G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001401
Gene symbol
CAMK2D (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta
Orthologue
G00000152 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000145349 (Ensembl human gene)
817 (Entrez Gene)
495 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
CAMK2D (GeneCards)
Literature
607708 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:1462 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q13557 (UniProt)

Literature (40)

Pubmed - other

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • A genome-wide association study identifies novel and functionally related susceptibility Loci for Kawasaki disease.

    Burgner D, Davila S, Breunis WB, Ng SB, Li Y, Bonnard C, Ling L, Wright VJ, Thalamuthu A, Odam M, Shimizu C, Burns JC, Levin M, Kuijpers TW, Hibberd ML and International Kawasaki Disease Genetics Consortium

    School of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a pediatric vasculitis that damages the coronary arteries in 25% of untreated and approximately 5% of treated children. Epidemiologic data suggest that KD is triggered by unidentified infection(s) in genetically susceptible children. To investigate genetic determinants of KD susceptibility, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 119 Caucasian KD cases and 135 matched controls with stringent correction for possible admixture, followed by replication in an independent cohort and subsequent fine-mapping, for a total of 893 KD cases plus population and family controls. Significant associations of 40 SNPs and six haplotypes, identifying 31 genes, were replicated in an independent cohort of 583 predominantly Caucasian KD families, with NAALADL2 (rs17531088, p(combined) = 1.13 x 10(-6)) and ZFHX3 (rs7199343, p(combined) = 2.37 x 10(-6)) most significantly associated. Sixteen associated variants with a minor allele frequency of >0.05 that lay within or close to known genes were fine-mapped with HapMap tagging SNPs in 781 KD cases, including 590 from the discovery and replication stages. Original or tagging SNPs in eight of these genes replicated the original findings, with seven genes having further significant markers in adjacent regions. In four genes (ZFHX3, NAALADL2, PPP1R14C, and TCP1), the neighboring markers were more significantly associated than the originally associated variants. Investigation of functional relationships between the eight fine-mapped genes using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified a single functional network (p = 10(-13)) containing five fine-mapped genes-LNX1, CAMK2D, ZFHX3, CSMD1, and TCP1-with functional relationships potentially related to inflammation, apoptosis, and cardiovascular pathology. Pair-wise blood transcript levels were measured during acute and convalescent KD for all fine-mapped genes, revealing a consistent trend of significantly reduced transcript levels prior to treatment. This is one of the first GWAS in an infectious disease. We have identified novel, plausible, and functionally related variants associated with KD susceptibility that may also be relevant to other cardiovascular diseases.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: #HL69413, R01 HL069413, R01 HL069413-08

    PLoS genetics 2009;5;1;e1000319

  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of tumor protein D52 on serine residue 136 may be mediated by CAMK2delta6.

    Chew CS, Chen X, Zhang H, Berg EA and Zhang H

    Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA. cchew@mcg.edu

    Tumor protein D52 is expressed at relatively high levels in cells within the gastrointestinal tract that undergo classical exocytosis and is overexpressed in several cancers. Current evidence supports a role for D52 in the regulation of vesicular trafficking. D52 function(s) are regulated by calcium-dependent phosphorylation; however, the intracellular mechanisms that mediate this process are not well characterized. The goal of this study was to identify the calcium-dependent phosphorylation site(s) in D52 and to characterize the protein kinase(s) that mediate this phosphorylation. Using mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified a single amino acid residue, S(136), that undergoes increased phosphorylation upon elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. A phosphospecific antibody (pS(136)) was produced and used to characterize D52 kinase activity in gastric mucosal, colonic T84, and HEK293 cells. By using D52 as a substrate, a protein kinase with a molecular weight (M(r)) of approximately 50 kDa was identified with "in gel" assays. This kinase comigrated with rat brain calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CAMK2)alpha cross-reacted with pan-specific CAMK2 antibodies as well as with anti-active CAMK2 (pT(286/287)) antibody when activated. Carbachol-stimulated phosphorylation of S(136) was inhibited by the CAMK2 inhibitor KN93 (IC(50) 38 microM) and by the calmodulin antagonist W7 (IC(50) 3.3 nM). A previously uncharacterized CAMK2 isoform, CAMK2delta6, which has the same domain structure and M(r) as CAM2alpha, was identified in gastric mucosa by RT-PCR. The cloned, expressed protein comigrated with D52 kinase and colocalized with D52 protein in T84 and HEK293 cells. These findings support a role for CAMK2delta6 in the mediation of D52 phosphorylation.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 31900

    American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 2008;295;6;G1159-72

  • Motor protein-dependent transport of AMPA receptors into spines during long-term potentiation.

    Correia SS, Bassani S, Brown TC, Lisé MF, Backos DS, El-Husseini A, Passafaro M and Esteban JA

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, 1150 W. Medical Center Dr., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0632, USA.

    The regulated trafficking of neurotransmitter receptors at synapses is critical for synaptic function and plasticity. However, the molecular machinery that controls active transport of receptors into synapses is largely unknown. We found that, in rat hippocampus, the insertion of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) into spines during synaptic plasticity requires a specific motor protein, which we identified as myosin Va. We found that myosin Va associates with AMPARs through its cargo binding domain. This interaction was enhanced by active, GTP-bound Rab11, which is also transported by the motor protein. Myosin Va mediated the CaMKII-triggered translocation of GluR1 receptors from the dendritic shaft into spines, but it was not required for constitutive GluR2 trafficking. Accordingly, myosin Va was specifically required for long-term potentiation, but not for basal synaptic transmission. In summary, we identified the specific motor protein and organelle acceptor that catalyze the directional transport of AMPARs into spines during activity-dependent synaptic plasticity.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: F31-MH070205, MH070417; Telethon: TCR07006

    Nature neuroscience 2008;11;4;457-66

  • Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIdelta and protein kinase D overexpression reinforce the histone deacetylase 5 redistribution in heart failure.

    Bossuyt J, Helmstadter K, Wu X, Clements-Jewery H, Haworth RS, Avkiran M, Martin JL, Pogwizd SM and Bers DM

    Department of Physiology, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL 60153, USA.

    Cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF) are associated with reactivation of fetal cardiac genes, and class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) (eg, HDAC5) have been strongly implicated in this process. We have shown previously that inositol trisphosphate, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and protein kinase (PK)D are involved in HDAC5 phosphorylation and nuclear export in normal adult ventricular myocytes and also that CaMKIIdelta and inositol trisphosphate receptors are upregulated in HF. Here we tested whether, in our rabbit HF model, nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC5 was altered either at baseline or in response to endothelin-1, which would indicate HDAC5 phosphorylation and transcription effects. The fusion protein HDAC5-green fluorescent protein (HDAC5-GFP) was more cytosolic in HF myocytes (F(nuc)/F(cyto) 3.3+/-0.3 vs 7.2+/-0.4 in control), and HDAC5 was more phosphorylated. Despite this baseline cytosolic HDAC5 shift, endothelin-1 produced more rapid HDAC5-GFP nuclear export in HF versus control myocytes. We also find that PKD and CaMKIIdelta(C) expression and activation state are increased in both rabbit and human HF. Inhibition of either CaMKII or PKD in HF myocytes partially restored the HDAC5-GFP F(nuc)/F(cyto) toward control, and simultaneous inhibition restored F(nuc)/F(cyto) to that in control myocytes. Moreover, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PKD, CaMKIIdelta(B), or CaMKIIdelta(C) reduced baseline HDAC5 F(nuc)/F(cyto) in control myocytes (3.4+/-0.5, 3.8+/-0.5, and 5.2+/-0.5, respectively), approaching that seen in HF. We conclude that chronic upregulation and activation of inositol trisphosphate receptors, CaMKII, and PKD in HF shifts HDAC5 out of the nucleus, derepressing transcription of hypertrophic genes. This may directly contribute to the development and/or maintenance of HF.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P01-HL80101, R01 HL064724, R01-HL46929, R01-HL64724

    Circulation research 2008;102;6;695-702

  • Nuclear calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIdelta preferentially transmits signals to histone deacetylase 4 in cardiac cells.

    Little GH, Bai Y, Williams T and Poizat C

    Institute for Genetic Medicine and Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA.

    Class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) act as repressors of cardiac hypertrophy, an adaptative response of the heart characterized by a reprogramming of fetal cardiac genes. Prolonged hypertrophy often leads to dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Upstream endogenous regulators of class II HDACs that regulate hypertrophic growth are just beginning to emerge. Here we demonstrate that the delta B isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIdeltaB), known to promote cardiac hypertrophy, transmits signals specifically to HDAC4 but not other class II HDACs. CaMKIIdeltaB efficiently phosphorylates both a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-HDAC4 fragment spanning amino acids 207-311 and full-length FLAG-HDAC4 but not the equivalents in HDAC5. Although previous studies in skeletal muscle cells have shown that HDAC4 lacking serine 246 cannot be phosphorylated by CaMKI/IV, a similar mutant is still phosphorylated by CaMKIIdeltaB. Importantly, mutation of serine 210 to alanine totally abolishes phosphorylation of the GST fragment and significantly reduces phosphorylation of full-length HDAC by CaMKIIdeltaB. RNA interference knockdown of CaMKIIdeltaB prevents the effects of hypertrophic stimuli. Overexpression of CaMKIIdeltaB in primary neonatal cardiomyocytes increases the activity of the Mef2 transcription factor and completely rescues HDAC4-mediated repression of MEF2 but only partially rescues inhibition by HDAC5 or the HDAC4 S210A mutant. CaMKIIdeltaB strongly interacts with HDAC4 in cells but not with HDAC5. These results demonstrate that CaMKIIdeltaB preferentially targets HDAC4, and this involves serine 210. These findings identify HDAC4 as a specific downstream substrate of CaMKIIdeltaB in cardiac cells and have broad applications for the signaling pathways leading to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: C06 CA62528-01; NCRR NIH HHS: C06 RR014514-01, C06 RR10600-01; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-052771

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;10;7219-31

  • Proteomics analysis of protein kinases by target class-selective prefractionation and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Wissing J, Jänsch L, Nimtz M, Dieterich G, Hornberger R, Kéri G, Wehland J and Daub H

    Department of Cell Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany.

    Protein kinases constitute a large superfamily of enzymes with key regulatory functions in nearly all signal transmission processes of eukaryotic cells. However, due to their relatively low abundance compared with the vast majority of cellular proteins, currently available proteomics techniques do not permit the comprehensive biochemical characterization of protein kinases. To address these limitations, we have developed a prefractionation strategy that uses a combination of immobilized low molecular weight inhibitors for the selective affinity capture of protein kinases. This approach resulted in the direct purification of cell type-specific sets of expressed protein kinases, and more than 140 different members of this enzyme family could be detected by LC-MS/MS. Furthermore the enrichment technique combined with phosphopeptide fractionation led to the identification of more than 200 different phosphorylation sites on protein kinases, which often remain occluded in global phosphoproteome analysis. As the phosphorylation states of protein kinases can provide a readout for the signaling activities within a cellular system, kinase-selective phosphoproteomics based on the procedures described here has the potential to become an important tool in signal transduction analysis.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;3;537-47

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Transition from reversible to persistent binding of CaMKII to postsynaptic sites and NR2B.

    Bayer KU, LeBel E, McDonald GL, O'Leary H, Schulman H and De Koninck P

    Department of Pharmacology, Program in Neuroscience, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA. ulli.bayer@uchsc.edu

    Changes in protein-protein interactions and activity states have been proposed to underlie persistent synaptic remodeling that is induced by transient stimuli. Here, we show an unusual stimulus-dependent transition from a short-lived to long-lasting binding between a synaptic receptor and its transducer. Both molecules, the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B and Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), are strongly implicated in mediating synaptic plasticity. We show that CaMKII reversibly translocates to synaptic sites in response to brief stimuli, but its resident time at the synapse increases after longer stimulation. Thus, CaMKII localization reflects temporal patterns of synaptic stimulation. We have identified two surface regions of CaMKII involved in short-lived and long-term interactions with NR2B. Our results support an initial reversible and Ca2+/CaM-dependent binding at the substrate-binding site ("S-site"). On longer stimulation, a persistent interaction is formed at the T286-binding site ("T-site"), thereby keeping the autoregulatory domain displaced and enabling Ca2+/CaM-independent kinase activity. Such dual modes of interaction were observed in vitro and in HEK cells. In hippocampal neurons, short-term stimulation initiates a reversible translocation, but an active history of stimulation beyond some threshold produces a persistent synaptic localization of CaMKII. This activity-dependent incorporation of CaMKII into postsynaptic sites may play a role in maturation and plasticity of synapses.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS052644, R01 NS052644-01A2

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2006;26;4;1164-74

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Distinct role of calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II in lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated suppression of apoptosis and antiapoptotic c-IAP2 gene expression in human monocytic cells.

    Mishra S, Mishra JP, Gee K, McManus DC, LaCasse EC and Kumar A

    Department of Pathology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

    Exposure of phagocytic cells to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) or inflammatory cytokines confers antiapoptotic survival signals; however, in the absence of the appropriate stimulus, monocytes are programmed to undergo apoptosis. Macrophage survival may thus influence inflammatory and immune responses and susceptibility to microbial pathogens. Herein, we demonstrate that LPS and the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), enhance monocytic cell survival through the induction of the antiapoptotic c-IAP2 gene in a human promonocytic THP-1 cell line. We also investigated the role of upstream signaling molecules including the mitogen-activated protein kinases, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and the calcium signaling pathways in the regulation of c-IAP2 expression and eventual survival of monocytic cells. Our results suggest that LPS and TNF-alpha-induced c-IAP2 expression was regulated by calmodulin (CaM) through the activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMKII). In addition, CaM and CaMKII regulated c-IAP2 expression in LPSand TNF-alpha-stimulated cells through NF-kappaB activation. Moreover, the CaM/CaMKII pathway also regulated LPS- and TNF-alpha-mediated inhibition of apoptosis in these cells. Taken together, these results suggest that LPS- and TNF-alpha-induced c-IAP2 expression and its associated antiapoptotic survival signals in THP-1 cells are regulated selectively by CaM/CaMKII through NF-kappaB activation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;45;37536-46

  • CaMK-II oligomerization potential determined using CFP/YFP FRET.

    Lantsman K and Tombes RM

    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284-2012, USA.

    Members of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) family are encoded throughout the animal kingdom by up to four genes (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta). Over three dozen known CaMK-II splice variants assemble into approximately 12-subunit oligomers with catalytic domains facing out from a central core. In this study, the catalytic domain of alpha, beta, and delta CaMK-IIs was replaced with cyan (CFP) or yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies. FRET, when normalized to total CFP and YFP, reproducibly yielded values which reflected oligomerization preference, inter-subunit spacing, and localization. FRET occurred when individual CFP and YFP-linked CaMK-IIs were co-expressed, but not when they were expressed separately and then mixed. All hetero-oligomers exhibited FRET values that were averages of their homo-oligomeric parents, indicating no oligomeric preference or restriction. FRET for CaMK-II homo-oligomers was inversely proportional to the variable region length. FPs were monomerized (Leu221 to Lys221) for this study, thus eliminating any potential artifact caused by FP-CaMK-II aggregates. Our results indicate that alpha, beta, and delta CaMK-IIs can freely hetero-oligomerize and that increased variable region lengths place amino termini further apart, potentially influencing the rate of inter-subunit autophosphorylation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA16059

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2005;1746;1;45-54

  • Multivalent interactions of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with the postsynaptic density proteins NR2B, densin-180, and alpha-actinin-2.

    Robison AJ, Bass MA, Jiao Y, MacMillan LB, Carmody LC, Bartlett RK and Colbran RJ

    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Center for Molecular Neuroscience, Vanderbilt-Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-0615, USA.

    Dendritic calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is dynamically targeted to the synapse. We show that CaMKIIalpha is associated with the CaMKII-binding proteins densin-180, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2B subunit, and alpha-actinin in postsynaptic density-enriched rat brain fractions. Residues 819-894 within the C-terminal domain of alpha-actinin-2 constitute the minimal CaMKII-binding domain. Similar amounts of Thr286-autophosphorylated CaMKIIalpha holoenzyme [P-T286]CaMKII bind to alpha-actinin-2 as bind to NR2B (residues 1260-1339) or to densin-180 (residues 1247-1495) in glutathione-agarose cosedimentation assays, even though the CaMKII-binding domains share no amino acid sequence similarity. Like NR2B, alpha-actinin-2 binds to representative splice variants of each CaMKII gene (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta), whereas densin-180 binds selectively to CaMKIIalpha. In addition, C-terminal truncated CaMKIIalpha monomers can interact with NR2B and alpha-actinin-2, but not with densin-180. Soluble alpha-actinin-2 does not compete for [P-T286]CaMKII binding to immobilized densin-180 or NR2B. However, soluble densin-180, but not soluble NR2B, increases CaMKII binding to immobilized alpha-actinin-2 by approximately 10-fold in a PDZ domain-dependent manner. A His6-tagged NR2B fragment associates with GST-densin or GST-actinin but only in the presence of [P-T286]CaMKII. Similarly, His6-tagged densin-180 or alpha-actinin fragments associate with GST-NR2B in a [P-T286]CaMKII-dependent manner. In addition, GST-NR2B and His6-tagged alpha-actinin can bind simultaneously to monomeric CaMKII subunits. In combination, these data support a model in which [P-T286]CaMKIIalpha can simultaneously interact with multiple dendritic spine proteins, possibly stabilizing the synaptic localization of CaMKII and/or nucleating a multiprotein synaptic signaling complex.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: 5T32-DK07563; NIMH NIH HHS: F32-MH068129, R01 MH063232, R01 MH063232-05, R01-MH63232; NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS44282

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;42;35329-36

  • Phosphoproteomic analysis of the developing mouse brain.

    Ballif BA, Villén J, Beausoleil SA, Schwartz D and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Proper development of the mammalian brain requires the precise integration of numerous temporally and spatially regulated stimuli. Many of these signals transduce their cues via the reversible phosphorylation of downstream effector molecules. Neuronal stimuli acting in concert have the potential of generating enormous arrays of regulatory phosphoproteins. Toward the global profiling of phosphoproteins in the developing brain, we report here the use of a mass spectrometry-based methodology permitting the first proteomic-scale phosphorylation site analysis of primary animal tissue, identifying over 500 protein phosphorylation sites in the developing mouse brain.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2004;3;11;1093-101

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Comparative analyses of the three-dimensional structures and enzymatic properties of alpha, beta, gamma and delta isoforms of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

    Gaertner TR, Kolodziej SJ, Wang D, Kobayashi R, Koomen JM, Stoops JK and Waxham MN

    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM-kinase II) is a ubiquitous Ser/Thr-directed protein kinase that is expressed from a family of four genes (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) in mammalian cells. We have documented the three-dimensional structures and the biophysical and enzymatic properties of the four gene products. Biophysical analyses showed that each isoform assembles into oligomeric forms and their three-dimensional structures at 21-25 A revealed that all four isoforms were dodecamers with similar but highly unusual architecture. A gear-shaped core comprising the association domain has the catalytic domains tethered on appendages, six of which extend from both ends of the core. At this level of resolution, we can discern no isoform-dependent differences in ultrastructure of the holoenzymes. Enzymatic analyses showed that the isoforms were similar in their K(m) for ATP and the peptide substrate syntide, but showed significant differences in their interactions with Ca(2+)-calmodulin as assessed by binding, substrate phosphorylation, and autophosphorylation. Interestingly, the rank order of CaM binding affinity (gamma > beta > delta > alpha) does not directly correlate with the rank order of their CaM dependence for autophosphorylation (beta > gamma > delta > alpha). Simulations utilizing this data revealed that the measured differences in CaM binding affinities play a minor role in the autophosphorylation of the enzyme, which is largely dictated by the rate of autophosphorylation for each isoform.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 26086

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;13;12484-94

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • The NMDA receptor is coupled to the ERK pathway by a direct interaction between NR2B and RasGRF1.

    Krapivinsky G, Krapivinsky L, Manasian Y, Ivanov A, Tyzio R, Pellegrino C, Ben-Ari Y, Clapham DE and Medina I

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Children's Hospital, 1309 Enders Building, 320 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    The NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDAR) at excitatory neuronal synapses plays a key role in synaptic plasticity. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1,2 or ERK) pathway is an essential component of NMDAR signal transduction controlling the neuroplasticity underlying memory processes, neuronal development, and refinement of synaptic connections. Here we show that NR2B, but not NR2A or NR1 subunits of the NMDAR, interacts in vivo and in vitro with RasGRF1, a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent Ras-guanine-nucleotide-releasing factor. Specific disruption of this interaction in living neurons abrogates NMDAR-dependent ERK activation. Thus, RasGRF1 serves as NMDAR-dependent regulator of the ERK kinase pathway. The specific association of RasGRF1 with the NR2B subunit and study of ERK activation in neurons with varied content of NR2B suggests that NR2B-containing channels are the dominant activators of the NMDA-dependent ERK pathway.

    Neuron 2003;40;4;775-84

  • Activation of peripheral NMDA receptors contributes to human pain and rat afferent discharges evoked by injection of glutamate into the masseter muscle.

    Cairns BE, Svensson P, Wang K, Hupfeld S, Graven-Nielsen T, Sessle BJ, Berde CB and Arendt-Nielsen L

    Department of Anesthesia, Harvard Medical School/Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Peripheral N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are found in deep tissues and may play a role in deep tissue pain. Injection of the endogenous NMDA receptor agonist glutamate into the masseter muscle excites deep craniofacial afferent fibers in rats and evokes pain in human subjects. It is not clear whether peripheral NMDA receptors play a role in these effects of glutamate. Accordingly, the effect of NMDA on afferent activity as well as the effect of locally administered NMDA receptor antagonists on glutamate-evoked afferent discharges in acutely anesthetized rats and muscle pain in human subjects was examined. Injection of NMDA into the masseter muscle evoked afferent discharges in a concentration-related manner. It was found that the NMDA receptor antagonists 2-amino-5-phosphonvalerate (APV, 10 mM), ketamine (10 mM), and dextromethorphan (40 mM) significantly decreased glutamate-evoked afferent discharges. The effects of APV and ketamine, but not dextromethorphan, were selective for glutamate-evoked afferent discharges and did not affect hypertonic saline-evoked afferent discharges. In human experiments, it was found that 10 mM ketamine decreased glutamate-evoked muscle pain but had no effect on hypertonic saline-evoked muscle pain. These results indicate that injection of glutamate into the masseter muscle evokes afferent discharges in rats and muscle pain in humans in part through activation of peripheral NMDA receptors. It is conceivable that activation of peripheral NMDA receptors may contribute to masticatory muscle pain and that peripherally acting NMDA receptor antagonists could prove to be effective analgesics for this type of pain.

    Journal of neurophysiology 2003;90;4;2098-105

  • The S18 ribosomal protein is a putative substrate for Ca2+/calmodulin-activated protein kinase II.

    Mishra-Gorur K, Singer HA and Castellot JJ

    Program in Cell, Molecular, and Developmental Biology, Sackler School of Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

    The delta-isoform of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-activated protein kinase II (CaMK II) is abundantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle, but relatively little is known about its regulation or its potential cellular substrates. There are few, if any, known substrates of CaMK II that are physiologically relevant in vascular smooth muscle cells. Studies presented earlier (Mishra-Gorur, K., Singer, H. A., and Castellot, J. J., Jr. (2002) Am. J. Pathol., in press) by our laboratory show an inhibitory effect of heparin on CaMK II phosphorylation and activity. During these studies we observed the specific co-immunoprecipitation of a 20-kDa protein with CaMK II. Purification and sequence analysis indicate that this protein is the S18 protein of the 40 S ribosome. S18 was found to be abundantly phosphorylated in response to serum treatment, and this effect was strongly inhibited by heparin. In addition, KN-93, a specific CaMK II inhibitor, blocks S18 phosphorylation in vascular smooth muscle cells; a concomitant 24% reduction in protein synthesis was observed. Taken together these data support the idea that S18 could be a novel substrate for CaMK II, thus providing a potential link between Ca(2+)-mobilizing agents and protein translation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 49426, HL 49973

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;37;33537-40

  • Requirement of Ca2+ and CaMKII for Stat1 Ser-727 phosphorylation in response to IFN-gamma.

    Nair JS, DaFonseca CJ, Tjernberg A, Sun W, Darnell JE, Chait BT and Zhang JJ

    Department of Pathology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA.

    In response to IFN-gamma, the latent cytoplasmic protein signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (Stat1) becomes phosphorylated on Y701, dimerizes, and accumulates in the nucleus to activate transcription of IFN-gamma-responsive genes. For maximal gene activation, S727 in the transcription activation domain of Stat1 also is inducibly phosphorylated by IFN-gamma. We previously purified a group of nuclear proteins that interact specifically with the Stat1 transcription activation domain. In this report, we identified one of them as the multifunctional Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK) II. We demonstrate that IFN-gamma mobilizes a Ca(2+) flux in cells and activates CaMKII. CaMKII can interact directly with Stat1 and phosphorylate Stat1 on S727 in vitro. Inhibition of Ca(2+) flux or CaMKII results in a lack of S727 phosphorylation and Stat1-dependent gene activation, suggesting in vivo phosphorylation of Stat1 S727 by CaMKII. Thus two different cellular signaling events, IFN-gamma receptor occupation and Ca(2+) flux, are required for Stat1 to achieve maximal transcriptional activation through regulation of phosphorylation.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR000862, RR00862; NIAID NIH HHS: AI31489, AI34420, R37 AI034420; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM61652, R01 GM061652

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;9;5971-6

  • [Molecular mechanisms of the intracellular localizations of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II isoforms, and their physiological functions].

    Yamamoto H

    hideyuki@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp

    Tanpakushitsu kakusan koso. Protein, nucleic acid, enzyme 2002;47;3;241-7

  • Calmodulin kinase II attenuation of gene transcription by preventing cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) dimerization and binding of the CREB-binding protein.

    Wu X and McMurray CT

    Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, the Mayo Graduate School, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

    Calmodulin Kinase II (CamKII) inhibits the transcription of many CRE-dependent genes, but the mechanism of dominant transcriptional inhibition is unknown. Here we show that phosphorylation of serine 142 in CREB by CamKII leads to dissociation of the CREB dimer without impeding DNA binding capacity. CamKII-modified CREB binds to DNA efficiently as a monomer; however, monomeric CREB is unable to recruit the CREB-binding protein (CBP) even when phosphorylated at serine 133. Thus, CamKII confers a dominant inhibitory effect on transcription by preventing dimerization of CREB, and this mechanism may account for the attenuation of gene expression.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 43694-01A2; NIMH NIH HHS: MH-56207

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;3;1735-41

  • Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent kinases: from activation to function.

    Hook SS and Means AR

    Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. shook@fhcrc.org

    Calmodulin (CaM) is an essential protein that serves as a ubiquitous intracellular receptor for Ca(2+). The Ca(2+)/CaM complex initiates a plethora of signaling cascades that culminate in alteration of cellular functions. Among the many Ca(2+)/CaM-binding proteins to be discovered, the multifunctional protein kinases CaMKI, II, and IV play pivotal roles. Our review focuses on this class of CaM kinases to illustrate the structural and biochemical basis for Ca(2+)/CaM interaction with and regulation of its target enzymes. Gene transcription has been chosen as the functional endpoint to illustrate the recent advances in Ca(2+)/CaM-mediated signal transduction mechanisms.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD-07503; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-33976

    Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology 2001;41;471-505

  • Activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II within post-synaptic dendritic spines of cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Inagaki N, Nishizawa M, Arimura N, Yamamoto H, Takeuchi Y, Miyamoto E, Kaibuchi K and Inagaki M

    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8681, Japan. ninagaki@bs.aistnara.ac.jp

    To understand the cell signaling of protein kinases, it is essential to monitor their activity in each of the subcellular compartments. Here we developed a method to visualize the activities of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in the cytoplasm, plasma membrane, and nucleus, separately, by utilizing targeted phosphorylation motifs and phosphorylation-specific antibodies. This approach was used to monitor the activities of post-synaptic CaMKII in cultured hippocampal neurons. Strong stimulation of the neurons by N-methyl-d-aspartate led to global activations of CaMKII in the cell bodies and dendrites. On the other hand, weak stimulation by removal of Mg(2+) block of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors induced CaMKII signaling localized within single dendritic spines. Post-synaptic CaMKII is thought to modify synaptic efficiency. The present data for the first time demonstrate the activation of CaMKII localized within single dendritic spines and are consistent with the notion that synaptic efficiency is modified by CaMKII in single or multiple spine level depending on the strength of receptor activation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;35;27165-71

  • Cloning and quantitative determination of the human Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) isoforms in human beta cells.

    Rochlitz H, Voigt A, Lankat-Buttgereit B, Göke B, Heimberg H, Nauck MA, Schiemann U, Schatz H and Pfeiffer AF

    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Bergmannsheil, University of Bochum, Germany.

    The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) is highly expressed in pancreatic islets and associated with insulin secretion vesicles. The suppression of CaMK II disturbs insulin secretion and insulin gene expression. There are four isoforms of CaMK II, alpha to delta, that are expressed from different genes in mammals. Our aim was to identify the isoforms of CaMK II expressed in human beta cells by molecular cloning from a human insulinoma cDNA library and to assess its distribution in humans.

    Methods: The previously unknown complete coding sequences of human CaMK IIbeta and the kinase domain of CaMK IIdelta were cloned from a human insulinoma cDNA library. Quantitative determination of CaMK II isoform mRNA was carried out in several tissues and beta cells purified by fluorescence activated cell sorting and compared to the housekeeping enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    Results: We found CaMK IIbeta occurred in three splice variants and was highly expressed in endocrine tissues such as adrenals, pituitary and beta cells. Liver showed moderate expression but adipose tissue or lymphocytes had very low levels of CaMK IIbeta-mRNA. In human beta cells CaMK IIbeta and delta were expressed equally with pyruvate dehydrogenase whereas tenfold lower expression of CaMK IIgamma and no expression of CaMK IIalpha were found.

    Although CaMK IIdelta is ubiquitously expressed, CaMK IIbeta shows preferential expression in neuroendocrine tissues. In comparison with the expression of a key regulatory enzyme in glucose oxidation, pyruvate dehydrogenase, two of the four CaM kinases investigated are expressed at equally high levels, which supports an important role in beta-cell physiology. These results provide the basis for exploring the pathophysiological relevance of CaMK IIbeta in human diabetes.

    Diabetologia 2000;43;4;465-73

  • Downregulation of delta CaM kinase II in human tumor cells.

    Tombes RM, Mikkelsen RB, Jarvis WD and Grant S

    Massey Cancer Center and Department of Biology, Medical College of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA. rtombes@hsc.vcu.edu

    Over two dozen alternative splice variants of CaMK-II, the type II Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinase, are encoded from four genes (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) in mammalian cells. Isozymes of alpha and beta CaMK-II are well characterized in brain; however, an understanding of the relative endogenous levels of CaMK-II isozymes in a wide variety of non-neuronal cells has not yet been described. In this study, we have demonstrated that CaMK-II consists primarily of the 54 kDa delta CaMK-II (delta(2) or delta(C)) isozyme in rodent fibroblasts. beta and gamma CaMK-II isozymes are minor and alpha CaMK-II was not expressed. The primary delta CaMK-II in human fibroblasts and the MCF10A mammary epithelial cell line was the 52 kDa delta(4) CaMK-II, an isozyme identical to delta(2) except for a missing 21-amino-acid C-terminal tail. delta CaMK-II levels were diminished in both human and rodent fibroblasts after SV40 transformation and in the mammary adenocarcinoma MCF7 cell line when compared to MCF10A cells. In fact, most tumor cells exhibited CaMK-II specific activities which were two- to tenfold lower than in untransformed fibroblasts. We conducted complementary CaMK-II studies on the NGF-induced differentiation of rat PC-12 cells. Although no new synthesis of CaMK-II occurs, neurite outgrowth in these cells is accompanied by a preferential activation of delta CaMK-II. Endogenous delta CaMK-II has a perinuclear distribution in fibroblasts and extends along neurites in PC-12 cells. These findings point to a role for delta CaMK-II isozymes in cellular differentiation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA63753

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1999;1452;1;1-11

  • Ras-specific exchange factor GRF: oligomerization through its Dbl homology domain and calcium-dependent activation of Raf.

    Anborgh PH, Qian X, Papageorge AG, Vass WC, DeClue JE and Lowy DR

    Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    The full-length versions of the Ras-specific exchange factors Ras-GRF1 (GRF1) and Ras-GRF2 (GRF2), which are expressed in brain and a restricted number of other organs, possess an ionomycin-dependent activation of Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in 293T cells (C. L. Farnsworth et al., Nature 376:524-527, 1995; N. P. Fam et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:1396-1406, 1996). Each GRF protein contains a Dbl homology (DH) domain. A yeast two-hybrid screen was used to identify polypeptides that associate with the DH domain of GRF1. In this screen, a positive cDNA clone from a human brain cDNA library was isolated which consisted of the GRF2 DH domain and its adjacent ilimaquinone domain. Deletion analysis verified that the two-hybrid interaction required only the DH domains, and mutation of Leu-263 to Gln (L263Q) in the N terminus of the GRF1 DH domain abolished the two-hybrid interaction, while a cluster of more C-terminally located mutations in the DH domain did not eliminate the interaction. Oligomers between GRF1 and GRF2 were detected in a rat brain extract, and forced expression of GRF1 and GRF2 in cultured mammalian cells formed homo- and hetero-oligomers. Introduction of the L263Q mutation in GRF1 led to a protein that was deficient in oligomer formation, while GRF1 containing the DH cluster mutations formed homo-oligomers with an efficiency similar to that of wild type. Compared to wild-type GRF1, the focus-forming activity on NIH 3T3 cells of the GRF1 DH cluster mutant was reduced, while the L263Q mutant was inactive. Both mutants were impaired in their ability to mediate ionomycin-dependent Erk activity in 293T cells. In the absence of ionomycin, 293T cells expressing wild-type GRF1 contained much higher levels of Ras-GTP than control cells; the increase in Erk activity induced by ionomycin in the GRF1-expressing cells also induced a concomitant increase in Raf kinase activity, but without a further increase in the level Ras-GTP. We conclude that GRF1 and GRF2 can form homo- and hetero-oligomers via their DH domains, that mutational inactivation of oligomer formation by GRF1 is associated with impaired biological and signaling activities, and that in 293T cells GRF1 mediates at least two pathways for Raf activation: one a constitutive signal that is mainly Ras-dependent, and one an ionomycin-induced signal that cooperates with the constitutive signal without further augmenting the level of GTP-Ras.

    Molecular and cellular biology 1999;19;7;4611-22

  • Identification and expression of delta-isoforms of the multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in failing and nonfailing human myocardium.

    Hoch B, Meyer R, Hetzer R, Krause EG and Karczewski P

    Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Despite its importance for the regulation of heart function, little is known about the isoform expression of the multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) in human myocardium. In this study, we investigated the spectrum of CaMKII isoforms delta2, delta3, delta4, delta8, and delta9 in human striated muscle tissue. Isoform delta3 is characteristically expressed in cardiac muscle. In skeletal muscle, specific expression of a new isoform termed delta11 is demonstrated. Complete sequencing of human delta2 cDNA, representing all common features of the investigated CaMKII subclass, revealed its high homology to the corresponding rat cDNA. Comparative semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses from left ventricular tissues of normal hearts and from patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy showed a significant increase in transcript levels of isoform delta3 relative to the expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in diseased hearts (101. 6+/-11.0% versus 64.9+/-9.9% in the nonfailing group; P<0.05, n=6). Transcript levels of the other investigated cardiac CaMKII isoforms remained unchanged. At the protein level, by using a subclass-specific antibody, we observed a similar increase of a delta-CaMKII-specific signal (7.2+/-1.0 versus 3.8+/-0.7 optical density units in the nonfailing group; P<0.05, n=4 through 6). The diseased state of the failing hearts was confirmed by a significant increase in transcript levels for atrial natriuretic peptide (292. 9+/-76.4% versus 40.1+/-3.2% in the nonfailing group; P<0.05, n=3 through 6). Our data characterize for the first time the delta-CaMKII isoform expression pattern in human hearts and demonstrate changes in this expression pattern in heart failure.

    Circulation research 1999;84;6;713-21

  • Toward a complete human genome sequence.

    Sanger Center and Genome Sequencing Center

    Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK;

    We have begun a joint program as part of a coordinated international effort to determine a complete human genome sequence. Our strategy is to map large-insert bacterial clones and to sequence each clone by a random shotgun approach followed by directed finishing. As of September 1998, we have identified the map positions of bacterial clones covering approximately 860 Mb for sequencing and completed >98 Mb ( approximately 3.3%) of the human genome sequence. Our progress and sequencing data can be accessed via the World Wide Web (http://webace.sanger.ac.uk/HGP/ or http://genome.wustl.edu/gsc/).

    Genome research 1998;8;11;1097-108

  • Interaction of the CD5 cytoplasmic domain with the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase IIdelta.

    Bauch A, Campbell KS and Reth M

    Max-Planck-Institut für Immunbiologie and Biologie III, University of Freiburg, Germany.

    CD5 is a type I transmembrane protein expressed on the surface of T cells and of B1 B cells. The analysis of CD5-deficient mice suggests that CD5 can down-regulate positive signals from the antigen receptors on T and B cells but the mechanism is not known at present. In contrast to the extracellular domain the 93 amino acid long cytoplasmic domain of CD5 is highly conserved between CD5 proteins of different mammalian species. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we identified two proteins which specifically bind to the N-terminal part of the CD5 cytoplasmic sequence. These are the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase IIdelta and Tctex-1, a light chain component of the dynein motor complex. The interaction of CD5 with the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase IIdelta was reproduced in vitro using fusion proteins. The potential function of these proteins in CD5 internalization and negative signaling is discussed.

    European journal of immunology 1998;28;7;2167-77

  • Adjacent asparagines in the NR2-subunit of the NMDA receptor channel control the voltage-dependent block by extracellular Mg2+.

    Wollmuth LP, Kuner T and Sakmann B

    Abteilung Zellphysiologie, Max-Planck-Institut für medizinische Forschung, Heidelberg, Germany. wollmuth@sunny.mpimf-Heidelberg.mpg.de

    1. The voltage-dependent block of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channels by extracellular Mg2+ is a critical determinant of its contribution to CNS synaptic physiology. The function of the narrow constriction of the channel in determining the block was investigated by analysing the effects of a set different amino acid substitutions at exposed residues positioned at or near this region. NMDA receptor channels, composed of wild-type and mutant NR1- and NR2A-subunits, were expressed in Xenopus oocytes or human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. 2. In wild-type channels, the voltage dependence (delta) of the block Mg2+ was concentration dependent with values of delta of integral of 0.82 in 0.07 mM and higher concentrations. Under bionic conditions with high extracellular Mg2+ and K+ as the reference ion, Mg2+ weakly permeated the channel. Over intermediate potentials (approximately -60 to -10 mV), this weak permeability had no apparent effect on the block but at potentials negative to approximately -60mV, it attenuated the extent and voltage dependence of the block. 3. Substitutions of glycine, serine, glutamine or aspartate for the N-site asparagine in the NR1-subunit enhanced the extent of block over intermediate potentials but left the voltage dependence of the block unchanged indicating that structural determinants of the block remained. These same substitutions either attenuated or left unchanged the apparent Mg2+ permeability. 4. In channels containing substitutions of glycine, serine or glutamine for the N-site asparagine in the NR2A-subunit, the block Mg2+ was reduced at negative potentials. Over intermediate potentials, the block was not strongly attenuated except for the glutamine substitution which reduced the voltage dependence of the block to integral of 0.57 in 0.7 mM Mg2+. 5. Equivalent substitutions for the N + 1 site asparagine in the NR2A-subunit strongly attenuated the block over the entire voltage range. In 0.7 mM Mg2+, the voltage dependence of the block was reduced to 0.50 (glycine), 0.53 (serine) and 0.46 (glutamine). 6. Channels containing substitutions of the N-site or N + 1 site asparagines in the NR2A-subunit showed an increased Mg2+ permeability suggesting that these adjacent asparagines form a barrier for inward Mg2+ flux. Changes in this barrier contribute, at least in part, to the mechanism underlying disruption of the block following substitution of these residues. 7. The adjacent NR2A-subunit asparagines are positioned at or near the narrow constriction of the channel. Pore size, however, did not determine how effectively Mg2+ blocks mutant channels. 8. It is concluded that, at the narrow constriction in the NMDA receptor channel, the adjacent NR2A-subunit asparagines, the N-site and N + 1 site, but not the N-site asparagine of the NR1-subunit, form a critical blocking site for extracellular Mg2+. The contribution to the blocking site, in contrast to the prevailing view, is stronger for the N + 1 site than for the N-site asparagine. The block may involve binding of Mg2+ to these residues.

    The Journal of physiology 1998;506 ( Pt 1);13-32

  • Insulinoma cells contain an isoform of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta associated with insulin secretion vesicles.

    Möhlig M, Wolter S, Mayer P, Lang J, Osterhoff M, Horn PA, Schatz H and Pfeiffer A

    Department of Internal Medicine, BG Kliniken Bergmannsheil, University of Bochum, Medical School, Germany.

    The Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) is thought to play an important part in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. To determine which of the known subtypes (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) occur in insulin-secreting cells, we amplified all types of CaM kinase II by RT-PCR and found the beta3-, gamma-, delta2- and delta6-subtypes in RINm5F insulinoma cells. None of the other 8 delta-subtypes was present. Antibodies generated against the bacterially expressed association domain of the delta2-subtype recognized the recombinant gamma and delta-subtypes. In INS-1 and RINm5F cells, as well as freshly isolated rat islets, only a 55-kDa protein corresponding in size to the delta2-subtype expressed in NIH3T3 fibroblasts was detected. The delta2-subtype therefore appears to represent the predominant subtype of CaM kinase II present in insulin secreting cells. The enzyme was primarily associated with cytoskeletal structures, and very little was present in the soluble compartment or detergent soluble fraction in INS-1- or RINm5F-cells. An analysis of its subcellular distribution was performed by sucrose and Nycodenz density gradient fractionation of INS-1 cells and detection of CaM kinase II delta by immune blots. The enzyme codistributed with insulin used as a marker for secretory granules but not with the lighter synaptic-like microvesicles detected with an antibody against synaptophysin, plasma membranes (syntaxin 1), lysosomes (arylsulfatase), or mitochondria (cytochrome c oxidase). CaM kinase II delta2 thus is identified as the subtype associated with insulin secretory granules and is likely to be involved in insulin secretion.

    Endocrinology 1997;138;6;2577-84

  • Rad and Rad-related GTPases interact with calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

    Moyers JS, Bilan PJ, Zhu J and Kahn CR

    Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

    Members of the Rad family of GTPases (including Rad, Gem, and Kir) possess several unique features of unknown function in comparison to other Ras-like proteins, with major N-terminal and C-terminal extensions, a lack of typical prenylation motifs, and several non-conservative changes in the sequence of the GTP binding domain. Here we show that Rad and Gem bind to calmodulin (CaM)-Sepharose in vitro in a calcium-dependent manner and that Rad can be co-immunoprecipitated with CaM in C2C12 cells. The interaction is influenced by the guanine nucleotide binding state of Rad with the GDP-bound form exhibiting 5-fold better binding to CaM than the GTP-bound protein. In addition, the dominant negative mutant of Rad (S105N) which binds GDP, but not GTP, exhibits enhanced binding to CaM in vivo when expressed in C2C12 cells. Peptide competition studies and expression of deletion mutants of Rad localize the binding site for CaM to residues 278-297 at the C terminus of Rad. This domain contains a motif characteristic of a calmodulin-binding region, consisting of numerous basic and hydrophobic residues. In addition, we have identified a second potential regulatory domain in the extended N terminus of Rad which, when removed, decreases Rad protein expression but increases the binding of Rad to CaM. The ability of Rad mutants to bind CaM correlates with their localization in cytoskeletal fractions of C2C12 cells. Immunoprecipitates of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, the cellular effector of Ca2+-calmodulin, also contain Rad, and in vitro both Rad and Gem can serve as substrates for this kinase. Thus, the Rad family of GTP-binding proteins possess unique characteristics of binding CaM and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, suggesting a role for Rad-like GTPases in calcium activation of serine/threonine kinase cascades.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 07260, DK 45935, P30DK36836

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;18;11832-9

  • Identification of novel human tumor cell-specific CaMK-II variants.

    Tombes RM and Krystal GW

    Massey Cancer Center, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond 23298-0037, USA.

    CaMK-II (the (type II) multifunctional Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase) has been implicated in diverse neuronal and non-neuronal functions, including cell growth control. CaMKII expression was evaluated in a variety of human tumor cell lines using RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase coupled polymerase chain reaction). PCR primers which flanked the CaMK-II variable domain were used so that all possible variants of the four mammalian CaMK-II genes (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) could be identified. 8 distinct CaMK-II isozymes were identified from human mammary tumor and neuroblastoma cell cDNA, each of which represented a variant of beta, gamma or delta CaMK-II. They included 2 beta isozymes (beta e, beta 'e), 4 gamma isozymes (gamma B, gamma C, gamma G, gamma H) and 2 delta isozymes (delta C, delta E) This is the first report of human beta and delta CaMK-II sequences. A panel of human cell types was then screened for these CaMK-II isozymes. As expected, cerebral cortex predominately expressed alpha, beta and delta A CaMK-II. In contrast, tumor cells, including those of neuronal origin, expressed an entirely different spectrum of CaMK-II isozymes than adult neuronal tissue. Tumor cells of diverse tissue origin uniformly lacked alpha CaMK-II and expressed 1-2 beta isozymes, at least 3 gamma isozymes and 1-2 delta isozymes. When compared to undifferentiated fibroblasts, beta e, beta'e, gamma G and gamma H were preferentially expressed in tumor cells. CaMK-II immunoblots also indicated that neuroblastoma and mammary tumor cells express isozymes of CaMK-II not present in their non-transformed cell or tissue counterpart. The identification of these new, potential tumor-specific CaMK-II variants supports previous indications that CaMK-II plays a role in growth control. In addition, these results provide insight into both splice variant switching and variable domain structural similarities among all CaMK-II isozymes.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: 9564-08

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1997;1355;3;281-92

  • Expression of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase types II and IV, and reduced DNA synthesis due to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor KN-62 (1-[N,O-bis(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl]-4-phenyl piperazine) in small cell lung carcinoma.

    Williams CL, Phelps SH and Porter RA

    Molecular Pharmacology Laboratory, Guthrie Research Institute, Sayre, PA 18840, USA.

    Because changes in intracellular Ca2+ affect progression through the mitotic cell cycle, we investigated the role of Ca2+-binding proteins in regulating cell cycle progression. Evidence was found demonstrating that the activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) inhibits cell cycle progression in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cells. We also demonstrated that SCLC cells express both CaM kinase type II (CaMKII) and CaM kinase type IV (CaMKIV). Five independent SCLC cell lines expressed proteins reactive with antibody to the CaMKII beta subunit, but none expressed detectable proteins reactive with antibody to the CaMKII alpha subunit. All SCLC cell lines tested expressed both the alpha and beta isoforms of CaMKIV. Immunoprecipitation of CaMKII from SCLC cells yielded multiple proteins that autophosphorylated in the presence of Ca2+ / calmodulin. Autophosphorylation was inhibited by the CaMKII(281-302) peptide, which corresponds to the CaMKII autoinhibitory domain, and by 1-[N,O-bis(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl]-4- phenylpiperazine (KN-62), a specific CaM kinase antagonist. Influx of Ca2+ through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels stimulated phosphorylation of CaMKII in SCLC cells, and this was inhibited by KN-62. Incubation of SCLC cells of KN-62 potently inhibited DNA synthesis, and slowed progression through S phase. Similar anti-proliferative effects of KN-62 occurred in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells, which express both CaMKII and CaMKIV, and in K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells, which express CaMKII but not CaMKIV. The expression of both CaMKII and CaMKIV by SCLC cells, and the sensitivity of these cells to the anti-proliferative effects of KN-62, suggest a role for CaM kinase in regulating SCLC proliferation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA52471

    Biochemical pharmacology 1996;51;5;707-15

  • Developmental rearrangements of cortical glutamate-NMDA receptor binding sites in late human gestation.

    Andersen DL, Tannenberg AE, Burke CJ and Dodd PR

    Royal Brisbane Hospital Research Foundation, Australia.

    NMDA-preferring glutamate receptor biding sites were characterized using the site-selective ligand [3H]MK801, in synaptic membranes prepared from cerebral cortex tissue obtained postmortem from human infants who had died with minimal neurological and neuropathological impairment between 22 and 42 weeks' gestation. It proved necessary to modify the assay protocol used with adult tissue before reliable data could be obtained. In the four cortical region studied (prefrontal, motor, occipital, temporal), [3H]MK801 bound to a single class of sites which showed significant variations in affinity only in motor cortex. The density of [3H]MK801 binding sites (calculated at constant affinity) showed marked increases in all cortical regions over this period. The extent to which glutamate could enhance [3H]MK801 binding became significantly lower in prefrontal and motor cortex as gestation progressed, so that at term, little activation was apparent. In occipital and temporal cortex, this parameter was low throughout late gestation. The evidence suggests that Glutamate-NMDA binding sites may undergo structural rearrangements which alter their ability to interact with ligands during the later stages of human gestation, and that such changes are regionally variable.

    Brain research. Developmental brain research 1995;88;2;178-85

  • Multiple and cooperative phosphorylation events regulate the CREM activator function.

    de Groot RP, den Hertog J, Vandenheede JR, Goris J and Sassone-Corsi P

    Laboratoire Génétique Moléculaire des Eucaryotes, CNRS, U184 de l'INSERM, Faculté de Médecine, Institut de Chimie Biologique, Strasbourg, France.

    Phosphorylation is one of the major mechanisms by which the activity of transcription factors can be regulated. We have investigated the role of phosphorylation in the regulation of the transcription factor CREM. We show that the CREM tau activator is phosphorylated on multiple serine and threonine residues in vivo. Stimulation of various signal transduction pathways by forskolin, TPA or Ca2+ ionophore leads to enhanced phosphorylation of serine 117, concomitant with an increase in the transactivation potential of CREM tau. We have identified multiple kinases that can also phosphorylate S117 in vitro. Moreover, we show that casein kinase I and II cooperatively phosphorylate CREM tau on multiple residues, eliciting enhanced DNA binding. Cooperative phosphorylation is also observed with other kinases. These results show that the activity of CREM tau is regulated by multiple phosphorylation events, suggesting that CREM could be considered as a nuclear effector where signalling pathways may converge and/or cross-talk.

    The EMBO journal 1993;12;10;3903-11

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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