G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001324
Gene symbol
ATP1A1 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 1 polypeptide
Orthologue
G00000075 (Mus musculus)

Databases (9)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000012109 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000163399 (Ensembl human gene)
476 (Entrez Gene)
100 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ATP1A1 (GeneCards)
Literature
182310 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:799 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
1988 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
P05023 (UniProt)

Diseases (6)

Disease Nervous effect Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
D00000210: Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis N Y (15001631) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) N
D00000192: Dystonia parkinsonism (rapid onset) Y Y (15260953) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000192: Dystonia parkinsonism (rapid onset) Y Y (15260948) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000170: Bipolar disorder Y Y (9646882) Dinucleotide polymorphism (DNP) Y
D00000137: Diabetic nephropathy N Y (15198370) Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) Y
D00000140: Diabetes mellitus Type 1 N Y (15198370) Polymorphism (P) ?
D00000142: Diabetes mellitus Type 2 N Y (15198370) Polymorphism (P) ?

References

  • Mutations in the Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha3 gene ATP1A3 are associated with rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism.

    de Carvalho Aguiar P, Sweadner KJ, Penniston JT, Zaremba J, Liu L, Caton M, Linazasoro G, Borg M, Tijssen MA, Bressman SB, Dobyns WB, Brashear A and Ozelius LJ

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.

    Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP, DYT12) is a distinctive autosomal-dominant movement disorder with variable expressivity and reduced penetrance characterized by abrupt onset of dystonia, usually accompanied by signs of parkinsonism. The sudden onset of symptoms over hours to a few weeks, often associated with physical or emotional stress, suggests a trigger initiating a nervous system insult resulting in permanent neurologic disability. We report the finding of six missense mutations in the gene for the Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha3 subunit (ATP1A3) in seven unrelated families with RDP. Functional studies and structural analysis of the protein suggest that these mutations impair enzyme activity or stability. This finding implicates the Na+/K+ pump, a crucial protein responsible for the electrochemical gradient across the cell membrane, in dystonia and parkinsonism.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL36251; NIA NIH HHS: AG10133; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM28835; NINDS NIH HHS: NS26636

    Neuron 2004;43;2;169-75

  • Paying the price at the pump: dystonia from mutations in a Na+/K+ -ATPase.

    Cannon SC

    Department of Neurology, UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

    Dystonia is a disorder of involuntary sustained muscle contraction, which usually affects a focal region of the body but may be generalized and results in twisting contorted movements or abnormal postures. Several clinical subtypes of dystonia have been delineated and many have a strong inherited basis. In this issue of Neuron, de Carvalho Aguiar and colleagues report the identification of missense mutations in the gene for the Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha3 subunit (ATP1A3) as a cause of rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP, DYT12).

    Neuron 2004;43;2;153-4

  • Association of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the calcium channel alpha 1 subunit gene (Ca(v)1.1) and thyrotoxic periodic paralysis.

    Kung AW, Lau KS, Fong GC and Chan V

    Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China. awckung@hkucc.hku.hk

    Thyrotoxic (hypokalemic) periodic paralysis (TPP) is a frequent complication of thyrotoxicosis among Chinese men. To determine the genetic association of TPP, we studied 97 male TPP patients, 77 Graves' disease patients without TPP, and 100 normal male subjects. Mutations of the voltage-dependent calcium channel (Ca(v)1.1), sodium channel (Na(v)1.4), and potassium channel (K(v)3.4), and association of the microsatellite markers on chromosome 1 in the region of the Na/K-ATPase subunits alpha1, alpha2, and beta1 were studied. None of the TPP patients carried the known mutations in Ca(v)1.1, Na(v)1.4, and K(v)3.4 genes. There was no association of TPP with the microsatellite markers that mapped to 1p13, 1q21-23, and 1q22-25. We detected 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Ca(v)1.1 in our population, of which three were novel. Significant differences in the SNP genotype distribution between TPP compared with Graves' disease controls and normal controls were seen at the 5' flanking region nucleotide (nt) -476 (P = 0.02), intron 2 nt 57 (P < 0.01), and intron 26 nt 67 (P < 0.001). Because these SNPs lie at or near the thyroid hormone responsive element, it is possible that they may affect the binding affinity of the thyroid hormone responsive element and modulate the stimulation of thyroid hormone on the Ca(v)1.1 gene.

    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2004;89;3;1340-5

  • C-peptide, Na+,K(+)-ATPase, and diabetes.

    Vague P, Coste TC, Jannot MF, Raccah D and Tsimaratos M

    Departement de Nutrition-Endocrinologie-Maladies Métaboliques, CHU Timone, Marseille, France. philippe.vague@ap-hm.fr

    Na+,K(+)-ATPase is an ubiquitous membrane enzyme that allows the extrusion of three sodium ions from the cell and two potassium ions from the extracellular fluid. Its activity is decreased in many tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals. This impairment could be at least partly responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is decreased in the red blood cell membranes of type 1 diabetic individuals, irrespective of the degree of diabetic control. It is less impaired or even normal in those of type 2 diabetic patients. The authors have shown that in the red blood cells of type 2 diabetic patients, Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity was strongly related to blood C-peptide levels in non-insulin-treated patients (in whom C-peptide concentration reflects that of insulin) as well as in insulin-treated patients. Furthermore, a gene-environment relationship has been observed. The alpha-1 isoform of the enzyme predominant in red blood cells and nerve tissue is encoded by the ATP1A1 gene. A polymorphism in the intron 1 of this gene is associated with lower enzyme activity in patients with C-peptide deficiency either with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but not in normal individuals. There are several lines of evidence for a low C-peptide level being responsible for low Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in the red blood cells. Short-term C-peptide infusion to type 1 diabetic patients restores normal Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. Islet transplantation, which restores endogenous C-peptide secretion, enhances Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity proportionally to the rise in C-peptide. This C-peptide effect is not indirect. In fact, incubation of diabetic red blood cells with C-peptide at physiological concentration leads to an increase of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. In isolated proximal tubules of rats or in the medullary thick ascending limb of the kidney, C-peptide stimulates in a dose-dependent manner Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. This impairment in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity, mainly secondary to the lack of C-peptide, plays probably a role in the development of diabetic complications. Arguments have been developed showing that the diabetes-induced decrease in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity compromises microvascular blood flow by two mechanisms: by affecting microvascular regulation and by decreasing red blood cell deformability, which leads to an increase in blood viscosity. C-peptide infusion restores red blood cell deformability and microvascular blood flow concomitantly with Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. The defect in ATPase is strongly related to diabetic neuropathy. Patients with neuropathy have lower ATPase activity than those without. The diabetes-induced impairment in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is identical in red blood cells and neural tissue. Red blood cell ATPase activity is related to nerve conduction velocity in the peroneal and the tibial nerve of diabetic patients. C-peptide infusion to diabetic rats increases endoneural ATPase activity in rat. Because the defect in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is also probably involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy and cardiomyopathy, physiological C-peptide infusion could be beneficial for the prevention of diabetic complications.

    Experimental diabesity research 2004;5;1;37-50

  • Evidence for an allelic association between bipolar disorder and a Na+, K+ adenosine triphosphatase alpha subunit gene (ATP1A3).

    Mynett-Johnson L, Murphy V, McCormack J, Shields DC, Claffey E, Manley P and McKeon P

    Department of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.

    Background: Disturbances in central nervous system Na+, K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity have previously been proposed as being involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar mood disorder.

    Methods: We have examined one particular alpha subunit of this enzyme for allelic association in a sample of 85 Irish bipolar patients and 85 matched controls.

    Results: There was evidence for an overall allelic association between the disease and a dinucleotide polymorphism within the ATP1A3 gene (p = .022). Subjects were then analyzed on the basis of a number of criteria, and the significance of the association increased when cases were divided based on the nature of the first episode. Patients who presented with a depressive episode first showed a significant association (p = .001) with this polymorphism.

    Conclusions: The results presented here provide preliminary evidence of an association between bipolar disorder and an alpha subunit of Na+, K+ ATPase, the expression of which predominates in the brain.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Biological psychiatry 1998;44;1;47-51

Literature (80)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • Paying the price at the pump: dystonia from mutations in a Na+/K+ -ATPase.

    Cannon SC

    Department of Neurology, UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

    Dystonia is a disorder of involuntary sustained muscle contraction, which usually affects a focal region of the body but may be generalized and results in twisting contorted movements or abnormal postures. Several clinical subtypes of dystonia have been delineated and many have a strong inherited basis. In this issue of Neuron, de Carvalho Aguiar and colleagues report the identification of missense mutations in the gene for the Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha3 subunit (ATP1A3) as a cause of rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP, DYT12).

    Neuron 2004;43;2;153-4

  • Association of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the calcium channel alpha 1 subunit gene (Ca(v)1.1) and thyrotoxic periodic paralysis.

    Kung AW, Lau KS, Fong GC and Chan V

    Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China. awckung@hkucc.hku.hk

    Thyrotoxic (hypokalemic) periodic paralysis (TPP) is a frequent complication of thyrotoxicosis among Chinese men. To determine the genetic association of TPP, we studied 97 male TPP patients, 77 Graves' disease patients without TPP, and 100 normal male subjects. Mutations of the voltage-dependent calcium channel (Ca(v)1.1), sodium channel (Na(v)1.4), and potassium channel (K(v)3.4), and association of the microsatellite markers on chromosome 1 in the region of the Na/K-ATPase subunits alpha1, alpha2, and beta1 were studied. None of the TPP patients carried the known mutations in Ca(v)1.1, Na(v)1.4, and K(v)3.4 genes. There was no association of TPP with the microsatellite markers that mapped to 1p13, 1q21-23, and 1q22-25. We detected 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Ca(v)1.1 in our population, of which three were novel. Significant differences in the SNP genotype distribution between TPP compared with Graves' disease controls and normal controls were seen at the 5' flanking region nucleotide (nt) -476 (P = 0.02), intron 2 nt 57 (P < 0.01), and intron 26 nt 67 (P < 0.001). Because these SNPs lie at or near the thyroid hormone responsive element, it is possible that they may affect the binding affinity of the thyroid hormone responsive element and modulate the stimulation of thyroid hormone on the Ca(v)1.1 gene.

    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2004;89;3;1340-5

  • C-peptide, Na+,K(+)-ATPase, and diabetes.

    Vague P, Coste TC, Jannot MF, Raccah D and Tsimaratos M

    Departement de Nutrition-Endocrinologie-Maladies Métaboliques, CHU Timone, Marseille, France. philippe.vague@ap-hm.fr

    Na+,K(+)-ATPase is an ubiquitous membrane enzyme that allows the extrusion of three sodium ions from the cell and two potassium ions from the extracellular fluid. Its activity is decreased in many tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals. This impairment could be at least partly responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is decreased in the red blood cell membranes of type 1 diabetic individuals, irrespective of the degree of diabetic control. It is less impaired or even normal in those of type 2 diabetic patients. The authors have shown that in the red blood cells of type 2 diabetic patients, Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity was strongly related to blood C-peptide levels in non-insulin-treated patients (in whom C-peptide concentration reflects that of insulin) as well as in insulin-treated patients. Furthermore, a gene-environment relationship has been observed. The alpha-1 isoform of the enzyme predominant in red blood cells and nerve tissue is encoded by the ATP1A1 gene. A polymorphism in the intron 1 of this gene is associated with lower enzyme activity in patients with C-peptide deficiency either with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but not in normal individuals. There are several lines of evidence for a low C-peptide level being responsible for low Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in the red blood cells. Short-term C-peptide infusion to type 1 diabetic patients restores normal Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. Islet transplantation, which restores endogenous C-peptide secretion, enhances Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity proportionally to the rise in C-peptide. This C-peptide effect is not indirect. In fact, incubation of diabetic red blood cells with C-peptide at physiological concentration leads to an increase of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. In isolated proximal tubules of rats or in the medullary thick ascending limb of the kidney, C-peptide stimulates in a dose-dependent manner Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. This impairment in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity, mainly secondary to the lack of C-peptide, plays probably a role in the development of diabetic complications. Arguments have been developed showing that the diabetes-induced decrease in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity compromises microvascular blood flow by two mechanisms: by affecting microvascular regulation and by decreasing red blood cell deformability, which leads to an increase in blood viscosity. C-peptide infusion restores red blood cell deformability and microvascular blood flow concomitantly with Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. The defect in ATPase is strongly related to diabetic neuropathy. Patients with neuropathy have lower ATPase activity than those without. The diabetes-induced impairment in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is identical in red blood cells and neural tissue. Red blood cell ATPase activity is related to nerve conduction velocity in the peroneal and the tibial nerve of diabetic patients. C-peptide infusion to diabetic rats increases endoneural ATPase activity in rat. Because the defect in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is also probably involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy and cardiomyopathy, physiological C-peptide infusion could be beneficial for the prevention of diabetic complications.

    Experimental diabesity research 2004;5;1;37-50

  • Evidence for an allelic association between bipolar disorder and a Na+, K+ adenosine triphosphatase alpha subunit gene (ATP1A3).

    Mynett-Johnson L, Murphy V, McCormack J, Shields DC, Claffey E, Manley P and McKeon P

    Department of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.

    Background: Disturbances in central nervous system Na+, K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity have previously been proposed as being involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar mood disorder.

    Methods: We have examined one particular alpha subunit of this enzyme for allelic association in a sample of 85 Irish bipolar patients and 85 matched controls.

    Results: There was evidence for an overall allelic association between the disease and a dinucleotide polymorphism within the ATP1A3 gene (p = .022). Subjects were then analyzed on the basis of a number of criteria, and the significance of the association increased when cases were divided based on the nature of the first episode. Patients who presented with a depressive episode first showed a significant association (p = .001) with this polymorphism.

    Conclusions: The results presented here provide preliminary evidence of an association between bipolar disorder and an alpha subunit of Na+, K+ ATPase, the expression of which predominates in the brain.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Biological psychiatry 1998;44;1;47-51

Pubmed - other

  • Increased activities of Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase in the frontal cortex and cerebellum of autistic individuals.

    Ji L, Chauhan A, Brown WT and Chauhan V

    NYS Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, 1050 Forest Hill Road, Staten Island, New York 10314, USA.

    Aims: Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase are enzymes known to maintain intracellular gradients of ions that are essential for signal transduction. The aim of this study was to compare the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase in postmortem brain samples from the cerebellum and frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital cortices from autistic and age-matched control subjects.

    The frozen postmortem tissues from different brain regions of autistic and control subjects were homogenized. The activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase were assessed in the brain homogenates by measuring inorganic phosphorus released by the action of Na(+)/K(+)- and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-dependent hydrolysis of ATP.

    In the cerebellum, the activities of both Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase were significantly increased in the autistic samples compared with their age-matched controls. The activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase but not Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase was also significantly increased in the frontal cortex of the autistic samples as compared to the age-matched controls. In contrast, in other regions, i.e., the temporal, parietal and occipital cortices, the activities of these enzymes were similar in autism and control groups.

    Significance: The results of this study suggest brain-region specific increases in the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase in autism. Increased activity of these enzymes in the frontal cortex and cerebellum may be due to compensatory responses to increased intracellular calcium concentration in autism. We suggest that altered activities of these enzymes may contribute to abnormal neuronal circuit functioning in autism.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG020992, R01 AG020992, R01 AG020992-03

    Life sciences 2009;85;23-26;788-93

  • Isoform specificity of cardiac glycosides binding to human Na+,K+-ATPase alpha1beta1, alpha2beta1 and alpha3beta1.

    Hauck C, Potter T, Bartz M, Wittwer T, Wahlers T, Mehlhorn U, Scheiner-Bobis G, McDonough AA, Bloch W, Schwinger RH and Müller-Ehmsen J

    Laboratory of Muscle Research and Molecular Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine III, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

    Cardiac glycosides inhibit the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and are used for the treatment of symptomatic heart failure and atrial fibrillation. In human heart three isoforms of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase are expressed: alpha(1)beta(1), alpha(2)beta(1) and alpha(3)beta(1). It is unknown, if clinically used cardiac glycosides differ in isoform specific affinities, and if the isoforms have specific subcellular localization in human cardiac myocytes. Human Na(+),K(+)-ATPase isoforms alpha(1)beta(1), alpha(2)beta(1) and alpha(3)beta(1) were expressed in yeast which has no endogenous Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Isoform specific affinities of digoxin, digitoxin, beta-acetyldigoxin, methyldigoxin and ouabain were assessed in [(3)H]-ouabain binding assays in the absence or presence of K(+) (each n=5). The subcellular localizations of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase isoforms were investigated in isolated human atrial cardiomyocytes by immunohistochemistry. In the absence of K(+), methyldigoxin (alpha(1)>alpha(3)>alpha(2)) and ouabain (alpha(1)=alpha(3)>alpha(2)) showed distinct isoform specific affinities, while for digoxin, digitoxin and beta-acetyldigoxin no differences were found. In the presence of K(+), also digoxin (alpha(2)=alpha(3)>alpha(1)) and beta-acetyldigoxin (alpha(1)>alpha(3)) had isoform specificities. A comparison between the cardiac glycosides demonstrated highly different affinity profiles for the isoforms. Immunohistochemistry showed that all three isoforms are located in the plasma membrane and in intracellular membranes, but only alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1) are located in the T-tubuli. Cardiac glycosides show distinct isoform specific affinities and different affinity profiles to Na(+),K(+)-ATPase isoforms which have different subcellular localizations in human cardiomyocytes. Thus, in contrast to current notion, different cardiac glycoside agents may significantly differ in their pharmacological profile which could be of hitherto unknown clinical relevance.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK057678

    European journal of pharmacology 2009;622;1-3;7-14

  • Isoform specificity of the Na/K-ATPase association and regulation by phospholemman.

    Bossuyt J, Despa S, Han F, Hou Z, Robia SL, Lingrel JB and Bers DM

    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.

    Phospholemman (PLM) phosphorylation mediates enhanced Na/K-ATPase (NKA) function during adrenergic stimulation of the heart. Multiple NKA isoforms exist, and their function/regulation may differ. We combined fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and functional measurements to investigate isoform specificity of the NKA-PLM interaction. FRET was measured as the increase in the donor fluorescence (CFP-NKA-alpha1 or CFP-NKA-alpha2) during progressive acceptor (PLM-YFP) photobleach in HEK-293 cells. Both pairs exhibited robust FRET (maximum of 23.6 +/- 3.4% for NKA-alpha1 and 27.5 +/- 2.5% for NKA-alpha2). Donor fluorescence depended linearly on acceptor fluorescence, indicating a 1:1 PLM:NKA stoichiometry for both isoforms. PLM phosphorylation induced by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C activation drastically reduced the FRET with both NKA isoforms. However, submaximal cAMP-dependent protein kinase activation had less effect on PLM-NKA-alpha2 versus PLM-NKA-alpha1. Surprisingly, ouabain virtually abolished NKA-PLM FRET but only partially reduced co-immunoprecipitation. PLM-CFP also showed FRET to PLM-YFP, but the relationship during progressive photobleach was highly nonlinear, indicating oligomers involving >or=3 monomers. Using cardiac myocytes from wild-type mice and mice where NKA-alpha1 is ouabain-sensitive and NKA-alpha2 is ouabain-resistant, we assessed the effects of PLM phosphorylation on NKA-alpha1 and NKA-alpha2 function. Isoproterenol enhanced internal Na(+) affinity of both isoforms (K((1/2)) decreased from 18.1 +/- 2.0 to 11.5 +/- 1.9 mm for NKA-alpha1 and from 16.4 +/- 2.5 to 10.4 +/- 1.5 mm for NKA-alpha2) without altering maximum transport rate (V(max)). Protein kinase C activation also decreased K((1/2)) for both NKA-alpha1 and NKA-alpha2 (to 9.4 +/- 1.0 and 9.1 +/- 1.1 mm, respectively) but increased V(max) only for NKA-alpha2 (1.9 +/- 0.4 versus 1.2 +/- 0.5 mm/min). In conclusion, PLM associates with and modulates both NKA-alpha1 and NKA-alpha2 in a comparable but not identical manner.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-30077, HL-81526, R01 HL030077, R01 HL064724, R01 HL092321, R01 HL092321-01A1, R01 HL106189, R37 HL030077; NIBIB NIH HHS: K01 EB006061, K01 EB006061-03

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;39;26749-57

  • Association between sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase alpha isoforms and bipolar disorders.

    Goldstein I, Lerer E, Laiba E, Mallet J, Mujaheed M, Laurent C, Rosen H, Ebstein RP and Lichtstein D

    Department of Physiology, Institute for Medical Research, The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120, Israel.

    Background: The sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase) is a major plasma membrane transporter for sodium and potassium. We recently suggested that bipolar disorders (BD) may be associated with alterations in brain Na+, K+-ATPase. We further conjectured that the differences in Na+, K+-ATPase in BD patients could result partially from genetic variations in Na+, K+-ATPase alpha isoforms.

    Methods: To test our hypothesis, we undertook a comprehensive study of 13 tagged single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the three genes of the brain alpha isoforms of Na+, K+- ATPase (ATP1A1, ATP1A2, and ATP1A3, which encode the three alpha isoforms, alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3, respectively) identified using HapMap data and the Haploview algorithm. Altogether, 126 subjects diagnosed with BD from 118 families were genotyped (parents and affected siblings). Both individual SNPs and haplotypes were tested for association using family-based association tests as provided in the UNPHASED and PBAT set of programs.

    Results: Significant nominal association with BD was observed for six single SNPs (alpha1: rs11805078; alpha2: rs2070704, rs1016732, rs2854248, and rs2295623; alpha3: rs919390) in the three genes of Na+, K+-ATPase alpha isoforms. Haplotype analysis of the alpha2 isoform (ATP1A2 gene) showed a significant association with two loci haplotypes with BD (rs2295623: rs2070704; global p value = .0198, following a permutation test).

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates for the first time that genetic variations in Na+, K+-ATPase are associated with BD, suggesting a role of this enzyme in the etiology of this disease.

    Biological psychiatry 2009;65;11;985-91

  • A link between FXYD3 (Mat-8)-mediated Na,K-ATPase regulation and differentiation of Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells.

    Bibert S, Aebischer D, Desgranges F, Roy S, Schaer D, Kharoubi-Hess S, Horisberger JD and Geering K

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Lausanne, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland.

    FXYD3 (Mat-8) proteins are regulators of Na,K-ATPase. In normal tissue, FXYD3 is mainly expressed in stomach and colon, but it is also overexpressed in cancer cells, suggesting a role in tumorogenesis. We show that FXYD3 silencing has no effect on cell proliferation but promotes cell apoptosis and prevents cell differentiation of human colon adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2), which is reflected by a reduction in alkaline phosphatase and villin expression, a change in several other differentiation markers, and a decrease in transepithelial resistance. Inhibition of cell differentiation in FXYD3-deficient cells is accompanied by an increase in the apparent Na+ and K+ affinities of Na,K-ATPase, reflecting the absence of Na,K-pump regulation by FXYD3. In addition, we observe a decrease in the maximal Na,K-ATPase activity due to a decrease in its turnover number, which correlates with a change in Na,K-ATPase isozyme expression that is characteristic of cancer cells. Overall, our results suggest an important role of FXYD3 in cell differentiation of Caco-2 cells. One possibility is that FXYD3 silencing prevents proper regulation of Na,K-ATPase, which leads to perturbation of cellular Na+ and K+ homeostasis and changes in the expression of Na,K-ATPase isozymes, whose functional properties are incompatible with Caco-2 cell differentiation.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2009;20;4;1132-40

  • Proteomic analysis reveals Hrs ubiquitin-interacting motif-mediated ubiquitin signaling in multiple cellular processes.

    Pridgeon JW, Webber EA, Sha D, Li L and Chin LS

    Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

    Despite the critical importance of protein ubiquitination in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, the molecular mechanisms by which cells recognize and transmit ubiquitin signals remain poorly understood. The endosomal sorting machinery component hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) contains a ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM), which is believed to bind ubiquitinated membrane cargo proteins and mediate their sorting to the lysosomal degradation pathway. To gain insight into the role of Hrs UIM-mediated ubiquitin signaling in cells, we performed a proteomic screen for Hrs UIM-interacting ubiquitinated proteins in human brain by using an in vitro expression cloning screening approach. We have identified 48 ubiquitinated proteins that are specifically recognized by the UIM domain of Hrs. Among them, 12 are membrane proteins that are likely to be Hrs cargo proteins, and four are membrane protein-associated adaptor proteins whose ubiquitination may act as a signal to target their associated membrane cargo for Hrs-mediated endosomal sorting. Other classes of the identified proteins include components of the vesicular trafficking machinery, cell signaling molecules, proteins associated with the cytoskeleton and cytoskeleton-dependent transport, and enzymes involved in ubiquitination and metabolism, suggesting the involvement of Hrs UIM-mediated ubiquitin signaling in the regulation of multiple cellular processes. We have characterized the ubiquitination of two identified proteins, Munc18-1 and Hsc70, and their interaction with Hrs UIM, and provided functional evidence supporting a role for Hsc70 in the regulation of Hrs-mediated endosome-to-lysosome trafficking.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM082828, R01 GM082828, R01 GM082828-01A1, R01 GM082828-02, R01 GM082828-02S1; NINDS NIH HHS: NS047575, NS050650, R01 NS047575, R01 NS047575-01, R01 NS047575-02, R01 NS047575-03, R01 NS047575-04, R01 NS050650, R01 NS050650-01A1, R01 NS050650-02, R01 NS050650-03, R01 NS050650-04, T32 NS007480, T32 NS007480-05, T32 NS007480-06, T32 NS007480-07, T32 NS007480-08, T32 NS007480-09, T32NS007480

    The FEBS journal 2009;276;1;118-31

  • Tissue- and context-dependent modulation of hormonal sensitivity of glucocorticoid-responsive genes by hexamethylene bisacetamide-inducible protein 1.

    Shimizu N, Yoshikawa N, Wada T, Handa H, Sano M, Fukuda K, Suematsu M, Sawai T, Morimoto C and Tanaka H

    Division of Clinical Immunology, Advanced Clinical Research Center, Research Hospital, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

    Physiological and pharmacological processes mediated by glucocorticoids involve tissue- and context-specific regulation of glucocorticoid-responsive gene expression via glucocorticoid receptor (GR). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such highly coordinated regulation of glucocorticoid actions remain to be studied. We here addressed this issue using atp1a1 and scnn1a, both of which are up-regulated in response to corticosteroids in human embryonic kidney-derived 293 cells, but resistant in liver-derived HepG2 cells. Hexamethylene bisacetamide-inducible protein 1 (HEXIM1) represses gene expression via, at least, two distinct mechanisms, i.e. positive transcription elongation factor b sequestration and direct interaction with GR, and is relatively high in HepG2 cells compared with 293 cells. Given this, we focused on the role of HEXIM1 in transcriptional regulation of these GR target genes. In HepG2 cells, hormone resistance of atp1a1 and scnn1a was diminished by either knockdown of HEXIM1 or overexpression of GR. Such a positive effect of exogenous expression of GR was counteracted by concomitant overexpression of HEXIM1, indicating the balance between GR and HEXIM1 modulates hormonal sensitivity of these genes. In support of this, the hormone-dependent recruitment of RNA polymerase II onto atp1a1 promoter was in parallel with that of GR. Moreover, we revealed that not positive transcription elongation factor b-suppressing activity but direct interaction with GR of HEXIM1 plays a major role in suppression of promoter recruitment of the receptor and subsequent atp1a1 and scnn1a gene activation. Collectively, we may conclude that HEXIM1 may participate in tissue-selective determination of glucocorticoid sensitivity via direct interaction with GR at least in certain gene sets including atp1a1 and scnn1a.

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 2008;22;12;2609-23

  • Ankyrin facilitates intracellular trafficking of alpha1-Na+-K+-ATPase in polarized cells.

    Stabach PR, Devarajan P, Stankewich MC, Bannykh S and Morrow JS

    Dept. of Pathology, Yale Univ., 310 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

    Defects in ankyrin underlie many hereditary disorders involving the mislocalization of membrane proteins. Such phenotypes are usually attributed to ankyrin's role in stabilizing a plasma membrane scaffold, but this assumption may not be accurate. We found in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and in other cultured cells that the 25-residue ankyrin-binding sequence of alpha(1)-Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase facilitates the entry of alpha(1),beta(1)-Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase into the secretory pathway and that replacement of the cytoplasmic domain of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G) with this ankyrin-binding sequence bestows ankyrin dependency on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi trafficking of VSV-G. Expression of the ankyrin-binding sequence of alpha(1)-Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase alone as a soluble cytosolic peptide acts in trans to selectively block ER to Golgi transport of both wild-type alpha(1)-Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and a VSV-G fusion protein that includes the ankyrin-binding sequence, whereas the trafficking of other proteins remains unaffected. Similar phenotypes are also generated by small hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of ankyrin R or the depletion of ankyrin in semipermeabilized cells. These data indicate that the adapter protein ankyrin acts not only at the plasma membrane but also early in the secretory pathway to facilitate the intracellular trafficking of alpha(1)-Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and presumably other selected proteins. This novel ankyrin-dependent assembly pathway suggests a mechanism whereby hereditary disorders of ankyrin may be manifested as diseases of membrane protein ER retention or mislocalization.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01-HL-28560; NIDDK NIH HHS: P01-DK-55389, R01-DK-43812

    American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 2008;295;5;C1202-14

  • JNK modulates the effect of caspases and NF-kappaB in the TNF-alpha-induced down-regulation of Na+/K+ATPase in HepG2 cells.

    Kassardjian A and Kreydiyyeh SI

    Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts & Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

    An inhibition of the Na(+)/K(+)ATPase was previously shown to accompany and potentiate apoptosis in different experimental models. Since TNF-alpha is known to be a pro and anti-apoptotic cytokine, this work was undertaken to study the effect of TNF-alpha on the Na(+)/K(+)ATPase in HepG2 cells and to determine the signaling pathway involved. Cells were incubated for 1 h with TNF-alpha in presence and absence of PDTC, SP600125 and FK009, respective inhibitors of NF-KB, c-JNK, and caspases. The activity of the pump was assayed by measuring the ouabain-inhibitable release of inorganic phosphate, and changes in its expression were monitored by western blot analysis. TNF-alpha decreased significantly the activity and protein expression of the Na(+)/K(+)ATPase. NF-kappaB and caspases were found to be the main effectors of the cytokine, mediating respectively down-regulation and up-regulation of the pump. Their activity was however modulated at 1 h by c-JNK, which stimulated the caspases and inhibited NF-kappaB, resulting in a net inhibition of the ATPase, and probably favoring the apoptotic pathway.

    Journal of cellular physiology 2008;216;3;615-20

  • Reduced volume but increased training intensity elevates muscle Na+-K+ pump alpha1-subunit and NHE1 expression as well as short-term work capacity in humans.

    Iaia FM, Thomassen M, Kolding H, Gunnarsson T, Wendell J, Rostgaard T, Nordsborg N, Krustrup P, Nybo L, Hellsten Y and Bangsbo J

    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Section of Human Physiology, Copenhagen Muscle Research Center, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

    The present study examined muscle adaptations and alterations in work capacity in endurance-trained runners after a change from endurance to sprint training. Fifteen runners were assigned to either a sprint training (ST, n = 8) or a control (CON, n = 7) group. ST replaced their normal training by 30-s sprint runs three to four times a week, whereas CON continued the endurance training (approximately 45 km/wk). After the 4-wk sprint period, the expression of the muscle Na+-K+ pump alpha1-subunit and Na+/H+-exchanger isoform 1 was 29 and 30% higher (P < 0.05), respectively. Furthermore, plasma K+ concentration was reduced (P < 0.05) during repeated intense running. In ST, performance in a 30-s sprint test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, and two supramaximal exhaustive runs was improved (P < 0.05) by 7, 19, 27, and 19%, respectively, after the sprint training period, whereas pulmonary maximum oxygen uptake and 10-k time were unchanged. No changes in CON were observed. The present data suggest a role of the Na+-K+ pump in the control of K+ homeostasis and in the development of fatigue during repeated high-intensity exercise. Furthermore, performance during intense exercise can be improved and endurance performance maintained even with a reduction in training volume if the intensity of training is very high.

    American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 2008;294;3;R966-74

  • Pump and channel K (Rb+) fluxes in apoptosis of human lymphoid cell line U937.

    Vereninov AA, Rubashkin AA, Goryachaya TS, Moshkov AV, Rozanov YM, Shirokova AV, Strelkova EG, Lang F and Yurinskaya VE

    Institute of Cytology RAS, St-Petersburg, Russia. veren@mail.cytspb.rssi.ru

    Ouabain-sensitive (OS) and -resistant (OR) Rb(+) influx was examined in three sublines of U937 cells to compare alterations of K(+) channel permeability and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase pump leading to the shift in ion and water balance during apoptosis induced by 0.2 and 1microM staurosporine (STS) for 4-5 h. Cell K(+), Rb(+), Na(+) and Cl(-) content was determined by flame photometry and (36)Cl distribution. Changes in cell water content were monitored by measurement of buoyant cell density and distribution of [(3)H]-glycerol or 3-O-methyl-D-[(3)H]glucose. Apoptosis was detected by DNA flow cytometry and light microscopy of the native cells stained with acridine orange. Treatment with 0.2 microM STS for 5 hours led to mild apoptosis with 10-13 % cell dehydration and either moderate increase of channel mediated Rb(+) influx without significant changes in the pump activity or moderate decrease of pump Rb(+) influx without significant change of channel influx, depending on the cell line used. Treatment with 1 microM STS was followed by 18-23 % cell dehydration, a decrease of the pump activity and a small or insignificant increase in the OR Rb(+) influx in all studied sublines. It is concluded that moderate apoptotic cell shrinkage may be associated with both an increase in K(+) channel permeability and inhibition of the pump whereas more remarkable shrinkage occurs presumably due to inhibition of the pump.

    Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology 2008;22;1-4;187-94

  • Specific sites in the cytoplasmic N terminus modulate conformational transitions of the Na,K-ATPase.

    Scanzano R, Segall L and Blostein R

    Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4, Canada.

    The cytoplasmic N terminus of the Na,K-ATPase is a highly charged and flexible structure that comprises three predicted helical regions including H1 spanning residues 27 to 33 and H2 spanning residues 42 to 50. Previous deletion mutagenesis experiments showed that deletion of residues up to and including most of H2 shifts the E(1)/E(2) conformational equilibrium toward E(1). The present study describes a clustered charge-to-alanine mutagenesis approach designed to delineate specific sites within the N terminus that modulate the steady-state E(1) <--> E(2) and E(1)P <--> E(2)P poise. Criteria to assess shifts in poise include (i) sensitivity to inhibition by inorganic orthovanadate to assess overall poise; (ii) K(+)-sensitivity of Na-ATPase measured at micromolar ATP to assess changes in the E(2)(K) + ATP --> E(1) x ATP + K(+) rate; (iii) K'(ATP) for low-affinity ATP binding at the latter step; (iv) overall catalytic turnover, and (v) the E(1)P --> E(2)P transition. The results of alanine replacements in H1 (31KKE) suggest that this site stabilizes E(2)P and to a lesser extent E(2). In H2, residues within 47HRK have a role in stabilizing E(2) but not E(2)P as revealed with double mutants 31KKE --> AAA/47H --> A and 31KKE --> AAA/47HRK --> AAA. Taken together, these observations suggest that sites 31KKE in H1 and 47HRK in H2 have distinct roles in modulating the enzyme's conformational transitions during the catalytic cycle of the enzyme.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;46;33691-7

  • Muscle Na+-K+-ATPase activity and isoform adaptations to intense interval exercise and training in well-trained athletes.

    Aughey RJ, Murphy KT, Clark SA, Garnham AP, Snow RJ, Cameron-Smith D, Hawley JA and McKenna MJ

    Muscle, Ions and Exercise Group, Centre for Ageing, Rehabilitation, Exercise and Sport, School of Human Movement, Recreation and Performance, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.

    The Na+ -K+ -ATPase enzyme is vital in skeletal muscle function. We investigated the effects of acute high-intensity interval exercise, before and following high-intensity training (HIT), on muscle Na+ -K+ -ATPase maximal activity, content, and isoform mRNA expression and protein abundance. Twelve endurance-trained athletes were tested at baseline, pretrain, and after 3 wk of HIT (posttrain), which comprised seven sessions of 8 x 5-min interval cycling at 80% peak power output. Vastus lateralis muscle was biopsied at rest (baseline) and both at rest and immediately postexercise during the first (pretrain) and seventh (posttrain) training sessions. Muscle was analyzed for Na+ -K+ -ATPase maximal activity (3-O-MFPase), content ([3H]ouabain binding), isoform mRNA expression (RT-PCR), and protein abundance (Western blotting). All baseline-to-pretrain measures were stable. Pretrain, acute exercise decreased 3-O-MFPase activity [12.7% (SD 5.1), P < 0.05], increased alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3 mRNA expression (1.4-, 2.8-, and 3.4-fold, respectively, P < 0.05) with unchanged beta-isoform mRNA or protein abundance of any isoform. In resting muscle, HIT increased (P < 0.05) 3-O-MFPase activity by 5.5% (SD 2.9), and alpha3 and beta3 mRNA expression by 3.0- and 0.5-fold, respectively, with unchanged Na+ -K+ -ATPase content or isoform protein abundance. Posttrain, the acute exercise induced decline in 3-O-MFPase activity and increase in alpha1 and alpha3 mRNA each persisted (P < 0.05); the postexercise 3-O-MFPase activity was also higher after HIT (P < 0.05). Thus HIT augmented Na+ -K+ -ATPase maximal activity despite unchanged total content and isoform protein abundance. Elevated Na+ -K+ -ATPase activity postexercise may contribute to reduced fatigue after training. The Na+ -K+ -ATPase mRNA response to interval exercise of increased alpha- but not beta-mRNA was largely preserved posttrain, suggesting a functional role of alpha mRNA upregulation.

    Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 2007;103;1;39-47

  • Association of ATP1A1 and dear single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes with essential hypertension: sex-specific and haplotype-specific effects.

    Glorioso N, Herrera VL, Bagamasbad P, Filigheddu F, Troffa C, Argiolas G, Bulla E, Decano JL and Ruiz-Opazo N

    Hypertension and Cardiovascular Prevention Center, ASL n. 1-Universita di Sassari, Sassari, Sardinia, Italy.

    Essential hypertension remains a major risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. As a complex multifactorial disease, elucidation of susceptibility loci remains elusive. ATP1A1 and Dear are candidate genes for 2 closely linked rat chromosome-2 blood pressure quantitative trait loci. Because corresponding human syntenic regions are on different chromosomes, investigation of ATP1A1 (chromosome [chr]-1p21) and Dear (chr-4q31.3) facilitates genetic analyses of each blood pressure quantitative trait locus in human hypertension. Here we report the association of human ATP1A1 (P<0.000005) and Dear (P<0.03) with hypertension in a relatively isolated, case/control hypertension cohort from northern Sardinia by single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotype analysis. Sex-specific haplotype analyses detected stronger association of both loci with hypertension in males than in females. Haplotype trend-regression analyses support ATP1A1 and Dear as independent susceptibility loci and reveal haplotype-specific association with hypertension and normotension, thus delineating haplotype-specific subsets of hypertension. Although investigation in other cohorts needs to be performed to determine genetic effects in other populations, haplotype subtyping already allows systematic stratification of susceptibility and, hence, clinical heterogeneity, a prerequisite for unraveling the polygenic etiology and polygene-environment interactions in essential hypertension. As hypertension susceptibility genes, coexpression of ATP1A1 and Dear in both renal tubular cells and vascular endothelium suggest a cellular pathogenic scaffold for polygenic mechanisms of hypertension, as well as the hypothesis that ATP1A1 and/or Dear could contribute to the known renal and vascular endothelial dysfunction associated with essential (polygenic) hypertension.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL69937

    Circulation research 2007;100;10;1522-9

  • Proteomics analysis of the interactome of N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 and its interactions with the androgen response program in prostate cancer cells.

    Tu LC, Yan X, Hood L and Lin B

    Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA.

    NDRG1 is known to play important roles in both androgen-induced cell differentiation and inhibition of prostate cancer metastasis. However, the proteins associated with NDRG1 function are not fully enumerated. Using coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified 58 proteins that interact with NDRG1 in prostate cancer cells. These proteins include nuclear proteins, adhesion molecules, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperons, proteasome subunits, and signaling proteins. Integration of our data with protein-protein interaction data from the Human Proteome Reference Database allowed us to build a comprehensive interactome map of NDRG1. This interactome map consists of several modules such as a nuclear module and a cell membrane module; these modules explain the reported versatile functions of NDRG1. We also determined that serine 330 and threonine 366 of NDRG1 were phosphorylated and demonstrated that the phosphorylation of NDRG1 was prominently mediated by protein kinase A (PKA). Further, we showed that NDRG1 directly binds to beta-catenin and E-cadherin. However, the phosphorylation of NDRG1 did not interrupt the binding of NDRG1 to E-cadherin and beta-catenin. Finally, we showed that the inhibition of NDRG1 expression by RNA interference decreased the ER inducible chaperon GRP94 expression, directly proving that NDRG1 is involved in the ER stress response. Intriguingly, we observed that many members of the NDRG1 interactome are androgen-regulated and that the NDRG1 interactome links to the androgen response network through common interactions with beta-catenin and heat shock protein 90. Therefore we overlaid the transcriptomic expression changes in the NDRG1 interactome in response to androgen treatment and built a dual dynamic picture of the NDRG1 interactome in response to androgen. This interactome map provides the first road map for understanding the functions of NDRG1 in cells and its roles in human diseases, such as prostate cancer, which can progress from androgen-dependent curable stages to androgen-independent incurable stages.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1U54CA119347, 5P01CA085859, 5P50CA097186; NIDA NIH HHS: 1U54DA021519; NIGMS NIH HHS: 1P50GM076547, P50 GM076547

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;4;575-88

  • Na, K ATPase beta3 subunit (CD298): association with alpha subunit and expression on peripheral blood cells.

    Chiampanichayakul S, Khunkaewla P, Pata S and Kasinrerk W

    Division of Clinical Microscopy, Department of Medical Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Beta3 subunit is described as one of the Na, K ATPase subunits. Recently, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb), termed P-3E10. This mAb was shown to react with the Na, K ATPase beta3 subunit or CD298. By immunofluorescence analysis using mAb P-3E10, it was found that all peripheral blood leukocytes express Na, K ATPase beta3. The presence of beta3 subunit on leukocytes is not in a quantitative polymorphic manner. Upon phytohemagglutinin or phorbol myristate acetate activation, the expression level of the Na, K ATPase beta3 subunit on activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells was not altered in comparison with those of unstimulated cells. Red blood cells (RBCs) of healthy donors showed negative reactivity with mAb P-3E10. However, more than 80% of thalassemic RBCs showed positive reactivity. By immunoprecipitation, moreover, a protein band of 55-65 kDa was precipitated from normal RBC membrane using mAb P-3E10. These results evidenced that the beta3 subunit of Na, K ATPase is expressed on RBC membrane but the epitope recognized by mAb P-3E10 is hidden in normal RBCs. Furthermore, we showed the association of beta3 subunit and alpha subunit of Na, K ATPase. This information is important for further understanding of the functional roles of this molecule.

    Tissue antigens 2006;68;6;509-17

  • Proteomic and bioinformatic characterization of the biogenesis and function of melanosomes.

    Chi A, Valencia JC, Hu ZZ, Watabe H, Yamaguchi H, Mangini NJ, Huang H, Canfield VA, Cheng KC, Yang F, Abe R, Yamagishi S, Shabanowitz J, Hearing VJ, Wu C, Appella E and Hunt DF

    Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA.

    Melanin, which is responsible for virtually all visible skin, hair, and eye pigmentation in humans, is synthesized, deposited, and distributed in subcellular organelles termed melanosomes. A comprehensive determination of the protein composition of this organelle has been obstructed by the melanin present. Here, we report a novel method of removing melanin that includes in-solution digestion and immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). Together with in-gel digestion, this method has allowed us to characterize melanosome proteomes at various developmental stages by tandem mass spectrometry. Comparative profiling and functional characterization of the melanosome proteomes identified approximately 1500 proteins in melanosomes of all stages, with approximately 600 in any given stage. These proteins include 16 homologous to mouse coat color genes and many associated with human pigmentary diseases. Approximately 100 proteins shared by melanosomes from pigmented and nonpigmented melanocytes define the essential melanosome proteome. Proteins validated by confirming their intracellular localization include PEDF (pigment-epithelium derived factor) and SLC24A5 (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger 5, NCKX5). The sharing of proteins between melanosomes and other lysosome-related organelles suggests a common evolutionary origin. This work represents a model for the study of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR01744; NHGRI NIH HHS: U01-HG02712; NICHD NIH HHS: HD40179; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 37537

    Journal of proteome research 2006;5;11;3135-44

  • Predominance of interaction among wild-type alleles of CYP11B2 in Himalayan natives associates with high-altitude adaptation.

    Rajput C, Arif E, Vibhuti A, Stobdan T, Khan AP, Norboo T, Afrin F and Qadar Pasha MA

    Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi 110 007, India.

    Sojourners visiting high-altitude (HA) (>2500 m) are susceptible to HA disorders; on the contrary, HA natives are well adapted to the extreme hypoxic environment. High aldosterone levels are believed to be involved in HA disorders, we, therefore, envisaged role of CYP11B2 gene variants in HA adaptation and therefore investigated the -344T/C, intron-2 conversion (Iw/Ic), K173R, and A5160C polymorphisms. In addition, polymorphisms in AGT, AT1R, ATP1A1, ADRB2, and GSTP1 genes were also investigated. The study comprised of 662 subjects, comprising of 426 Himalayan highlanders (HLs) and 236 lowlanders (LLs). The -344T/C and K173R polymorphisms were found to be in complete linkage disequilibrium. The wild-type allele -344T and combination of wild-type homozygous genotypes between -344T/C, Iw/Ic, and A5160C polymorphisms, containing all the six wild-type alleles were over-represented in the HLs (p < 0.0001, and p = 0.008, respectively). The wild-type haplotypes -344T-Iw, -344T-5160A, and -344T-Iw-5160A also showed over-representation in the HLs (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, greater the number of wild-type alleles, lower was the ARR (p < 0.05). The genotype distribution in remaining genes did not differ. To conclude, the over-representation of wild-type -344T allele, genotype combinations and haplotypes of CYP11B2, and their correlation with lower aldosterone levels associate with HA adaptation in the HLs. Such an allelic presentation in sojourners may help them cope with adverse HA environment.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2006;348;2;735-40

  • Dynamic profiling of the post-translational modifications and interaction partners of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling after stimulation by epidermal growth factor using Extended Range Proteomic Analysis (ERPA).

    Wu SL, Kim J, Bandle RW, Liotta L, Petricoin E and Karger BL

    Barnett Institute, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 01225, USA.

    In a recent report, we introduced Extended Range Proteomic Analysis (ERPA), an intermediate approach between top-down and bottom-up proteomics, for the comprehensive characterization at the trace level (fmol level) of large and complex proteins. In this study, we extended ERPA to determine quantitatively the temporal changes that occur in the tyrosine kinase receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), upon stimulation. Specifically A 431 cells were stimulated with epidermal growth factor after which EGFR was immunoprecipitated at stimulation times of 0, 0.5, 2, and 10 min as well as 4 h. High sequence coverage was obtained (96%), and methods were developed for label-free quantitation of phosphorylation and glycosylation. A total of 13 phosphorylation sites were identified, and the estimated stoichiometry was determined over the stimulation time points, including Thr(P) and Ser(P) sites in addition to Tyr(P) sites. A total of 10 extracellular domain N-glycan sites were also identified, and major glycoforms at each site were quantitated. No change in the extent of glycosylation with stimulation was observed as expected. Finally potential binding partners to EGFR were identified based on changes in the amount of protein pulled down with EGFR as a function of time of stimulation. Many of the 19 proteins identified are known binding partners of EGFR. This work demonstrates that comprehensive characterization provides a powerful tool to aid in the study of important therapeutic targets. The detailed molecular information will prove useful in future studies in tissue.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 15847

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2006;5;9;1610-27

  • Distinct role of the N-terminal tail of the Na,K-ATPase catalytic subunit as a signal transducer.

    Zhang S, Malmersjö S, Li J, Ando H, Aizman O, Uhlén P, Mikoshiba K and Aperia A

    Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Q2:09, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Mounting evidence suggests that the ion pump, Na,K-ATPase, can, in the presence of ouabain, act as a signal transducer. A prominent binding motif linking the Na,K-ATPase to intracellular signaling effectors has, however, not yet been identified. Here we report that the N-terminal tail of the Na,K-ATPase catalytic alpha-subunit (alphaNT-t) binds directly to the N terminus of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor. Three amino acid residues, LKK, conserved in most species and most alpha-isoforms, are essential for the binding to occur. In wild-type cells, low concentrations of ouabain trigger low frequency calcium oscillations that activate NF-kappaB and protect from apoptosis. All of these effects are suppressed in cells overexpressing a peptide corresponding to alphaNT-t but not in cells overexpressing a peptide corresponding to alphaNT-t deltaLKK. Thus we have identified a well conserved Na,K-ATPase motif that binds to the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor and can trigger an anti-apoptotic calcium signal.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;31;21954-62

  • Evolution of renal function and Na+, K +-ATPase expression during ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rat kidney.

    Molinas SM, Trumper L, Serra E and Elías MM

    Farmacología, Departamento de Ciencias Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas (CONICET), Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina.

    The aim of the present work was to study the effects of an unilateral ischaemic-reperfusion injury on Na+, K+-ATPase activity, alpha1 and beta1 subunits protein and mRNA abundance and ATP content in cortical and medullary tissues from postischaemic and contralateral kidneys. Right renal artery was clamped for 40 min followed by 24 and 48 h of reperfusion. Postischaemic and contralateral renal function was studied cannulating the ureter of each kidney. Postischaemic kidneys after 24 (IR24) and 48 (IR48) hours of reperfusion presented a significant dysfunction. Na+, K+-ATPase alpha1 subunit abundance increased in IR24 and IR48 cortical tissue and beta1 subunit decreased in IR48. In IR24 medullary tissue, alpha1 abundance increased and returned to control values in IR48 while beta1 abundance was decreased in both periods. Forty minutes of ischaemia without reperfusion (I40) promoted an increment in alpha1 mRNA in cortex and medulla that normalised after 24 h of reperfusion. beta1 mRNA was decreased in IR24 medullas. No changes were observed in contralateral kidneys. This work provides evidences that after an ischaemic insult alpha1 and beta1 protein subunit abundance and mRNA levels are independently regulated. After ischaemic-reperfusion injury, cortical and medullary tissue showed a different pattern of response. Although ATP and Na+, K+-ATPase activity returned to control values, postischemic kidney showed an abnormal function after 48 h of reflow.

    Molecular and cellular biochemistry 2006;287;1-2;33-42

  • Phosphorylation of adaptor protein-2 mu2 is essential for Na+,K+-ATPase endocytosis in response to either G protein-coupled receptor or reactive oxygen species.

    Chen Z, Krmar RT, Dada L, Efendiev R, Leibiger IB, Pedemonte CH, Katz AI, Sznajder JI and Bertorello AM

    Department of Medicine, Membrane Signaling Networks, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

    Activation of G protein-coupled receptor by dopamine and hypoxia-generated reactive oxygen species promote Na+,K+-ATPase endocytosis. This effect is clathrin dependent and involves the activation of protein kinase C (PKC)-zeta and phosphorylation of the Na+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunit. Because the incorporation of cargo into clathrin vesicles requires association with adaptor proteins, we studied whether phosphorylation of adaptor protein (AP)-2 plays a role in its binding to the Na+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunit and thereby in its endocytosis. Dopamine induces a time-dependent phosphorylation of the AP-2 mu2 subunit. Using specific inhibitors and dominant-negative mutants, we establish that this effect was mediated by activation of the adaptor associated kinase 1/PKC-zeta isoform. Expression of the AP-2 mu2 bearing a mutation in its phosphorylation site (T156A) prevented Na+,K+-ATPase endocytosis and changes in activity induced by dopamine. Similarly, in lung alveolar epithelial cells, hypoxia-induced endocytosis of Na+,K+-ATPase requires the binding of AP-2 to the tyrosine-based motif (Tyr-537) located in the Na+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunit, and this effect requires phosphorylation of the AP-2 mu2 subunit. We conclude that phosphorylation of AP-2 mu2 subunit is essential for Na+,K+-ATPase endocytosis in response to a variety of signals, such as dopamine or reactive oxygen species.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-48129, P01HL-071643; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK62195

    American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology 2006;35;1;127-32

  • Inhibition of Na,K-ATPase-suppressive activity of translationally controlled tumor protein by sorting nexin 6.

    Yoon T, Kim M and Lee K

    College of Pharmacy, Center for Cell Signaling Research and Division of Molecular Life Sciences, Ewha Woman's University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

    Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) has both extra- and intracellular functions. Our group recently reported that TCTP interacts with Na,K-ATPase and suppresses its activity. Our studies led to the identification of sorting nexin 6 (SNX6) which binds with TCTP as a potential negative regulator of TCTP. SNX6 does not interact directly with any cytoplasmic domains of Na,K-ATPase. However, when overexpressed, it restores the Na,K-ATPase activity suppressed by TCTP. This was confirmed by measurements of purified plasma membrane Na,K-ATPase activity after incubation with recombinant TCTP and SNX6. SNX6 alone has no effect on Na,K-ATPase activity, but activates Na,K-ATPase via inhibition of TCTP. Inhibition of endogenous TCTP by the overexpression of SNX6 or knockdown of TCTP expression by siTCTP increased Na,K-ATPase activity above the basal level. The interaction between SNX6 and TCTP thus appears to regulate Na,K-ATPase activity.

    FEBS letters 2006;580;14;3558-64

  • The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1.

    Gregory SG, Barlow KF, McLay KE, Kaul R, Swarbreck D, Dunham A, Scott CE, Howe KL, Woodfine K, Spencer CC, Jones MC, Gillson C, Searle S, Zhou Y, Kokocinski F, McDonald L, Evans R, Phillips K, Atkinson A, Cooper R, Jones C, Hall RE, Andrews TD, Lloyd C, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Anderson F, Andrew RW, Ashwell RI, Aubin K, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Beasley H, Bethel G, Bird CP, Bray-Allen S, Brown JY, Brown AJ, Buckley D, Burton J, Bye J, Carder C, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee C, Cobley V, Collier RE, Corby N, Coville GJ, Davies J, Deadman R, Dunn M, Earthrowl M, Ellington AG, Errington H, Frankish A, Frankland J, French L, Garner P, Garnett J, Gay L, Ghori MR, Gibson R, Gilby LM, Gillett W, Glithero RJ, Grafham DV, Griffiths C, Griffiths-Jones S, Grocock R, Hammond S, Harrison ES, Hart E, Haugen E, Heath PD, Holmes S, Holt K, Howden PJ, Hunt AR, Hunt SE, Hunter G, Isherwood J, James R, Johnson C, Johnson D, Joy A, Kay M, Kershaw JK, Kibukawa M, Kimberley AM, King A, Knights AJ, Lad H, Laird G, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, Lush MJ, Lyne R, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Matthews NS, McLaren S, Milne S, Mistry S, Moore MJ, Nickerson T, O'Dell CN, Oliver K, Palmeiri A, Palmer SA, Parker A, Patel D, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phelps K, Phillimore BJ, Plumb R, Rajan J, Raymond C, Rouse G, Saenphimmachak C, Sehra HK, Sheridan E, Shownkeen R, Sims S, Skuce CD, Smith M, Steward C, Subramanian S, Sycamore N, Tracey A, Tromans A, Van Helmond Z, Wall M, Wallis JM, White S, Whitehead SL, Wilkinson JE, Willey DL, Williams H, Wilming L, Wray PW, Wu Z, Coulson A, Vaudin M, Sulston JE, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Wooster R, Dunham I, Carter NP, McVean G, Ross MT, Harrow J, Olson MV, Beck S, Rogers J, Bentley DR, Banerjee R, Bryant SP, Burford DC, Burrill WD, Clegg SM, Dhami P, Dovey O, Faulkner LM, Gribble SM, Langford CF, Pandian RD, Porter KM and Prigmore E

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, The Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, UK. sgregory@chg.duhs.duke.edu

    The reference sequence for each human chromosome provides the framework for understanding genome function, variation and evolution. Here we report the finished sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is gene-dense, with 3,141 genes and 991 pseudogenes, and many coding sequences overlap. Rearrangements and mutations of chromosome 1 are prevalent in cancer and many other diseases. Patterns of sequence variation reveal signals of recent selection in specific genes that may contribute to human fitness, and also in regions where no function is evident. Fine-scale recombination occurs in hotspots of varying intensity along the sequence, and is enriched near genes. These and other studies of human biology and disease encoded within chromosome 1 are made possible with the highly accurate annotated sequence, as part of the completed set of chromosome sequences that comprise the reference human genome.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0000107; Wellcome Trust

    Nature 2006;441;7091;315-21

  • Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis and polymorphisms of sodium-potassium ATPase genes.

    Kung AW, Lau KS, Cheung WM and Chan V

    Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China. awckung@hkucc.hku.hk

    Objective: Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a complication of hyperthyroidism association with recurrent, reversible episodes of muscle weakness. Increased sodium-potassium ATPase (Na/K-ATPase) pump activity is postulated to contribute to the hypokalaemic paralytic attacks in TPP. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic predisposition to TPP in relation to Na/K-ATPase genes.

    Design: A case-control association study.

    Patients: Ninety-nine male Chinese TPP patients were compared to 84 male Graves' disease (GD) patients without TPP and 100 normal male controls.

    Measurement: A total of 1500 base pairs upstream of the transcriptional start site of the five Na/K-ATPase genes that are expressed in the skeletal muscles, namely ATP1A1, ATP1A2, ATP1B1, ATP1B2 and ATP1B4, were sequenced in all subjects for mutations or polymorphisms. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the coding regions of the five genes were also studied for association with TPP.

    Results: No mutations were detected in the 5' regions of the five genes in any of the patients studied. There was no difference in the distribution of SNPs and SNP haplotypes in the upstream and coding region of these genes between the three groups of subjects.

    Conclusion: No association between the polymorphisms of ATP1A1, ATP1A2, ATP1B1, ATP1B2 and ATP1B4 genes and TPP could be detected.

    Clinical endocrinology 2006;64;2;158-61

  • Recombinant addition of N-glycosylation sites to the basolateral Na,K-ATPase beta1 subunit results in its clustering in caveolae and apical sorting in HGT-1 cells.

    Vagin O, Turdikulova S and Sachs G

    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90073, USA. olgav@ucla.edu

    In most polarized cells, the Na,K-ATPase is localized on the basolateral plasma membrane. However, an unusual location of the Na,K-ATPase was detected in polarized HGT-1 cells (a human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line). The Na,K-ATPase alpha1 subunit was detected along with the beta2 subunit predominantly on the apical membrane, whereas the Na,K-ATPase beta1 subunit was not found in HGT-1 cells. However, when expressed in the same cell line, a yellow fluorescent protein-linked Na,K-ATPase beta1 subunit was localized exclusively to the basolateral surface and resulted in partial redistribution of the endogenous alpha1 subunit to the basolateral membrane. The human beta2 subunit has eight N-glycosylation sites, whereas the beta1 isoform has only three. Accordingly, up to five additional N-glycosylation sites homologous to the ones present in the beta2 subunit were successively introduced in the beta1 subunit by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutated beta1 subunits were detected on both apical and basolateral membranes. The fraction of a mutant beta1 subunit present on the apical membrane increased in proportion to the number of glycosylation sites inserted and reached 80% of the total surface amount for the beta1 mutant with five additional sites. Clustered distribution and co-localization with caveolin-1 was detected by confocal microscopy for the endogenous beta2 subunit and the beta1 mutant with additional glycosylation sites but not for the wild type beta1 subunit. Hence, the N-glycans linked to the beta2 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase contain apical sorting information, and the high abundance of the beta2 subunit isoform, which is rich in N-glycans, along with the absence of the beta1 subunit, is responsible for the unusual apical location of the Na,K-ATPase in HGT-1 cells.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK46917, DK53462, DK58333

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;52;43159-67

  • The highly conserved cardiac glycoside binding site of Na,K-ATPase plays a role in blood pressure regulation.

    Dostanic-Larson I, Van Huysse JW, Lorenz JN and Lingrel JB

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA.

    The Na,K-ATPase contains a binding site for cardiac glycosides, such as ouabain, digoxin, and digitoxin, which is highly conserved among species ranging from Drosophila to humans. Although advantage has been taken of this site to treat congestive heart failure with drugs such as digoxin, it is unknown whether this site has a natural function in vivo. Here we show that this site plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure, and it specifically mediates adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-induced hypertension in mice. We used genetically engineered mice in which the Na,K-ATPase alpha2 isoform, which is normally sensitive to cardiac glycosides, was made resistant to these compounds. Chronic administration of ACTH caused hypertension in WT mice but not in mice with an ouabain-resistant alpha2 isoform of Na,K-ATPase. This finding demonstrates that the cardiac glycoside binding site of the Na,K-ATPase plays an important role in blood pressure regulation, most likely by responding to a naturally occurring ligand. Because the alpha1 isoform is sensitive to cardiac glycosides in humans, we developed mice in which the naturally occurring ouabain-resistant alpha1 isoform was made ouabain-sensitive. Mice with the ouabain-sensitive "human-like" alpha1 isoform and an ouabain-resistant alpha2 isoform developed ACTH-induced hypertension to greater extent than WT animals. This result indicates that the cardiac glycoside binding site of the alpha1 isoform can also mediate ACTH-induced hypertension. Taken together these results demonstrate that the cardiac glycoside binding site of the alpha isoforms of the Na,K-ATPase have a physiological function and supports the hypothesis for a role of the endogenous cardiac glycosides.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL28573, R01 HL66062; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK57552

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2005;102;44;15845-50

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Serum E-selectin and erythrocyte membrane Na+K+ ATPase levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Yildirim K, Senel K, Karatay S, Sisecioglu M, Kiziltunc A, Ugur M and Akcay F

    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Medical Faculty, Atatürk University, Erzurum, Turkey.

    We conducted this study to assess serum soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) levels and erythrocyte membrane Na(+)K(+) ATPase activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and correlate the levels with disease activity. Levels of sE-selectin were measured in the serum of 20 patients with RA and 20 control subjects by an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Na(+)K(+) ATPase activity was determined by a colorimetric method in RA patients and healthy controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to demographic data such as age and sex (p > 0.05). The serum levels of sE-selectin, ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP) in RA patients were significantly higher than in healthy controls (p < 0.001). Erythrocyte membrane Na(+)K(+) ATPase activity was significantly lower in the RA group than in the control group (p < 0.001). Correlation analysis revealed significant positive correlations between soluble E-selectin and ESR (r = 0.457; p < 0.05) and CRP (r = 0.682; p < 0.01) levels. There were statistically significant negative correlations between erythrocyte membrane Na(+)K(+) ATPase activity and ESR (r = -0.450; p < 0.05) and CRP (r = -0.446; p < 0.05) levels. Additionally, a significant negative correlations between sE-selectin and Na(+)K(+) ATPase activity was observed (r = -0.80; p < 0.001). These results show that decreases in erythrocyte membrane Na(+)K(+) ATPase activity and increases in sE-selectin are observed in RA, and that increased levels of sE-selectin may also reflect disease status or activity.

    Cell biochemistry and function 2005;23;4;285-9

  • The influence of SRC-family tyrosine kinases on Na,K-ATPase activity in lens epithelium.

    Bozulic LD, Dean WL and Delamere NA

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Louisville, School of Medicine, KY 40292, USA.

    Purpose: Na,K-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) is essential for the regulation of cytoplasmic ion concentrations in lens cells. Earlier studies demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation by Lyn kinase, a Src-family member, inhibits Na,K-ATPase activity in porcine lens epithelium. In the present study, experiments were conducted to compare the ability of other Src-family kinases (Fyn, Src, and Lck) and Fes, a non-Src-family tyrosine kinase, to alter Na,K-ATPase activity.

    Methods: Membranes prepared from porcine lens epithelium were incubated with partially purified tyrosine kinases in buffer containing 1 mM adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP hydrolysis in the presence and absence of ouabain was used to measure Na,K-ATPase activity. Western blot analysis was used to examine phosphotyrosine-containing proteins and tyrosine kinase expression.

    Results: Fyn reduced Na,K-ATPase activity by approximately 30%. In contrast, Src caused a approximately 38% increase of Na,K-ATPase activity. Na,K-ATPase activity in membrane material treated with Lck or Fes was not significantly altered, even though Lck and Fes treatment induced robust tyrosine phosphorylation. Added exogenously, each tyrosine kinase induced a different pattern of membrane protein tyrosine phosphorylation. As judged by immunoprecipitation, Src, Fyn, Lyn, and Lck elicited tyrosine phosphorylation of the Na,K-ATPase alpha1 protein. Src, Fyn, Lyn, Lck, and Fes were each detectable in the epithelium by Western blot.

    Conclusions: The results indicate considerable variation in the Na,K-ATPase activity response of lens epithelium to different tyrosine kinases. This could perhaps explain why inhibition of Na,K-ATPase activity is reported to be caused by tyrosine phosphorylation in some tissues, whereas stimulation of Na,K-ATPase activity is observed in other tissues.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY09532

    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 2005;46;2;618-22

  • Translationally controlled tumor protein interacts with the third cytoplasmic domain of Na,K-ATPase alpha subunit and inhibits the pump activity in HeLa cells.

    Jung J, Kim M, Kim MJ, Kim J, Moon J, Lim JS, Kim M and Lee K

    College of Pharmacy, Center for Cell Signaling Research and Division of Molecular Life Sciences, Ewha Woman's University, Seoul 120-750, Korea.

    Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a growth-related protein under transcriptional as well as translational control. We screened a rat skeletal muscle cDNA library using yeast two-hybrid system and found that TCTP interacts with the third large cytoplasmic domain of alpha1 as well as alpha2 isoforms of Na,K-ATPase, believed involved in the regulation of Na,K-ATPase activity. Interaction between TCTP and Na,K-ATPase was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation in yeast and mammalian cells. We also showed, using (86)Rb(+) uptake assay, that overexpression of TCTP inhibited Na,K-ATPase activity in HeLa cells. Northern and Western blotting studies of HeLa cells transiently transfected with GFP-tagged TCTP showed that overexpression of TCTP did not change mRNA and protein levels of Na,K-ATPase. Recombinant TCTP protein purified from an Escherichia coli expression system inhibited purified HeLa cell plasma membrane Na,K-ATPase in a dose-dependent manner. Using deletion analysis, we also found that the C-terminal 102-172-amino-acid region of rat TCTP that contains the TCTP homology region 2 is essential for its association with, and inhibition of, Na,K-ATPase.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;48;49868-75

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Mutations in the Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha3 gene ATP1A3 are associated with rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism.

    de Carvalho Aguiar P, Sweadner KJ, Penniston JT, Zaremba J, Liu L, Caton M, Linazasoro G, Borg M, Tijssen MA, Bressman SB, Dobyns WB, Brashear A and Ozelius LJ

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.

    Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP, DYT12) is a distinctive autosomal-dominant movement disorder with variable expressivity and reduced penetrance characterized by abrupt onset of dystonia, usually accompanied by signs of parkinsonism. The sudden onset of symptoms over hours to a few weeks, often associated with physical or emotional stress, suggests a trigger initiating a nervous system insult resulting in permanent neurologic disability. We report the finding of six missense mutations in the gene for the Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha3 subunit (ATP1A3) in seven unrelated families with RDP. Functional studies and structural analysis of the protein suggest that these mutations impair enzyme activity or stability. This finding implicates the Na+/K+ pump, a crucial protein responsible for the electrochemical gradient across the cell membrane, in dystonia and parkinsonism.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL36251; NIA NIH HHS: AG10133; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM28835; NINDS NIH HHS: NS26636

    Neuron 2004;43;2;169-75

  • ERK1/2 mediates insulin stimulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase by phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit in human skeletal muscle cells.

    Al-Khalili L, Kotova O, Tsuchida H, Ehrén I, Féraille E, Krook A and Chibalin AV

    Section of Integrative Physiology, Department of Surgical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

    Insulin stimulates Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and induces translocation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase molecules to the plasma membrane in skeletal muscle. We determined the molecular mechanism by which insulin regulates Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in differentiated primary human skeletal muscle cells (HSMCs). Insulin action on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was dependent on ERK1/2 in HSMCs. Sequence analysis of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunits revealed several potential ERK phosphorylation sites. Insulin increased ouabain-sensitive (86)Rb(+) uptake and [(3)H]ouabain binding in intact cells. Insulin also increased phosphorylation and plasma membrane content of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-subunits. Insulin-stimulated Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activation, phosphorylation, and translocation of alpha-subunits to the plasma membrane were abolished by 20 microm PD98059, which is an inhibitor of MEK1/2, an upstream kinase of ERK1/2. Furthermore, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (100 nm wortmannin) and protein kinase C (10 microm GF109203X) had similar effects. Notably, insulin-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation was abolished by wortmannin and GF109203X in HSMCs. Insulin also stimulated phosphorylation of alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-subunits on Thr-Pro amino acid motifs, which form specific ERK substrates. Furthermore, recombinant ERK1 and -2 kinases were able to phosphorylate alpha-subunit of purified human Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in vitro. In conclusion, insulin stimulates Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and translocation to plasma membrane in HSMCs via phosphorylation of the alpha-subunits by ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;24;25211-8

  • Effect of resistance training on Na,K pump and Na+/H+ exchange protein densities in muscle from control and patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Dela F, Holten M and Juel C

    Department of Medical Physiology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

    Ten patients with type 2 diabetes and seven controls were strength-trained with one leg for 30 min three times per week for 6 weeks. The training-induced changes in the protein densities of the Na,K-pump subunits and the Na+/H+ exchanger protein NHE1 were quantified with Western blotting of needle biopsy material obtained from trained and untrained legs of both groups. Training increased the bench press and knee-extensor force by 77+/-15 and 28+/-1%, respectively, in the control subjects, and by 75+/-7 and 42+/-8%, respectively, in the diabetics. In the control subjects the Na,K-pump isoform alpha1 was increased by 37% (P<0.05) in trained compared to untrained leg, and in the diabetics the alpha1 content was 45% higher (P=0.052) in trained compared to untrained leg. For the alpha2 isoform the corresponding values were 21% and 41% (P<0.05), respectively. The content of the beta1 subunit in the control subjects was 33% higher (P<0.05) in trained compared to untrained leg, and 47% higher (P=0.06) in trained compared to untrained leg in the diabetics. Thus, a limited amount of strength-training is able to increase the Na,K-pump subunit and isoform content both in controls and in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology 2004;447;6;928-33

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • Ischemia-induced phosphorylation of phospholemman directly activates rat cardiac Na/K-ATPase.

    Fuller W, Eaton P, Bell JR and Shattock MJ

    Cardiac Physiology, The Centre for Cardiovascular Biology and Medicine, The Rayne Institute, St. Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH, UK.

    Regulation of the Na/K ATPase by protein kinases is model-specific. We have observed a profound activation of the sarcolemmal Na/K ATPase during cardiac ischemia, which is masked by an inhibitor of the enzyme in the cytosol. The aim of these studies was to characterize the pathways involved in this activation in the Langendorff-perfused rat heart. Na/K ATPase activity was determined by measuring ouabain-sensitive phosphate generation by cardiac homogenates at 37 degrees C. In isolated sarcolemma, ischemia (30 min) caused a substantial activation of the Na/K ATPase compared with aerobic controls, which was abolished by perfusing the heart with staurosporine or H89. However, the alpha1 subunit of the Na/K ATPase was not phosphorylated during ischemia. The sarcolemmal protein phospholemman (PLM) was found associated with the Na/K ATPase alpha1 and beta1 but not alpha2 subunits, and PLM increased its association with the catalytic subunit of PKA following ischemia. In vitro 14-3-3 binding assays indicated that PLM was phosphorylated following ischemia. These results indicate that the ischemia-induced activation of the Na/K ATPase is indirect, through phosphorylation of PLM, which is an integral part of the Na/K ATPase enzyme complex in the heart. The role of PLM is analogous to phospholamban in regulating the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase.

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2004;18;1;197-9

  • An unappreciated role for RNA surveillance.

    Hillman RT, Green RE and Brenner SE

    Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3102, USA.

    Background: Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic mRNA surveillance mechanism that detects and degrades mRNAs with premature termination codons (PTC+ mRNAs). In mammals, a termination codon is recognized as premature if it lies more than about 50 nucleotides upstream of the final intron position. More than a third of reliably inferred alternative splicing events in humans have been shown to result in PTC+ mRNA isoforms. As the mechanistic details of NMD have only recently been elucidated, we hypothesized that many PTC+ isoforms may have been cloned, characterized and deposited in the public databases, even though they would be targeted for degradation in vivo.

    Results: We analyzed the human alternative protein isoforms described in the SWISS-PROT database and found that 144 (5.8% of 2,483) isoform sequences amenable to analysis, from 107 (7.9% of 1,363) SWISS-PROT entries, derive from PTC+ mRNA.

    Conclusions: For several of the PTC+ isoforms we identified, existing experimental evidence can be reinterpreted and is consistent with the action of NMD to degrade the transcripts. Several genes with mRNA isoforms that we identified as PTC+--calpain-10, the CDC-like kinases (CLKs) and LARD--show how previous experimental results may be understood in light of NMD.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: K22 HG000056, K22 HG00056, T32 HG000047, T32 HG00047

    Genome biology 2004;5;2;R8

  • The amino acid sequence 442GDASE446 in Na/K-ATPase is an important motif in forming the high and low affinity ATP binding pockets.

    Imagawa T, Kaya S and Taniguchi K

    Biological Chemistry, Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan. toshi@sci.hokudai.ac.jp

    A highly conserved amino acid sequence 442GDASE446 in the ATP binding pocket of rat Na/K-ATPase was mutated, and the resulting proteins, G442A, G442P, D443A, S445A, and E446A, were expressed in HeLa cells to investigate the effect of individual ligands on Na/K-ATPase. The apparent Km for the high and low affinity ATP effects was estimated by ATP concentration dependence for the formation of the Na-dependent phosphoenzyme (Kmh) and Na/K-ATPase activity (Kml). The apparent Km for p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP) for K-dependent-pNPPase (KmP) and its inhibition by ATP (Ki,0.5) and the apparent Km for Mg2+, Na+, K+, and vanadate in Na/K-ATPase were also estimated. For all the mutants, the value for ATP was approximately 2-10-fold larger than that of the wild type. While the turnover number for Na/K-ATPase activity were unaffected or reduced by 20 approximately 50% in mutants G442(A/P) and D443A. Although both affinities for ATP effects were reduced as a result of the mutations, the ratio, Kml Kmh, for each mutant was 1.3 approximately 3.7, indicating that these mutations had a greater impact on the low affinity ATP effect than on the high affinity effect. Each KmP value with the turnover number suggests that these mutations favor the binding of pNPP over that of ATP. These data and others indicate that the sequence 442GDASE446 in the ATP binding pocket is an important motif that it is involved in both the high and low affinity ATP effects rather than in free Mg2+, Na+, and K+ effects.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;50;50283-92

  • Altered ion transporter expression in bronchial epithelium in mountaineers with high-altitude pulmonary edema.

    Mairbäurl H, Schwöbel F, Höschele S, Maggiorini M, Gibbs S, Swenson ER and Bärtsch P

    Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Germany. heimo.mairbaeurl@med.uni-heidelberg.de

    Hypoxia inhibits activity and expression of transport proteins of cultured lung alveolar epithelial cells. Here we tested whether hypoxia at high altitude affected the expression of ion transport proteins in tissues obtained from controls and mountaineers with high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) at the Capanna Margherita (4,559 m). Expression was determined by RT-PCR and Western blots from brush biopsies of bronchial epithelium and from leukocytes obtained before and during the stay at high altitude. At low altitude, amounts of mRNAs were not different between control and HAPE-susceptible subjects. At high altitude, the amount of mRNA of Na-K-ATPase, CFTR, and beta-actin of brush biopsies did not change in controls but decreased significantly (-60%) in HAPE-susceptible subjects. There was no change in Na channel mRNAs at high altitude in controls and HAPE. No statistically significant correlation was found between the expression of Na transporters and PO2 and O2 saturation. In leukocytes, 28S-rRNA and Na-K-ATPase decreased at altitude in control and HAPE-susceptible subjects, but no significant change in Na-K-ATPase protein was found. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha mRNA and GAPDH mRNA tended to increase in leukocytes obtained from HAPE-susceptible subjects at high altitude but did not change in controls. These results show that hypoxia induces differences in mRNA expression of ion transport-related proteins between HAPE-susceptible and control subjects but that these changes may not necessarily predict differences in protein concentration or activity. It is therefore unclear whether these differences are related to the pathophysiology of HAPE.

    Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 2003;95;5;1843-50

  • Activity and protein expression of Na+/K+ ATPase are reduced in microvillous syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes isolated from pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction.

    Johansson M, Karlsson L, Wennergren M, Jansson T and Powell TL

    Perinatal Center, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Göteborg University, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.

    In contrast to classical transporting epithelia, the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is distributed to both the microvillous membrane (MVM) and the basal membrane (BM) of the placental syncytiotrophoblast. Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is important in maintaining the electrochemical gradient for Na(+), which represents the driving force for Na(+)-coupled transport of nutrients. We hypothesized that syncytiotrophoblast Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity is reduced in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We isolated MVM and BM from control (n = 10) and IUGR placentas (n = 11). The protein expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha(1)-subunit was determined by Western blotting and found to be slightly reduced in MVM isolated from IUGR (-10%; P < 0.05) placentas. Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity was measured as the ouabain-sensitive, K(+)-dependent cleavage of the fluorescent pseudosubstrate 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphate and was reduced by 35% in MVM obtained from IUGR placentas (P < 0.02). To assess the transcriptional levels of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase mRNA, real time PCR was used. No significant changes in steady state mRNA levels for Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were detected. The expression of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha(1)-subunit and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in the BM were unaffected in cases of IUGR. These data suggest that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity is reduced in the MVM of placentas from IUGR pregnancies. These changes might impair the function of Na(+)-coupled transporters and contribute to the reduced growth of these fetuses.

    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2003;88;6;2831-7

  • Na+-K+--ATPase-mediated signal transduction: from protein interaction to cellular function.

    Xie Z and Cai T

    Department of Pharmacology, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH 43614, USA. zxie@mco.edu

    The Na+-K+--ATPase, or Na+ pump, is a member of the P-type ATPase superfamily. In addition to pumping ions, Na+-K+--ATPase is engaged in assembly of multiple protein complexes that transmit signals to different intracellular compartments. The signaling function of the enzyme appears to have been acquired through the evolutionary incorporation of many specific binding motifs that interact with proteins and ligands. In some cell types the signaling Na+ --ATPase and its protein partners are compartmentalized in coated pits (i.e., caveolae) the plasma membrane. Binding of ouabain to the signaling Na+-K+--ATPase activates the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase Src, resulting in the formation of an active "binary receptor" that phosphorylates and assembles other proteins into different signaling modules. This in turn activates multiple protein kinase cascades including mitogen-activated protein kinases and protein kinase C isozymes in a cell-specific manner. It also increases mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)and regulates intracellular calcium concentration. Crosstalk among the activated pathways eventually results in changes in the expression of a number of genes. Although ouabain stimulates hypertrophic growth in cardiac myocytes and proliferation in smooth muscle cells, it also induces apoptosis in many malignant cells. Finally, the signaling function of the enzyme is also pivotal to ouabain-induced nongenomic effects on cardiac myocytes.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-36573, HL-63238, HL-67963

    Molecular interventions 2003;3;3;157-68

  • Hypoxia-induced endocytosis of Na,K-ATPase in alveolar epithelial cells is mediated by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and PKC-zeta.

    Dada LA, Chandel NS, Ridge KM, Pedemonte C, Bertorello AM and Sznajder JI

    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA.

    During ascent to high altitude and pulmonary edema, the alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) are exposed to hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia inhibits alveolar fluid reabsorption and decreases Na,K-ATPase activity in AEC. We report here that exposure of AEC to hypoxia induced a time-dependent decrease of Na,K-ATPase activity and a parallel decrease in the number of Na,K-ATPase alpha(1) subunits at the basolateral membrane (BLM), without changing its total cell protein abundance. These effects were reversible upon reoxygenation and specific, because the plasma membrane protein GLUT1 did not decrease in response to hypoxia. Hypoxia caused an increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels that was inhibited by antioxidants. Antioxidants prevented the hypoxia-mediated decrease in Na,K-ATPase activity and protein abundance at the BLM. Hypoxia-treated AEC deficient in mitochondrial DNA (rho(0) cells) did not have increased levels of ROS, nor was the Na,K-ATPase activity inhibited. Na,K-ATPase alpha(1) subunit was phosphorylated by PKC in hypoxia-treated AEC. In AEC treated with a PKC-zeta antagonist peptide or with the Na,K-ATPase alpha(1) subunit lacking the PKC phosphorylation site (Ser-18), hypoxia failed to decrease Na,K-ATPase abundance and function. Accordingly, we provide evidence that hypoxia decreases Na,K-ATPase activity in AEC by triggering its endocytosis through mitochondrial ROS and PKC-zeta-mediated phosphorylation of the Na,K-ATPase alpha(1) subunit.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 71218; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK53460; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM60472-03, R01 GM060472

    The Journal of clinical investigation 2003;111;7;1057-64

  • Homology modeling of the cation binding sites of Na+K+-ATPase.

    Ogawa H and Toyoshima C

    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan.

    Homology modeling of the alpha-subunit of Na+K+-ATPase, a representative member of P-type ion transporting ATPases, was carried out to identify the cation (three Na+ and two K+) binding sites in the transmembrane region, based on the two atomic models of Ca2+-ATPase (Ca2+-bound form for Na+, unbound form for K+). A search for potential cation binding sites throughout the atomic models involved calculation of the valence expected from the disposition of oxygen atoms in the model, including water molecules. This search identified three positions for Na+ and two for K+ at which high affinity for the respective cation is expected. In the models presented, Na+- and K+-binding sites are formed at different levels with respect to the membrane, by rearrangements of the transmembrane helices. These rearrangements ensure that release of one type of cation coordinates with the binding of the other. Cations of different radii are accommodated by the use of amino acid residues located on different faces of the helices. Our models readily explain many mutational and biochemical results, including different binding stoichiometry and affinities for Na+ and K+.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;25;15977-82

  • FXYD7 is a brain-specific regulator of Na,K-ATPase alpha 1-beta isozymes.

    Béguin P, Crambert G, Monnet-Tschudi F, Uldry M, Horisberger JD, Garty H and Geering K

    Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Lausanne, rue du Bugnon 27, CH-1005 Lausanne, Switzerland.

    Recently, corticosteroid hormone-induced factor (CHIF) and the gamma-subunit, two members of the FXYD family of small proteins, have been identified as regulators of renal Na,K-ATPase. In this study, we have investigated the tissue distribution and the structural and functional properties of FXYD7, another family member which has not yet been characterized. Expressed exclusively in the brain, FXYD7 is a type I membrane protein bearing N-terminal, post-translationally added modifications on threonine residues, most probably O-glycosylations that are important for protein stabilization. Expressed in Xenopus oocytes, FXYD7 can interact with Na,K-ATPase alpha 1-beta 1, alpha 2-beta 1 and alpha 3-beta 1 but not with alpha-beta 2 isozymes, whereas, in brain, it is only associated with alpha 1-beta isozymes. FXYD7 decreases the apparent K(+) affinity of alpha 1-beta 1 and alpha 2-beta 1, but not of alpha 3-beta1 isozymes. These data suggest that FXYD7 is a novel, tissue- and isoform-specific Na,K-ATPase regulator which could play an important role in neuronal excitability.

    The EMBO journal 2002;21;13;3264-73

  • Distribution and oligomeric association of splice forms of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase regulatory gamma-subunit in rat kidney.

    Arystarkhova E, Wetzel RK and Sweadner KJ

    Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Neuroscience Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA.

    Renal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase is associated with the gamma-subunit (FXYD2), a single-span membrane protein that modifies ATPase properties. There are two splice variants with different amino termini, gamma(a) and gamma(b). Both were found in the inner stripe of the outer medulla in the thick ascending limb. Coimmunoprecipitation with each other and the alpha-subunit indicated that they were associated in macromolecular complexes. Association was controlled by ligands that affect Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase conformation. In the cortex, the proportion of the gamma(b)-subunit was markedly lower, and the gamma(a)-subunit predominated in isolated proximal tubule cells. By immunofluorescence, the gamma(b)-subunit was detected in the superficial cortex only in the distal convoluted tubule and connecting tubule, which are rich in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase but comprise a minor fraction of cortex mass. In the outer stripe of the outer medulla and for a short distance in the deep cortex, the thick ascending limb predominantly expressed the gamma(b)-subunit. Because different mechanisms maintain and regulate Na(+) homeostasis in different nephron segments, the splice forms of the gamma-subunit may have evolved to control the renal Na(+) pump through pump properties, gene expression, or both.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL36271

    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 2002;282;3;F393-407

  • Genetic and environmental regulation of Na/K adenosine triphosphatase activity in diabetic patients.

    Jannot MF, Raccah D, De La Tour DD, Coste T and Vague P

    Diabetes Department, University Hospital Timone, Marseille, France.

    Even if the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy is incompletely understood, an impaired Na/K adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity has been involved in this pathogenesis. We previously showed that a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the ATP1-A1 gene encoding for the Na/K ATPase's alpha 1 isoform is associated with a low Na/K ATPase activity in the red blood cells (RBCs) of type 1 diabetic patients. We thus suggested that the presence of the variant of the ATP1A1 gene is a predisposing factor for diabetic neuropathy, with a 6.5% relative risk. Furthermore, there is experimental evidence showing that lack of C-peptide impairs Na/K ATPase activity, and that this activity is positively correlated with C-peptide level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the respective influence of genetic (ATP1-A1 polymorphism) and environmental (lack of C-peptide) factors on RBC's Na/K ATPase activity. Healthy and diabetic European and North African subjects were studied. North Africans were studied because there is a high prevalence and severity of neuropathy in this diabetic population, and ethnic differences in RBC's Na/K ATPase activity are described. In Europeans, Na/K ATPase activity was significantly lower in type 1 (285 +/- 8 nmol Pi/mg protein/h) than in type 2 diabetic patients (335 +/- 13 nmol Pi/mg protein/h) or healthy subjects (395 +/- 9 nmol Pi/mg protein/h). Among type 2 diabetic patients, there was a significant correlation between RBC's Na/K ATPase activity and fasting plasma C-peptide level (r = 0.32, P <.05). In North Africans, we confirm the ethnic RBC's Na/K ATPase activity decrease in healthy subjects (296 +/- 26 v 395 +/- 9 nmol Pi/mg protein/h, r < 0.05), as well as in type 1 diabetic patients (246 +/- 20 v 285 +/- 8 nmol Pi/mg protein/h; P <.05). However, there is no relationship between the ATP1A1 gene polymorphism and Na/K ATPase activity. ATP1A1 gene polymorphism could not explain the ethnic difference. We previously showed that Na/K ATPase activity is higher in type 1 diabetic patients without the restriction site on ATP1A1 than in those heterozygous for the restriction site. This fact was not observed in healthy subjects. In type 2 diabetic patients, association between ATP1A1 gene polymorphism and decreased enzyme activity was found only in patients with a low C-peptide level. Therefore, the ATP1-A1 gene polymorphism influences Na/K ATPase activity only in case of complete or partial C-peptide deficiency, as observed in type 1 and some type 2 diabetic patients, without any correlation with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Correlation observed between C-peptide levels and RBC's Na/K ATPase suggests that the deleterious effect of C peptide deficiency on Na/K ATPase activity is worse in the presence of the restriction site. This may explain the high relative risk of developing the neuropathy observed in type 1 diabetic patients bearing the variant allele.

    Metabolism: clinical and experimental 2002;51;3;284-91

  • K+ cycling and the endocochlear potential.

    Wangemann P

    Cell Physiology Laboratory, Anatomy and Physiology Department, Kansas State University, 1600 Denison Avenue, Manhattan 66506, USA. wange@vet.ksu.edu

    Sensory transduction in the cochlea and the vestibular labyrinth depends on the cycling of K+. In the cochlea, endolymphatic K+ flows into the sensory hair cells via the apical transduction channel and is released from the hair cells into perilymph via basolateral K+ channels including KCNQ4. K+ may be taken up by fibrocytes in the spiral ligament and transported from cell to cell via gap junctions into strial intermediate cells. Gap junctions may include GJB2, GJB3 and GJB6. K+ is released from the intermediate cells into the intrastrial space via the KCNJ10 K+ channel that generates the endocochlear potential. From the intrastrial space, K+ is taken up across the basolateral membrane of strial marginal cells via the Na+/2Cl-/K+ cotransporter SLC12A2 and the Na+/K+-ATPase ATP1A1/ATP1B2. Strial marginal cells secrete K+ across the apical membrane into endolymph via the K+ channel KCNQ1/KCNE1, which concludes the cochlear cycle. A similar K+ cycle exists in the vestibular labyrinth. Endolymphatic K+ flows into the sensory hair cells via the apical transduction channel and is released from the hair cells via basolateral K+ channels including KCNQ4. Fibrocytes connected by gap junctions including GJB2 may be involved in delivering K+ to vestibular dark cells. Extracellular K+ is taken up into vestibular dark cells via SLC12A2 and ATP1A1/ATP1B2 and released into endolymph via KCNQ1/KCNE1, which concludes the vestibular cycle. The importance of K+ cycling is underscored by the fact that mutations of KCNQ1, KCNE1, KCNQ4, GJB2, GJB3 and GJB6 lead to deafness in humans and that null mutations of KCNQ1, KCNE1, KCNJ10 and SLC12A2 lead to deafness in mouse models.

    Funded by: NIDCD NIH HHS: R01 DC001098-13, R01-DC01098

    Hearing research 2002;165;1-2;1-9

  • The alpha1-Na/K pump does not mediate the involvement of ouabain in the development of hypertension in rats.

    Orlov SN, Taurin S and Hamet P

    Centre de recherche, Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal--Hĵtel-Dieu, PQ, Canada. sergei.n.orlov@umontreal.ca

    The Na/K pump of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and renal epithelial cells (REC) is viewed as a target of digitalis and endogenous ouabain (EO), leading to the development of hypertension. In this study, we compared the effect of ouabain on Na/K pump activity and the intracellular content of monovalent cations in VSMC and REC obtained from rats, humans and dogs. In VSMC from the rat aorta, ouabain inhibited maximal Na/K pump activity measured as the rate of 86Rb influx in Na+-loaded cells, with an ID50 of approximately 20-30 microM without any differences between two strains of normotensive rats (WKY and BN.1x) and three substrains of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Half-maximal inhibition of the Na/K pump in REC from the rat inner medullary collecting duct was observed at approximately 20 microM of ouabain. In contrast to rat cells, half-maximal inhibition of 86Rb influx in VSMC from human coronary arteries and in REC from the Madin-Darby canine kidney was seen at approximately 0.03 and 0.1 microM ouabain, respectively. At concentrations lower than 100 microM, ouabain did not affect the intracellular content of exchangeable Na+ and K+ in rat VSMC, measured as the steady-state distribution of 22Na and 86Rb, whereas in human VSMC, it increased the intracellular Na+/K+ ratio with an ID50 of approximately 0.5 microM. Keeping in mind that the circulating level of administered digitalis and EO does not exceed 10(-9) M, our results strongly suggest that the involvement of these compounds in the pathogenesis of hypertension in rats is not mediated by inhibition of the alpha1-isoform of the Na/K pump in VSMC and REC. Alternative mechanisms of the involvement of EO and ouabain-like factors in the development of hypertension are considered.

    Blood pressure 2002;11;1;56-62

  • Non-association of the thiazide-sensitive Na,Cl-cotransporter gene with polygenic hypertension in both rats and humans.

    Song Y, Herrera VL, Filigheddu F, Troffa C, Lopez LV, Glorioso N and Ruiz-Opazo N

    Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Evans Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, MA 02118, USA.

    Objective: Genes underlying renal regulation of sodium and water balances are a priori valid candidates for polygenic hypertension susceptibility genes. Having recently identified the association of alpha1 Na,K-ATPase (ATP1A1) and Na,K,2Cl-cotransporter (NKCC2) as interacting hypertension susceptibility loci in both a rat model and human hypertensives, we investigated whether the thiazide-sensitive Na,Cl-cotransporter (TSC) gene contributes to hypertension susceptibility in a rat F2 intercross and in a northern Sardinian human cohort for polygenic hypertension.

    The rat TSC (rTSC) gene was analyzed directly for cosegregation with salt-sensitive hypertension in an F2 (Dahl S x Dahl R) rat population (n = 102) characterized for blood pressure by radiotelemetry. The human TSC (hTSC) gene was analyzed for association with hypertension in a human hypertensive cohort from northern Sardinia that consisted of 220 unrelated normotensives and 254 unrelated hypertensives. The TSC gene was subjected to single locus and digenic (in combination with ATP1A1 and NKCC2 genes) analyses in both rat and human cohorts.

    Results: In both rat model and human cohorts, the rTSC and hTSC genes did not show linkage or association with high blood pressure, respectively. Furthermore, interaction with either ATP1A1 or NKCC2 was not detected in both the rat F2 intercross and human hypertension cohorts.

    Conclusions: These data exclude a primary role of the TSC gene in hypertension pathogenesis in the hypertension cohorts studied.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL58136

    Journal of hypertension 2001;19;9;1547-51

  • Ion pumps in polarized cells: sorting and regulation of the Na+, K+- and H+, K+-ATPases.

    Dunbar LA and Caplan MJ

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA.

    The physiologic function of an ion transport protein is determined, in part, by its subcellular localization and by the cellular mechanisms that modulate its activity. The Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and the H(+),K(+)-ATPases are closely related members of the P-type family of ion transporting ATPases. Despite their homology, these pumps are sorted to different domains in polarized epithelial cells, and their enzymatic activities are subject to distinct regulatory pathways. The molecular signals responsible for these properties have begun to be elucidated. It appears that a complex array of inter- and intramolecular interactions govern trafficking, distribution, and catalytic capacities of these proteins.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-17433; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-42136

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;32;29617-20

  • Interaction of alpha(1)-Na,K-ATPase and Na,K,2Cl-cotransporter genes in human essential hypertension.

    Glorioso N, Filigheddu F, Troffa C, Soro A, Parpaglia PP, Tsikoudakis A, Myers RH, Herrera VL and Ruiz-Opazo N

    Clinica Medica, Universita di Sassari, Sassari, Italy. glorioso@ssmain.uniss.it

    Essential hypertension is a common disease the genetic determinants of which have been difficult to unravel because of its clinical heterogeneity and complex, multifactorial, polygenic etiology. Based on our observations that alpha(1)-Na,K-ATPase (ATP1A1) and renal-specific, bumetanide-sensitive Na,K,2Cl-cotransporter (NKCC2) genes interactively increase susceptibility to hypertension in the Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive (Dahl S) rat model, we investigated whether parallel molecular genetic mechanisms might exist in human essential hypertension in a relatively genetic homogeneous cohort in northern Sardinia. Putative ATP1A1-NKCC2 gene interaction was tested by comparing hypertensive patients (blood pressure [BP] >165/95 mm Hg) with normotensive controls age >60 years with BP <140/85 mm Hg. Genotype analysis with microsatellite markers revealed conformation to Hardy-Weinberg proportions for 6 alleles of both ATP1A1 (D1S453) and NKCC2 (NKCGT7) markers, respectively. Two-by-six chi(2) analysis of alleles identified overrepresentation of ATP1A1 No. 4 and NKCC2 No. 4 alleles, respectively, in hypertensives compared with controls. With a qualitative trait framework, single-gene analysis detected association of both the ATP1A1 No. 4 allele (P=0.004, chi(2)=8.094, df=1) and the NKCC2 No. 4 allele (P=0.0002, chi(2)=14.279, df=1) with moderate to severe hypertension. Digenic analysis revealed that ATP1A1 No. 4-NKCC2 No. 4 allele interaction increases susceptibility to hypertension (P<0.0001, chi(2)=22.3, df=1) beyond levels obtained in single-gene analysis. Analysis was also performed in a quantitative trait framework with BP as the continuous trait parameter. Digenic analysis of ATP1A1 No. 4-NKCC2 No. 4 allele interaction revealed significant association with systolic (1-way ANOVA, P=0.000076) and diastolic (P=0.00099) BP. Interaction was corroborated by 2x2 factorial ANOVA for interaction (systolic BP interaction term, P<0.05, diastolic BP interaction term, P=0.035). The data are compelling that ATP1A1 and NKCC2 genes are candidate interacting hypertension-susceptibility loci in human essential hypertension and affirm gene interaction as an important genetic mechanism underlying hypertension susceptibility. Although corroboration in other cohorts and identification of functionally significant mutations are imperative next steps, the data provide a genotype-stratification scheme, with 4-fold predictive value (odds ratio, 4.28; 95% confidence interval, 2.29 to 8.0), which could help decipher the complex genetics of essential hypertension.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-58136

    Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 2001;38;2;204-9

  • Interaction of the alpha subunit of Na,K-ATPase with cofilin.

    Lee K, Jung J, Kim M and Guidotti G

    College of Pharmacy, Center for Cell Signaling Research and Division of Molecular Life Sciences, Ewha Woman's University, Seoul 120-750, Korea. klyoon@mm.ewha.ac.kr

    The alpha1 subunit of rat Na,K-ATPase, composed of 1018 amino acids, is arranged in the membrane so that the middle third of the polypeptide forms a large cytoplasmic loop bordered on both sides by multiple transmembrane segments. To identify proteins that might interact with the large cytoplasmic loop of Na,K-ATPase and potentially affect the function and/or the disposition of the pump in the cell, the yeast two-hybrid system was used to screen a rat skeletal muscle cDNA library. Several cDNA clones were isolated, some of which coded for cofilin, an actin-binding protein. Cofilin was co-immunoprecipitated with the alpha subunit of Na,K-ATPase from extracts of COS-7 cells transiently transfected with haemagglutinin-epitope-tagged cofilin cDNA as well as from yeast extracts. By means of deletion analysis we showed that the segment of cofilin between residues 45 and 99 is essential for functional association with the large cytoplasmic loop of Na,K-ATPase. Recombinant cofilin was shown to bind to the membrane-bound Na,K-ATPase; the association between the two proteins was demonstrated by confocal microscopy. The increased level of cofilin in transfected COS-7 cells caused an increase in the rate of ouabain-sensitive (86)Rb(+) uptake, indicating that cofilin elicits, either directly or indirectly, enhanced Na,K-ATPase activity and that the interaction occurs in vivo.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL08893; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK27626

    The Biochemical journal 2001;353;Pt 2;377-85

  • Intersubunit interactions in human X,K-ATPases: role of membrane domains M9 and M10 in the assembly process and association efficiency of human, nongastric H,K-ATPase alpha subunits (ATP1al1) with known beta subunits.

    Geering K, Crambert G, Yu C, Korneenko TV, Pestov NB and Modyanov NN

    Institut de Pharmacologie et de Toxicologie de l'Université, rue du Bugnon 27, CH-1005 Lausanne, Switzerland. kaethi.geering@ipharm.unil.ch

    Na,K- and H,K-ATPase (X,K-ATPase) alpha subunits need association with a beta subunit for their maturation, but the authentic beta subunit of nongastric H,K-ATPase alpha subunits has not been identified. To better define alpha-beta interactions in these ATPases, we coexpressed human, nongastric H,K-ATPase alpha (AL1) and Na,K-ATPase alpha1 (alpha1NK) as well as AL1-alpha1 and alpha1-AL1 chimeras, which contain exchanged M9 and M10 membrane domains, together with each of the known beta subunits in Xenopus oocytes and followed their resistance to cellular and proteolytic degradation and their ER exit. We show that all beta subunits (gastric betaHK, beta1NK, beta2NK, beta3NK, or Bufo bladder beta) can associate efficiently with alpha1NK, but only gastric betaHK, beta2NK, and Bufo bladder beta can form stably expressed AL1-beta complexes that can leave the ER. The trypsin resistance and the forces of subunit interaction, probed by detergent resistance, are lower for AL1-beta complexes than for alpha1NK-beta complexes. Furthermore, chimeric alpha1-AL1 can be stabilized by beta subunits, but alpha1-AL1-gastric betaHK complexes are retained in the ER. On the other hand, chimeric AL1-alpha1 cannot be stabilized by any beta subunit. In conclusion, these results indicate that (1) none of the known beta subunits is the real partner subunit of AL1 but an as yet unidentified, authentic beta should have structural features resembling gastric betaHK, beta2NK, or Bufo bladder beta and (2) beta-mediated maturation of alpha subunits is a multistep process which depends on the membrane insertion properties of alpha subunits as well as on several discrete events of intersubunit interactions.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-36573; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-54997

    Biochemistry 2000;39;41;12688-98

  • Evidence for an interaction between adducin and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase: relation to genetic hypertension.

    Ferrandi M, Salardi S, Tripodi G, Barassi P, Rivera R, Manunta P, Goldshleger R, Ferrari P, Bianchi G and Karlish SJ

    Prassis Research Institute Sigma-Tau, 20019 Settimo Milanese, Italy.

    Adducin point mutations are associated with genetic hypertension in Milan hypertensive strain (MHS) rats and in humans. In transfected cells, adducin affects actin cytoskeleton organization and increases the Na(+)-K(+)-pump rate. The present study has investigated whether rat and human adducin polymorphisms differently modulate rat renal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in vitro. We report the following. 1) Both rat and human adducins stimulate Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, with apparent affinity in tens of nanomolar concentrations. 2) MHS and Milan normotensive strain (MNS) adducins raise the apparent ATP affinity for Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. 3) The mechanism of action of adducin appears to involve a selective acceleration of the rate of the conformational change E(2) (K) --> E(1) (Na) or E(2)(K). ATP --> E(1)Na. ATP. 4) Apparent affinities for mutant rat and human adducins are significantly higher than those for wild types. 5) Recombinant human alpha- and beta-adducins stimulate Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, as do the COOH-terminal tails, and the mutant proteins display higher affinities than the wild types. 6) The cytoskeletal protein ankyrin, which is known to bind to Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, also stimulates enzyme activity, whereas BSA is without effect; the effects of adducin and ankyrin when acting together are not additive. 7) Pig kidney medulla microsomes appear to contain endogenous adducin; in contrast with purified pig kidney Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, which does not contain adducin, added adducin stimulates the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity of microsomes only about one-half as much as that of purified Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Our findings strongly imply the existence of a direct and specific interaction between adducin and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in vitro and also suggest the possibility of such an interaction in intact renal membranes.

    The American journal of physiology 1999;277;4 Pt 2;H1338-49

  • Insulin-induced stimulation of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in kidney proximal tubule cells depends on phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit at Tyr-10.

    Féraille E, Carranza ML, Gonin S, Béguin P, Pedemonte C, Rousselot M, Caverzasio J, Geering K, Martin PY and Favre H

    Division de Néphrologie, Fondation pour Recherches Médicales, 1211 Genève 4, Switzerland. feraille@cmu.unige.ch

    Phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of Na+,K(+)-ATPase plays an important role in the regulation of this pump. Recent studies suggest that insulin, known to increase solute and fluid reabsorption in mammalian proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), is stimulating Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity through the tyrosine phosphorylation process. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the role of tyrosine phosphorylation of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit in the action of insulin. In rat PCT, insulin and orthovanadate (a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor) increased tyrosine phosphorylation level of the alpha-subunit more than twofold. Their effects were not additive, suggesting a common mechanism of action. Insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation was prevented by genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The site of tyrosine phosphorylation was identified on Tyr-10 by controlled trypsinolysis in rat PCTs and by site-directed mutagenesis in opossum kidney cells transfected with rat alpha-subunit. The functional relevance of Tyr-10 phosphorylation was assessed by 1) the abolition of insulin-induced stimulation of the ouabain-sensitive (86)Rb uptake in opossum kidney cells expressing mutant rat alpha1-subunits wherein tyrosine was replaced by alanine or glutamine; and 2) the similarity of the time course and dose dependency of the insulin-induced increase in ouabain-sensitive (86)Rb uptake and tyrosine phosphorylation. These findings indicate that phosphorylation of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit at Tyr-10 likely participates in the physiological control of sodium reabsorption in PCT.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01DK53460

    Molecular biology of the cell 1999;10;9;2847-59

  • Na,K-ATPase mRNA levels and plaque load in Alzheimer's disease.

    Chauhan NB, Lee JM and Siegel GJ

    Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Laboratory, Edward Hines Jr. Veterans Affairs Hospital, IL 60141, USA.

    Unlabelled: The expression of Na,K-ATPase alpha 1- and alpha 3-mRNAs was analyzed by in situ hybridization in the superior frontal cortex and cerebellum of brains from five Alzheimer's disease (AD), five nondemented age-matched, and three young control subjects. Brains with well-preserved RNA, tested by Northern hybridization of immobilized RNA with [32P]-labeled human beta-actin riboprobe, were chosen for analysis. In situ hybridization was performed on formalin-fixed, 5 microns-thick Paraplast sections with [35S]-labeled riboprobes prepared by in vitro transcription of the respective linearized clones: a 537-bp EcoRI-PstI fragment of alpha 1-cDNA and a 342-bp PstI-EcoRI fragment of alpha 3-cDNA. In cortex, grains related to mRNA were measured by density per unit area in five cortical columns separated by 1.0-1.2 cm in each of two adjacent sections. Each cortical column of 180-micron width was divided into four depths orthogonal to the pial surface between the pia and the white matter. Amyloid plaques were counted in the same regions of adjacent sections. In addition, alpha 3-mRNA grain clusters over individual pyramidal neurons within depth 4 were analyzed. We found the following significant changes (p < 0.05): 1. Increases in total alpha 1-mRNA by 13-19% in AD compared to young and by 7-12% in AD compared to age-matched controls. 2. Decrease in total alpha 3-mRNA by 31-38% in AD compared to young and age-matched controls. 3. Decrease in alpha 3-mRNA content over individual pyramidal perikarya by 14% in normal aged brains without plaques compared to young controls, and by 44% in AD relative to young controls and by 35% compared to age-matched controls. No significant difference (p < 0.2) was found with respect to alpha 1- or alpha 3-mRNA in cerebellar cortex or individual Purkinje cells among any of the groups. In addition, there was a trend toward an inverse correlation between the levels of alpha 3-mRNA and of diffuse plaques, but not of neuritic plaques, in AD cases.

    1. The increases in alpha 1-mRNA in AD may be related to an increased reactive gliosis. 2. The declines in alpha 3-mRNA per individual neuron found in normal aging occur prior to the formation of diffuse plaques and are greatly accelerated in AD. 3. The declines in alpha 3-mRNA per neuron found in normal aging may predispose to or potentiate AD pathogenesis.

    Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN 1997;9;3;151-66

  • Na,K-ATPase subunit isoforms in human reticulocytes: evidence from reverse transcription-PCR for the presence of alpha1, alpha3, beta2, beta3, and gamma.

    Stengelin MK and Hoffman JF

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

    The objective of this study has been to determine which Na,K-ATPase isoforms are expressed in red blood cells and whether kinetic differences in the uncoupled sodium efflux mode between the human red blood cell Na,K-ATPase and other preparations can be explained by differences in the underlying subunit composition. To this end, human reticulocyte RNA was isolated, reverse transcribed, amplified by PCR and appropriate primers, and sequenced. Primers from highly conserved areas as well as isoform-specific primers were used. The alpha1 and alpha3 isoforms of the alpha subunit, and the beta2 and beta3 isoforms of the beta subunit were found. The complete coding regions of the cDNAs for the reticulocyte subunits were sequenced from overlapping PCR fragments. No difference was found between the reticulocyte isoforms and the ones already known. The fact that we found beta2 but not beta1 in reticulocyte single-stranded cDNA, and beta1 but not beta2 in a leukocyte library indicates that leukocyte contamination of our reticulocyte preparation was negligible. Analysis of a human bone marrow library showed that alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3 as well as all three beta isoforms were present. The extent to which the kinetic properties of uncoupled sodium efflux might depend on different isoform combinations is not yet known.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL52720

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997;94;11;5943-8

  • Expression and synthesis of the Na,K-ATPase beta 2 subunit in human retinal pigment epithelium.

    Ruiz A, Bhat SP and Bok D

    Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles 90024, USA.

    Na,K-ATPase in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is apically localized, whereas in most other tissues this pump is found predominantly in the basolateral membrane domain. As part of our investigations into the molecular aspects of this pump in the RPE, we have cloned the cDNA and characterized the expression of the gene encoding the beta 2 subunit isoform of Na,K-ATPase in human, rat and bovine RPE and in the bovine choroid plexus. We have also detected the beta 2 isoform polypeptide in the human RPE (hRPE). Comparison of complete coding sequences derived from cloned cDNAs revealed that all beta 2 sequences from RPE, and the choroid plexus, differed uniformly at positions: P51/L, M121/I, and L148/R from the published sequences for human retina and liver. However, analysis of 10 RT-PCR clones derived from 5 fetal and 2 adult human retinas sequenced in our laboratory, revealed that only the P51/L residue was different with the hRPE beta 2 subunit sequence. Northern blot analysis indicated a 3.4-kb RNA transcript for the beta 2 subunit, a 4.5-kb RNA for the alpha 1 subunit and a doublet of 2.3 and 2.6 kb for the beta 1 subunit, respectively. alpha 1 (100 kDa), beta 1 (45 kDa) and beta 2 (65 kDa) isoforms were detected in hRPE extracts by immunoblotting. No alpha 2 and alpha 3 RNA transcripts were found in the hRPE. Quantification of beta 2 mRNA by RT-PCR revealed 2.7 x 10(5) molecules per ng of poly A+ RNA. This is similar to the beta 1 isoform levels reported previously from our laboratory. These data demonstrate the coexistence of significant amounts of alpha 1, beta 1 and beta 2 Na,K-ATPase subunits in the RPE. It is therefore reasonable to suggest that both alpha 1 beta 1 and alpha 1 beta 2 heterodimers are present in these cells.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY00331, EY00444

    Gene 1996;176;1-2;237-42

  • Regional expression of sodium pump subunits isoforms and Na+-Ca++ exchanger in the human heart.

    Wang J, Schwinger RH, Frank K, Müller-Ehmsen J, Martin-Vasallo P, Pressley TA, Xiang A, Erdmann E and McDonough AA

    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles 90033, USA.

    Cardiac glycosides exert a positive inotropic effect by inhibiting sodium pump (Na,K-ATPase) activity, decreasing the driving force for Na+-Ca++ exchange, and increasing cellular content and release of Ca++ during depolarization. Since the inotropic response will be a function of the level of expression of sodium pumps, which are alpha(beta) heterodimers, and of Na+-Ca++ exchangers, this study aimed to determine the regional pattern of expression of these transporters in the heart. Immunoblot assays of homogenate from atria, ventricles, and septa of 14 nonfailing human hearts established expression of Na,K-ATPase alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, beta1, and Na+-Ca++ exchangers in all regions. Na,K-ATPase beta2 expression is negligible, indicating that the human cardiac glycoside receptors are alpha1beta1, alpha2beta1, and alpha3beta1. alpha3, beta1, sodium pump activity, and Na+-Ca++ exchanger levels were 30-50% lower in atria compared to ventricles and/or septum; differences between ventricles and septum were insignificant. Functionally, the EC50 of the sodium channel activator BDF 9148 to increase force of contraction was lower in atria than ventricle muscle strips (0.36 vs. 1.54 microM). These results define the distribution of the cardiac glycoside receptor isoforms in the human heart and they demonstrate that atria have fewer sodium pumps, fewer Na+-Ca++ exchangers, and enhanced sensitivity to inotropic stimulation compared to ventricles.

    The Journal of clinical investigation 1996;98;7;1650-8

  • Structural basis for species-specific differences in the phosphorylation of Na,K-ATPase by protein kinase C.

    Feschenko MS and Sweadner KJ

    Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown 02129, USA.

    There is considerable evidence that protein kinases play a role in regulation of the activity of the Na,K-ATPase, but the characteristics of direct kinase phosphorylation of Na,K-ATPase subunits are still not well understood. There are 36 sites that could qualify as protein kinase C motifs in rat alpha 1. Here we have used protein fragmentation with trypsin to localize the site of phosphorylation of the rat Na,K-ATPase alpha 1 subunit to within the first 32 amino acids of the N terminus and then used direct sequencing of the phosphorylated protein to determine which of two candidate serine residues was modified. The result was that at most 25% of the 32P was found on Ser-11, a site that is well conserved in Na,K-ATPase alpha 1 subunits. The remaining 75% or more of the 32P was found on Ser-18, a site that is absent in many Na,K-ATPase alpha subunit sequences. This accounts for the observation that dog and pig alpha 1 subunits can be phosphorylated by protein kinase C only to much lower levels than can rat alpha 1. It is also likely to be relevant to other known species-specific effects of protein kinase C on Na,K-ATPase.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 27653

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;23;14072-7

  • Characterization and quantification of full-length and truncated Na,K-ATPase alpha 1 and beta 1 RNA transcripts expressed in human retinal pigment epithelium.

    Ruiz A, Bhat SP and Bok D

    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles 90024, USA.

    We have characterized cDNA clones encoding the alpha 1 and beta 1 subunits of Na,K-ATPase produced in the human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE). In addition to isolating clones corresponding to known sequences of Na,K-ATPase subunits, we report hitherto unknown forms of Na,K-ATPase with unique deduced amino acid (aa) sequences in their C-termini. Truncated cDNA sequences were found for both the beta 1 and alpha 1 subunits. While the beta 1 sequence is truncated by two aa residues at the C terminus, in the alpha 1 sequence 342 aa have been replaced by a unique sequence containing only 44 aa. Interestingly, this new C-terminal polypeptide shows sequence similarities to the Ca(2+)-ATPase and contains consensus sequence elements for phosphorylation and cell adhesion, suggesting expression of Na,K-ATPase subunits with unique functions. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, RNA sequences for alpha 1, beta 1 and their corresponding truncated isoforms were quantified. 4.0 x 10(5) alpha 1 and 2.3 x 10(5) beta 1 molecules were found per ng of mRNA from hRPE. Much lower levels were detected for truncated alpha 1 and beta 1 (3.6 x 10(3) and 2.7 x 10(3) molecules/ng, respectively). These data corroborate the expression of truncated transcripts coding for unique aa sequences in hRPE, and suggest that factors other than alpha 1 and beta 1 mRNA levels regulate the equimolar accumulation of alpha and beta subunits in the plasma membrane.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY00331, EY00444, EY06044

    Gene 1995;155;2;179-84

  • Subcellular distribution and immunocytochemical localization of Na,K-ATPase subunit isoforms in human skeletal muscle.

    Hundal HS, Maxwell DL, Ahmed A, Darakhshan F, Mitsumoto Y and Klip A

    Department of Anatomy and Physiology, University of Dundee, UK.

    The expression of Na,K-ATPase isoforms was investigated in human skeletal muscle membranes isolated by subcellular fractionation. The alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 3 and beta 1 subunits were detectable in membranes prepared from the human soleus muscle. The alpha 1 subunit was largely detected in a fraction enriched with plasma membranes (PM), its abundance in an intracellular membrane fraction (IM) accounted for only 4% of that in the PM fraction. No alpha 1 subunits were detected in membranes of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) origin. The PM and IM fractions were enriched with alpha 2 subunits which were less abundant in the SR-enriched fraction. The abundance of alpha 2 molecules within the IM fraction was about 75% of that in the PM fraction when the total protein content for the two fractions was taken into account. Immunocytochemical studies confirmed the localization of the alpha 1 subunit to the muscle cell surface. The alpha 2 subunit was also found to be present in the cell surface but the observation that alpha 2 immunofluorescence was diffusely dispersed throughout the muscle fibre indicated that it was also present intracellularly, consistent with its biochemical localization in the PM and IM membrane fractions. The alpha 3 subunit was detected largely in the PM fraction but the lack of good antibodies to this isoform precluded an analysis of its immunocytochemical localization. The beta 1 subunit was enriched in the PM fraction but was also detected to a modest extent in the IM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Molecular membrane biology 1994;11;4;255-62

  • Confirmation of mutant alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase gene and transcript in Dahl salt-sensitive/JR rats.

    Ruiz-Opazo N, Barany F, Hirayama K and Herrera VL

    Section of Molecular Genetics, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, MA 02118.

    As the sole renal Na,K-ATPase isozyme, the alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase accounts for all active transport of Na+ throughout the nephron. This role in renal Na+ reabsorption and the primacy of the kidney in hypertension pathogenesis make it a logical candidate gene for salt-sensitive genetic hypertension. An adenine (A)1079-->thymine (T) transversion, resulting in the substitution of glutamine276 with leucine and associated with decreased net 86Rb+ (K+) influx, was identified in Dahl salt-sensitive/JR rat kidney alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase cDNA. However, because a Taq polymerase chain reaction amplification-based reanalysis did not detect the mutant T1079 but rather only the wild-type A1079 alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase allele in Dahl salt-sensitive rat genomic DNA, we reexamined alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase sequences using Taq polymerase error-independent amplification-based analyses of genomic DNA (by polymerase allele-specific amplification and ligase chain reaction analysis) and kidney RNA (by mRNA-specific thermostable reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis). We also performed modified 3' mismatched correction analysis of genomic DNA using an exonuclease-positive thermostable DNA polymerase. All the confirmatory test results were concordant, confirming the A1079-->T transversion in the Dahl salt-sensitive alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase allele and its transcript, as well as the wild-type A1079 sequence in the Dahl salt-resistant alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase allele and its transcript. Documentation of a consistent Taq polymerase error that selectively substituted A at T1079 (sense strand) was obtained from Taq polymerase chain reaction amplification and subsequent cycle sequencing of reconfirmed known Dahl salt-sensitive/JR rat mutant T1079 alpha 1 cDNA M13 subclones. This Taq polymerase error results in the reversion of mutant sequence back to the wild-type alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase sequence. This identifies a site- and nucleotide-specific Taq polymerase misincorporation, suggesting that a structural basis might underlie a predisposition to nonrandom Taq polymerase errors.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-47124; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-41337

    Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 1994;24;3;260-70

  • Expression of alpha isoforms of the Na,K-ATPase in human heart.

    Zahler R, Gilmore-Hebert M, Baldwin JC, Franco K and Benz EJ

    Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510.

    We studied expression of isoforms of Na,K-ATPase in normal and diseased human hearts. Na,K-ATPase alpha-isoform mRNA in samples from normal human left ventricle (LV) was composed of 62.5%, alpha 1, 15% alpha 2 and 22.5% alpha 3 on average. There was an increase in expression of the alpha 3 isoform in samples from failing hearts, but expression of all three isoforms decreased in pressure-overloaded right ventricle (RV).

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: NHLBI HL-01686

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1993;1149;2;189-94

  • Alteration of alpha 1 Na+,K(+)-ATPase 86Rb+ influx by a single amino acid substitution.

    Herrera VL and Ruiz-Opazo N

    Section of Molecular Genetics, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, MA 02118.

    The sodium- and potassium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K(+)-ATPase) maintains the transmembrane Na+ gradient to which is coupled all active cellular transport systems. The R and S alleles of the gene encoding the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit isoform were identified in Dahl salt-resistant (DR) and Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats, respectively. Characterization of the S allele-specific Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 complementary DNA identified a leucine substitution of glutamine at position 276. This mutation alters the hydropathy profile of a region in proximity to T3(Na), the trypsin-sensitive site that is only detected in the presence of Na+. This mutation causes a decrease in the rubidium-86 influx of S allele-specific sodium pumps, thus marking a domain in the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha subunit important for K+ transport, and supporting the hypothesis of a putative role of these pumps in hypertension.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 01967, HL 18318, HL 39267

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1990;249;4972;1023-6

  • The human Na, K-ATPase alpha 1 gene: characterization of the 5'-flanking region and identification of a restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    Shull MM, Pugh DG and Lingrel JB

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio 45267-0524.

    We have determined the sequence of the 5'-flanking region and first three exons of the human Na,K-ATPase alpha 1 gene, ATP1A1. Primer extension and S1 nuclease protection analyses of RNA from human kidney, brain, and skeletal muscle indicate that transcription initiates 273 nucleotides upstream of the translation start site. The promoter region contains a potential TATA box at position -27 relative to the transcription initiation site; however, no CCAAT sequence is observed. The 5'-untranslated and 5'-flanking regions are G + C rich. Five sequence elements exhibiting similarity to binding sites for the transcription factor Sp1 are located within the 5'-flanking region. This region also contains potential binding sites for the transcription factors AP-1, AP-2, AP-3, and NF-1, as well as a site which exhibits perfect identity to an 8-bp sequence element important for calcium induction. A comparison of the 5'-flanking region of the alpha 1 and alpha 2 genes reveals differences in potential transcription factor and hormone receptor binding sites which may be important in mediating the tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression of these genes. We have also identified an intragenic DNA probe which detects a restriction fragment length polymorphism at the alpha 1 locus. This marker should facilitate genetic linkage studies designed to evaluate the role of the sodium pump in human disease.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL28573

    Genomics 1990;6;3;451-60

  • Molecular genetics of Na,K-ATPase.

    Lingrel JB, Orlowski J, Shull MM and Price EM

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio 45267.

    Researchers in the past few years have successfully used molecular-genetic approaches to determine the primary structures of several P-type ATPases. The amino-acid sequences of distinct members of this class of ion-transport ATPases (Na,K-, H,K-, and Ca-ATPases) have been deduced by cDNA cloning and sequencing. The Na,K-ATPase belongs to a multiple gene family, the principal diversity apparently resulting from distinct catalytic alpha isoforms. Computer analyses of the hydrophobicity and potential secondary structure of the alpha subunits and primary sequence comparisons with homologs from various species as well as other P-type ATPases have identified common structural features. This has provided the molecular foundation for the design of models and hypotheses aimed at understanding the relationship between structure and function. Development of a hypothetical transmembrane organization for the alpha subunit and application of site-specific mutagenesis techniques have allowed significant progress to be made toward identifying amino acids involved in cardiac glycoside resistance and possibly binding. However, the complex structural and functional features of this protein indicate that extensive research is necessary before a clear understanding of the molecular basis of active cation transport is achieved. This is complicated further by the paucity of information regarding the structural and functional contributions of the beta subunit. Until such information is obtained, the proposed model and functional hypotheses should be considered judiciously. Considerable progress also has been made in characterizing the regulatory complexity involved in expression of multiple alpha-isoform and beta-subunit genes in various tissues and cells during development and in response to hormones and cations. The regulatory mechanisms appear to function at several molecular levels, involving transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational, and posttranslational processes in a tissue- or cell-specific manner. However, much research is needed to precisely define the contributions of each of these mechanisms. Recent isolation of the genes for these subunits provides the framework for future advances in this area. Continued application of biochemical, biophysical, and molecular genetic techniques is required to provide a detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in cation transport of this biologically and pharmacologically important enzyme.

    Progress in nucleic acid research and molecular biology 1990;38;37-89

  • Chromosomal localization of human Na+, K+-ATPase alpha- and beta-subunit genes.

    Yang-Feng TL, Schneider JW, Lindgren V, Shull MM, Benz EJ, Lingrel JB and Francke U

    Department of Human Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510.

    Na+, K+-ATPase is a heterodimeric enzyme responsible for the active maintenance of sodium and potassium gradients across the plasma membrane. Recently, cDNAs for several tissue-specific isoforms of the larger catalytic alpha-subunit and the smaller beta-subunit have been cloned. We have hybridized rat brain and human kidney cDNA probes, as well as human genomic isoform-specific DNA fragments, to Southern filters containing panels of rodent X human somatic cell hybrid lines. The results obtained have allowed us to assign the loci for the ubiquitously expressed alpha-chain (ATP1A1) to human chromosome 1, region 1p21----cen, and for the alpha 2 isoform that predominates in neural and muscle tissues (ATP1A2) to chromosome 1, region cen----q32. A common PstI RFLP was detected with the ATP1A2 probe. The alpha 3 gene, which is expressed primarily in neural tissues (ATP1A3), was assigned to human chromosome 19. A fourth alpha gene of unknown function (alpha D) that was isolated by molecular cloning (ATP1AL1) was mapped to chromosome 13. Although evidence to date had suggested a single gene for the beta-subunit, we found hybridizing restriction fragments derived from two different human chromosomes. On the basis of knowledge of conserved linkage groups on human and murine chromosomes, we propose that the coding gene ATP 1B is located on the long arm of human chromosome 1 and that the sequence on human chromosome 4 (ATP 1BL1) is either a related gene or a pseudogene.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL28573; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM26105, T32GM07439

    Genomics 1988;2;2;128-38

  • Human placental Na+,K+-ATPase alpha subunit: cDNA cloning, tissue expression, DNA polymorphism, and chromosomal localization.

    Chehab FF, Kan YW, Law ML, Hartz J, Kao FT and Blostein R

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute University of California, San Francisco 94143.

    A 2.2-kilobase clone comprising a major portion of the coding sequence of the Na+,K+-ATPase alpha subunit was cloned from human placenta and its sequence was identical to that encoding the alpha subunit of human kidney and HeLa cells. Transfer blot analysis of the mRNA products of the Na+,K+-ATPase gene from various human tissues and cell lines revealed only one band (approximately 4.7 kilobases) under low and high stringency washing conditions. The levels of expression in the tissues were intestine greater than placenta greater than liver greater than pancreas, and in the cell lines the levels were human erythroleukemia greater than butyrate-induced colon greater than colon greater than brain greater than HeLa cells. mRNA was undetectable in reticulocytes, consistent with our failure to detect positive clones in a size-selected (greater than 2 kilobases) lambda gt11 reticulocyte cDNA library. DNA analysis revealed a polymorphic EcoRI band and chromosome localization by flow sorting and in situ hybridization showed that the alpha subunit is on the short arm (band p11-p13) of chromosome 1.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD 02080; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK16666; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 33903

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1987;84;22;7901-5

  • Family of Na+,K+-ATPase genes. Intra-individual tissue-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    Sverdlov ED, Broude NE, Sverdlov VE, Monastyrskaya GS, Grishin AV, Petrukhin KE, Akopyanz NS, Modyanov NN and Ovchinnikov YuA

    Intra-individual tissue-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) has been demonstrated in DNA isolated from different mammalian tissues using cDNAs of alpha- and beta-subunits of Na+,K+-ATPase as hybridization probes. We propose that the RFLPs could result from gene rearrangements in the gene loci for the alpha- and beta-subunits of Na+,K+-ATPase. The changes in restriction patterns have been shown to occur during embryonic development and tumor formation. In addition, the tissue specificity of the expression of different genes of the family of Na+,K+-ATPase genes and their low expression in tumor cells have been demonstrated.

    FEBS letters 1987;221;1;129-33

  • The family of human Na+,K+-ATPase genes. No less than five genes and/or pseudogenes related to the alpha-subunit.

    Sverdlov ED, Monastyrskaya GS, Broude NE, Ushkaryov YuA, Allikmets RL, Melkov AM, Smirnov YuV, Malyshev IV, Dulobova IE, Petrukhin KE et al.

    Five different nucleotide sequences have been found in the human genome homologous to the gene of the alpha-subunit of Na+,K+-ATPase. A comparative analysis of the primary structure of these genes in the region 749-1328 (in coordinates of cDNA from the pig alpha-subunit) is presented.

    FEBS letters 1987;217;2;275-8

  • Multiple genes encode the human Na+,K+-ATPase catalytic subunit.

    Shull MM and Lingrel JB

    A human genomic library was constructed and screened with hybridization probes derived from sheep and rat cDNAs encoding the alpha and alpha(+) isoforms, respectively, of the Na+,K+-ATPase catalytic subunit. Genomic sequences spanning 150 kilobases were isolated. Four genes, designated alpha A, alpha B, alpha C, and alpha D, each 20-25 kilobases in length, were identified by restriction mapping, Southern blot hybridization analysis, and limited DNA sequencing. We present evidence that two of these genes, alpha A and alpha B, encode the alpha and alpha(+) isoforms, respectively. The other genes, alpha C and alpha D, one of which is physically linked to the alpha(+) gene, exhibit nucleotide and amino acid homology to Na+,K+-ATPase catalytic subunit cDNA sequences but do not correspond to any previously identified isoforms.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL28573

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1987;84;12;4039-43

  • The family of human Na+,K+-ATPase genes. A partial nucleotide sequence related to the alpha-subunit.

    Ovchinnikov YuA, Monastyrskaya GS, Broude NE, Allikmets RL, Ushkaryov YuA, Melkov AM, Smirnov YuV, Malyshev IV, Dulubova IE, Petrukhin KE et al.

    FEBS letters 1987;213;1;73-80

  • Primary structure of the alpha-subunit of human Na,K-ATPase deduced from cDNA sequence.

    Kawakami K, Ohta T, Nojima H and Nagano K

    Clones carrying cDNA sequences for the alpha-subunit of the Na,K-ATPase from HeLa cells have been isolated. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the cloned cDNA has revealed the primary structure of this polypeptide, which consists of 1,023 amino acids. The alpha-subunit of the human Na,K-ATPase exhibited 87% homology with its Torpedo counterpart and 98% homology with its sheep counterpart. The six putative transmembrane segments M1-M6 showed higher conservation than the total segments. Total genomic Southern hybridization indicated the existence of at most two copies, possibly only one, of the gene encoding the Na,K-ATPase alpha-subunit in the human genome.

    Journal of biochemistry 1986;100;2;389-97

Gene lists (12)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000013 G2C Homo sapiens Human mGluR5 Human orthologues of mouse mGluR5 complex adapted from Collins et al (2006) 52
L00000014 G2C Homo sapiens Human ARC Human orthologues of mouse AMPA receptor complex adapted from Collins et al (2006) 9
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000041 G2C Homo sapiens Pocklington H10 Human orthologues of cluster 10 (mouse) from Pocklington et al (2006) 3
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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