G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Atp1a4 (MGI)
Mus musculus
ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 4 polypeptide
G00001325 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTMUSG00000021836 (Vega mouse gene)
ENSMUSG00000007107 (Ensembl mouse gene)
27222 (Entrez Gene)
414 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
MGI:1351335 (Allen Brain Atlas)
607321 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:1351335 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
Q9WV27 (UniProt)

Literature (10)

Pubmed - other

  • Na,K-ATPase alpha4 isoform is essential for sperm fertility.

    Jimenez T, McDermott JP, Sánchez G and Blanco G

    Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.

    Regulation of ion balance in spermatozoa has been shown to be essential for sperm motility and fertility. Control of intracellular ion levels requires the function of distinct ion-transport mechanisms at the cell plasma membrane. Active Na(+) and K(+) exchange in sperm is under the control of the Na,K-ATPase. Two molecular variants of the catalytic subunit of the Na,K-ATPase, α1 and α4, coexist in sperm. These isoforms exhibit different biochemical properties; however, their function in sperm fertility is unknown. In this work, we show that Na,K-ATPase α4 is essential for sperm fertility. Knockout male mice lacking α4 are completely sterile and spermatozoa from these mice are unable of fertilizing eggs in vitro. Furthermore, α4 deletion results in severe reduction in sperm motility and hyperactivation typical of sperm capacitation. In addition, absence of α4 causes a characteristic bend in the sperm flagellum, indicative of abnormal sperm ion regulation. Accordingly, α4-null sperm present increased intracellular Na(+) and cell plasma membrane depolarization. These results are unique in demonstrating the absolute requirement of α4 for sperm fertility. Moreover, the inability of α1 to compensate for α4 suggests that α4 is the Na,K-ATPase-α isoform directly involved in sperm fertility. Our findings show α4 as an attractive target for male contraception and open the possibility for the potential use of this Na,K-ATPase isoform as a biomarker for male fertility.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD043044, HD055763, R01 HD043044, U54 HD055763

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2011;108;2;644-9

  • Increased expression of the Na,K-ATPase alpha4 isoform enhances sperm motility in transgenic mice.

    Jimenez T, Sanchez G, McDermott JP, Nguyen AN, Kumar TR and Blanco G

    Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA.

    The Na,K-ATPase alpha4 (ATP1A4) isoform is specifically expressed in male germ cells and is highly prevalent in spermatozoa. Although selective inhibition of alpha4 activity with ouabain has been shown to affect sperm motility, a more direct analysis of the role of this isoform in sperm movement has not yet been demonstrated. To establish this, we engineered transgenic mice that express the rat alpha4 isoform fused to green fluorescent protein in male germ cells, under the control of the mouse protamine 1 promoter. We showed that the rat Atp1a4 transgene is expressed in mouse spermatozoa and that it is localized to the sperm flagellum. In agreement with increased expression of the alpha4 isoform, sperm from transgenic mice displayed higher alpha4-specific Na,K-ATPase activity and binding of fluorescently labeled ouabain than wild-type mice. In contrast, expression and activity of ATP1A1 (alpha1), the other Na,K-ATPase alpha isoform present in sperm, remained unchanged. Similar to wild-type mice, mice expressing the alpha4 transgene exhibited normal testis and sperm morphology and no differences in fertility. However, compared to wild-type mice, sperm from transgenic mice displayed plasma membrane hyperpolarization and higher total and progressive motility. Other parameters of motility also increased, including straight-line, curvilinear, and average path velocities and amplitude of lateral head displacement. In addition, sperm from the transgenic mice showed enhanced sperm hyperactive motility, but no changes in progesterone-induced acrosome reaction. Altogether, these results provide new genetic evidence for the role of the ATP1A4 isoform in sperm motility, under both noncapacitating and capacitating conditions.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD043044, HD055763, R01 HD043044, U54 HD055763

    Biology of reproduction 2011;84;1;153-61

  • Physical mapping and characterization of the human Na,K-ATPase isoform, ATP1A4.

    Keryanov S and Gardner KL

    Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh and Veteran's Administration Medical Center, S-514, Biomedical Science Tower, 3500 Terrace Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

    Four isoforms of the catalytic alpha subunit of the Na,K-ATPase have been previously identified. We characterized and mapped a genomic copy of the human ATP1A4 isoform between D1S2707 and WI-9524, telomeric to a nearby isoform ATP1A2, and within a candidate region at 1q23 for familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM). Human ATP1A4 gene shares 84% identity with the mouse Atp1a4 gene, and both consist of 22 exons and 21 introns. The predicted polypeptide is 1029 amino acids and shares 82 and 79.8% identity, respectively, with human ATP1A2 and ATP1A1. ATP1A4 is larger than other isoforms and most divergent at the N-terminus. ATP1A4 and ATP1A2 are paralogous genes with the same number and organization of putative H-transmembrane domains, conserved exon-intron boundaries, and are found approximately 8.5 kb apart. Expression analysis of the ATP1A4 gene revealed a new major approximately 7.5 kb transcript in human skeletal muscle, with expression also shown in mouse muscle. Predictive analysis of promoter regions identified muscle specific regulatory elements for ATP1A4 and Atp1a4. Mutation analysis among eight affected individuals from a single large, highly penetrant FHM family was negative in ATP1A4 and ATP1A2 although multiple polymorphisms were identified.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 01945-03

    Gene 2002;292;1-2;151-66

  • Severe neural tube defects in the loop-tail mouse result from mutation of Lpp1, a novel gene involved in floor plate specification.

    Murdoch JN, Doudney K, Paternotte C, Copp AJ and Stanier P

    Neural Development Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK.

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are clinically important congenital malformations whose molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The loop-tail (Lp) mutant mouse provides a model for the most severe NTD, craniorachischisis, in which the brain and spinal cord remain open. During a positional cloning approach, we have identified a mutation in a novel gene, Lpp1, in the Lp mouse, providing a strong candidate for the genetic causation of craniorachischisis in LP: Lpp1 encodes a protein of 521 amino acids, with four transmembrane domains related to the Drosophila protein strabismus/van gogh (vang). The human orthologue, LPP1, shares 89% identity with the mouse gene at the nucleotide level and 99% identity at the amino acid level. Lpp1 is expressed in the ventral part of the developing neural tube, but is excluded from the floor plate where Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed. Embryos lacking Shh express Lpp1 throughout the ventral neural tube, suggesting negative regulation of Lpp1 by SHH: Our findings suggest that the mutual interaction between Lpp1 and Shh may define the lateral boundary of floor plate differentiation. Loss of Lpp1 function disrupts neurulation by permitting more extensive floor plate induction by Shh, thereby inhibiting midline bending of the neural plate during initiation of neurulation.

    Human molecular genetics 2001;10;22;2593-601

  • Ltap, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila Strabismus/Van Gogh, is altered in the mouse neural tube mutant Loop-tail.

    Kibar Z, Vogan KJ, Groulx N, Justice MJ, Underhill DA and Gros P

    Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida and anencephaly are common congenital malformations in humans (1/1,000 births) that result from failure of the neural tube to close during embryogenesis. The etiology of NTDs is complex, with both genetic and environmental contributions; the genetic component has been extensively studied with mouse models. Loop-tail (Lp) is a semidominant mutation on mouse chromosome 1 (ref. 4). In the two known Lp alleles (Lp, Lpm1Jus), heterozygous mice exhibit a characteristic looped tail, and homozygous embryos show a completely open neural tube in the hindbrain and spinal region, a condition similar to the severe craniorachischisis defect in humans. Morphological and neural patterning studies indicate a role for the Lp gene product in controlling early morphogenesis and patterning of both axial midline structures and the developing neural plate. The 0.6-cM/0.7-megabase (Mb) Lp interval is delineated proximally by D1Mit113/Apoa2/Fcer1g and distally by Fcer1a/D1Mit149/Spna1 and contains a minimum of 17 transcription units. One of these genes, Ltap, encodes a homolog of Drosophila Strabismus/Van Gogh (Stbm/Vang), a component of the frizzled/dishevelled tissue polarity pathway. Ltap is expressed broadly in the neuroectoderm throughout early neurogenesis and is altered in two independent Lp alleles, identifying this gene as a strong candidate for Lp.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P01 CA75719

    Nature genetics 2001;28;3;251-5

  • Comparative physical and transcript maps of approximately 1 Mb around loop-tail, a gene for severe neural tube defects on distal mouse chromosome 1 and human chromosome 1q22-q23.

    Doudney K, Murdoch JN, Paternotte C, Bentley L, Gregory S, Copp AJ and Stanier P

    Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London, W12 ONN, United Kingdom.

    The homozygous loop-tail (Lp) mouse has a severe neural tube closure defect, analogous to the craniorachischisis phenotype seen in humans. Linkage analysis and physical mapping have previously localized the Lp locus to a region on mouse chromosome 1 defined by the markers D1Mit113-Tagln2. Here we report the construction of sequence-ready bacterial clone contigs encompassing the Lp critical region in both mouse and the orthologous human region (1q22-q23). Twenty-two genes, one EST, and one pseudogene have been identified using a combination of EST database screening, exon amplification, and genomic sequence analysis. The preliminary gene map is Cen-Estm33-AA693056-Ly9-Cd48-Slam-Cd84-Kiaa1215-Nhlh1-Kiaa0253-Copa-Pxf-H326-Pea15-Casq1-Atp1a4-Atp1a2-Estm34-Kcnj9-Kcnj10-Kiaa1355-Tagln2-Nesg1-Crp-Tel. The genes between Slam and Kiaa1355 are positional candidates for Lp. The comparative gene content and order are identical between mouse and human, indicating a high degree of conservation between the two species in this region. Together, the physical and transcript maps described here serve as resources for the identification of the Lp mutation and further define the conservation of this genomic region between mouse and human.

    Genomics 2001;72;2;180-92

  • Transcription mapping and expression analysis of candidate genes in the vicinity of the mouse Loop-tail mutation.

    Underhill DA, Vogan KJ, Kibar Z, Morrison J, Rommens J and Gros P

    Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1Y6, Canada. alan.underhill@ualberta.ca

    Loop-tail (Lp) is a semidominant mutation that maps to the distal portion of mouse Chromosome (Chr) 1 and is an established model for neural tube defects (NTDs). Homozygous embryos exhibit an open neural tube from the caudal midbrain to the tip of the tail that results from over-differentiation of the floor plate. To facilitate the positional cloning of the Lp gene, both cDNA selection and assignment of sequence-tagged-sites from the human transcript map have been used to identify genes within the Lp interval. Together with previous physical mapping, this has allowed the placement of 13 transcription units within an approximately 1-Mb region that spans the Lp genetic interval, and eight of these genes map to the nonrecombinant interval. This map includes genes that encode proteins involved in protein sorting and targeting (Tim23 and Copa), ion transport (Atp1a2, Atp1a4, and Girk3), transcription (Nhlh1), immune regulation (Cd48 and Fcer1alpha), cell adhesion (R88252), apoptosis (Pea15), and several of unknown function (H326, Kiaa0253, and Estm34). Expression analysis by Northern blotting indicated that a subset of these genes are expressed preferentially in the developing nervous system. Finally, this region of mouse Chr 1 represents a conserved linkage group with genes on human chromosome 1q21, a region that is frequently altered in human cancers and that harbors loci for several genetic conditions. Consequently, analysis of the Lp interval may provide important tools to understand how the corresponding region of human Chr 1 contributes to disease, in addition to defining a key gene product required for neurulation.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 2000;11;8;633-8

  • Differential involvement of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase isozymes in preimplantation development of the mouse.

    MacPhee DJ, Jones DH, Barr KJ, Betts DH, Watson AJ and Kidder GM

    Department of Physiology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5C1, Canada.

    Na(+),K(+)-ATPase plays an essential role in mammalian blastocoel formation (cavitation) by driving trans-epithelial sodium transport. Previously, the alpha1 and beta1 subunit isoforms of this enzyme were identified in preimplantation mouse embryos and were assumed to be responsible for this function. Here we show that mRNAs encoding an additional alpha subunit isoform (alpha3) and the remaining two beta subunit isoforms are also present in preimplantation embryos. Whereas alpha3 mRNA accumulates between the four-cell and the blastocyst stages and thus results from embryonic transcription, the same could not be demonstrated for beta2 and beta3 mRNAs. Immunoblot analyses confirmed that these subunits are present in cavitating embryos. Using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy we found that alpha1 and beta1 subunits are concentrated in the basolateral membranes of the trophectoderm while being equally distributed in plasma membranes of the inner cell mass. In contrast, alpha3, beta2, and beta3 subunits were not detected in plasma membranes. Our current assessment, therefore, is that as many as six isozymes of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase could be involved in preimplantation development although it is primarily the alpha1beta1 isozyme that is responsible for blastocoel formation. Our findings imply that the regulation of sodium transport within the preimplantation mouse embryo is more complex than had been appreciated.

    Developmental biology 2000;222;2;486-98

  • The Na,K-ATPase alpha4 gene (Atp1a4) encodes a ouabain-resistant alpha subunit and is tightly linked to the alpha2 gene (Atp1a2) on mouse chromosome 1.

    Underhill DA, Canfield VA, Dahl JP, Gros P and Levenson R

    Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1Y6.

    We have isolated and characterized cDNA clones encoding the murine homologue of a putative fourth Na,K-ATPase alpha subunit isoform (alpha4). The predicted polypeptide is 1032 amino acids in length and exhibits 75% amino acid sequence identity to the rat alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3 subunits. Within the first extracellular loop, the alpha4 subunit is highly divergent from other Na,K-ATPase alpha subunits. Because this region of Na,K-ATPase is a major determinant of ouabain sensitivity, we tested the ability of the rodent alpha4 subunit to transfer ouabain resistance in a transfection protocol. We find that a cDNA containing the complete rodent alpha4 ORF is capable of conferring low levels of ouabain resistance upon HEK 293 cells, an indication that the alpha4 subunit can substitute for the endogenous ouabain-sensitive alpha subunit of human cells. Nucleotide sequences specific for the murine alpha4 subunit were used to identify the chromosomal position of the alpha4 subunit gene. By hybridizing an alpha4 probe with a series of BACs, we localized the alpha4 subunit gene (Atp1a4) to the distal portion of mouse chromosome 1, in very close proximity to the murine Na,K-ATPase alpha2 subunit gene. In adult mouse tissues, we detected expression of the alpha4 subunit gene almost exclusively in testis, with low levels of expression in epididymis. The close similarities in the organization and expression pattern of the murine and human alpha4 subunit genes suggest that these two genes are orthologous. Together, our studies indicate that the alpha4 subunit represents a functional Na,K-ATPase alpha subunit isoform.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-39263

    Biochemistry 1999;38;45;14746-51

  • Absence or pharmacological blocking of placental P-glycoprotein profoundly increases fetal drug exposure.

    Smit JW, Huisman MT, van Tellingen O, Wiltshire HR and Schinkel AH

    Division of Experimental Therapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam.

    It was recently shown that naturally occurring Mdr1a mutant fetuses of the CF-1 outbred mouse stock have no placental Mdr1a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and that this absence is associated with increased sensitivity to avermectin, a teratogenic pesticide. To further define the role of placental drug-transporting P-gp in toxicological protection of the fetus, we used mice with a targeted disruption of the Mdr1a and Mdr1b genes. Mdr1a(+/-)/1b(+/-) females were mated with Mdr1a(+/-)/1b(+/-) males to obtain fetuses of 3 genotypes (Mdr1a(+/+)/1b(+/+), Mdr1a(+/-)/1b(+/-), and Mdr 1a(-/-)/1b(-/-)) in a single mother. Intravenous administration of the P-gp substrate drugs [(3)H]digoxin, [(14)C]saquinavir, or paclitaxel to pregnant dams revealed that 2.4-, 7-, or 16-fold more drug, respectively, entered the Mdr1a(-/-)/1b(-/-) fetuses than entered wild-type fetuses. Furthermore, placental P-gp activity could be completely inhibited by oral administration of the P-gp blockers PSC833 or GG918 to heterozygous mothers. Our findings imply that the placental drug-transporting P-gp is of great importance in limiting the fetal penetration of various potentially harmful or therapeutic compounds and demonstrate that this P-gp function can be abolished by pharmacological means. The latter principle could be applied clinically to improve pharmacotherapy of the unborn child.

    The Journal of clinical investigation 1999;104;10;1441-7

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000003 G2C Mus musculus Mouse clathrin Mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000004 G2C Mus musculus Mouse Synaptosome Mouse Synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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