G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
membrane protein, palmitoylated 2 (MAGUK p55 subfamily member 2)
G00000123 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000108852 (Ensembl human gene)
4355 (Entrez Gene)
142 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
MPP2 (GeneCards)
600723 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:7220 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q14168 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • DKFZp761D0712

Literature (11)

Pubmed - other

  • The PDZ protein MPP2 interacts with c-Src in epithelial cells.

    Baumgartner M, Weiss A, Fritzius T, Heinrich J and Moelling K

    Institute of Medical Virology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland. Martin.Baumgartner@mopa.unibe.ch

    c-Src is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase involved in regulating cell proliferation, cell migration and cell invasion and is tightly controlled by reversible phosphorylation on regulatory sites and through protein-protein interactions. The interaction of c-Src with PDZ proteins was recently identified as novel mechanism to restrict c-Src function. The objective of this study was to identify and characterise PDZ proteins that interact with c-Src to control its activity. By PDZ domain array screen, we identified the interaction of c-Src with the PDZ protein Membrane Protein Palmitoylated 2 (MPP2), a member of the Membrane-Associated Guanylate Kinase (MAGUK) family, to which also the Discs large (Dlg) tumour suppressor protein belongs. The function of MPP2 has not been established and the functional significance of the MPP2 c-Src interaction is not known. We found that in non-transformed breast epithelial MCF-10A cells, endogenous MPP2 associated with the cytoskeleton in filamentous structures, which partially co-localised with microtubules and c-Src. MPP2 and c-Src interacted in cells, where c-Src kinase activity promoted increased interaction of c-Src with MPP2. We furthermore found that MPP2 was able to negatively regulate c-Src kinase activity in cells, suggesting that the functional significance of the MPP2-c-Src interaction is to restrict Src activity. Consequently, the c-Src-dependent disorganisation of the cortical actin cytoskeleton of epithelial cells expressing c-Src was suppressed by MPP2. In conclusion we demonstrate here that MPP2 interacts with c-Src in cells to control c-Src activity and morphological function.

    Experimental cell research 2009;315;17;2888-98

  • Despite its strong transactivation domain, transcription factor FOXM1c is kept almost inactive by two different inhibitory domains.

    Wierstra I and Alves J

    Institute of Molecular Biology, Medical School Hannover, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, D-30625 Hannover, Germany. iwiwiwi@web.de

    FOXM1c (MPP2) is an activating transcription factor with several nuclear localization signals, a forkhead domain for DNA binding, and a very strong acidic transactivation domain. Despite its very strong transactivation domain, FOXM1c is kept almost inactive by two different independent inhibitory domains, the N-terminus and the central domain. The N-terminus as a specific negative-regulatory domain directly binds to and thus inhibits the transactivation domain completely. However, it lacks any transrepression potential. In contrast, the central domain functions as a strong RB-independent transrepression domain and as an RB-recruiting negative-regulatory domain. The N-terminus alone is sufficient to eliminate transactivation, while the central domain alone represses the transactivation domain only partially. This hierarchy of the two inhibitory domains offers the possibility to activate the almost inactive wild type in two steps in vitro: deletion of the N-terminus results in a strong transactivator, while additional deletion of the central domain in a very strong transactivator. We suggest that the very high potential of the transactivation domain has to be tightly controlled by these two inhibitory domains because FOXM1 stimulates proliferation by promoting G1/S transition, as well as G2/M transition, and because deregulation of such potent activators of proliferation can result in tumorigenesis.

    Biological chemistry 2006;387;7;963-76

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Global profiling of the cell surface proteome of cancer cells uncovers an abundance of proteins with chaperone function.

    Shin BK, Wang H, Yim AM, Le Naour F, Brichory F, Jang JH, Zhao R, Puravs E, Tra J, Michael CW, Misek DE and Hanash SM

    Departments of Pediatrics and Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0656, USA.

    There is currently limited data available pertaining to the global characterization of the cell surface proteome. We have implemented a strategy for the comprehensive profiling and identification of surface membrane proteins. This strategy has been applied to cancer cells, including the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma, the A549 lung adenocarcinoma, the LoVo colon adenocarcinoma, and the Sup-B15 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B cell) cell lines and ovarian tumor cells. Surface membrane proteins of viable, intact cells were subjected to biotinylation then affinity-captured and purified on monomeric avidin columns. The biotinylated proteins were eluted from the monomeric avidin columns as intact proteins and were subsequently separated by two-dimensional PAGE, transferred to polyvinylidene difluoride membranes, and visualized by hybridization with streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase. Highly reproducible, but distinct, two-dimensional patterns consisting of several hundred biotinylated proteins were obtained for the different cell populations analyzed. Identification of a subset of biotinylated proteins among the different cell populations analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization and tandem mass spectrometry uncovered proteins with a restricted expression pattern in some cell line(s), such as CD87 and the activin receptor type IIB. We also identified more widely expressed proteins, such as CD98, and a sushi repeat-containing protein, a member of the selectin family. Remarkably, a set of proteins identified as chaperone proteins were found to be highly abundant on the cell surface, including GRP78, GRP75, HSP70, HSP60, HSP54, HSP27, and protein disulfide isomerase. Comprehensive profiling of the cell surface proteome provides an effective approach for the identification of commonly occurring proteins as well as proteins with restricted expression patterns in this compartment.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;9;7607-16

  • Identification of multiple binding partners for the amino-terminal domain of synapse-associated protein 97.

    Karnak D, Lee S and Margolis B

    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    Multiprotein complexes mediate static and dynamic functions to establish and maintain cell polarity in both epithelial cells and neurons. Membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) proteins are thought to be scaffolding molecules in these processes and bind multiple proteins via their obligate postsynaptic density (PSD)-95/Disc Large/Zona Occludens-1, Src homology 3, and guanylate kinase-like domains. Subsets of MAGUK proteins have additional protein-protein interaction domains. An additional domain we identified in SAP97 called the MAGUK recruitment (MRE) domain binds the LIN-2,7 amino-terminal (L27N) domain of mLIN-2/CASK, a MAGUK known to bind mLIN-7. Here we show that SAP97 binds two other mLIN-7 binding MAGUK proteins. One of these MAGUK proteins, DLG3, coimmunoprecipitates with SAP97 in lysates from rat brain and transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. This interaction requires the MRE domain of SAP97 and surprisingly, both the L27N and L27 carboxyl-terminal (L27C) domains of DLG3. We also demonstrate that SAP97 can interact with the MAGUK protein, DLG2, but not the highly related protein, PALS2. The ability of SAP97 to interact with multiple MAGUK proteins is likely to be important for the targeting of specific protein complexes in polarized cells.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: 2-P50-DK39255; NIGMS NIH HHS: 5-T32-GM07544, GM08353

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;48;46730-5

  • Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs.

    Wiemann S, Weil B, Wellenreuther R, Gassenhuber J, Glassl S, Ansorge W, Böcher M, Blöcker H, Bauersachs S, Blum H, Lauber J, Düsterhöft A, Beyer A, Köhrer K, Strack N, Mewes HW, Ottenwälder B, Obermaier B, Tampe J, Heubner D, Wambutt R, Korn B, Klein M and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    With the complete human genomic sequence being unraveled, the focus will shift to gene identification and to the functional analysis of gene products. The generation of a set of cDNAs, both sequences and physical clones, which contains the complete and noninterrupted protein coding regions of all human genes will provide the indispensable tools for the systematic and comprehensive analysis of protein function to eventually understand the molecular basis of man. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of 500 novel human cDNAs containing the complete protein coding frame. Assignment to functional categories was possible for 52% (259) of the encoded proteins, the remaining fraction having no similarities with known proteins. By aligning the cDNA sequences with the sequences of the finished chromosomes 21 and 22 we identified a number of genes that either had been completely missed in the analysis of the genomic sequences or had been wrongly predicted. Three of these genes appear to be present in several copies. We conclude that full-length cDNA sequencing continues to be crucial also for the accurate identification of genes. The set of 500 novel cDNAs, and another 1000 full-coding cDNAs of known transcripts we have identified, adds up to cDNA representations covering 2%--5 % of all human genes. We thus substantially contribute to the generation of a gene catalog, consisting of both full-coding cDNA sequences and clones, which should be made freely available and will become an invaluable tool for detailed functional studies.

    Genome research 2001;11;3;422-35

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Isolation of a gene (DLG3) encoding a second member of the discs-large family on chromosome 17q12-q21.

    Smith SA, Holik P, Stevens J, Mazoyer S, Melis R, Williams B, White R and Albertsen H

    Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA.

    The discs-large family is a collection of proteins that have a common structural organization and are thought to be involved in signal transduction and mediating protein-protein interactions at the cytoplasmic surface of the cell membrane. The defining member of this group of proteins is the gene product of the Drosophila lethal (1) discs large (dlg) 1 locus, which was originally identified by the analysis of recessive lethal mutants. Germline mutations in dlg result in loss of apical-basolateral polarity, disruption of normal cell-cell adhesion, and neoplastic overgrowth of the imaginal disc epithelium. We have isolated and characterized a novel human gene, DLG3, that encodes a new member of the discs-large family of proteins. The putative DLG3 gene product has a molecular weight of 66 kDa and contains a discs-large homologous region, a src oncogene homology motif 3, and a domain with homology to guanylate kinase. The DLG3 gene is located on chromosome 17, in the same segment, 17q12-q21, as the related gene, DLG2. The products of the DLG2 and DLG3 genes show 36% identity and 58% similarity to each other, and both show nearly 60% sequence similarity to p55, an erythroid phosphoprotein that is a component of the red cell membrane. We suggest that p55, DLG2, and DLG3 are closely related members of a gene family, whose protein products have a common structural organization and probably a similar function.

    Genomics 1996;31;2;145-50

  • A gene (DLG2) located at 17q12-q21 encodes a new homologue of the Drosophila tumor suppressor dIg-A.

    Mazoyer S, Gayther SA, Nagai MA, Smith SA, Dunning A, van Rensburg EJ, Albertsen H, White R and Ponder BA

    CRC Human Cancer Genetics Research Group, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

    We have isolated a novel cDNA that maps distal to BRCA1 at 17q12-q21. The total sequence predicts a protein of 576 amino acids with three conserved regions: a 90-amino-acid repeat domain, a SH3 (src homology region 3) motif, and a guanylate kinase domain. These conserved regions are shared among members of the discs-large family of proteins that include human p55, a membrane protein expressed in erythrocytes, rat PSD-95/SAP90, a synapse protein expressed in brain, Drosophila dIg-A, a septate junction protein expressed in various epithelia, and human and mouse ZO-1 and canine ZO-2, two tight junction proteins. dIg-A has been shown to act as a tumor suppressor, and the other members may all be involved in signal transduction through specialized membrane domains with highly organized cytoskeletons and thus are potential tumor suppressors. Since allelic loss has been reported in the 17q12-q21 region in breast and ovarian cancer and it appears that BRCA1 is not the target of the losses, we looked for somatic alterations in DLG2 in sporadic breast tumors. No evidence for mutation was found, making it unlikely that DLG2 is involved in sporadic breast cancer.

    Genomics 1995;28;1;25-31

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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