G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Camk2d (MGI)
Mus musculus
calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, delta
G00001401 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (10)

ENSMUSG00000053819 (Ensembl mouse gene)
108058 (Entrez Gene)
495 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
NM_023813 (Allen Brain Atlas)
g01594 (BGEM)
108058 (Genepaint)
camk2d (gensat)
607708 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:1341265 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
Q6PHZ2 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • CaMK II

Literature (44)

Pubmed - other

  • The multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II delta (CaMKIIdelta) controls neointima formation after carotid ligation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through cell cycle regulation by p21.

    Li W, Li H, Sanders PN, Mohler PJ, Backs J, Olson EN, Anderson ME and Grumbach IM

    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine/Department of Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA.

    The multifunctional Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) promotes vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) proliferation. However, the signaling pathways mediating CAMKII-dependent proliferative effects in vivo are poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that CaMKIIδ mediates neointimal proliferation after carotid artery ligation by regulating expression and activity of cell cycle regulators, particularly at the G1/S checkpoint. Data herein indicate that 14 days after carotid ligation, C57Bl/6 mice developed a marked neointima with robust CaMKII protein expression. In particular, only the CaMKII isoform δ was increased as demonstrated by quantitative RT-PCR. Genetic deletion of CaMKII δ prevented injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia and cell proliferation in the intima and media. In ligated carotids of control mice, the proliferative cell cycle markers cdk2, cyclin E, and cyclin D1 were activated. In contrast, in CaMKIIδ(-/-) mice, we detected a reduction in proliferative cell cycle regulators as well as an increase in the cell cycle inhibitor p21. This expression profile was confirmed in cultured CaMKIIδ(-/-) VSMC, in which cdk2 and cdk4 activity was decreased. Toward understanding how CAMKIIδ affects p53, a transcriptional regulator of p21, we examined p53 pathway components. Our data indicate that p53 is elevated in CAMKIIδ(-/-) VSMC, whereas phosphorylation of the p53-specific E3 ligase, Mdm2, was decreased. In conclusion, CaMKII stimulates neointima proliferation after vascular injury by regulating cell proliferation through inhibition of p21 and induction of Mdm-2-mediated degradation of p53.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 079031, R01 HL 083422, R01 HL 084583, R01 HL 70250, R01 HL070250, R01 HL079031, R01 HL083422, R01 HL084583, R01 HL096652, R01 HL113001

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2011;286;10;7990-9

  • SR proteins induce alternative exon skipping through their activities on the flanking constitutive exons.

    Han J, Ding JH, Byeon CW, Kim JH, Hertel KJ, Jeong S and Fu XD

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0651, USA.

    SR proteins are well known to promote exon inclusion in regulated splicing through exonic splicing enhancers. SR proteins have also been reported to cause exon skipping, but little is known about the mechanism. We previously characterized SRSF1 (SF2/ASF)-dependent exon skipping of the CaMKIIδ gene during heart remodeling. By using mouse embryo fibroblasts derived from conditional SR protein knockout mice, we now show that SR protein-induced exon skipping depends on their prevalent actions on a flanking constitutive exon and requires collaboration of more than one SR protein. These findings, coupled with other established rules for SR proteins, provide a theoretical framework to understand the complex effect of SR protein-regulated splicing in mammalian cells. We further demonstrate that heart-specific CaMKIIδ splicing can be reconstituted in fibroblasts by downregulating SR proteins and upregulating a RBFOX protein and that SR protein overexpression impairs regulated CaMKIIδ splicing and neuronal differentiation in P19 cells, illustrating that SR protein-dependent exon skipping may constitute a key strategy for synergism with other splicing regulators in establishing tissue-specific alternative splicing critical for cell differentiation programs.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM49369, R01 GM049369, R01 GM062287

    Molecular and cellular biology 2011;31;4;793-802

  • Overexpression of CaMKIIδc in RyR2R4496C+/- knock-in mice leads to altered intracellular Ca2+ handling and increased mortality.

    Dybkova N, Sedej S, Napolitano C, Neef S, Rokita AG, Hünlich M, Brown JH, Kockskämper J, Priori SG, Pieske B and Maier LS

    Department of Cardiology and Pneumology, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

    Objectives: We investigated whether increased Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) activity aggravates defective excitation-contraction coupling and proarrhythmic activity in mice expressing R4496C mutated cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2).

    Background: RyR2 dysfunction is associated with arrhythmic events in inherited and acquired cardiac disease.

    Methods: CaMKIIδc transgenic mice were crossbred with RyR2(R4496C+/-) knock-in mice.

    Results: Heart weight-to-body weight ratio in CaMKIIδc/RyR2(R4496C) and CaMKIIδc mice was similarly increased approximately 3-fold versus wild-type mice (p < 0.05). Echocardiographic data showed comparable cardiac dilation and impaired contractility in CaMKIIδc/RyR2(R4496C) and CaMKIIδc mice. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) content in isolated myocytes was decreased to a similar extent in CaMKIIδc/RyR2(R4496C) and CaMKIIδc mice. However, relaxation parameters and Ca(2+) decay at 1 Hz were prolonged significantly in CaMKIIδc mice versus CaMKIIδc/RyR2(R4496C) mice. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) spark frequency and characteristics indicated increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak in CaMKIIδc/RyR2(R4496C) versus CaMKIIδc myocytes (p < 0.05), most likely because of increased RyR2 phosphorylation. Delayed afterdepolarizations were significantly more frequent with increased amplitudes in CaMKIIδc/RyR2(R4496C) versus CaMKIIδc mice. Increased arrhythmias in vivo (67% vs. 25%; p < 0.05) may explain the increased mortality in CaMKIIδc/RyR2(R4496C) mice, which died prematurely with only 30% alive (vs. 60% for CaMKIIδc, p < 0.05) after 14 weeks.

    Conclusions: CaMKIIδc overexpression in RyR2(R4496C+/-) knock-in mice increases the propensity toward triggered arrhythmias, which may impair survival. CaMKII contributes to further destabilization of a mutated RyR2 receptor.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL080101; Telethon: GGP06007

    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2011;57;4;469-79

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • Aberrant calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity is associated with abnormal dendritic spine morphology in the ATRX mutant mouse brain.

    Shioda N, Beppu H, Fukuda T, Li E, Kitajima I and Fukunaga K

    Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan.

    In humans, mutations in the gene encoding ATRX, a chromatin remodeling protein of the sucrose-nonfermenting 2 family, cause several mental retardation disorders, including α-thalassemia X-linked mental retardation syndrome. We generated ATRX mutant mice lacking exon 2 (ATRX(ΔE2) mice), a mutation that mimics exon 2 mutations seen in human patients and associated with milder forms of retardation. ATRX(ΔE2) mice exhibited abnormal dendritic spine formation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Consistent with other mouse models of mental retardation, ATRX(ΔE2) mice exhibited longer and thinner dendritic spines compared with wild-type mice without changes in spine number. Interestingly, aberrant increased calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity was observed in the mPFC of ATRX(ΔE2) mice. Increased CaMKII autophosphorylation and activity were associated with increased phosphorylation of the Rac1-guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) and kalirin-7, known substrates of CaMKII. We confirmed increased phosphorylation of p21-activated kinases (PAKs) in mPFC extracts. Furthermore, reduced protein expression and activity of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) was evident in the mPFC of ATRX(ΔE2) mice. In cultured cortical neurons, PP1 inhibition by okadaic acid increased CaMKII-dependent Tiam1 and kalirin-7 phosphorylation. Together, our data strongly suggest that aberrant CaMKII activation likely mediates abnormal spine formation in the mPFC. Such morphological changes plus elevated Rac1-GEF/PAK signaling seen in ATRX(ΔE2) mice may contribute to mental retardation syndromes seen in human patients.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2011;31;1;346-58

  • Calcium/calmodulin kinase II-dependent acetylcholine receptor cycling at the mammalian neuromuscular junction in vivo.

    Martinez-Pena y Valenzuela I, Mouslim C and Akaaboune M

    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    At the mammalian skeletal neuromuscular junction, cycling of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) is critical for the maintenance of a high postsynaptic receptor density. However, the mechanisms that regulate nAChRs recycling in living animals remain unknown. Using in vivo time-lapse imaging, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, and biochemical pull down assays, we demonstrated that recycling of internalized nAChRs into fully functional and denervated synapses was promoted by both direct muscle stimulation and pharmacologically induced intracellular calcium elevations. Most of internalized nAChRs are recycled directly into synaptic sites. Chelating of intracellular calcium below resting level drastically decreased cycling of nAChRs. Furthermore we found that calcium-dependent AChR recycling is mediated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). Inhibition of CaMKII selectively blocked recycling and caused intracellular accumulation of internalized nAChRs, whereas internalization of surface receptors remained unaffected. Electroporation of CaMKII-GFP isoforms into the sternomastoid muscle showed that muscle-specific CaMKIIβm isoform is highly expressed at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and precisely colocalized with nAChRs at crests of synaptic folds while the CaMKIIγ and δ isoforms are poorly expressed in synaptic sites. These results indicate that Ca(2+) along with CaMKII activity are critical for receptor recycling and may provide a mechanism by which the postsynaptic AChR density is maintained at the NMJ in vivo.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS047332, R01 NS047332-05, R01 NS047332-06, R01 NS047332-07

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2010;30;37;12455-65

  • Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase IIdelta causes heart failure by accumulation of p53 in dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Toko H, Takahashi H, Kayama Y, Oka T, Minamino T, Okada S, Morimoto S, Zhan DY, Terasaki F, Anderson ME, Inoue M, Yao A, Nagai R, Kitaura Y, Sasaguri T and Komuro I

    Department of Cardiovascular Science and Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan.

    Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), characterized by dilatation and dysfunction of the left ventricle, is an important cause of heart failure. Many mutations in various genes, including cytoskeletal protein genes and contractile protein genes, have been identified in DCM patients, but the mechanisms of how such mutations lead to DCM remain unknown.

    We established the mouse model of DCM by expressing a mutated cardiac alpha-actin gene, which has been reported in patients with DCM, in the heart (mActin-Tg). mActin-Tg mice showed gradual dilatation and dysfunction of the left ventricle, resulting in death by heart failure. The number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes and protein levels of p53 were increased in the hearts of mActin-Tg mice. Overexpression of Bcl-2 or downregulation of p53 decreased the number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes and improved cardiac function. This mouse model showed a decrease in myofilament calcium sensitivity and activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase IIdelta (CaMKIIdelta). The inhibition of CaMKIIdelta prevented the increase in p53 and apoptotic cardiomyocytes and ameliorated cardiac function.

    Conclusions: CaMKIIdelta plays a critical role in the development of heart failure in part by accumulation of p53 and induction of cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the DCM mouse model.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL070250, R01 HL070250-01, R01 HL070250-02, R01 HL070250-03, R01 HL070250-04, R01 HL070250-05, R01 HL070250-06A1, R01 HL070250-07, R01 HL070250-07W1, R01 HL070250-08, R01 HL070250-09, R01 HL070250-10, R01 HL079031, R01 HL079031-01A2, R01 HL079031-02, R01 HL079031-03, R01 HL079031-04, R01 HL079031-05, R01 HL079031-06, R01 HL096652, R01 HL096652-01, R01 HL096652-02, R01 HL096652-03, R01 HL096652-04

    Circulation 2010;122;9;891-9

  • Role of CaMKIIdelta phosphorylation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor in the force frequency relationship and heart failure.

    Kushnir A, Shan J, Betzenhauser MJ, Reiken S and Marks AR

    Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Clyde and Helen Wu Center for Molecular Cardiology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10332, USA.

    The force frequency relationship (FFR), first described by Bowditch 139 years ago as the observation that myocardial contractility increases proportionally with increasing heart rate, is an important mediator of enhanced cardiac output during exercise. Individuals with heart failure have defective positive FFR that impairs their cardiac function in response to stress, and the degree of positive FFR deficiency correlates with heart failure progression. We have identified a mechanism for FFR involving heart rate dependent phosphorylation of the major cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel/ryanodine receptor (RyR2), at Ser2814, by calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine kinase-delta (CaMKIIdelta). Mice engineered with an RyR2-S2814A mutation have RyR2 channels that cannot be phosphorylated by CaMKIIdelta, and exhibit a blunted positive FFR. Ex vivo hearts from RyR2-S2814A mice also have blunted positive FFR, and cardiomyocytes isolated from the RyR2-S2814A mice exhibit impaired rate-dependent enhancement of cytosolic calcium levels and fractional shortening. The cardiac RyR2 macromolecular complexes isolated from murine and human failing hearts have reduced CaMKIIdelta levels. These data indicate that CaMKIIdelta phosphorylation of RyR2 plays an important role in mediating positive FFR in the heart, and that defective regulation of RyR2 by CaMKIIdelta-mediated phosphorylation is associated with the loss of positive FFR in failing hearts.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL056180, HL085159, R01 HL056180, R01 HL061503

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2010;107;22;10274-9

  • beta-Arrestin-dependent activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase II after beta(1)-adrenergic receptor stimulation.

    Mangmool S, Shukla AK and Rockman HA

    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

    Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) plays an important role in cardiac contractility and the development of heart failure. Although stimulation of beta(1)-adrenergic receptors (ARs) leads to an increase in CaMKII activity, the molecular mechanism by which beta(1)-ARs activate CaMKII is not completely understood. In this study, we show the requirement for the beta(1)-AR regulatory protein beta-arrestin as a scaffold for both CaMKII and Epac (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP). Stimulation of beta(1)-ARs induces the formation of a beta-arrestin-CaMKII-Epac1 complex, allowing its recruitment to the plasma membrane, whereby interaction with cAMP leads to CaMKII activation. beta-Arrestin binding to the carboxyl-terminal tail of beta(1)-ARs promotes a conformational change within beta-arrestin that allows CaMKII and Epac to remain in a stable complex with the receptor. The essential role for beta-arrestin and identification of the molecular mechanism by which only beta(1)-ARs and not beta(2)-ARs activate CaMKII significantly advances our understanding of this important cellular pathway.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-75443, HL56687, P01 HL075443, R01 HL056687

    The Journal of cell biology 2010;189;3;573-87

  • CaV1.2 beta-subunit coordinates CaMKII-triggered cardiomyocyte death and afterdepolarizations.

    Koval OM, Guan X, Wu Y, Joiner ML, Gao Z, Chen B, Grumbach IM, Luczak ED, Colbran RJ, Song LS, Hund TJ, Mohler PJ and Anderson ME

    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, 2256 Carver Biomedical Research Building, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

    Excessive activation of calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) causes arrhythmias and heart failure, but the cellular mechanisms for CaMKII-targeted proteins causing disordered cell membrane excitability and myocardial dysfunction remain uncertain. Failing human cardiomyocytes exhibit increased CaMKII and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (Ca(V)1.2) activity, and enhanced expression of a specific Ca(V)1.2 beta-subunit protein isoform (beta(2a)). We recently identified Ca(V)1.2 beta(2a) residues critical for CaMKII phosphorylation (Thr 498) and binding (Leu 493), suggesting the hypothesis that these amino acids are crucial for cardiomyopathic consequences of CaMKII signaling. Here we show WT beta(2a) expression causes cellular Ca(2+) overload, arrhythmia-triggering cell membrane potential oscillations called early afterdepolarizations (EADs), and premature death in paced adult rabbit ventricular myocytes. Prevention of intracellular Ca(2+) release by ryanodine or global cellular CaMKII inhibition reduced EADs and improved cell survival to control levels in WT beta(2a)-expressing ventricular myocytes. In contrast, expression of beta(2a) T498A or L493A mutants mimicked the protective effects of ryanodine or global cellular CaMKII inhibition by reducing Ca(2+) entry through Ca(V)1.2 and inhibiting EADs. Furthermore, Ca(V)1.2 currents recorded from cells overexpressing CaMKII phosphorylation- or binding-incompetent beta(2a) subunits were incapable of entering a CaMKII-dependent high-activity gating mode (mode 2), indicating that beta(2a) Thr 498 and Leu 493 are required for Ca(V)1.2 activation by CaMKII in native cells. These data show that CaMKII binding and phosphorylation sites on beta(2a) are concise but pivotal components of a molecular and biophysical and mechanism for EADs and impaired survival in adult cardiomyocytes.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL070250, R01 HL079031, R01 HL083422, R01 HL084583, R01 HL090905, R01 HL096652, R01HL070250, T32 HL007121

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2010;107;11;4996-5000

  • Phospholamban ablation rescues sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) handling but exacerbates cardiac dysfunction in CaMKIIdelta(C) transgenic mice.

    Zhang T, Guo T, Mishra S, Dalton ND, Kranias EG, Peterson KL, Bers DM and Brown JH

    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92093-0636, USA.

    Rationale: We previously showed that transgenic mice expressing Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta(C) (CaMKII-TG) develop dilated cardiomyopathy associated with increased ryanodine receptors (RyR2) phosphorylation, enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak and lowering of SR Ca(2+) load. We hypothesized that phospholamban (PLN) ablation would restore SR Ca(2+) load and prevent the decreased ventricular contractility, dilation and mortality seen in CaMKII-TG.

    Objective: Our objectives were to generate CaMKII-TG mice lacking PLN, determine whether the maladaptive effects of cardiac CaMKIIdelta(C) expression were corrected, and establish the mechanistic basis for these changes.

    CaMKII-TG were crossed with PLN knockout (PLN-KO) mice to generate KO/TG mice. Myocytes from wild type (WT), CaMKII-TG, PLN-KO and KO/TG were compared. The decreased SR Ca(2+) load and twitch Ca(2+) transients seen in CaMKII-TG were normalized in KO/TG. Surprisingly the heart failure phenotype was exacerbated, as indicated by increased left ventricular dilation, decreased ventricular function, increased apoptosis and greater mortality. In KO/TG myocytes SR Ca(2+) sparks and leak were significantly increased, presumably because of the combined effects of restored SR Ca(2+) load and RyR2 phosphorylation. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading was increased in cardiomyocytes from KO/TG versus WT or CaMKII-TG mice and this was dependent on elevated SR Ca(2+) sparks. Cardiomyocytes from KO/TG showed poor viability, improved by inhibiting SR Ca(2+) release and mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading.

    Conclusions: Normalizing cardiomyocyte SR Ca(2+) loading in the face of elevated CaMKII and RyR2 phosphorylation leads to enhanced SR Ca(2+) leak and mitochondrial Ca(2+) elevation, associated with exacerbated cell death, heart failure and mortality.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL26057, HL30077, HL46345, HL80101, P01 HL046345, P01 HL080101, P01 HL080101-02, P01 HL080101-03, P01 HL080101-04, P01 HL080101-05, R01 HL026057, R01 HL030077, R01 HL064724, R37 HL026057, R37 HL030077; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM007752, T32 GM007752

    Circulation research 2010;106;2;354-62

  • The presence and activation of two essential transcription factors (cAMP response element-binding protein and cAMP-dependent transcription factor ATF1) in the two-cell mouse embryo.

    Jin XL and O'Neill C

    Human Reproduction Unit, Sydney Centre for Developmental and Regenerative Medicine, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

    The expression of two members of an important family of transcription factors, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and cAMP-dependent transcription factor ATF1 (ATF1), is essential for normal preimplantation development. There is a high degree of functional similarity between these two transcription factors, and they can both homodimerize and heterodimerize with each other to form active transcription factors. CREB is present in all stages of mouse preimplantation embryo, and we show here that ATF1 is localized to the nucleus in all preimplantation stages. Activation of these transcription factors requires their phosphorylation, and this was only observed to occur for both transcription factors (serine 133 phosphorylation of CREB and serine 63 phosphorylation of ATF1) at the two-cell stage. Nuclear localization and phosphorylation of ATF1 were constitutive. The nuclear localization and phosphorylation of CREB showed a constitutive component that was further induced by the autocrine embryotropin Paf (1-o-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine). Activation of CREB by Paf was independent of cAMP but was dependent on calcium, calmodulin, and calmodulin-dependent kinase activity. ATF1 nuclear localization was unaffected by inhibition of the calcium/calmodulin pathway. A complex pattern of expression of calmodulin-dependent kinases was observed throughout preimplantation development. At the two-cell stage, only mRNAs coding for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma, and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV were detected. A selective antagonist for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (STO-609) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinases I, II, and IV (KN-62) blocked the Paf-induced phosphorylation of CREB. The study demonstrates a role for trophic signaling and constitutive activation of two essential transcription factors at the time of zygotic genome activation.

    Biology of reproduction 2010;82;2;459-68

  • beta-Adrenergic receptor stimulated Ncx1 upregulation is mediated via a CaMKII/AP-1 signaling pathway in adult cardiomyocytes.

    Mani SK, Egan EA, Addy BK, Grimm M, Kasiganesan H, Thiyagarajan T, Renaud L, Brown JH, Kern CB and Menick DR

    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Gazes Cardiac Research Institute, Medical University of South Carolina, 114 Doughty Street, Box 250773, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.

    The Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger gene (Ncx1) is upregulated in hypertrophy and is often found elevated in end-stage heart failure. Studies have shown that the change in its expression contributes to contractile dysfunction. beta-Adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) signaling plays an important role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis in the cardiomyocyte, but chronic activation in periods of cardiac stress contributes to heart failure by mechanisms which include Ncx1 upregulation. Here, using a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIdelta(c)) null mouse, we demonstrate that beta-AR-stimulated Ncx1 upregulation is dependent on CaMKII. beta-AR-stimulated Ncx1 expression is mediated by activator protein 1 (AP-1) factors and is independent of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) activation. The MAP kinases (ERK1/2, JNK and p38) are not required for AP-1 factor activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrates that beta-AR stimulation activates the ordered recruitment of JunB homodimers, which then are replaced by c-Jun homodimers binding to the proximal AP-1 elements of the endogenous Ncx1 promoter. In conclusion, this work has provided insight into the intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors regulating Ncx1 gene expression in a chronically beta-AR-stimulated heart.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR016404; NHLBI NIH HHS: P01 HL048788, P01 HL48788, R01 HL028143, R01 HL028143-25, R01 HL066223, R01 HL066223-04, R01 HL095696, R01 HL095696-01, R01 HL095696-01W1

    Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology 2010;48;2;342-51

  • Calmodulin kinase II is required for angiotensin II-mediated vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy.

    Li H, Li W, Gupta AK, Mohler PJ, Anderson ME and Grumbach IM

    Department of Internal Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.

    Despite our understanding that medial smooth muscle hypertrophy is a central feature of vascular remodeling, the molecular pathways underlying this pathology are still not well understood. Work over the past decade has illustrated a potential role for the multifunctional calmodulin-dependent kinase CaMKII in smooth muscle cell contraction, growth, and migration. Here we demonstrate that CaMKII is enriched in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and that CaMKII inhibition blocks ANG II-dependent VSM cell hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, systemic CaMKII inhibition with KN-93 prevented ANG II-mediated hypertension and medial hypertrophy in vivo. Adenoviral transduction with the CaMKII peptide inhibitor CaMKIIN abrogated ANG II-induced VSM hypertrophy in vitro, which was augmented by overexpression of CaMKII-delta2. Finally, we identify the downstream signaling components critical for ANG II- and CaMKII-mediated VSM hypertrophy. Specifically, we demonstrate that CaMKII induces VSM hypertrophy by regulating histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) activity, thereby stimulating activity of the hypertrophic transcription factor MEF2. MEF2 transcription is activated by ANG II in vivo and abrogated by the CaMKII inhibitor KN-93. Together, our studies identify a complete pathway for ANG II-triggered arterial VSM hypertrophy and identify new potential therapeutic targets for chronic human hypertension.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-079031, R01 HL079031, R01 HL096652, R01-HL-083422, R01-HL-084583, R01-HL-62494, R01-HL-70250

    American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology 2010;298;2;H688-98

  • Alpha-kinase anchoring protein alphaKAP interacts with SERCA2A to spatially position Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and modulate phospholamban phosphorylation.

    Singh P, Salih M and Tuana BS

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8M5, Canada.

    The sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2a (SERCA2a) is critical for sequestering cytosolic calcium into the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum (SR) and regulating cardiac muscle relaxation. Protein-protein interactions indicated that it exists in complex with Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and its anchoring protein alphaKAP. Confocal imaging of isolated cardiomyocytes revealed the colocalization of CAMKII and alphaKAP with SERCA2a at the SR. Deletion analysis indicated that SERCA2a and CaMKII bind to different regions in the association domain of alphaKAP but not with each other. Although deletion of the putative N-terminal hydrophobic amino acid stretch in alphaKAP prevented its membrane targeting, it did not influence binding to SERCA2a or CaMKII. Both CaMKIIdelta(C) and the novel CaMKIIbeta(4) isoforms were found to exist in complex with alphaKAP and SERCA2a at the SR and were able to phosphorylate Thr-17 on phospholamban (PLN), an accessory subunit and known regulator of SERCA2a activity. Interestingly, the presence of alphaKAP was also found to significantly modulate the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of Thr-17 on PLN. These data demonstrate that alphaKAP exhibits a novel interaction with SERCA2a and may serve to spatially position CaMKII isoforms at the SR and to uniquely modulate the phosphorylation of PLN.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;41;28212-21

  • Ca/calmodulin kinase II differentially modulates potassium currents.

    Wagner S, Hacker E, Grandi E, Weber SL, Dybkova N, Sossalla S, Sowa T, Fabritz L, Kirchhof P, Bers DM and Maier LS

    Department of Cardiology and Pneumology, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

    Background: Potassium currents contribute to action potential duration (APD) and arrhythmogenesis. In heart failure, Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is upregulated and can alter ion channel regulation and expression.

    We examine the influence of overexpressing cytoplasmic CaMKIIdelta(C), both acutely in rabbit ventricular myocytes (24-hour adenoviral gene transfer) and chronically in CaMKIIdelta(C)-transgenic mice, on transient outward potassium current (I(to)), and inward rectifying current (I(K1)). Acute and chronic CaMKII overexpression increases I(to,slow) amplitude and expression of the underlying channel protein K(V)1.4. Chronic but not acute CaMKII overexpression causes downregulation of I(to,fast), as well as K(V)4.2 and KChIP2, suggesting that K(V)1.4 expression responds faster and oppositely to K(V)4.2 on CaMKII activation. These amplitude changes were not reversed by CaMKII inhibition, consistent with CaMKII-dependent regulation of channel expression and/or trafficking. CaMKII (acute and chronic) greatly accelerated recovery from inactivation for both I(to) components, but these effects were acutely reversed by AIP (CaMKII inhibitor), suggesting that CaMKII activity directly accelerates I(to) recovery. Expression levels of I(K1) and Kir2.1 mRNA were downregulated by CaMKII overexpression. CaMKII acutely increased I(K1), based on inhibition by AIP (in both models). CaMKII overexpression in mouse prolonged APD (consistent with reduced I(to,fast) and I(K1)), whereas CaMKII overexpression in rabbit shortened APD (consistent with enhanced I(K1) and I(to,slow) and faster I(to) recovery). Computational models allowed discrimination of contributions of different channel effects on APD.

    Conclusions: CaMKII has both acute regulatory effects and chronic expression level effects on I(to) and I(K1) with complex consequences on APD.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL30077, HL80101, P01 HL080101, P01 HL080101-03, R01 HL030077, R01 HL064724, R37 HL030077, R37 HL030077-26

    Circulation. Arrhythmia and electrophysiology 2009;2;3;285-94

  • Requirement for Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in the transition from pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure in mice.

    Ling H, Zhang T, Pereira L, Means CK, Cheng H, Gu Y, Dalton ND, Peterson KL, Chen J, Bers D, Brown JH and Heller Brown J

    Department of Pharmacology, UCSD, La Jolla, California 92093-0636, USA.

    Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. We generated mice in which the predominant cardiac isoform, CaMKIIdelta, was genetically deleted (KO mice), and found that these mice showed no gross baseline changes in ventricular structure or function. In WT and KO mice, transverse aortic constriction (TAC) induced comparable increases in relative heart weight, cell size, HDAC5 phosphorylation, and hypertrophic gene expression. Strikingly, while KO mice showed preserved hypertrophy after 6-week TAC, CaMKIIdelta deficiency significantly ameliorated phenotypic changes associated with the transition to heart failure, such as chamber dilation, ventricular dysfunction, lung edema, cardiac fibrosis, and apoptosis. The ratio of IP3R2 to ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) and the fraction of RyR2 phosphorylated at the CaMKII site increased significantly during development of heart failure in WT mice, but not KO mice, and this was associated with enhanced Ca2+ spark frequency only in WT mice. We suggest that CaMKIIdelta contributes to cardiac decompensation by enhancing RyR2-mediated sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak and that attenuating CaMKIIdelta activation can limit the progression to heart failure.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P01 HL080101; NIGMS NIH HHS: T32 GM007752

    The Journal of clinical investigation 2009;119;5;1230-40

  • The delta isoform of CaM kinase II is required for pathological cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling after pressure overload.

    Backs J, Backs T, Neef S, Kreusser MM, Lehmann LH, Patrick DM, Grueter CE, Qi X, Richardson JA, Hill JA, Katus HA, Bassel-Duby R, Maier LS and Olson EN

    Department of Internal Medicine III University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

    Acute and chronic injuries to the heart result in perturbation of intracellular calcium signaling, which leads to pathological cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been implicated in the transduction of calcium signals in the heart, but the specific isoforms of CaMKII that mediate pathological cardiac signaling have not been fully defined. To investigate the potential involvement in heart disease of CaMKIIdelta, the major CaMKII isoform expressed in the heart, we generated CaMKIIdelta-null mice. These mice are viable and display no overt abnormalities in cardiac structure or function in the absence of stress. However, pathological cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling are attenuated in response to pressure overload in these animals. Cardiac extracts from CaMKIIdelta-null mice showed diminished kinase activity toward histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), a substrate of stress-responsive protein kinases and suppressor of stress-dependent cardiac remodeling. In contrast, phosphorylation of the closely related HDAC5 was unaffected in hearts of CaMKIIdelta-null mice, underscoring the specificity of the CaMKIIdelta signaling pathway for HDAC4 phosphorylation. We conclude that CaMKIIdelta functions as an important transducer of stress stimuli involved in pathological cardiac remodeling in vivo, which is mediated, at least in part, by the phosphorylation of HDAC4. These findings point to CaMKIIdelta as a potential therapeutic target for the maintenance of cardiac function in the setting of pressure overload.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009;106;7;2342-7

  • Multiple kinases regulate mafA expression in the pancreatic beta cell line MIN6.

    Vanderford NL, Cantrell JE, Popa GJ and Ozcan S

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky, College of Medicine, 741 South Limestone Street, Lexington, KY 40536, USA.

    MafA is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor expressed within the beta cells of the pancreas and is required to maintain normal glucose homeostasis as it is involved in various aspects of beta cell biology. MafA protein levels are known to increase in response to high glucose through mechanisms that have yet to be fully characterized. We investigated whether discrete intracellular signaling events control mafA expression. We found that the general kinase inhibitor staurosporine induces mafA expression without altering the stability of the protein. Inhibition of the MAP-kinase JNK mimics the effects of staurosporine on the expression of mafA. Calmodulin kinase and calcium signaling are also important in stimulating mafA expression by high glucose. However, staurosporine, JNK, and calmodulin kinase have different effects on the induction of insulin expression. These data reveal that MafA levels are tightly controlled by the coordinated action of multiple kinase pathways.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P20 RR020171, P20 RR20171; NIDDK NIH HHS: 5R01DK067581, R01 DK067581, R01 DK067581-04

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2008;480;2;138-42

  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of tumor protein D52 on serine residue 136 may be mediated by CAMK2delta6.

    Chew CS, Chen X, Zhang H, Berg EA and Zhang H

    Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA. cchew@mcg.edu

    Tumor protein D52 is expressed at relatively high levels in cells within the gastrointestinal tract that undergo classical exocytosis and is overexpressed in several cancers. Current evidence supports a role for D52 in the regulation of vesicular trafficking. D52 function(s) are regulated by calcium-dependent phosphorylation; however, the intracellular mechanisms that mediate this process are not well characterized. The goal of this study was to identify the calcium-dependent phosphorylation site(s) in D52 and to characterize the protein kinase(s) that mediate this phosphorylation. Using mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified a single amino acid residue, S(136), that undergoes increased phosphorylation upon elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. A phosphospecific antibody (pS(136)) was produced and used to characterize D52 kinase activity in gastric mucosal, colonic T84, and HEK293 cells. By using D52 as a substrate, a protein kinase with a molecular weight (M(r)) of approximately 50 kDa was identified with "in gel" assays. This kinase comigrated with rat brain calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CAMK2)alpha cross-reacted with pan-specific CAMK2 antibodies as well as with anti-active CAMK2 (pT(286/287)) antibody when activated. Carbachol-stimulated phosphorylation of S(136) was inhibited by the CAMK2 inhibitor KN93 (IC(50) 38 microM) and by the calmodulin antagonist W7 (IC(50) 3.3 nM). A previously uncharacterized CAMK2 isoform, CAMK2delta6, which has the same domain structure and M(r) as CAM2alpha, was identified in gastric mucosa by RT-PCR. The cloned, expressed protein comigrated with D52 kinase and colocalized with D52 protein in T84 and HEK293 cells. These findings support a role for CAMK2delta6 in the mediation of D52 phosphorylation.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 31900

    American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 2008;295;6;G1159-72

  • CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of the myosin motor Myo1c is required for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes.

    Yip MF, Ramm G, Larance M, Hoehn KL, Wagner MC, Guilhaus M and James DE

    Diabetes and Obesity Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia.

    The unconventional myosin Myo1c has been implicated in insulin-regulated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane in adipocytes. We show that Myo1c undergoes insulin-dependent phosphorylation at S701. Phosphorylation was accompanied by enhanced 14-3-3 binding and reduced calmodulin binding. Recombinant CaMKII phosphorylated Myo1c in vitro and siRNA knockdown of CaMKIIdelta abolished insulin-dependent Myo1c phosphorylation in vivo. CaMKII activity was increased upon insulin treatment and the CaMKII inhibitors CN21 and KN-62 or the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM blocked insulin-dependent Myo1c phosphorylation and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in adipocytes. Myo1c ATPase activity was increased after CaMKII phosphorylation in vitro and after insulin stimulation of CHO/IR/IRS-1 cells. Expression of wild-type Myo1c, but not S701A or ATPase dead mutant K111A, rescued the inhibition of GLUT4 translocation by siRNA-mediated Myo1c knockdown. These data suggest that insulin regulates Myo1c function via CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation, and these events play a role in insulin-regulated GLUT4 trafficking in adipocytes likely involving Myo1c motor activity.

    Cell metabolism 2008;8;5;384-98

  • Proteomics analysis identifies phosphorylation-dependent alpha-synuclein protein interactions.

    McFarland MA, Ellis CE, Markey SP and Nussbaum RL

    National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20891, USA.

    Mutations and copy number variation in the SNCA gene encoding the neuronal protein alpha-synuclein have been linked to familial Parkinson disease (Thomas, B., and Beal, M. F. (2007) Parkinson's disease. Hum. Mol. Genet. 16, R183-R194). The carboxyl terminus of alpha-synuclein can be phosphorylated at tyrosine 125 and serine 129, although only a small fraction of the protein is phosphorylated under normal conditions (Okochi, M., Walter, J., Koyama, A., Nakajo, S., Baba, M., Iwatsubo, T., Meijer, L., Kahle, P. J., and Haass, C. (2000) Constitutive phosphorylation of the Parkinson's disease associated alpha-synuclein. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 390-397). Under pathological conditions, such as in Parkinson disease, alpha-synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of Parkinson disease, and is mostly phosphorylated at Ser-129 (Anderson, J. P., Walker, D. E., Goldstein, J. M., de Laat, R., Banducci, K., Caccavello, R. J., Barbour, R., Huang, J. P., Kling, K., Lee, M., Diep, L., Keim, P. S., Shen, X. F., Chataway, T., Schlossmacher, M. G., Seubert, P., Schenk, D., Sinha, S., Gai, W. P., and Chilcote, T. J. (2006) Phosphorylation of Ser-129 is the dominant pathological modification of alpha-synuclein in familial and sporadic Lewy body disease. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 29739-29752). Controversy exists over the extent to which phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein and/or the visible protein aggregation in Lewy bodies are steps in disease pathogenesis, are protective, or are neutral markers for the disease process. Here we used the combination of peptide pulldown assays and mass spectrometry to identify and compare protein-protein interactions of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated alpha-synuclein. We showed that non-phosphorylated alpha-synuclein carboxyl terminus pulled down protein complexes that were highly enriched for mitochondrial electron transport proteins, whereas alpha-synuclein carboxyl terminus phosphorylated on either Ser-129 or Tyr-125 did not. Instead the set of proteins pulled down by phosphorylated alpha-synuclein was highly enriched in certain cytoskeletal proteins, in vesicular trafficking proteins, and in a small number of enzymes involved in protein serine phosphorylation. This targeted comparative proteomics approach for unbiased identification of protein-protein interactions suggests that there are functional consequences when alpha-synuclein is phosphorylated.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; NIMH NIH HHS: Z01 MH000279

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;11;2123-37

  • A dynamic pathway for calcium-independent activation of CaMKII by methionine oxidation.

    Erickson JR, Joiner ML, Guan X, Kutschke W, Yang J, Oddis CV, Bartlett RK, Lowe JS, O'Donnell SE, Aykin-Burns N, Zimmerman MC, Zimmerman K, Ham AJ, Weiss RM, Spitz DR, Shea MA, Colbran RJ, Mohler PJ and Anderson ME

    Department of Internal Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109, USA.

    Calcium/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) couples increases in cellular Ca2+ to fundamental responses in excitable cells. CaMKII was identified over 20 years ago by activation dependence on Ca2+/CaM, but recent evidence shows that CaMKII activity is also enhanced by pro-oxidant conditions. Here we show that oxidation of paired regulatory domain methionine residues sustains CaMKII activity in the absence of Ca2+/CaM. CaMKII is activated by angiotensin II (AngII)-induced oxidation, leading to apoptosis in cardiomyocytes both in vitro and in vivo. CaMKII oxidation is reversed by methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA), and MsrA-/- mice show exaggerated CaMKII oxidation and myocardial apoptosis, impaired cardiac function, and increased mortality after myocardial infarction. Our data demonstrate a dynamic mechanism for CaMKII activation by oxidation and highlight the critical importance of oxidation-dependent CaMKII activation to AngII and ischemic myocardial apoptosis.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: K26 RR017369, RR017369; NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL 079031, R01 HL 62494, R01 HL 70250, R01 HL062494, R01 HL062494-09, R01 HL070250, R01 HL070250-06A1, R01 HL079031, R01 HL079031-02, R01 HL083422, R01 HL084583; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM057001, R01 GM57001; NIMH NIH HHS: R01 MH063232, R01 MH063232-08

    Cell 2008;133;3;462-74

  • Effects on recovery during acidosis in cardiac myocytes overexpressing CaMKII.

    Sag CM, Dybkova N, Neef S and Maier LS

    Department of Cardiology and Pneumology/Heart Center, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Robert-Koch-Strasse 40, 37075 Göttingen, Germany.

    Recovery of intracellular Ca transients and fractional shortening during late phase acidosis are suggested to be associated with CaMKII-dependent processes of which phospholamban (PLB) phosphorylation may play an important role. To test whether increased expression levels of CaMKII may further enhance recovery, we investigated myocytes from CaMKIIdelta(C) transgenic (TG) mice (cytosolic localized CaMKII) having heart failure vs. wild-type littermates (WT). Furthermore, mouse and rabbit myocytes overexpressing CaMKIIdelta(C) using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer (vs. LacZ control) were investigated. Fractional shortening (% vs. resting cell length, % RCL) was assessed during control conditions (pH 7.4) and during acidosis (pH 6.5). Ca transients were measured using fluo-3 (DeltaF/F(0), 10 microM). In WT mouse myocytes, fractional shortening clearly recovered by 90% from 4.6+/-0.6 to 7.2+/-0.7% RCL during late acidosis. In parallel, Ca transients increased from 2.01+/-0.11 to 2.33+/-0.15 DeltaF/F(0). When blocking CaMKII (KN-93, 1 microM), recovery of Ca transients and shortening could be completely abolished. In contrast, in CaMKIIdelta(C) TG mouse myocytes shortening recovered only by 32% from 3.4+/-0.6 to 4.4+/-0.5% RCL (P<0.05 vs. WT using ANOVA). In parallel, Ca transients increased only slightly from 1.75+/-0.15 to 1.84+/-0.13 DeltaF/F(0) (P<0.05 vs. WT using ANOVA). In accordance, SR Ca content (measured by caffeine contractures, 10 mM) in WT significantly increased during late acidosis but not in CaMKIIdelta(C) TG mice. In contrast, in mouse and rabbit myocytes overexpressing CaMKIIdelta(C) by means of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer, recovery of fractional shortening and Ca transients was not impaired during late acidosis but even slightly improved vs. LacZ control (P<0.05 vs. CaMKIIdelta(C) using ANOVA for mouse and rabbit myocytes). This was associated with significantly increased SR Ca content during late acidosis in CaMKIIdelta(C) as compared to LacZ. CaMKII-dependent PLB Thr-17 phosphorylation, contributing to increased SR Ca uptake, was significantly increased in CaMKIIdelta(C) transfected rabbit myocytes vs. LacZ in the light of unchanged SR Ca ATPase and PLB protein expression. CaMKII inhibition completely prevented recovery of all parameters in both CaMKIIdelta(C) and LacZ. In summary and in contrast to our initial hypothesis, we showed for the first time that TG CaMKIIdelta(C) overexpression (i.e., chronic overexpression) in mice with heart failure clearly resulted in impaired recovery associated with impaired SR Ca loading during late acidosis vs. WT. This may be due to decreased SR Ca ATPase and PLB expression as reported previously. In contrast, adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of CaMKIIdelta(C) in mouse and rabbit myocytes (i.e., acute overexpression) did not result in impaired but even slightly improved recovery associated with increased SR Ca load during late acidosis as compared to LacZ. This most likely was due to higher PLB Thr-17 phosphorylation in CaMKIIdelta(C) myocytes. In conclusion, possible beneficial effects by therapeutical CaMKIIdelta(C) stimulation on the ability to recover from acidosis may be challenged by altered expression levels of its target proteins and should be carefully considered.

    Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology 2007;43;6;696-709

  • The histone deacetylase HDAC4 connects neural activity to muscle transcriptional reprogramming.

    Cohen TJ, Waddell DS, Barrientos T, Lu Z, Feng G, Cox GA, Bodine SC and Yao TP

    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology and Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    Neural activity actively regulates muscle gene expression. This regulation is crucial for specifying muscle functionality and synaptic protein expression. How neural activity is relayed into nuclei and connected to the muscle transcriptional machinery, however, is not known. Here we identify the histone deacetylase HDAC4 as the critical linker connecting neural activity to muscle transcription. We found that HDAC4 is normally concentrated at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), where nerve innervates muscle. Remarkably, reduced neural input by surgical denervation or neuromuscular diseases dissociates HDAC4 from the NMJ and dramatically induces its expression, leading to robust HDAC4 nuclear accumulation. We present evidence that nuclear accumulated HDAC4 is responsible for the coordinated induction of synaptic genes upon denervation. Inactivation of HDAC4 prevents denervation-induced synaptic acetyl-choline receptor (nAChR) and MUSK transcription whereas forced expression of HDAC4 mimics denervation and activates ectopic nAChR transcription throughout myofibers. We determined that HDAC4 executes activity-dependent transcription by regulating the Dach2-myogenin transcriptional cascade where inhibition of the repressor Dach2 by HDAC4 permits the induction of the transcription factor myogenin, which in turn activates synaptic gene expression. Our findings establish HDAC4 as a neural activity-regulated deacetylase and a key signaling component that relays neural activity to the muscle transcriptional machinery.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;46;33752-9

  • Interaction of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIdeltaC with sorcin indirectly modulates ryanodine receptor function in cardiac myocytes.

    Anthony DF, Beattie J, Paul A and Currie S

    Division of Physiology and Pharmacology, Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 ONR, UK.

    Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II delta C (CaMKIIdelta(C)) and the EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding protein, sorcin have both been shown to regulate the excitation-contraction coupling process. This study explores the possibility that these two proteins interact directly and, as a result of this interaction, modulate cardiac calcium handling. Two independent methods (surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and overlay assays) were used to determine whether CaMKIIdelta(C) and sorcin interacted in a direct manner. The nature of this interaction was explored by (i) examining the effects of sorcin on CaMKIIdelta(C) activity using a selective kinase assay and (ii) studying whether sorcin was a substrate for CaMKIIdelta(C) using autoradiography. Ryanodine binding assays on mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes were used to determine specific functional effects of this interaction. SPR studies suggested that sorcin interacts with CaMKIIdelta(C) in a concentration-dependent manner. This interaction occurs in the presence of Ca(2+) and in the presence or absence of calmodulin (CaM). Overlay assays confirmed the existence of this interaction. Further experiments suggested that this interaction is reciprocal. Firstly, sorcin significantly inhibited both recombinant and native CaMKIIdelta(C) activity to similar extents. Secondly, sorcin was phosphorylated by CaMKIIdelta(C). Thirdly, sorcin inhibition of CaMKII activity occurred under conditions where sorcin remained dephosphorylated. Functionally, CaMKIIdelta(C)-mediated phosphorylation of sorcin served to abolish the inhibitory effect of sorcin on ryanodine receptor (RyR(2)) open probability (Po). Since both proteins are capable of directly modulating RyR(2) activity, this interaction may serve as an additional or alternative indirect route by which both proteins can regulate RyR(2) opening status in cardiac myocytes.

    Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology 2007;43;4;492-503

  • EUCOMM--the European conditional mouse mutagenesis program.

    Friedel RH, Seisenberger C, Kaloff C and Wurst W

    GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Developmental Genetics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    Functional analysis of the mammalian genome is an enormous challenge for biomedical scientists. To facilitate this endeavour, the European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program (EUCOMM) aims at generating up to 12 000 mutations by gene trapping and up to 8000 mutations by gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. These mutations can be rendered into conditional alleles, allowing Cre recombinase-mediated disruption of gene function in a time- and tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, the EUCOMM program will generate up to 320 mouse lines from the EUCOMM resource and up to 20 new Cre driver mouse lines. The EUCOMM resource of vectors, mutant ES cell lines and mutant mice will be openly available to the scientific community. EUCOMM will be one of the cornerstones of an international effort to create a global mouse mutant resource.

    Briefings in functional genomics & proteomics 2007;6;3;180-5

  • Cadmium activates CaMK-II and initiates CaMK-II-dependent apoptosis in mesangial cells.

    Liu Y and Templeton DM

    University of Toronto, Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5S 1A8.

    Cadmium is a toxic metal that initiates both mitogenic responses and cell death. We show that Cd(2+) increases phosphorylation and activity of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) in mesangial cells, in a concentration-dependent manner. Activation is biphasic with peaks at 1-5 min and 4-6 h. Cadmium also activates Erk, but this appears to be independent of CaMK-II. At 10-20 microM, Cd(2+) initiates apoptosis in 25-55% of mesangial cells by 6h. Inhibition of CaMK-II, but not of Erk, suppresses Cd(2+)-induced apoptosis. We conclude that activation of CaMK-II by Cd(2+) contributes to apoptotic cell death, independent of Erk activation.

    FEBS letters 2007;581;7;1481-6

  • Death, cardiac dysfunction, and arrhythmias are increased by calmodulin kinase II in calcineurin cardiomyopathy.

    Khoo MS, Li J, Singh MV, Yang Y, Kannankeril P, Wu Y, Grueter CE, Guan X, Oddis CV, Zhang R, Mendes L, Ni G, Madu EC, Yang J, Bass M, Gomez RJ, Wadzinski BE, Olson EN, Colbran RJ and Anderson ME

    Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn, USA.

    Background: Activation of cellular Ca2+ signaling molecules appears to be a fundamental step in the progression of cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias. Myocardial overexpression of the constitutively active Ca2+-dependent phosphatase calcineurin (CAN) causes severe cardiomyopathy marked by left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, arrhythmias, and increased mortality rate, but CAN antagonist drugs primarily reduce hypertrophy without improving LV function or risk of death.

    We found that activity and expression of a second Ca2+-activated signaling molecule, calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), were increased in hearts from CAN transgenic mice and that CaMKII-inhibitory drugs improved LV function and suppressed arrhythmias. We devised a genetic approach to "clamp" CaMKII activity in CAN mice to control levels by interbreeding CAN transgenic mice with mice expressing a specific CaMKII inhibitor in cardiomyocytes. We developed transgenic control mice by interbreeding CAN transgenic mice with mice expressing an inactive version of the CaMKII-inhibitory peptide. CAN mice with CaMKII inhibition had reduced risk of death and increased LV and ventricular myocyte function and were less susceptible to arrhythmias. CaMKII inhibition did not reduce transgenic overexpression of CAN or expression of endogenous CaMKII protein or significantly reduce most measures of cardiac hypertrophy.

    Conclusions: CaMKII is a downstream signal in CAN cardiomyopathy, and increased CaMKII activity contributes to cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmia susceptibility, and longevity during CAN overexpression.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL046681, HL070250, HL62494

    Circulation 2006;114;13;1352-9

  • Comprehensive identification of phosphorylation sites in postsynaptic density preparations.

    Trinidad JC, Specht CG, Thalhammer A, Schoepfer R and Burlingame AL

    Mass Spectrometry Facility, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

    In the mammalian central nervous system, the structure known as the postsynaptic density (PSD) is a dense complex of proteins whose function is to detect and respond to neurotransmitter released from presynaptic axon terminals. Regulation of protein phosphorylation in this molecular machinery is critical to the activity of its components, which include neurotransmitter receptors, kinases/phosphatases, scaffolding molecules, and proteins regulating cytoskeletal structure. To characterize the phosphorylation state of proteins in PSD samples, we combined strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography with IMAC. Initially, tryptic peptides were separated by cation exchange and analyzed by reverse phase chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, which led to the identification of phosphopeptides in most SCX fractions. Because each of these individual fractions was too complex to characterize completely in single LC-MS/MS runs, we enriched for phosphopeptides by performing IMAC on each SCX fraction, yielding at least a 3-fold increase in identified phosphopeptides relative to either approach alone (SCX or IMAC). This enabled us to identify at least one site of phosphorylation on 23% (287 of 1,264) of all proteins found to be present in the postsynaptic density preparation. In total, we identified 998 unique phosphorylated peptides, mapping to 723 unique sites of phosphorylation. At least one exact site of phosphorylation was determined on 62% (621 of 998) of all phosphopeptides, and approximately 80% of identified phosphorylation sites are novel.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR14606; Wellcome Trust

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2006;5;5;914-22

  • BGEM: an in situ hybridization database of gene expression in the embryonic and adult mouse nervous system.

    Magdaleno S, Jensen P, Brumwell CL, Seal A, Lehman K, Asbury A, Cheung T, Cornelius T, Batten DM, Eden C, Norland SM, Rice DS, Dosooye N, Shakya S, Mehta P and Curran T

    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: 5R37NS036558, N01-NS-0-2331, R37 NS036558

    PLoS biology 2006;4;4;e86

  • ASF/SF2-regulated CaMKIIdelta alternative splicing temporally reprograms excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle.

    Xu X, Yang D, Ding JH, Wang W, Chu PH, Dalton ND, Wang HY, Bermingham JR, Ye Z, Liu F, Rosenfeld MG, Manley JL, Ross J, Chen J, Xiao RP, Cheng H and Fu XD

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

    The transition from juvenile to adult life is accompanied by programmed remodeling in many tissues and organs, which is key for organisms to adapt to the demand of the environment. Here we report a novel regulated alternative splicing program that is crucial for postnatnal heart remodeling in the mouse. We identify the essential splicing factor ASF/SF2 as a key component of the program, regulating a restricted set of tissue-specific alternative splicing events during heart remodeling. Cardiomyocytes deficient in ASF/SF2 display an unexpected hypercontraction phenotype due to a defect in postnatal splicing switch of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase IIdelta (CaMKIIdelta) transcript. This failure results in mistargeting of the kinase to sarcolemmal membranes, causing severe excitation-contraction coupling defects. Our results validate ASF/SF2 as a fundamental splicing regulator in the reprogramming pathway and reveal the central contribution of ASF/SF2-regulated CaMKIIdelta alternative splicing to functional remodeling in developing heart.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL066100, R01 HL66100; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM49369, R37 GM48259

    Cell 2005;120;1;59-72

  • Libraries enriched for alternatively spliced exons reveal splicing patterns in melanocytes and melanomas.

    Watahiki A, Waki K, Hayatsu N, Shiraki T, Kondo S, Nakamura M, Sasaki D, Arakawa T, Kawai J, Harbers M, Hayashizaki Y and Carninci P

    Genome Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako main campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 Japan.

    It is becoming increasingly clear that alternative splicing enables the complex development and homeostasis of higher organisms. To gain a better understanding of how splicing contributes to regulatory pathways, we have developed an alternative splicing library approach for the identification of alternatively spliced exons and their flanking regions by alternative splicing sequence enriched tags sequencing. Here, we have applied our approach to mouse melan-c melanocyte and B16-F10Y melanoma cell lines, in which 5,401 genes were found to be alternatively spliced. These genes include those encoding important regulatory factors such as cyclin D2, Ilk, MAPK12, MAPK14, RAB4, melastatin 1 and previously unidentified splicing events for 436 genes. Real-time PCR further identified cell line-specific exons for Tmc6, Abi1, Sorbs1, Ndel1 and Snx16. Thus, the ASL approach proved effective in identifying splicing events, which suggest that alternative splicing is important in melanoma development.

    Nature methods 2004;1;3;233-9

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Genomic analysis of mouse retinal development.

    Blackshaw S, Harpavat S, Trimarchi J, Cai L, Huang H, Kuo WP, Weber G, Lee K, Fraioli RE, Cho SH, Yung R, Asch E, Ohno-Machado L, Wong WH and Cepko CL

    Department of Genetics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    The vertebrate retina is comprised of seven major cell types that are generated in overlapping but well-defined intervals. To identify genes that might regulate retinal development, gene expression in the developing retina was profiled at multiple time points using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). The expression patterns of 1,051 genes that showed developmentally dynamic expression by SAGE were investigated using in situ hybridization. A molecular atlas of gene expression in the developing and mature retina was thereby constructed, along with a taxonomic classification of developmental gene expression patterns. Genes were identified that label both temporal and spatial subsets of mitotic progenitor cells. For each developing and mature major retinal cell type, genes selectively expressed in that cell type were identified. The gene expression profiles of retinal Müller glia and mitotic progenitor cells were found to be highly similar, suggesting that Müller glia might serve to produce multiple retinal cell types under the right conditions. In addition, multiple transcripts that were evolutionarily conserved that did not appear to encode open reading frames of more than 100 amino acids in length ("noncoding RNAs") were found to be dynamically and specifically expressed in developing and mature retinal cell types. Finally, many photoreceptor-enriched genes that mapped to chromosomal intervals containing retinal disease genes were identified. These data serve as a starting point for functional investigations of the roles of these genes in retinal development and physiology.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P20 CA096470, P20 CA96470; NEI NIH HHS: EY08064, R01 EY008064

    PLoS biology 2004;2;9;E247

  • Calcineurin-independent regulation of plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase-4 in the vascular smooth muscle cell cycle.

    Afroze T, Yang LL, Wang C, Gros R, Kalair W, Hoque AN, Mungrue IN, Zhu Z and Husain M

    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G-2C4.

    Calcineurin mediates repression of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase-4 (PMCA4) expression in neurons, whereas c-Myb is known to repress PMCA1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Here, we describe a novel mouse VSMC line (MOVAS) in which 45Ca efflux rates decreased 50%, fura 2-AM-based intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) increased twofold, and real-time RT-PCR and Western blot revealed a approximately 40% decrease in PMCA4 expression levels from G0 to G1/S in the cell cycle, where PMCA4 constituted approximately 20% of total PMCA protein. Although calcineurin activity increased fivefold as MOVAS progressed from G0 to G1/S, inhibition of this increase with either BAPTA or retroviral transduction with peptide inhibitors of calcineurin (CAIN), or its downstream target nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) (VIVIT), had no effect on the repression of PMCA4 mRNA expression at G1/S. By contrast, Ca2+-independent activity of the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMK-II) increased eightfold as MOVAS progressed from G0 to G1/S, and treatment with an inhibitor of CaMK-II (KN-93) or transduction of a c-Myb-neutralizing antibody significantly alleviated the G1/S-associated repression of PMCA4. These data show that G1/S-specific PMCA4 repression in proliferating VSMC is brought about by c-Myb and CaMK-II and that calcineurin may regulate cell cycle-associated [Ca2+]i through alternate targets.

    American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 2003;285;1;C88-95

  • Axonal localization of delta Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in developing P19 neurons.

    Faison MO, Perozzi EF, Caran N, Stewart JK and Tombes RM

    Department of Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1000 West Cary Street, Richmond, VA 23284-2012, USA.

    Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, type II (CaMK-II) is an enzyme encoded by four genes (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) and traditionally associated with synaptic function in the adult central nervous system, but also believed to play a role during neuronal development. P19 mouse embryonic cells are a model system for neurogenesis and primarily express isozymes of delta CaMK-II. It is not yet known whether or where delta CaMK-II is expressed in P19 neurons. Using an antibody specific for the delta CaMK-II C-terminal tail, we detected a 20-fold increase in levels of delta CaMK-II along axons after 8 days of development. This coincides with increased mRNA and protein levels of delta(C) CaMK-II, which contains the alternative tail. This follows the initial stages of neurite outgrowth and beta(3) tubulin expression, which occur after 4 days. delta CaMK-II co-localizes with the axonal protein GAP-43, but not the dendritic microtubule-associated protein MAP-2, a known substrate of alpha CaMK-II. Like delta CaMK-II, GAP-43 shows increased expression after 8 days. These findings demonstrate developmental regulation of the alternative C-terminal delta CaMK-II exon and implicate endogenous delta CaMK-II in axonal development in embryonic cells.

    International journal of developmental neuroscience : the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 2002;20;8;585-92

  • [Molecular mechanisms of the intracellular localizations of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II isoforms, and their physiological functions].

    Yamamoto H


    Tanpakushitsu kakusan koso. Protein, nucleic acid, enzyme 2002;47;3;241-7

  • The cardiac-specific nuclear delta(B) isoform of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II induces hypertrophy and dilated cardiomyopathy associated with increased protein phosphatase 2A activity.

    Zhang T, Johnson EN, Gu Y, Morissette MR, Sah VP, Gigena MS, Belke DD, Dillmann WH, Rogers TB, Schulman H, Ross J and Brown JH

    Department of Pharmacology and Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.

    The delta isoform of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) predominates in the heart. To investigate the role of CaMKII in cardiac function, we made transgenic (TG) mice that express the nuclear delta(B) isoform of CaMKII. The expressed CaMKIIdelta(B) transgene was restricted to the myocardium and highly concentrated in the nucleus. Cardiac hypertrophy was evidenced by an increased left ventricle to body weight ratio and up-regulation of embryonic and contractile protein genes including atrial natriuretic factor, beta-myosin heavy chain, and alpha-skeletal actin. Echocardiography revealed ventricular dilation and decreased cardiac function, which was also observed in hemodynamic measurements from CaMKIIdelta(B) TG mice. Surprisingly, phosphorylation of phospholamban at both Thr(17) and Ser(16) was significantly decreased in the basal state as well as upon adrenergic stimulation. This was associated with diminished sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) uptake in vitro and altered relaxation properties in vivo. The activity and expression of protein phosphatase 2A were both found to be increased in CaMKII TG mice, and immunoprecipitation studies indicated that protein phosphatase 2A directly associates with CaMKII. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that CaMKII can induce hypertrophy and dilation in vivo and indicate that compensatory increases in phosphatase activity contribute to the resultant phenotype.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-28143, HL-46345; NIA NIH HHS: AG-14637; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-40600

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;2;1261-7

  • Construction of long-transcript enriched cDNA libraries from submicrogram amounts of total RNAs by a universal PCR amplification method.

    Piao Y, Ko NT, Lim MK and Ko MS

    Developmental Genomics and Aging Section, Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

    Here we report a novel design of linker primer that allows one to differentially amplify long tracts (average 3.0 kb with size ranges of 1-7 kb) or short DNAs (average 1.5 kb with size ranges of 0.5-3 kb) from a complex mixture. The method allows one to generate cDNA libraries enriched for long transcripts without size selection of insert DNAs. One representative library from newborn kidney includes 70% of clones bearing ATG start codons. A comparable library has been generated from 20 mouse blastocysts, containing only approximately 40 ng of total RNA. This universal PCR amplification scheme can provide a route to isolate very large cDNAs, even if they are expressed at very low levels.

    Genome research 2001;11;9;1553-8

  • Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent kinases: from activation to function.

    Hook SS and Means AR

    Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. shook@fhcrc.org

    Calmodulin (CaM) is an essential protein that serves as a ubiquitous intracellular receptor for Ca(2+). The Ca(2+)/CaM complex initiates a plethora of signaling cascades that culminate in alteration of cellular functions. Among the many Ca(2+)/CaM-binding proteins to be discovered, the multifunctional protein kinases CaMKI, II, and IV play pivotal roles. Our review focuses on this class of CaM kinases to illustrate the structural and biochemical basis for Ca(2+)/CaM interaction with and regulation of its target enzymes. Gene transcription has been chosen as the functional endpoint to illustrate the recent advances in Ca(2+)/CaM-mediated signal transduction mechanisms.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD-07503; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-33976

    Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology 2001;41;471-505

  • Cloning and quantitative determination of the human Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) isoforms in human beta cells.

    Rochlitz H, Voigt A, Lankat-Buttgereit B, Göke B, Heimberg H, Nauck MA, Schiemann U, Schatz H and Pfeiffer AF

    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Bergmannsheil, University of Bochum, Germany.

    The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) is highly expressed in pancreatic islets and associated with insulin secretion vesicles. The suppression of CaMK II disturbs insulin secretion and insulin gene expression. There are four isoforms of CaMK II, alpha to delta, that are expressed from different genes in mammals. Our aim was to identify the isoforms of CaMK II expressed in human beta cells by molecular cloning from a human insulinoma cDNA library and to assess its distribution in humans.

    Methods: The previously unknown complete coding sequences of human CaMK IIbeta and the kinase domain of CaMK IIdelta were cloned from a human insulinoma cDNA library. Quantitative determination of CaMK II isoform mRNA was carried out in several tissues and beta cells purified by fluorescence activated cell sorting and compared to the housekeeping enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    Results: We found CaMK IIbeta occurred in three splice variants and was highly expressed in endocrine tissues such as adrenals, pituitary and beta cells. Liver showed moderate expression but adipose tissue or lymphocytes had very low levels of CaMK IIbeta-mRNA. In human beta cells CaMK IIbeta and delta were expressed equally with pyruvate dehydrogenase whereas tenfold lower expression of CaMK IIgamma and no expression of CaMK IIalpha were found.

    Although CaMK IIdelta is ubiquitously expressed, CaMK IIbeta shows preferential expression in neuroendocrine tissues. In comparison with the expression of a key regulatory enzyme in glucose oxidation, pyruvate dehydrogenase, two of the four CaM kinases investigated are expressed at equally high levels, which supports an important role in beta-cell physiology. These results provide the basis for exploring the pathophysiological relevance of CaMK IIbeta in human diabetes.

    Diabetologia 2000;43;4;465-73

  • Developmental expression of the CaM kinase II isoforms: ubiquitous gamma- and delta-CaM kinase II are the early isoforms and most abundant in the developing nervous system.

    Bayer KU, Löhler J, Schulman H and Harbers K

    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5125, USA. ulli.bayer@stanford.edu

    CaM kinase II constitutes a family of multifunctional protein kinases that play a major role in Ca2+-mediated signal transduction. As a first step in understanding their possible function in mouse development we characterized the expression patterns of all CaM kinase II isoforms (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) starting in prenatal development. Remarkably, only the ubiquitous gamma- and delta-CaM kinase II are expressed during early development. Their distribution suggests a special role in the developing nervous system and in mature excitable tissues. Additionally, we describe the murine betaM-CaM kinase II, a variant of the 'brain-specific' beta-CaM kinase II, which is highly expressed in skeletal muscle.

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 1999;70;1;147-54

  • Interaction of the CD5 cytoplasmic domain with the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase IIdelta.

    Bauch A, Campbell KS and Reth M

    Max-Planck-Institut für Immunbiologie and Biologie III, University of Freiburg, Germany.

    CD5 is a type I transmembrane protein expressed on the surface of T cells and of B1 B cells. The analysis of CD5-deficient mice suggests that CD5 can down-regulate positive signals from the antigen receptors on T and B cells but the mechanism is not known at present. In contrast to the extracellular domain the 93 amino acid long cytoplasmic domain of CD5 is highly conserved between CD5 proteins of different mammalian species. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we identified two proteins which specifically bind to the N-terminal part of the CD5 cytoplasmic sequence. These are the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase IIdelta and Tctex-1, a light chain component of the dynein motor complex. The interaction of CD5 with the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase IIdelta was reproduced in vitro using fusion proteins. The potential function of these proteins in CD5 internalization and negative signaling is discussed.

    European journal of immunology 1998;28;7;2167-77

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000003 G2C Mus musculus Mouse clathrin Mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000004 G2C Mus musculus Mouse Synaptosome Mouse Synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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