G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 4 polypeptide
G00000076 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000031609 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000132681 (Ensembl human gene)
480 (Entrez Gene)
414 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ATP1A4 (GeneCards)
607321 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:14073 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q13733 (UniProt)

Literature (18)

Pubmed - other

  • The transcription factor CREMtau and cAMP regulate promoter activity of the Na,K-ATPase alpha4 isoform.

    Rodova M, Nguyen AN and Blanco G

    Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, USA.

    The Na,K-ATPase is an essential enzyme of the plasma membrane that plays a key role in numerous cell processes that depend on the transcellular gradients of Na(+) and K(+). Among the various isoforms of the catalytic subunit of the Na,K-ATPase, alpha4 exhibits the most limited pattern of expression, being restricted to male germ cells. Activity of alpha4 is essential for sperm function, and alpha4 is upregulated during spermatogenesis. The present study addressed the transcriptional control of the human Na,K-ATPase alpha4 gene, ATP1A4. We describe that a 5' untranslated region of the ATP1A4 gene (designated -339/+480 based on the ATP1A4 transcription initiation site) has promoter activity in luciferase reporter assays. Computer analysis of this promoter region revealed consensus sites (CRE) for the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element modulator (CREM). Accordingly, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP) and ectopic expression of CREMtau, a testis specific splice variant of CREM were able to activate the ATP1A4 promoter driven expression of luciferase in HEK 293 T, JEG-3 and GC-1 cells. Further characterization of the effect of db-cAMP and CREMtau on deleted constructs of the ATP1A4 promoter (-339/+80, and +25/+480), and on the -339/+480 region carrying mutations in the CRE sites showed that db-cAMP and CREMtau effect required the CRE motif located 263 bp upstream the transcription initiation site. EMSA experiments confirmed the CRE sequence as a bonafide CREMtau binding site. These results constitute the first demonstration of the transcriptional control of ATP1A4 gene expression by cAMP and by CREMtau, a transcription factor essential for male germ cell gene expression.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD043044

    Molecular reproduction and development 2006;73;11;1435-47

  • The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1.

    Gregory SG, Barlow KF, McLay KE, Kaul R, Swarbreck D, Dunham A, Scott CE, Howe KL, Woodfine K, Spencer CC, Jones MC, Gillson C, Searle S, Zhou Y, Kokocinski F, McDonald L, Evans R, Phillips K, Atkinson A, Cooper R, Jones C, Hall RE, Andrews TD, Lloyd C, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Anderson F, Andrew RW, Ashwell RI, Aubin K, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Beasley H, Bethel G, Bird CP, Bray-Allen S, Brown JY, Brown AJ, Buckley D, Burton J, Bye J, Carder C, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee C, Cobley V, Collier RE, Corby N, Coville GJ, Davies J, Deadman R, Dunn M, Earthrowl M, Ellington AG, Errington H, Frankish A, Frankland J, French L, Garner P, Garnett J, Gay L, Ghori MR, Gibson R, Gilby LM, Gillett W, Glithero RJ, Grafham DV, Griffiths C, Griffiths-Jones S, Grocock R, Hammond S, Harrison ES, Hart E, Haugen E, Heath PD, Holmes S, Holt K, Howden PJ, Hunt AR, Hunt SE, Hunter G, Isherwood J, James R, Johnson C, Johnson D, Joy A, Kay M, Kershaw JK, Kibukawa M, Kimberley AM, King A, Knights AJ, Lad H, Laird G, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, Lush MJ, Lyne R, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Matthews NS, McLaren S, Milne S, Mistry S, Moore MJ, Nickerson T, O'Dell CN, Oliver K, Palmeiri A, Palmer SA, Parker A, Patel D, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phelps K, Phillimore BJ, Plumb R, Rajan J, Raymond C, Rouse G, Saenphimmachak C, Sehra HK, Sheridan E, Shownkeen R, Sims S, Skuce CD, Smith M, Steward C, Subramanian S, Sycamore N, Tracey A, Tromans A, Van Helmond Z, Wall M, Wallis JM, White S, Whitehead SL, Wilkinson JE, Willey DL, Williams H, Wilming L, Wray PW, Wu Z, Coulson A, Vaudin M, Sulston JE, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Wooster R, Dunham I, Carter NP, McVean G, Ross MT, Harrow J, Olson MV, Beck S, Rogers J, Bentley DR, Banerjee R, Bryant SP, Burford DC, Burrill WD, Clegg SM, Dhami P, Dovey O, Faulkner LM, Gribble SM, Langford CF, Pandian RD, Porter KM and Prigmore E

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, The Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, UK. sgregory@chg.duhs.duke.edu

    The reference sequence for each human chromosome provides the framework for understanding genome function, variation and evolution. Here we report the finished sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is gene-dense, with 3,141 genes and 991 pseudogenes, and many coding sequences overlap. Rearrangements and mutations of chromosome 1 are prevalent in cancer and many other diseases. Patterns of sequence variation reveal signals of recent selection in specific genes that may contribute to human fitness, and also in regions where no function is evident. Fine-scale recombination occurs in hotspots of varying intensity along the sequence, and is enriched near genes. These and other studies of human biology and disease encoded within chromosome 1 are made possible with the highly accurate annotated sequence, as part of the completed set of chromosome sequences that comprise the reference human genome.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0000107; Wellcome Trust

    Nature 2006;441;7091;315-21

  • The human Na,K-ATPase alpha 4 isoform is a ouabain-sensitive alpha isoform that is expressed in sperm.

    Hlivko JT, Chakraborty S, Hlivko TJ, Sengupta A and James PF

    Department of Zoology, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 450506, USA.

    The Na,K-ATPase generates electrochemical gradients across the plasma membrane that are responsible for numerous cellular and physiological processes. The active Na,K-ATPase is minimally composed of an alpha and a beta subunit and families of isoforms for both subunits exist. Recent studies have identified a physiological role for the rat Na,K-ATPase alpha4 isoform in sperm motility. However, very little is known about the human Na,K-ATPase alpha4 isoform other than its genomic sequence and structure and its mRNA expression pattern. Here, the human alpha4 isoform of the Na,K-ATPase is cloned, expressed, and characterized. Full length cDNAs encoding the putative human alpha4 isoform of the Na,K-ATPase were identified from a number of ESTs and a protein product corresponding to this isoform was shown to be expressed from these cDNAs. The human Na,K-ATPase alpha4 isoform protein was found to be expressed in mature sperm in human testes sections and it is localized specifically to the principle piece of human sperm. In addition, the presence of the Na,K-ATPase alpha4 isoform is absent in immature testes however its expression appears coincident with sexual maturity. And finally, the human Na,K-ATPase alpha4 isoform was shown to be as sensitive to cardiac glycoside inhibition as the human Na,K-ATPase alpha1 isoform. Considering the important role of the rat Na,K-ATPase alpha4 isoform in rat sperm motility, the demonstration that the human alpha4 isoform is a sperm-specific protein localized to the flagellum suggests a role for the human Na,K-ATPase alpha4 isoform in human sperm physiology.

    Molecular reproduction and development 2006;73;1;101-15

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Functional roles of the alpha isoforms of the Na,K-ATPase.

    Lingrel J, Moseley A, Dostanic I, Cougnon M, He S, James P, Woo A, O'Connor K and Neumann J

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0524, USA. Jerry.Lingrel@UC.edu

    The Na,K-ATPase is composed of two subunits, alpha and beta, and each subunit consists of multiple isoforms. In the case of alpha, four isoforms, alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, and alpha4 are present in mammalian cells. The distribution of these isoforms is tissue- and developmental-specific, suggesting that they may play specific roles, either during development or coupled to specific physiological processes. In order to understand the functional properties of each of these isoforms, we are using gene targeting, where animals are produced lacking either one copy or both copies of the corresponding gene or have a modified gene. To date, we have produced animals lacking the alpha1 and alpha2 isoform genes. Animals lacking both copies of the alpha1 isoform gene are not viable, while animals lacking both copies of the alpha2 isoform gene make it to birth, but are either born dead or die very soon after. In the case of animals lacking one copy of the alpha1 or alpha2 isoform gene, the animals survive and appear healthy. Heart and EDL muscle from animals lacking one copy of the alpha2 isoform exhibit an increase in force of contraction, while there is reduced force of contraction in both muscles from animals lacking one copy of the alpha1 isoform gene. These studies indicate that the alpha1 and alpha2 isoforms carry out different physiological roles. The alpha2 isoform appears to be involved in regulating Ca(2+) transients involved in muscle contraction, while the alpha1 isoform probably plays a more generalized role. While we have not yet knocked out the alpha3 or alpha4 isoform genes, studies to date indicate that the alpha4 isoform is necessary to maintain sperm motility. It is thus possible that the alpha2, alpha3, and alpha4 isoforms are involved in specialized functions of various tissues, helping to explain their tissue- and developmental-specific regulation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL66062

    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2003;986;354-9

  • Roles of the Na,K-ATPase alpha4 isoform and the Na+/H+ exchanger in sperm motility.

    Woo AL, James PF and Lingrel JB

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA.

    The Na,K-ATPase generates electrochemical gradients that are used to drive the coupled transport of many ions and nutrients across the plasma membrane. The functional enzyme is comprised of an alpha and beta subunit and families of isoforms for both subunits exist. Recent studies in this laboratory have identified a biological role for the Na,K-ATPase alpha4 isoform in sperm motility. Here we further investigate the role of the Na,K-ATPase carrying the alpha4 isoform, showing again that ouabain eliminates sperm motility, and in addition, that nigericin, a H+/K+ ionophore, and monensin, a H+/Na+ ionophore, reinitiate motility. These data, along with the observation that the K+ ionophore valinomycin has no effect on the motility of ouabain-inhibited sperm, suggest that ouabain may change intracellular H+ levels in a manner that is incompatible with sperm motility. We have also localized NHE1 and NHE5, known regulators of intracellular H+ content, to the same region of the sperm as the Na,K-ATPase alpha4 isoform. These data highlight the important role of the Na,K-ATPase alpha4 isoform in regulating intracellular H(+) levels, and provide evidence suggesting the involvement of the Na+/H+ exchanger, which is critical for maintaining normal sperm motility.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P01HL41496, R01HL28573, T32HL07382

    Molecular reproduction and development 2002;62;3;348-56

  • Physical mapping and characterization of the human Na,K-ATPase isoform, ATP1A4.

    Keryanov S and Gardner KL

    Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh and Veteran's Administration Medical Center, S-514, Biomedical Science Tower, 3500 Terrace Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

    Four isoforms of the catalytic alpha subunit of the Na,K-ATPase have been previously identified. We characterized and mapped a genomic copy of the human ATP1A4 isoform between D1S2707 and WI-9524, telomeric to a nearby isoform ATP1A2, and within a candidate region at 1q23 for familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM). Human ATP1A4 gene shares 84% identity with the mouse Atp1a4 gene, and both consist of 22 exons and 21 introns. The predicted polypeptide is 1029 amino acids and shares 82 and 79.8% identity, respectively, with human ATP1A2 and ATP1A1. ATP1A4 is larger than other isoforms and most divergent at the N-terminus. ATP1A4 and ATP1A2 are paralogous genes with the same number and organization of putative H-transmembrane domains, conserved exon-intron boundaries, and are found approximately 8.5 kb apart. Expression analysis of the ATP1A4 gene revealed a new major approximately 7.5 kb transcript in human skeletal muscle, with expression also shown in mouse muscle. Predictive analysis of promoter regions identified muscle specific regulatory elements for ATP1A4 and Atp1a4. Mutation analysis among eight affected individuals from a single large, highly penetrant FHM family was negative in ATP1A4 and ATP1A2 although multiple polymorphisms were identified.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 01945-03

    Gene 2002;292;1-2;151-66

  • Sperm motility is dependent on a unique isoform of the Na,K-ATPase.

    Woo AL, James PF and Lingrel JB

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0524, USA.

    The Na,K-ATPase, a member of the P-type ATPases, is composed of two subunits, alpha and beta, and is responsible for translocating Na(+) out of the cell and K(+) into the cell using the energy of hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP. The electrochemical gradient it generates is necessary for many cellular functions, including establishment of the plasma membrane potential and transport of sugars and ions in and out of the cell. Families of isoforms for both the alpha and beta subunits have been identified, and specific functional roles for individual isoforms are just beginning to emerge. The alpha4 isoform is the most recently identified Na, K-ATPase alpha isoform, and its expression has been found only in testis. Here we show that expression of the alpha4 isoform in testis is localized to spermatozoa and that inhibition of this isoform alone eliminates sperm motility. These data describe for the first time a biological function for the alpha4 isoform of the Na,K-ATPase, revealing a critical role for this isoform in sperm motility.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P01HL41496, R01HL28573, T32HL07382

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;27;20693-9

  • Characterization of the fourth alpha isoform of the Na,K-ATPase.

    Woo AL, James PF and Lingrel JB

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 231 Bethesda Avenue, ML 0524, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0524, USA.

    The Na,K-ATPase is a major ion transport protein found in higher eukaryotic cells. The enzyme is composed of two subunits, alpha and beta, and tissue-specific isoforms exist for each of these, alpha1, alpha2 and alpha3 and beta1, beta2 and beta3. We have proposed that an additional alpha isoform, alpha4, exists based on genomic and cDNA cloning. The mRNA for this gene is expressed in rats and humans, exclusively in the testis, however the expression of a corresponding protein has not been demonstrated. In the current study, the putative alpha4 isoform has been functionally characterized as a novel isoform of the Na,K-ATPase in both rat testis and in alpha4 isoform cDNA transfected 3T3 cells. Using an alpha4 isoform-specific polyclonal antibody, the protein for this novel isoform is detected for the first time in both rat testis and in transfected cell lines. Ouabain binding competition assays reveal the presence of high affinity ouabain receptors in both rat testis and in transfected cell lines that have identical KD values. Further studies of this high affinity ouabain receptor show that it also has high affinities for both Na+ and K+. The results from these experiments definitively demonstrate the presence of a novel isoform of the Na,K-ATPase in testis.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P01HL41496, R01HL28573, T32HL07382; ...

    The Journal of membrane biology 1999;169;1;39-44

  • A putative fourth Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit gene is expressed in testis.

    Shamraj OI and Lingrel JB

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH 45267-0524.

    The Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha subunit has three known isoforms, alpha 1, alpha 2 and alpha 3, each encoded by a separate gene. This study was undertaken to determine the functional status of a fourth human alpha-like gene, ATP1AL2. Partial genomic sequence analysis revealed regions exhibiting sequence similarity with exons 3-6 of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha isoform genes. ATP1AL2 cDNAs spanning the coding sequence of a novel P-type ATPase alpha subunit were isolated from a rat testis library. The predicted polypeptide is 1028 amino acids long and exhibits 76-78% identity with the rat Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1, alpha 2 and alpha 3 isoforms, indicating that ATP1AL2 may encode a fourth Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha isoform. A 3.9-kb mRNA is expressed abundantly in human and rat testis.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL28573

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1994;91;26;12952-6

  • A detailed multipoint gene map of chromosome 1q.

    Buetow KH, Nishimura D, Nakamura Y, Jiang O and Murray JC

    Division of Population Science, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111.

    Utilizing genotyping data for 23 markers, we have constructed a 21-locus multipoint genetic map of the long arm of chromosome 1. Five new RFLPs are reported. The map integrates anonymous loci from previous primary linkage maps and incorporates markers for 10 coding sequences. These markers form a continuous linkage group of 85 cM in males and 141 cM in females. The map was constructed employing the LINKAGE and CRIMAP computational methodologies via a stepwise algorithm.

    Funded by: NIDCR NIH HHS: DE08559; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM07091, GM40864; ...

    Genomics 1990;8;1;13-21

  • Molecular genetics of Na,K-ATPase.

    Lingrel JB, Orlowski J, Shull MM and Price EM

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio 45267.

    Researchers in the past few years have successfully used molecular-genetic approaches to determine the primary structures of several P-type ATPases. The amino-acid sequences of distinct members of this class of ion-transport ATPases (Na,K-, H,K-, and Ca-ATPases) have been deduced by cDNA cloning and sequencing. The Na,K-ATPase belongs to a multiple gene family, the principal diversity apparently resulting from distinct catalytic alpha isoforms. Computer analyses of the hydrophobicity and potential secondary structure of the alpha subunits and primary sequence comparisons with homologs from various species as well as other P-type ATPases have identified common structural features. This has provided the molecular foundation for the design of models and hypotheses aimed at understanding the relationship between structure and function. Development of a hypothetical transmembrane organization for the alpha subunit and application of site-specific mutagenesis techniques have allowed significant progress to be made toward identifying amino acids involved in cardiac glycoside resistance and possibly binding. However, the complex structural and functional features of this protein indicate that extensive research is necessary before a clear understanding of the molecular basis of active cation transport is achieved. This is complicated further by the paucity of information regarding the structural and functional contributions of the beta subunit. Until such information is obtained, the proposed model and functional hypotheses should be considered judiciously. Considerable progress also has been made in characterizing the regulatory complexity involved in expression of multiple alpha-isoform and beta-subunit genes in various tissues and cells during development and in response to hormones and cations. The regulatory mechanisms appear to function at several molecular levels, involving transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational, and posttranslational processes in a tissue- or cell-specific manner. However, much research is needed to precisely define the contributions of each of these mechanisms. Recent isolation of the genes for these subunits provides the framework for future advances in this area. Continued application of biochemical, biophysical, and molecular genetic techniques is required to provide a detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in cation transport of this biologically and pharmacologically important enzyme.

    Progress in nucleic acid research and molecular biology 1990;38;37-89

  • Family of Na+,K+-ATPase genes. Intra-individual tissue-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    Sverdlov ED, Broude NE, Sverdlov VE, Monastyrskaya GS, Grishin AV, Petrukhin KE, Akopyanz NS, Modyanov NN and Ovchinnikov YuA

    Intra-individual tissue-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) has been demonstrated in DNA isolated from different mammalian tissues using cDNAs of alpha- and beta-subunits of Na+,K+-ATPase as hybridization probes. We propose that the RFLPs could result from gene rearrangements in the gene loci for the alpha- and beta-subunits of Na+,K+-ATPase. The changes in restriction patterns have been shown to occur during embryonic development and tumor formation. In addition, the tissue specificity of the expression of different genes of the family of Na+,K+-ATPase genes and their low expression in tumor cells have been demonstrated.

    FEBS letters 1987;221;1;129-33

  • The family of human Na+,K+-ATPase genes. No less than five genes and/or pseudogenes related to the alpha-subunit.

    Sverdlov ED, Monastyrskaya GS, Broude NE, Ushkaryov YuA, Allikmets RL, Melkov AM, Smirnov YuV, Malyshev IV, Dulobova IE, Petrukhin KE et al.

    Five different nucleotide sequences have been found in the human genome homologous to the gene of the alpha-subunit of Na+,K+-ATPase. A comparative analysis of the primary structure of these genes in the region 749-1328 (in coordinates of cDNA from the pig alpha-subunit) is presented.

    FEBS letters 1987;217;2;275-8

  • Multiple genes encode the human Na+,K+-ATPase catalytic subunit.

    Shull MM and Lingrel JB

    A human genomic library was constructed and screened with hybridization probes derived from sheep and rat cDNAs encoding the alpha and alpha(+) isoforms, respectively, of the Na+,K+-ATPase catalytic subunit. Genomic sequences spanning 150 kilobases were isolated. Four genes, designated alpha A, alpha B, alpha C, and alpha D, each 20-25 kilobases in length, were identified by restriction mapping, Southern blot hybridization analysis, and limited DNA sequencing. We present evidence that two of these genes, alpha A and alpha B, encode the alpha and alpha(+) isoforms, respectively. The other genes, alpha C and alpha D, one of which is physically linked to the alpha(+) gene, exhibit nucleotide and amino acid homology to Na+,K+-ATPase catalytic subunit cDNA sequences but do not correspond to any previously identified isoforms.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL28573

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1987;84;12;4039-43

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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