD34 interactions were disrupted in brain from hibernating animals, in which eIF-2alpha was highly phosphorylated at serine-51 and protein synthesis was inhibited. These studies suggested that modification of the I-1/GADD34/PP1 signaling complex regulates the initiation of protein translation in mammalian tissues.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK52054, R01 DK052054

    Molecular and cellular biology 2001;21;20;6841-50

  • The C-terminus of NIPP1 (nuclear inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1) contains a novel binding site for protein phosphatase-1 that is controlled by tyrosine phosphorylation and RNA binding.

    Beullens M, Vulsteke V, Van Eynde A, Jagiello I, Stalmans W and Bollen M

    Afdeling Biochemie, Faculteit Geneeskunde, Campus Gasthuisberg, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.

    Nuclear inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1 (NIPP1; 351 residues) is a nuclear RNA-binding protein that also contains in its central domain two contiguous sites of interaction with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1(C)). We show here that mutation of these phosphatase-interaction sites did not completely abolish the ability of NIPP1 to bind and inhibit PP1(C). This could be accounted for by an additional inhibitory phosphatase-binding site in the C-terminal region (residues 311-351), with an inhibitory core corresponding to residues 331-337. Following mutation of all three PP1(C)-binding sites in the central and C-terminal domains, NIPP1 no longer interacted with PP1(C). Remarkably, while both NIPP1 domains inhibited the phosphorylase phosphatase activity of PP1(C) independently, mutation of either domain completely abolished the ability of NIPP1 to inhibit the dephosphorylation of myelin basic protein. The inhibitory potency of the C-terminal site of NIPP1 was decreased by phosphorylation of Tyr-335 and by the addition of RNA. Tyr-335 could be phosphorylated by tyrosine kinase Lyn, but only in the presence of RNA. In conclusion, NIPP1 contains two phosphatase-binding domains that function co-operatively but which are controlled independently. Our data are in agreement with a shared-site model for the interaction of PP1(C) with its regulatory subunits.

    The Biochemical journal 2000;352 Pt 3;651-8

  • Interaction of inhibitor-2 with the catalytic subunit of type 1 protein phosphatase. Identification of a sequence analogous to the consensus type 1 protein phosphatase-binding motif.

    Yang J, Hurley TD and DePaoli-Roach AA

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-5122, USA.

    Inhibitor-2 (I-2) is the regulatory subunit of a cytosolic type 1 Ser/Thr protein phosphatase (PP1) and potently inhibits the activity of the free catalytic subunit (CS1). Previous work from the laboratory had proposed that the interaction of I-2 with CS1 involved multiple sites (Park, I. K., and DePaoli-Roach, A. A. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 28919-28928). The present study refines the earlier analysis and arrives at a more detailed model for the interaction between I-2 and CS1. Although the NH(2)-terminal I-2 regions containing residues 1-35 and 1-64 have no inhibitory activity on their own, they increase the IC(50) for I-2 by approximately 30-fold, indicating the presence of a CS1-interacting site. Based on several experimental approaches, we have also identified the sequence Lys(144)-Leu-His-Tyr(147) as a second site of interaction that corresponds to the RVXF motif present in many CS1-binding proteins. The peptide I-2(135-151) significantly increases the IC(50) for I-2 and attenuates CS1 inhibition. Replacement of Leu and Tyr with Ala abolishes the ability to counteract inhibition by I-2. The I-2(135-151) peptide, but not I-2(1-35), also antagonizes inhibition of CS1 by DARPP-32 in a pattern similar to that of I-2. Furthermore, a peptide derived from the glycogen-binding subunit, R(GL)/G(M)(61-80), which contains a consensus CS1-binding motif, completely counteracts CS1 inhibition by I-2 and DARPP-32. The NH(2)-terminal 35 residues of I-2 bind to CS1 at a site that is specific for I-2, whereas the KLHY sequence interacts with CS1 at a site shared with other interacting proteins. Other results suggest the presence of yet more sites of interaction. A model is presented in which multiple "anchoring interactions" serve to position a segment of I-2 such that it sterically occludes the catalytic pocket but need not make high affinity contacts itself.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK36569

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;30;22635-44

  • NIMA-related kinase 2 (Nek2), a cell-cycle-regulated protein kinase localized to centrosomes, is complexed to protein phosphatase 1.

    Helps NR, Luo X, Barker HM and Cohen PT

    Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, MSI/WTB Complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK.

    The cell cycle-regulated protein serine/threonine NIMA-related kinase 2 (Nek2), which shows a predominant localization at centrosomes, is identified as a protein which interacts with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) using the yeast two-hybrid system. Complex formation between Nek2 and PP1 is supported by co-precipitation of the two proteins using transfected expression constructs of Nek2 and the endogenous Nek2/PP1 proteins. The sequence KVHF in the C-terminal region of Nek2, which conforms to the consensus PP1-binding motif, is shown to be essential for the interaction of Nek2 with PP1. Nek2 activity increases with autophosphorylation and addition of phosphatase inhibitors and decreases in the presence of PP1. PP1 is a substrate for Nek2 and phosphorylation of PP1gamma(1) on two C-terminal sites reduces its phosphatase activity. The presence of a ternary complex containing centrosomal Nek2-associated protein (C-Nap1), Nek2 and PP1 has also been demonstrated, and C-Nap1 is shown to be a substrate for both Nek2 and PP1 in vitro and in cell extracts. The implications of kinase-phosphatase complex formation involving Nek2 and PP1 are discussed in terms of the coordination of centrosome separation with cell cycle progression.

    The Biochemical journal 2000;349;Pt 2;509-18

  • PKA phosphorylation dissociates FKBP12.6 from the calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor): defective regulation in failing hearts.

    Marx SO, Reiken S, Hisamatsu Y, Jayaraman T, Burkhoff D, Rosemblit N and Marks AR

    Center for Molecular Cardiology, Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA.

    The ryanodine receptor (RyR)/calcium release channel on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is the major source of calcium (Ca2+) required for cardiac muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. The channel is a tetramer comprised of four type 2 RyR polypeptides (RyR2) and four FK506 binding proteins (FKBP12.6). We show that protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation of RyR2 dissociates FKBP12.6 and regulates the channel open probability (Po). Using cosedimentation and coimmunoprecipitation we have defined a macromolecular complex comprised of RyR2, FKBP12.6, PKA, the protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A, and an anchoring protein, mAKAP. In failing human hearts, RyR2 is PKA hyperphosphorylated, resulting in defective channel function due to increased sensitivity to Ca2+-induced activation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL56180, R01 HL61503; NIAID NIH HHS: R01 AI39794; ...

    Cell 2000;101;4;365-76

  • Association of a protein phosphatase 1 activity with the human factor C1 (HCF) complex.

    Ajuh PM, Browne GJ, Hawkes NA, Cohen PT, Roberts SG and Lamond AI

    Department of Biochemistry, The University of Dundee, MSI/WTB Complex, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK.

    We have screened a human cDNA expression library with a digoxygenin-labelled protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) probe to identify novel PP1 interacting proteins. Eleven cDNA clones were isolated, which included genes encoding two previously characterised and six novel PP1 binding proteins. Three of the cDNAs encoded a protein called host cell factor (HCF), which is an essential component of the cellular complex required for the transcription of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) immediate-early (IE) genes. We demonstrate that HCF and PP1 exist as a complex in nuclear extracts and that this complex is distinct from the form of HCF that associates with HSV VP16. The data suggest novel roles for HCF and PP1, which may be relevant to their functions in transcription and cell cycle progression.

    Nucleic acids research 2000;28;3;678-86

  • Association of the D2 dopamine receptor third cytoplasmic loop with spinophilin, a protein phosphatase-1-interacting protein.

    Smith FD, Oxford GS and Milgram SL

    Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology and the Curriculum in Neurobiology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    Signaling through D2 class dopamine receptors is crucial to correct brain development and function, and dysfunction of this system is implicated in major neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. To investigate potential novel mechanisms of D2 receptor regulation, the third cytoplasmic loop of the D2 dopamine receptor was used to screen a rat hippocampal yeast two-hybrid library. Spinophilin, a recently characterized F-actin and protein phosphatase-1-binding protein with a single PDZ domain was identified as a protein that specifically associates with this region of D2 receptors. A direct interaction between spinophilin and the D2 receptor was confirmed in vitro using recombinant fusion proteins. The portion of spinophilin responsible for interacting with the D2 third cytoplasmic loop was narrowed to a region that does not include the actin-binding domain, the PDZ domain, or the coiled-coil. This region is distinct from the site of interaction with protein phosphatase-1, and both D2 receptors and protein phosphatase-1 may bind spinophilin at the same time. The interaction is not mediated via the unique 29-amino acid insert in D2long; both D2long and D2short third cytoplasmic loops interact with spinophilin in vitro and in yeast two-hybrid assays. Expression of D2 receptors containing an extracellular hemagglutinin epitope in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells results in co-localization of receptor and endogenous spinophilin as determined by immunocytochemistry using antibodies directed against spinophilin and the HA tag. We hypothesize that spinophilin is important for establishing a signaling complex for dopaminergic neurotransmission through D2 receptors by linking receptors to downstream signaling molecules and the actin cytoskeleton.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R29DK50744; NINDS NIH HHS: NS18788

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;28;19894-900

  • Characterization of the neuronal targeting protein spinophilin and its interactions with protein phosphatase-1.

    Hsieh-Wilson LC, Allen PB, Watanabe T, Nairn AC and Greengard P

    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, New York 10021, USA. hsiehl@rockvax.rockefeller.edu

    Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) plays an important role in a variety of cellular processes, including muscle contraction, cell-cycle progression, and neurotransmission. The localization and substrate specificity of PP1 are determined by a class of proteins known as targeting subunits. In the present study, the interaction between PP1 and spinophilin, a neuronal protein that targets PP1 to dendritic spines, has been characterized. Deletion analysis revealed that a high-affinity binding domain is located within residues 417-494 of spinophilin. This domain contains a pentapeptide motif (R/K-R/K-V/I-X-F) between amino acids 447 and 451 (R-K-I-H-F) that is conserved in other PP1 regulatory subunits. Mutation of phenylalanine-451 (F451A) or deletion of the conserved motif abolished the ability of spinophilin to bind PP1, as observed by coprecipitation, overlay, and competition binding assays. In addition, deletion of regions 417-442 or 474-494, either singly or in combination, impaired the ability of spinophilin to coprecipitate PP1. A comparison of the binding and inhibitory properties of spinophilin peptides suggested that distinct subdomains of spinophilin are responsible for binding and modulating PP1 activity. Mutational analysis of the modulatory subdomain revealed that spinophilin interacts with PP1 via a mechanism unlike those used by the cytosolic inhibitors DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32 000) and inhibitor-1. Finally, characterization of the interactions between spinophilin and PP1 has facilitated the design of peptide antagonists capable of disrupting spinophilin-PP1 interactions. These studies support the notion that spinophilin functions in vivo as a neuronal PP1 targeting subunit by directing the enzyme to postsynaptic densities and regulating its activity toward physiological substrates.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA10044, P01 DA010044; NIMH NIH HHS: MH40899

    Biochemistry 1999;38;14;4365-73

  • Association of the type 1 protein phosphatase PP1 with the A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP220.

    Schillace RV and Scott JD

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, L-474 Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, 3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97201-3098, USA.

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and the type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1) are broad-specificity signaling enzymes with opposing actions that catalyze changes in the phosphorylation state of cellular proteins. Subcellular targeting to the vicinity of preferred substrates is a means of restricting the specificity of each enzyme [1] [2]. Compartmentalization of the PKA holoenzyme is mediated through association of the regulatory subunits with A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), whereas a diverse family of phosphatase-targeting subunits directs the location of the PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1c) [3] [4]. Here, we demonstrate that the PKA-anchoring protein, AKAP220, binds PP1c with a dissociation constant (KD) of 12.1 +/- 4 nM in vitro. Immunoprecipitation of PP1 from cell extracts resulted in a 10.4 +/- 3.8-fold enrichment of PKA activity. AKAP220 co-purified with PP1c by affinity chromatography on microcystin sepharos Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated that the kinase, the phosphatase and the anchoring protein had distinct but overlapping staining patterns in rat hippocampal neurons. Collectively, these results provide the first evidence that AKAP220 is a multivalent anchoring protein that maintains a signaling scaffold of PP1 and the PKA holoenzyme.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK48239

    Current biology : CB 1999;9;6;321-4

  • Differential subcellular localization of protein phosphatase-1 alpha, gamma1, and delta isoforms during both interphase and mitosis in mammalian cells.

    Andreassen PR, Lacroix FB, Villa-Moruzzi E and Margolis RL

    Institut de Biologie Structurale Jean-Pierre Ebel (CEA-CNRS), 38027 Grenoble cedex 1, France.

    Protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1) is involved in the regulation of numerous metabolic processes in mammalian cells. The major isoforms of PP-1, alpha, gamma1, and delta, have nearly identical catalytic domains, but they vary in sequence at their extreme NH2 and COOH termini. With specific antibodies raised against the unique COOH-terminal sequence of each isoform, we find that the three PP-1 isoforms are each expressed in all mammalian cells tested, but that they localize within these cells in a strikingly distinct and characteristic manner. Each isoform is present both within the cytoplasm and in the nucleus during interphase. Within the nucleus, PP-1 alpha associates with the nuclear matrix, PP-1 gamma1 concentrates in nucleoli in association with RNA, and PP-1 delta localizes to nonnucleolar whole chromatin. During mitosis, PP-1 alpha is localized to the centrosome, PP-1 gamma1 is associated with microtubules of the mitotic spindle, and PP-1 delta strongly associates with chromosomes. We conclude that PP-1 isoforms are targeted to strikingly distinct and independent sites in the cell, permitting unique and independent roles for each of the isoforms in regulating discrete cellular processes.

    The Journal of cell biology 1998;141;5;1207-15

  • PPP1R6, a novel member of the family of glycogen-targetting subunits of protein phosphatase 1.

    Armstrong CG, Browne GJ, Cohen P and Cohen PT

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland, UK.

    A complementary DNA encoding a novel human protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) glycogen-targetting subunit of molecular mass 33 kDa has been sequenced. PPP1R6 is 31% identical to the glycogen-targetting subunit (G(L)) of PP1 from rat liver, 28% identical to the N-terminal region of the glycogen-targetting subunit (G(M)) from human skeletal muscle and 27% identical to glycogen-targetting subunit PPP1R5. Unlike human PPP1R5 and its murine homologue PTG, whose mRNAs are most abundant in skeletal muscle, heart and liver, PPP1R6 is present at similar levels in a wide variety of tissues. The PPP1R6 is associated with glycogen in muscle but is not subject to the same modes of covalent and allosteric regulation as G(M) and G(L).

    FEBS letters 1997;418;1-2;210-4

  • HOX11 interacts with protein phosphatases PP2A and PP1 and disrupts a G2/M cell-cycle checkpoint.

    Kawabe T, Muslin AJ and Korsmeyer SJ

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    Hox11 is an orphan homeobox gene that controls the genesis of the spleen. HOX11 is also oncogenic, having been isolated from a chromosomal breakpoint in human T-cell leukaemia. Transgenic mice that redirected HOX11 to the thymus demonstrated cell-cycle aberration and progression to malignancy. We observed that the protein HOX11 interacted with protein serine-threonine phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2AC), as well as protein phosphatase 1 (PP1C) in mammalian cells. Inhibition of PP2A can regulate the cell cycle and control the activation of maturation-promoting factor in Xenopus oocytes. Microinjection of HOX11 into Xenopus oocytes arrested at the G2 phase of the cell cycle promoted progression to the M phase. G2 arrest can be induced by gamma-irradiation, but is eliminated by expression of HOX11 within a T-cell line. Thus HOX11 is a cellular oncogene that targets PP2A and PP1, both of which are targets for oncogenic viruses and chemical tumour promoters. This interaction suggests a mechanism by which a homeobox can alter the cell cycle.

    Nature 1997;385;6615;454-8

  • Assignment of the gene encoding type 1 gamma protein phosphatase catalytic subunit (PPP1CC) on human, rat, and mouse chromosomes.

    Saadat M, Nomoto K, Mizuno Y, Kikuchi K and Yoshida MC

    Section of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

    Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method, a gene encoding the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase type 1 gamma (PPP1CC) was mapped to human 12q24.1-q24.2, rat 7 q22, and mouse 10C. These results indicate that the PPP1CC is a member of conserved synteny group between rat chromosome 7, mouse chromosome 10 and human chromosome 12. These data and mapping data about other members of PP1 family show that in spite of the high identity of PP1 isoforms, each isoform is encoded by different genes which located on different chromosomes in human, rat, and mouse.

    The Japanese journal of human genetics 1996;41;1;159-65

  • Protein phosphatase 1 interacts with p53BP2, a protein which binds to the tumour suppressor p53.

    Helps NR, Barker HM, Elledge SJ and Cohen PT

    Department of Biochemistry, The University, Dundee, Scotland, UK.

    The p53 binding protein, termed p53BP2, was identified as a protein interacting with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) in the yeast two hybrid system. The interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation of p53BP2 with epitope-tagged PP1 in vitro. The p53BP2-PP1 complex was stable to NaCl at concentrations which dissociate the p53-p53BP2 complex, and the binding of PP1 and p53 to p53BP2 was mutually exclusive. The region required for interaction with PP1 was shown to be contained within amino acids 297-431 of p53BP2, which includes two ankyrin repeats. The phosphorylase phosphatase activity of PP1 was inhibited by p53BP2 at nanomolar concentrations. These results suggest that PP1 may be involved in dephosphorylation and regulation of p53 through interaction with p53BP2.

    FEBS letters 1995;377;3;295-300

  • Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of human protein phosphatase 1 and its complex with tungstate.

    Egloff MP, Cohen PT, Reinemer P and Barford D

    Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.

    Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is essential in regulating diverse cellular processes. Here we report the crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of human PP1 gamma 1 and its complex with tungstate at 2.5 A resolution. The anomalous scattering from tungstate was used in a multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion experiment to derive crystallographic phase information. The protein adopts a single domain with a novel fold, distinct from that of the protein tyrosine phosphatases. A di-nuclear ion centre consisting of Mn2+ and Fe2+ is situated at the catalytic site that binds the phosphate moiety of the substrate. Proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy was used to identify the nature of the ions bound to the enzyme. The structural data indicate that dephosphorylation is catalysed in a single step by a metal-activated water molecule. This contrasts with other phosphatases, including protein tyrosine phosphatases, acid and alkaline phosphatases which form phosphoryl-enzyme intermediates. The structure of PP1 provides insight into the molecular mechanism for substrate recognition, enzyme regulation and inhibition of this enzyme by toxins and tumour promoters and a basis for understanding the expanding family of related phosphatases which include PP2A and PP2B (calcineurin).

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Journal of molecular biology 1995;254;5;942-59

  • Molecular cloning of NIPP-1, a nuclear inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1, reveals homology with polypeptides involved in RNA processing.

    Van Eynde A, Wera S, Beullens M, Torrekens S, Van Leuven F, Stalmans W and Bollen M

    Afdeling Biochemie, Faculteit Geneeskunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.

    NIPP-1 was originally isolated as a potent and specific nuclear inhibitory polypeptide (16-18 kDa) of protein phosphatase-1. We report here the cDNA cloning of NIPP-1 from bovine thymus and show that the native polypeptide consists of 351 residues and has a calculated mass of 38.5 kDa. The bacterially expressed central third of NIPP-1 completely inhibited the type-1 catalytic subunit, but displayed a reduced inhibitory potency after phosphorylation by protein kinase A and casein kinase 2. Translation of NIPP-1 mRNA in reticulocyte lysates resulted in the accumulation of both intact NIPP-1 and a smaller polypeptide generated by alternative initiation at the codon corresponding to Met143. A data base search showed that the COOH terminus of NIPP-1 is nearly identical to the human ard-1 protein (13 kDa), which has been implicated in RNA processing (Wang, M., and Cohen, S. N. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 91, 10591-10595). Comparison of the cDNAs encoding ard-1 and NIPP-1 suggests that their mRNAs are generated by alternative splicing of the same pre-mRNA. Western blotting with antibodies against the COOH terminus of NIPP-1, however, showed a single polypeptide of 47 kDa, which was enriched in the nucleus. Northern analysis revealed a single transcript of 2.2 kilobases in bovine thymus and of 2.4 kilobases in various human tissues.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;47;28068-74

  • The cyanobacterial toxin microcystin binds covalently to cysteine-273 on protein phosphatase 1.

    MacKintosh RW, Dalby KN, Campbell DG, Cohen PT, Cohen P and MacKintosh C

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland, UK.

    The interaction between protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and microcystin (MC) was stable in 1% SDS or 70% formic acid indicative of a covalent interaction. Here we isolate the MC-binding peptide and demonstrate that Cys273 of PP1 binds covalently to the methyl-dehydroalanine (Mdha) residue of the toxin. Mutation of Cys273 to Ala, Ser or Leu abolished covalent binding to MC, as did reduction of the Mdha residue of the toxin with ethanethiol. The abolition of covalent binding increased the IC50 for toxin inhibition of PP1 by 5- to 20-fold. The covalent binding of MC to protein serine/threonine phosphatases explains the failure to detect this toxin post-mortem in suspected cases of MC poisoning.

    FEBS letters 1995;371;3;236-40

  • Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of a human skeletal muscle PP-1 gamma 1 cDNA.

    Norman SA and Mott DM

    Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona 85013.

    Type-1-protein phosphatase (PP-1) activity is reduced in skeletal muscle from human subjects with insulin resistance (Kida et al. 1990). This reduced phosphatase activity probably leads to the abnormal insulin action for glucose storage observed in insulin-resistant subjects. In the present study, a human homolog of rat liver PP-1 gamma 1 cDNA was isolated from human skeletal muscle. The nucleotide sequence contains a 957-nucleotide open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence identical to that encoded by rat liver PP-1 gamma 1 cDNA. Northern blot analysis shows PP-1 gamma 1-specific mRNA is expressed in human heart, brain, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, and pancreas. PP-1 gamma 1 was localized to human Chromosome 12.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1994;5;1;41-5

  • Sequence of human protein serine/threonine phosphatase 1 gamma and localization of the gene (PPP1CC) encoding it to chromosome bands 12q24.1-q24.2.

    Barker HM, Craig SP, Spurr NK and Cohen PT

    Department of Biochemistry, The University, Dundee, UK.

    Complementary DNA encoding a catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1, termed PP1 gamma, was isolated from a human teratocarcinoma library. The sequence suggests that alternative splicing produces two forms of PP1 gamma, designated PP1 gamma 1 and PP1 gamma 2, which differ in their C-termini. The gene for human PP1 gamma (PPP1CC) was localized to chromosome 12 by analysis of somatic cell hybrid DNA and mapped to bands q24.1-q24.2 by in situ hybridisation. These data show that although PP1 gamma 1 and PP1 gamma 2 are 94% and 93% identical to PP1 alpha respectively, the PP1 gamma gene is not closely linked to the PP1 alpha gene, which has been mapped to chromosome 11.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1993;1178;2;228-33

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000037 G2C Homo sapiens Pocklington H6 Human orthologues of cluster 6 (mouse) from Pocklington et al (2006) 5
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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