G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
discs, large homolog 4 (Drosophila)
G00000004 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

ENSG00000132535 (Ensembl human gene)
1742 (Entrez Gene)
10 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
DLG4 (GeneCards)
602887 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:2903 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
1999 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
P78352 (UniProt)

Synonyms (4)

  • PSD-95
  • PSD95
  • SAP-90
  • SAP90

Diseases (2)

Disease Nervous effect Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
D00000165: Nicotine dependence Y Y (17164261) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
D00000166: Schizophrenia Y Y (16530958) Polymorphism (P) N


  • Fine mapping of a linkage region on chromosome 17p13 reveals that GABARAP and DLG4 are associated with vulnerability to nicotine dependence in European-Americans.

    Lou XY, Ma JZ, Sun D, Payne TJ and Li MD

    Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciencesm, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

    A two-stage association study was conducted targeting a genomic region on chromosome 17p13 that we reported likely to harbor susceptibility gene(s) for nicotine dependence (ND). Participants were 2037 subjects from 602 nuclear families of either African-American (AA) or European-American (EA) origin from our Mid-South Tobacco Family (MSTF) cohort. We first examined 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes within the targeted region of about 90 kb to determine which SNP/gene was associated with ND, assessed by smoking quantity (SQ), the heaviness of smoking index (HSI) and the Fagerström Test for ND (FTND). Individual SNP analysis revealed that SNPs rs17710 and rs222843 in GABA(A) receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) exhibited a significant association with at least one age- and gender-adjusted ND measure in the EA sample and rs222843 remained significant with the FTND after correction for multiple testing (P = 0.009). Although no SNP in DLG4 was significantly associated with ND, we found a G-G haplotype with a frequency of 14.2% formed by SNPs rs2242449 and rs507506 within the gene that showed significant inverse associations with all three ND measures [P = 0.003, 0.015 and 0.024, for SQ (defined as the number of cigarettes smoked per day), HSI and FTND, respectively]. We also found an A-A haplotype with a frequency of 8.8% formed by SNPs rs17710 and rs222843 in GABARAP, which revealed significant associations with all three ND measures (P = 0.006, 0.019 and 0.024, for SQ, HSI and FTND, respectively). To confirm these findings with a better coverage of GABARAP and DLG4, we conducted a second-stage association analysis by genotyping four more SNPs for GABARAP and nine more for DLG4 on the same set of samples. Our results from the second stage of individual SNP- and/or haplotype-based association analysis supported our finding of significant association of the DLG4 gene with ND. No significant association of GABARAP or DLG4 with ND was detected in the AA sample. Further, by comparing the linkage signal before and after adjustment for the SNPs of GABARAP and DLG4, we found that inclusion of the SNPs of the two genes as covariates largely reduced the linkage signal in the EA sample, but kept nearly unchanged in the AA sample. Taken together, our two-stage association analysis and linkage analysis results indicate that the GABARAP and DLG4 genes are involved in the etiology of ND in EA smokers. Further investigation of neurobiological mechanisms of the two genes in the etiology of ND is thus warranted.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR03655; NIDA NIH HHS: DA-03783, DA-12844

    Human molecular genetics 2007;16;2;142-53

  • No genetic association between postsynaptic density-95 gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia.

    Kawashima R, Ohnuma T, Shibata N and Arai H

    Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan. ritsukok@med.juntendo.ac.jp

    Disturbed glutamatergic neurotransmission, especially disturbed N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function, has been hypothesized to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It may also involve abnormalities in the intracellular signaling machineries that are linked to the NMDA receptor. Postsynaptic density-95 is known to bind NMDA receptor subunits and is involved in intracellular signal transduction and synaptic plasticity. Recently, we reported that gene expression of postsynaptic density-95 was altered in schizophrenic brains compared to controls. Therefore, in this study, we examined six polymorphisms in and around the postsynaptic density-95 gene in 259 schizophrenic cases and 188 healthy controls using TaqMan technology. The results suggested that these six polymorphisms did not affect risk for schizophrenia.

    Neuroscience letters 2006;400;1-2;168-71

Literature (138)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • No genetic association between postsynaptic density-95 gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia.

    Kawashima R, Ohnuma T, Shibata N and Arai H

    Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan. ritsukok@med.juntendo.ac.jp

    Disturbed glutamatergic neurotransmission, especially disturbed N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function, has been hypothesized to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It may also involve abnormalities in the intracellular signaling machineries that are linked to the NMDA receptor. Postsynaptic density-95 is known to bind NMDA receptor subunits and is involved in intracellular signal transduction and synaptic plasticity. Recently, we reported that gene expression of postsynaptic density-95 was altered in schizophrenic brains compared to controls. Therefore, in this study, we examined six polymorphisms in and around the postsynaptic density-95 gene in 259 schizophrenic cases and 188 healthy controls using TaqMan technology. The results suggested that these six polymorphisms did not affect risk for schizophrenia.

    Neuroscience letters 2006;400;1-2;168-71

Pubmed - other

  • Interaction of postsynaptic density protein-95 with NMDA receptors influences excitotoxicity in the yeast artificial chromosome mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    Fan J, Cowan CM, Zhang LY, Hayden MR and Raymond LA

    Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada.

    Evidence suggests that NMDA-type glutamate receptors contribute to degeneration of striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) in Huntington's disease (HD). Previously, we demonstrated that NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated current and/or toxicity is increased in MSNs from the yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) transgenic mouse model expressing polyglutamine (polyQ)-expanded (mutant) full-length human huntingtin (htt). Others have shown that membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs), such as PSD-95 and SAP102, modulate NMDAR surface expression and excitotoxicity in hippocampal and cortical neurons and that htt interacts with PSD-95. Here, we tested the hypothesis that an altered association between MAGUKs and NMDARs in mutant huntingtin-expressing cells contributes to increased susceptibility to excitotoxicity. We show that htt coimmunoprecipitated with SAP102 in HEK293T cells and striatal tissue from wild-type and YAC transgenic mice; however, the association of SAP102 with htt or the NMDAR NR2B subunit was unaffected by htt polyQ length, whereas association of PSD-95 with NR2B in striatal tissue was enhanced by increased htt polyQ length. Treatment of cultured MSNs with Tat-NR2B9c peptide blocked binding of NR2B with SAP102 and PSD-95 and reduced NMDAR surface expression by 20% in both YAC transgenic and wild-type MSNs, and also restored susceptibility to NMDAR excitoxicity in YAC HD MSNs to levels observed in wild-type MSNs; a similar effect on excitotoxicity was observed after knockdown of PSD-95 by small interfering RNA. Unlike previous findings in cortical and hippocampal neurons, rescue of NMDA toxicity by Tat-NR2B9c occurred independently of any effect on neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity. Our results elucidate further the mechanisms underlying enhanced excitotoxicity in HD.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2009;29;35;10928-38

  • Decreased expression of NMDA receptor-associated proteins in frontal cortex of elderly patients with schizophrenia.

    Funk AJ, Rumbaugh G, Harotunian V, McCullumsmith RE and Meador-Woodruff JH

    Departments of aNeurobiology bPsychiatry and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama, USA. adamfunk@uab.edu

    Converging evidence suggests too few activation-ready N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor complexes in the postsynaptic density in schizophrenia. Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), Synaptic GTPase-activating protein (SynGAP), and Multiple PDZ domain protein (MUPP1) are integral components of the NMDA receptor signaling complex, and help facilitate signaling, trafficking, and stabilization. We hypothesized that deficits involving these molecules may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. To test our hypothesis, we measured protein expression of PSD95, SynGAP, and MUPP1 in the anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We found decreased PSD95 expression in the anterior cingulate cortex. Antipsychotic medication analyses showed decreased SynGAP expression in the anterior cingulate cortex in patients off medication when analyzed against our comparison group. These data suggest that NMDA receptor complex formation, localization, and downstream signaling may be abnormal in schizophrenia.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: K08 MH074016, MH064673, MH066392, MH074016, MH53327, P50 MH066392, R01 MH053327, R01 MH064673, R01 MH094445

    Neuroreport 2009;20;11;1019-22

  • PSD-95 regulates D1 dopamine receptor resensitization, but not receptor-mediated Gs-protein activation.

    Sun P, Wang J, Gu W, Cheng W, Jin GZ, Friedman E, Zheng J and Zhen X

    State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Department of Neuropharmacology, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China.

    The present study aims to define the role of postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 in the regulation of dopamine (DA) receptor function. We found that PSD-95 physically associates with either D(1) or D(2) DA receptors in co-transfected HEK-293 cells. Stimulation of DA receptors altered the association between D(1) receptor and PSD-95 in a time-dependent manner. Functional assays indicated that PSD-95 co-expression did not affect D(1) receptor-stimulated cAMP production, Gs-protein activation or receptor desensitization. However, PSD-95 accelerated the recovery of internalized membrane receptors by promoting receptor recycling, thus resulting in enhanced resensitization of internalized D(1) receptors. Our results provide a novel mechanism for regulating DA receptor recycling that may play an important role in postsynaptic DA functional modulation and synaptic neuroplasticity.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: C06 RR012088, C06-RR-12088-01; NEI NIH HHS: R21 EY016754; PHS HHS: REY016754A

    Cell research 2009;19;5;612-24

  • Elevated levels of NR2A and PSD-95 in the lateral amygdala in depression.

    Karolewicz B, Szebeni K, Gilmore T, Maciag D, Stockmeier CA and Ordway GA

    Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216-4505, USA. bkarolewicz@psychiatry.umsmed.edu

    Compelling evidence suggests that major depression is associated with dysfunction of the brain glutamatergic transmission, and that the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays a role in antidepressant activity. Recent post-mortem studies demonstrate that depression is associated with altered concentrations of proteins associated with NMDA receptor signalling in the brain. The present study investigated glutamate signalling proteins in the amygdala from depressed subjects, given strong evidence for amygdala pathology in depression. Lateral amygdala samples were obtained from 13-14 pairs of age- sex-, and post-mortem-interval-matched depressed and psychiatrically healthy control subjects. Concentrations of NR1 and NR2A subunits of the NMDA receptor, as well as NMDA receptor-associated proteins such as post-synaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were measured by Western immunoblotting. Additionally, levels of enzymes involved in glutamate metabolism, including glutamine synthetase and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-67), were measured in the same amygdala samples. NR2A protein levels were markedly and significantly elevated (+115%, p=0.03) in depressed subjects compared to controls. Interestingly, PSD-95 levels were also highly elevated (+128%, p=0.01) in the same depressed subjects relative to controls. Amounts of NR1, nNOS, glutamine synthetase, and GAD-67 were unchanged. Increased levels of NR2A and PSD-95 suggest that glutamate signalling at the NMDA receptor in the amygdala is disrupted in depression.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P20 RR017701, P20 RR017701-067505, RR17701; NIMH NIH HHS: K02 MH002031, K02 MH002031-06, MH02031, MH46692, MH63187, MH67996, R01 MH046692, R01 MH046692-14A1, R01 MH063187, R01 MH063187-05, R01 MH067996, R01 MH067996-04

    The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology 2009;12;2;143-53

  • Muscarinic-induced recruitment of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase involves PSD-95/Dlg/Zo-1-mediated interactions.

    Kruger WA, Yun CC, Monteith GR and Poronnik P

    School of Biomedical Sciences and School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia.

    Efflux of cytosolic Ca2+ mediated by plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPases (PMCA) plays a key role in fine tuning the magnitude and duration of Ca2+ signaling following activation of G-protein-coupled receptors. However, the molecular mechanisms that underpin the trafficking of PMCA to the membrane during Ca2+ signaling remain largely unexplored in native cell models. One potential mechanism for the recruitment of proteins to the plasma membrane involves PDZ interactions. In this context, we investigated the role of PMCA interactions with the Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 2 (NHERF-2) during muscarinic-induced Ca2+ mobilization in the HT-29 epithelial cell line. GST pull-downs in HT-29 cell lysates showed that the PDZ2 module of NHERF-2 bound to the PDZ binding motif on the C terminus of PMCA. Co-immunoprecipitations confirmed that PMCA1b and NHERF-2 associated under normal conditions in HT-29 cells. Cell surface biotinylations revealed significant increases in membrane-associated NHERF-2 and PMCA within 60 s following muscarinic activation, accompanied by increased association of the two proteins as seen by confocal microscopy. The recruitment of NHERF-2 to the membrane preceded that of PMCA, suggesting that NHERF-2 was involved in nucleating an efflux complex at the membrane. The muscarinic-mediated translocation of PMCA was abolished when NHERF-2 was silenced, and the rate of relative Ca2+ efflux was also reduced. These experiments also uncovered a NHERF-2-independent PMCA retrieval mechanism. Our findings describe rapid agonist-induced translocation of PMCA in a native cell model and suggest that NHERF-2 plays a key role in scaffolding and maintaining PMCA at the cell membrane.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK061418, R01 DK061418, R01 DK061418-05, R01 DK061418-06A1

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;3;1820-30

  • Delineation of additional PSD-95 binding domains within NMDA receptor NR2 subunits reveals differences between NR2A/PSD-95 and NR2B/PSD-95 association.

    Cousins SL, Kenny AV and Stephenson FA

    School of Pharmacy, University of London, 29/39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, UK.

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are clustered at synapses via their association with the PSD-95 (post-synaptic density-95) membrane associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of scaffolding proteins. PSD-95 is the best characterized of this family. It is known to associate with NMDA receptor NR2 subunits via a conserved ES(E/D)V amino acid sequence located at their C-termini and thus to promote the clustering, regulation and the trafficking of assembled NR1/NR2 NMDA receptors at synapses. Here we have investigated in more detail NMDA receptor NR2/PSD-95 protein-protein association. Wild-type NR1 and PSD-95alpha were co-expressed with a series of rodent C-terminal truncated constructs of either NR2A or NR2B subunits in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and the association of PSD-95alpha with assembled receptors determined by immunoprecipitation. Additional PSD-95 binding domains that differed between NR2A and NR2B subunits were identified. These domains mapped to the amino acid sequences NR2A (1382-1420) and NR2B (1086-1157). These results suggest that NR2A and NR2B may associate with PSD-95 but with different affinities. This may be important in the determination of the lateral mobility of NMDA receptor subtypes in post-synaptic membranes.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

    Neuroscience 2009;158;1;89-95

  • Preso, a novel PSD-95-interacting FERM and PDZ domain protein that regulates dendritic spine morphogenesis.

    Lee HW, Choi J, Shin H, Kim K, Yang J, Na M, Choi SY, Kang GB, Eom SH, Kim H and Kim E

    National Creative Research Initiative Center for Synaptogenesis and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.

    PSD-95 is an abundant postsynaptic density (PSD) protein involved in the formation and regulation of excitatory synapses and dendritic spines, but the underlying mechanisms are not comprehensively understood. Here we report a novel PSD-95-interacting protein Preso that regulates spine morphogenesis. Preso is mainly expressed in the brain and contains WW (domain with two conserved Trp residues), PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1), FERM (4.1, ezrin, radixin, and moesin), and C-terminal PDZ-binding domains. These domains associate with actin filaments, the Rac1/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor betaPix, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, and the postsynaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95, respectively. Preso overexpression increases the density of dendritic spines in a manner requiring WW, PDZ, FERM, and PDZ-binding domains. Conversely, knockdown or dominant-negative inhibition of Preso decreases spine density, excitatory synaptic transmission, and the spine level of filamentous actin. These results suggest that Preso positively regulates spine density through its interaction with the synaptic plasma membrane, actin filaments, PSD-95, and the betaPix-based Rac1 signaling pathway.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2008;28;53;14546-56

  • Postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 expression in Alzheimer's disease and okadaic acid induced neuritic retraction.

    Leuba G, Walzer C, Vernay A, Carnal B, Kraftsik R, Piotton F, Marin P, Bouras C and Savioz A

    Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland.

    In order to understand how plasticity is related to neurodegeneration, we studied synaptic proteins with quantitative immunohistochemistry in the entorhinal cortex from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls. We observed a significant decrease in presynaptic synaptophysin and an increase in postsynaptic density protein PSD-95, positively correlated with beta amyloid and phosphorylated Tau proteins in Alzheimer cases. Furthermore, Alzheimer-like neuritic retraction was generated in okadaic acid (OA) treated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with no decrease in PSD-95 expression. However, in a SH-SY5Y clone with decreased expression of transcription regulator LMO4 (as observed in Alzheimer's disease) and increased neuritic length, PSD-95 expression was enhanced but did not change with OA treatment. Therefore, increased PSD-95 immunoreactivity in the entorhinal cortex might result from compensatory mechanisms, as in the SH-SY5Y clone, whereas increased Alzheimer-like Tau phosphorylation is not related to PSD-95 expression, as suggested by the OA-treated cell models.

    Neurobiology of disease 2008;30;3;408-19

  • Motor protein-dependent transport of AMPA receptors into spines during long-term potentiation.

    Correia SS, Bassani S, Brown TC, Lisé MF, Backos DS, El-Husseini A, Passafaro M and Esteban JA

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, 1150 W. Medical Center Dr., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0632, USA.

    The regulated trafficking of neurotransmitter receptors at synapses is critical for synaptic function and plasticity. However, the molecular machinery that controls active transport of receptors into synapses is largely unknown. We found that, in rat hippocampus, the insertion of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) into spines during synaptic plasticity requires a specific motor protein, which we identified as myosin Va. We found that myosin Va associates with AMPARs through its cargo binding domain. This interaction was enhanced by active, GTP-bound Rab11, which is also transported by the motor protein. Myosin Va mediated the CaMKII-triggered translocation of GluR1 receptors from the dendritic shaft into spines, but it was not required for constitutive GluR2 trafficking. Accordingly, myosin Va was specifically required for long-term potentiation, but not for basal synaptic transmission. In summary, we identified the specific motor protein and organelle acceptor that catalyze the directional transport of AMPARs into spines during activity-dependent synaptic plasticity.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: F31-MH070205, MH070417; Telethon: TCR07006

    Nature neuroscience 2008;11;4;457-66

  • Synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95 in the human prefrontal cortex from mid-gestation into early adulthood.

    Glantz LA, Gilmore JH, Hamer RM, Lieberman JA and Jarskog LF

    Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB# 7160, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7160, USA. leisa_glantz@med.unc.edu

    Previous studies of postnatal synaptic development in human frontal cortex have shown that synaptic density rises after birth, reaches a plateau in childhood and then decreases to adult levels by late adolescence. A similar pattern has been seen in nonhuman primate cortex. These earlier studies in human cortex are limited, however, by significant age gaps in study subjects at critical inflection points of the developmental curve. Additionally, it is unclear if synaptic development occurs in different patterns in different cortical layers in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The purpose of this study was to examine synaptic density in human PFC across development by measuring two synaptic marker proteins: synaptophysin (presynaptic), and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95; postsynaptic). Western blotting was used to assess the relative levels of synaptophysin and PSD-95 in dorsolateral PFC of 42 subjects, distributed in age from 18 weeks gestation to 25 years. In addition, synaptophysin immunoreactivity was examined in each layer of areas 9 and 46 of PFC in 24 subjects, ranging in age from 0.1-25 years. Synaptophysin levels slowly increased from birth until age 5 and then increased more rapidly to peak in late childhood around age 10. Synaptophysin subsequently decreased until the adult level was reached by mid-adolescence, around age 16. PSD-95 levels increased postnatally to reach a stable plateau by early childhood with a slight reduction in late adolescence and early adulthood. The pattern of synaptophysin immunoreactivity seen with immunohistochemistry was similar to the Western experiments but the changes across age were more subtle, with little change by layer within and across age. The developmental patterns exhibited by these synaptic marker proteins expand upon previous studies of developmental synaptic changes in human frontal cortex; synaptic density increases steadily from birth to late childhood, then decreases in early adolescence to reach adult levels by late adolescence.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: K01 MH069655, K01 MH069655-04, K08 MH001752, K08 MH001752-05, MH-01752, MH-069655, MH-64065, P50 MH064065, P50 MH064065-06

    Neuroscience 2007;149;3;582-91

  • Post-synaptic density perturbs insulin-induced Kv1.3 channel modulation via a clustering mechanism involving the SH3 domain.

    Marks DR and Fadool DA

    Department of Biological Science, Program in Neuroscience, Biomedical Research Facility, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.

    The olfactory bulb (OB) contains the highest concentration of the insulin receptor (IR) kinase in the central nervous system; however, its functional role and modulation in this region remains poorly understood. IR kinase contains a number of proline-rich motifs, making it an excellent candidate for modulation by SH(3) domain-containing adaptor proteins. Kv1.3, a voltage-gated Shaker potassium channel and tyrosine phosphorylation substrate of IR kinase, contains several proline-rich sequences and a canonical post-synaptic density 95 (PSD-95)/discs large/zO-1 domain (PDZ) recognition motif common to most Shaker family members. We sought to determine if a functional relationship existed between Kv1.3, IR kinase, and the SH(3)/PDZ adaptor protein PSD-95. Through patch-clamp electrophysiology, immunochemistry, and co-immunoprecipitation, we found that while Kv1.3 and PSD-95 alone interact via the canonical C-terminal PDZ recognition motif of the channel, this molecular site of interaction acts to cluster the channels but the PSD-95 SH(3)-guanylate kinase domain functionally modulates Kv1.3 activity via two proline-rich domains in its N- and C-terminal. Therefore, these data suggest that adaptor domains responsible for ion-channel clustering and functional modulation are not necessarily coupled. Moreover, IR kinase and Kv1.3 can only be co-immunoprecipitated in the presence of PSD-95 as the adapting linker. Functionally, insulin-dependent Kv1.3 phosphorylation that causes channel current suppression is blocked via interaction with the PSD-95 SH(3)-guanylate kinase domain. Because all the three proteins co-localize in multiple lamina of the OB that are known to be rich in synaptic connections, membrane excitability and synaptic transmission at critical locations in the OB have the capacity to be finely regulated.

    Funded by: NIDCD NIH HHS: DC03387, F31 DC008045, F31DC008045, R01 DC003387, R01 DC003387-10, R29 DC003387

    Journal of neurochemistry 2007;103;4;1608-27

  • Requirement of PSD-95 for dopamine D1 receptor modulating glutamate NR1a/NR2B receptor function.

    Gu WH, Yang S, Shi WX, Jin GZ and Zhen XC

    Department of Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China.

    Aim: To elucidate the role of scaffold protein postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 in the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R)-modulated NR1a/NR2B receptor response.

    Methods: The human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing D1R (tagged with the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein) and NR1a/NR2B with or without co-expression of PSD-95 were used in the experiments. The Ca2+ influx measured by imaging technique was employed to monitor N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors (NMDAR) function.

    Results: The application of dopamine (DA, 100 micromol/L) did not alter glutamate/glycine (Glu/Gly)-induced NMDAR-mediated Ca2+ influx in cells only expressing the D1R/NR1a/NR2B receptor. However, DA increased Glu/Gly-induced Ca2+ influx in a concentration-dependent manner while the cells were co-expressed with PSD-95. D1R-stimulated Ca2+ influx was inhibited by a selective D1R antagonist SCH23390. Moreover, pre-incubation with either the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89, or the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine attenuated D1R-enhanced Ca2+ influx induced by the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) agonist. The results clearly indicate that D1R-modulated NR1a/NR2B receptor function depends on PSD-95 and is subjected to the regulation of PKA and PKC.

    Conclusion: The present study provides the first evidence that PSD-95 is essential in D1R-regulated NR1a/NR2B receptor function.

    Acta pharmacologica Sinica 2007;28;6;756-62

  • Systematic identification of SH3 domain-mediated human protein-protein interactions by peptide array target screening.

    Wu C, Ma MH, Brown KR, Geisler M, Li L, Tzeng E, Jia CY, Jurisica I and Li SS

    Department of Biochemistry and the Siebens-Drake Research Institute, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

    Systematic identification of direct protein-protein interactions is often hampered by difficulties in expressing and purifying the corresponding full-length proteins. By taking advantage of the modular nature of many regulatory proteins, we attempted to simplify protein-protein interactions to the corresponding domain-ligand recognition and employed peptide arrays to identify such binding events. A group of 12 Src homology (SH) 3 domains from eight human proteins (Swiss-Prot ID: SRC, PLCG1, P85A, NCK1, GRB2, FYN, CRK) were used to screen a peptide target array composed of 1536 potential ligands, which led to the identification of 921 binary interactions between these proteins and 284 targets. To assess the efficiency of the peptide array target screening (PATS) method in identifying authentic protein-protein interactions, we examined a set of interactions mediated by the PLCgamma1 SH3 domain by coimmunoprecipitation and/or affinity pull-downs using full-length proteins and achieved a 75% success rate. Furthermore, we characterized a novel interaction between PLCgamma1 and hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1) identified by PATS and demonstrated that the PLCgamma1 SH3 domain negatively regulated HPK1 kinase activity. Compared to protein interactions listed in the online predicted human interaction protein database (OPHID), the majority of interactions identified by PATS are novel, suggesting that, when extended to the large number of peptide interaction domains encoded by the human genome, PATS should aid in the mapping of the human interactome.

    Proteomics 2007;7;11;1775-85

  • A thermodynamic ligand binding study of the third PDZ domain (PDZ3) from the mammalian neuronal protein PSD-95.

    Saro D, Li T, Rupasinghe C, Paredes A, Caspers N and Spaller MR

    Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202, USA.

    The thermodynamic parameters associated with the binding of several series of linear peptides to the third PDZ domain (PDZ3) of the postsynaptic density 95 protein (PSD-95) have been measured using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Two strategies were pursued in developing these binding ligands: (1) systematic N-terminal truncation of sequences derived from the C-terminal regions of identified PDZ3-binding proteins (CRIPT, neuroligin-1, and citron) and (2) selective mutation of specific positions within a consensus hexapeptide (KKETEV) known to bind PDZ3. Each synthetically prepared peptide was used to titrate PDZ3, which yielded the changes in Gibbs free energy (DeltaG), enthalpy (DeltaH), and entropy (TDeltaS) for the binding event. Selected peptides were subjected to additional analysis, which entailed (1) measuring the change in heat capacity (DeltaCp) upon association, to assess the character of the binding interface, and (2) constructing thermodynamic double mutant cycles, to determine the presence of cooperative effects. From the first series, the CRIPT protein proved to be the better source for higher affinity sequences. From the second series, enhanced binding was associated with peptides that closely adhered to the established motif for class I PDZ domain C-termini, X-(T/S)-X-(V/I/L), and more specifically to a narrower motif of X-T-X-V. Further, in both series a length of six residues was necessary and sufficient to capture maximal affinity. In addition, there were significant influences upon binding by modifying the abutting "X" positions. The cumulative results provide greater detail into the specific nature of ligand binding to PDZ3 and will assist in the development of selective molecular probes for the study of this and structurally homologous PDZ domains.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM63021, R01 GM063021, R01 GM063021-02, R01 GM063021-03, R01 GM063021-04, R01 GM063021-05, R01 GM063021-06

    Biochemistry 2007;46;21;6340-52

  • Fine mapping of a linkage region on chromosome 17p13 reveals that GABARAP and DLG4 are associated with vulnerability to nicotine dependence in European-Americans.

    Lou XY, Ma JZ, Sun D, Payne TJ and Li MD

    Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciencesm, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

    A two-stage association study was conducted targeting a genomic region on chromosome 17p13 that we reported likely to harbor susceptibility gene(s) for nicotine dependence (ND). Participants were 2037 subjects from 602 nuclear families of either African-American (AA) or European-American (EA) origin from our Mid-South Tobacco Family (MSTF) cohort. We first examined 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes within the targeted region of about 90 kb to determine which SNP/gene was associated with ND, assessed by smoking quantity (SQ), the heaviness of smoking index (HSI) and the Fagerström Test for ND (FTND). Individual SNP analysis revealed that SNPs rs17710 and rs222843 in GABA(A) receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) exhibited a significant association with at least one age- and gender-adjusted ND measure in the EA sample and rs222843 remained significant with the FTND after correction for multiple testing (P = 0.009). Although no SNP in DLG4 was significantly associated with ND, we found a G-G haplotype with a frequency of 14.2% formed by SNPs rs2242449 and rs507506 within the gene that showed significant inverse associations with all three ND measures [P = 0.003, 0.015 and 0.024, for SQ (defined as the number of cigarettes smoked per day), HSI and FTND, respectively]. We also found an A-A haplotype with a frequency of 8.8% formed by SNPs rs17710 and rs222843 in GABARAP, which revealed significant associations with all three ND measures (P = 0.006, 0.019 and 0.024, for SQ, HSI and FTND, respectively). To confirm these findings with a better coverage of GABARAP and DLG4, we conducted a second-stage association analysis by genotyping four more SNPs for GABARAP and nine more for DLG4 on the same set of samples. Our results from the second stage of individual SNP- and/or haplotype-based association analysis supported our finding of significant association of the DLG4 gene with ND. No significant association of GABARAP or DLG4 with ND was detected in the AA sample. Further, by comparing the linkage signal before and after adjustment for the SNPs of GABARAP and DLG4, we found that inclusion of the SNPs of the two genes as covariates largely reduced the linkage signal in the EA sample, but kept nearly unchanged in the AA sample. Taken together, our two-stage association analysis and linkage analysis results indicate that the GABARAP and DLG4 genes are involved in the etiology of ND in EA smokers. Further investigation of neurobiological mechanisms of the two genes in the etiology of ND is thus warranted.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR03655; NIDA NIH HHS: DA-03783, DA-12844

    Human molecular genetics 2007;16;2;142-53

  • Association study of polymorphisms in post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) with schizophrenia.

    Tsai SJ, Hong CJ, Cheng CY, Liao DL and Liou YJ

    Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. sjtsai@vghtpe.gov.tw

    The postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) - the prototype of this family - is a modular protein that enables anchoring of NMDA receptors, modulates NMDA receptor sensitivity to glutamate and coordinates NMDA receptor-related intracellular processes. Since hypofunction of NMDA receptors has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we explored the hypothesis that genetic variants of the PSD-95 gene were associated with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Three PSD-95 polymorphisms were studied in a sample population of 248 people with schizophrenia and 208 normal controls. One polymorphism (rs373339) was not informative in our Chinese population while the other two polymorphisms (rs2521985 and rs17203281) were analysed with chi-square tests and haplotype analysis. Results demonstrated that the two informative polymorphisms are in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other. Neither single marker nor haplotype analysis revealed an association between variants at the PSD-95 locus and schizophrenia, suggesting that it is unlikely that the PSD-95 polymorphisms investigated play a substantial role in conferring susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Chinese population. Further genetic studies in schizophrenia with other PSD-95-like molecules that interact with the glutamate system are suggested.

    Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) 2007;114;4;423-6

  • Violating the splicing rules: TG dinucleotides function as alternative 3' splice sites in U2-dependent introns.

    Szafranski K, Schindler S, Taudien S, Hiller M, Huse K, Jahn N, Schreiber S, Backofen R and Platzer M

    Genome Analysis, Leibniz Institute for Age Research, Fritz Lipmann Institute, Beutenbergstr, 07745 Jena, Germany. szafrans@fli-leibniz.de

    Background: Despite some degeneracy of sequence signals that govern splicing of eukaryotic pre-mRNAs, it is an accepted rule that U2-dependent introns exhibit the 3' terminal dinucleotide AG. Intrigued by anecdotal evidence for functional non-AG 3' splice sites, we carried out a human genome-wide screen.

    Results: We identified TG dinucleotides functioning as alternative 3' splice sites in 36 human genes. The TG-derived splice variants were experimentally validated with a success rate of 92%. Interestingly, ratios of alternative splice variants are tissue-specific for several introns. TG splice sites and their flanking intron sequences are substantially conserved between orthologous vertebrate genes, even between human and frog, indicating functional relevance. Remarkably, TG splice sites are exclusively found as alternative 3' splice sites, never as the sole 3' splice site for an intron, and we observed a distance constraint for TG-AG splice site tandems.

    Conclusion: Since TGs splice sites are exclusively found as alternative 3' splice sites, the U2 spliceosome apparently accomplishes perfect specificity for 3' AGs at an early splicing step, but may choose 3' TGs during later steps. Given the tiny fraction of TG 3' splice sites compared to the vast amount of non-viable TGs, cis-acting sequence signals must significantly contribute to splice site definition. Thus, we consider TG-AG 3' splice site tandems as promising subjects for studies on the mechanisms of 3' splice site selection.

    Genome biology 2007;8;8;R154

  • PSD-95 is a negative regulator of the tyrosine kinase Src in the NMDA receptor complex.

    Kalia LV, Pitcher GM, Pelkey KA and Salter MW

    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    The tyrosine kinase Src upregulates the activity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptor (NMDAR) and tyrosine phosphorylation of this receptor is critical for induction of NMDAR-dependent plasticity of synaptic transmission. A binding partner for Src within the NMDAR complex is the protein PSD-95. Here we demonstrate an interaction of PSD-95 with Src that does not require the well-characterized domains of PSD-95. Rather, we show binding to Src through a 12-amino-acid sequence in the N-terminal region of PSD-95, a region not previously known to participate in protein-protein interactions. This region interacts directly with the Src SH2 domain. Contrary to typical SH2 domain binding, the PSD-95-Src SH2 domain interaction is phosphotyrosine-independent. Binding of the Src-interacting region of PSD-95 inhibits Src kinase activity and reduces NMDAR phosphorylation. Intracellularly administering a peptide matching the Src SH2 domain-interacting region of PSD-95 depresses NMDAR currents in cultured neurons and inhibits induction of long-term potentiation in hippocampus. Thus, the PSD-95-Src SH2 domain interaction suppresses Src-mediated NMDAR upregulation, a finding that may be of broad importance for synaptic transmission and plasticity.

    The EMBO journal 2006;25;20;4971-82

  • SPIN90/WISH interacts with PSD-95 and regulates dendritic spinogenesis via an N-WASP-independent mechanism.

    Lee S, Lee K, Hwang S, Kim SH, Song WK, Park ZY and Chang S

    Department of Life Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, South Korea.

    SPIN90/WISH (SH3 protein interacting with Nck, 90 kDa/Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) interacting SH3 protein) regulates actin polymerization through its interaction with various actin-regulating proteins. It is highly expressed in the brain, but its role in the nervous system is largely unknown. We report that it is expressed in dendritic spines where it associates with PSD-95. Its overexpression increased the number and length of dendritic filopodia/spines via an N-WASP-independent mechanism, and knock down of its expression with small interfering RNA reduced dendritic spine density. The increase in spinogenesis is accompanied by an increase in synaptogenesis in contacting presynaptic neurons. Interestingly, PSD-95-induced dendritic spinogenesis was completely abolished by knock down of SPIN90/WISH. Finally, in response to chemically induced long-term potentiation, SPIN90/WISH associated with PSD-95 and was redistributed to dendritic spines. Our results suggest that SPIN90/WISH associates with PSD-95, and so becomes localized to dendritic spines where it modulates actin dynamics to control dendritic spinogenesis. They also raise the possibility that SPIN90/WISH is a downstream effector of PSD-95-dependent synaptic remodeling.

    The EMBO journal 2006;25;20;4983-95

  • Comparative analysis of structure, expression and PSD95-binding capacity of Lrfn, a novel family of neuronal transmembrane proteins.

    Morimura N, Inoue T, Katayama K and Aruga J

    Laboratory for Comparative Neurogenesis, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.

    Leucine-rich repeat and fibronectin III domain-containing (Lrfn) has five members in mouse and human (Lrfn1, Lrfn2, Lrfn3, Lrfn4, Lrfn5), and homologues in other vertebrates. Lrfn proteins share leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-immunoglobulin-like (Ig)-fibronectin type III (Fn)-transmembrane domain structure, which is also found in LRR-Ig-Fn superfamily proteins. Mouse Lrfn genes were expressed at adult stage predominantly in the brain. In the course of development, expression of Lrfn1, Lrfn3, and Lrfn4 started from immature neural cells, whereas that of Lrfn2 and Lrfn5 was limited to mature ones. Lrfn1-5 commonly encode glycoproteins spanning the plasma membrane, with their N-terminus located on the extracellular side. C-termini of Lrfn1, Lrfn2 and Lrfn4 were bound by PDZ domains of postsynaptic protein PSD95, re-distributing PSD95 to cell periphery where the Lrfn proteins were detected. These results suggest that Lrfn proteins are neuronal components with a role in the developing or mature vertebrate nervous system.

    Gene 2006;380;2;72-83

  • Epilepsy-related ligand/receptor complex LGI1 and ADAM22 regulate synaptic transmission.

    Fukata Y, Adesnik H, Iwanaga T, Bredt DS, Nicoll RA and Fukata M

    Laboratory of Genomics and Proteomics, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Aichi 474-8522, Japan.

    Abnormally synchronized synaptic transmission in the brain causes epilepsy. Most inherited forms of epilepsy result from mutations in ion channels. However, one form of epilepsy, autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF), is characterized by mutations in a secreted neuronal protein, LGI1. We show that ADAM22, a transmembrane protein that when mutated itself causes seizure, serves as a receptor for LGI1. LGI1 enhances AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices. The mutated form of LGI1 fails to bind to ADAM22. ADAM22 is anchored to the postsynaptic density by cytoskeletal scaffolds containing stargazin. These studies in rat brain indicate possible avenues for understanding human epilepsy.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2006;313;5794;1792-5

  • Altered neuregulin 1-erbB4 signaling contributes to NMDA receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia.

    Hahn CG, Wang HY, Cho DS, Talbot K, Gur RE, Berrettini WH, Bakshi K, Kamins J, Borgmann-Winter KE, Siegel SJ, Gallop RJ and Arnold SE

    Cellular and Molecular Neuropathology Program, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. hahnc@mail.med.upenn.edu

    Recent molecular genetics studies implicate neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its receptor erbB in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Among NRG1 receptors, erbB4 is of particular interest because of its crucial roles in neurodevelopment and in the modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling. Here, using a new postmortem tissue-stimulation approach, we show a marked increase in NRG1-induced activation of erbB4 in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Levels of NRG1 and erbB4, however, did not differ between schizophrenia and control groups. To evaluate possible causes for this hyperactivation of erbB4 signaling, we examined the association of erbB4 with PSD-95 (postsynaptic density protein of 95 kDa), as this association has been shown to facilitate activation of erbB4. Schizophrenia subjects showed substantial increases in erbB4-PSD-95 interactions. We found that NRG1 stimulation suppresses NMDA receptor activation in the human prefrontal cortex, as previously reported in the rodent cortex. NRG1-induced suppression of NMDA receptor activation was more pronounced in schizophrenia subjects than in controls, consistent with enhanced NRG1-erbB4 signaling seen in this illness. Therefore, these findings suggest that enhanced NRG1 signaling may contribute to NMDA hypofunction in schizophrenia.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH63946, MH64045

    Nature medicine 2006;12;7;824-8

  • Uncovering quantitative protein interaction networks for mouse PDZ domains using protein microarrays.

    Stiffler MA, Grantcharova VP, Sevecka M and MacBeath G

    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.

    One of the principal challenges in systems biology is to uncover the networks of protein-protein interactions that underlie most biological processes. To date, experimental efforts directed at this problem have largely produced only qualitative networks that are replete with false positives and false negatives. Here, we describe a domain-centered approach--compatible with genome-wide investigations--that enables us to measure the equilibrium dissociation constant (K(D)) of recombinant PDZ domains for fluorescently labeled peptides that represent physiologically relevant binding partners. Using a pilot set of 22 PDZ domains, 4 PDZ domain clusters, and 20 peptides, we define a gold standard dataset by determining the K(D) for all 520 PDZ-peptide combinations using fluorescence polarization. We then show that microarrays of PDZ domains identify interactions of moderate to high affinity (K(D) < or = 10 microM) in a high-throughput format with a false positive rate of 14% and a false negative rate of 14%. By combining the throughput of protein microarrays with the fidelity of fluorescence polarization, our domain/peptide-based strategy yields a quantitative network that faithfully recapitulates 85% of previously reported interactions and uncovers new biophysical interactions, many of which occur between proteins that are co-expressed. From a broader perspective, the selectivity data produced by this effort reveal a strong concordance between protein sequence and protein function, supporting a model in which interaction networks evolve through small steps that do not involve dramatic rewiring of the network.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: 1 R01 GM072872-01, 5 T32 GM07598-25, R01 GM072872, R01 GM072872-04, T32 GM007598

    Journal of the American Chemical Society 2006;128;17;5913-22

  • Ggamma13 interacts with PDZ domain-containing proteins.

    Li Z, Benard O and Margolskee RF

    Department of Neuroscience, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA.

    The G protein gamma13 subunit (Ggamma13) is expressed in taste and retinal and neuronal tissues and plays a key role in taste transduction. We identified PSD95, Veli-2, and other PDZ domain-containing proteins as binding partners for Ggamma13 by yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays. In two-hybrid assays, Ggamma13 interacted specifically with the third PDZ domain of PSD95, the sole PDZ domain of Veli-2, and the third PDZ domain of SAP97, a PSD95-related protein. Ggamma13 did not interact with the other PDZ domains of PSD95. Coexpression of Ggamma13 with its Gbeta1 partner did not interfere with these two-hybrid interactions. The physical interaction of Ggamma13 with PSD95 in the cellular milieu was confirmed in pull-down assays following heterologous expression in HEK293 cells. The interaction of Ggamma13 with the PDZ domain of PSD95 was via the C-terminal CAAX tail of Ggamma13 (where AA indicates the aliphatic amino acid); alanine substitution of the CTAL sequence at the C terminus of Ggamma13 abolished its interactions with PSD95 in two-hybrid and pull-down assays. Veli-2 and SAP97 were identified in taste tissue and in Ggamma13-expressing taste cells. Coimmunoprecipitation of Ggamma13 and PSD95 from brain and of Ggamma13 and SAP97 from taste tissue indicates that Ggamma13 interacts with these proteins endogenously. This is the first demonstration that PDZ domain proteins interact with heterotrimeric G proteins via the CAAX tail of Ggamma subunits. The interaction of Ggamma13 with PDZ domain-containing proteins may provide a means to target particular Gbetagamma subunits to specific subcellular locations and/or macromolecular complexes involved in signaling pathways.

    Funded by: NIDCD NIH HHS: DC003055, DC003155

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;16;11066-73

  • Apolipoprotein E receptor 2 interactions with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor.

    Hoe HS, Pocivavsek A, Chakraborty G, Fu Z, Vicini S, Ehlers MD and Rebeck GW

    Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057-1464, USA.

    In our previous studies we showed that apoE treatment of neurons activated ERK 1/2 signaling, and activation was blocked by treatment with inhibitors of the low density lipoprotein receptor family, the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK 801, and calcium channel blockers. We hypothesized an interaction between the low density lipoprotein receptor family members and the NMDA receptor. In the present study, we confirmed through co-immunoprecipitation experiments an interaction between the apoE receptor, ApoEr2, and NMDAR1 through their extracellular domains. We also found that the PDZ1 domain of PSD95, a postsynaptic scaffolding protein, interacted with the C terminus of ApoEr2 via an alternatively spliced, intracellular exon. This interaction between ApoEr2 and PSD95 in neurons was modulated by NMDA receptor activation and an ApoEr2 ligand. We also found that the PDZ2 domain of PSD95 interacted with the NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors. Full-length PSD95 increased cell surface levels of ApoEr2 and its cleavage, resulting in increases in secreted ApoEr2 and C-terminal fragments of ApoEr2. These studies suggest that ApoEr2 can form a multiprotein complex with NMDA receptor subunits and PSD95.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;6;3425-31

  • Proteomic analysis of beta1-adrenergic receptor interactions with PDZ scaffold proteins.

    He J, Bellini M, Inuzuka H, Xu J, Xiong Y, Yang X, Castleberry AM and Hall RA

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100054, China.

    Many G protein-coupled receptors possess carboxyl-terminal motifs ideal for interaction with PDZ scaffold proteins, which can control receptor trafficking and signaling in a cell-specific manner. To gain a panoramic view of beta1-adrenergic receptor (beta AR) interactions with PDZ scaffolds, the beta1AR carboxyl terminus was screened against a newly developed proteomic array of PDZ domains. These screens confirmed beta1AR associations with several previously identified PDZ partners, such as PSD-95, MAGI-2, GIPC, and CAL. Moreover, two novel beta1AR-interacting proteins, SAP97 and MAGI-3, were also identified. The beta1AR carboxyl terminus was found to bind specifically to the first PDZ domain of MAGI-3, with the last four amino acids (E-S-K-V) of beta1AR being the key determinants of the interaction. Full-length beta1AR robustly associated with full-length MAGI-3 in cells, and this association was abolished by mutation of the beta1AR terminal valine residue to alanine (V477A), as determined by co-immunoprecipitation experiments and immunofluorescence co-localization studies. MAGI-3 co-expression with beta1AR profoundly impaired beta1AR-mediated ERK1/2 activation but had no apparent effect on beta1AR-mediated cyclic AMP generation or agonist-promoted beta1AR internalization. These findings revealed that the interaction of MAGI-3 with beta1AR can selectively regulate specific aspects of receptor signaling. Moreover, the screens of the PDZ domain proteomic array provide a comprehensive view of beta1AR interactions with PDZ scaffolds, thereby shedding light on the molecular mechanisms by which beta1 AR signaling and trafficking can be regulated in a cell-specific manner.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;5;2820-7

  • Semaphorin 4B interacts with the post-synaptic density protein PSD-95/SAP90 and is recruited to synapses through a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif.

    Burkhardt C, Müller M, Badde A, Garner CC, Gundelfinger ED and Püschel AW

    Abt. Molekularbiologie, Institut für Allgemeine Zoologie und Genetik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Schlossplatz 5, D-48149 Münster, Germany.

    The semaphorins are a large family of proteins that act as guidance signals for axons and dendrites. The class 4 semaphorins are integral membrane proteins that are widely expressed throughout the nervous system. Here, we show that a subclass of these semaphorins is characterized by a PDZ-binding motif at their carboxy-terminus. This sequence mediates the interaction with the post-synaptic density protein PSD-95/SAP90. Co-expression of Sema4B with PSD-95 in COS 7 cells results in the clustering of Sema4B. Sema4B co-localizes with PSD-95 at synaptic contacts between cultured hippocampal neurons. This synaptic localization depends on the presence of the PDZ-binding motif.

    FEBS letters 2005;579;17;3821-8

  • A novel scaffold protein, TANC, possibly a rat homolog of Drosophila rolling pebbles (rols), forms a multiprotein complex with various postsynaptic density proteins.

    Suzuki T, Li W, Zhang JP, Tian QB, Sakagami H, Usuda N, Usada N, Kondo H, Fujii T and Endo S

    Department of Neuroplasticity, Institute on Ageing and Adaptation, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621, Japan. suzukit@sch.md.shinshu-u.ac.jp

    We cloned from the rat brain a novel gene, tanc (GenBank Accession No. AB098072), which encoded a protein containing three tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs), ten ankyrin repeats and a coiled-coil region, and is possibly a rat homolog of Drosophila rolling pebbles (rols). The tanc gene was expressed widely in the adult rat brain. Subcellular distribution, immunohistochemical study of the brain and immunocytochemical studies of cultured neuronal cells indicated the postsynaptic localization of TANC protein of 200 kDa. Pull-down experiments showed that TANC protein bound PSD-95, SAP97, and Homer via its C-terminal PDZ-binding motif, -ESNV, and fodrin via both its ankyrin repeats and the TPRs together with the coiled-coil domain. TANC also bound the alpha subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. An immunoprecipitation study showed TANC association with various postsynaptic proteins, including guanylate kinase-associated protein (GKAP), alpha-internexin, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor 2B and AMPA-type glutamate receptor (GluR1) subunits. These results suggest that TANC protein may work as a postsynaptic scaffold component by forming a multiprotein complex with various postsynaptic density proteins.

    The European journal of neuroscience 2005;21;2;339-50

  • Huntingtin-interacting protein HIP14 is a palmitoyl transferase involved in palmitoylation and trafficking of multiple neuronal proteins.

    Huang K, Yanai A, Kang R, Arstikaitis P, Singaraja RR, Metzler M, Mullard A, Haigh B, Gauthier-Campbell C, Gutekunst CA, Hayden MR and El-Husseini A

    Department of Psychiatry, Brain Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

    In neurons, posttranslational modification by palmitate regulates the trafficking and function of signaling molecules, neurotransmitter receptors, and associated synaptic scaffolding proteins. However, the enzymatic machinery involved in protein palmitoylation has remained elusive. Here, using biochemical assays, we show that huntingtin (htt) interacting protein, HIP14, is a neuronal palmitoyl transferase (PAT). HIP14 shows remarkable substrate specificity for neuronal proteins, including SNAP-25, PSD-95, GAD65, synaptotagmin I, and htt. Conversely, HIP14 is catalytically invariant toward paralemmin and synaptotagmin VII. Exogenous HIP14 enhances palmitoylation-dependent vesicular trafficking of several acylated proteins in both heterologous cells and neurons. Moreover, interference with endogenous expression of HIP14 reduces clustering of PSD-95 and GAD65 in neurons. These findings define HIP14 as a mammalian palmitoyl transferase involved in the palmitoylation and trafficking of multiple neuronal proteins.

    Neuron 2004;44;6;977-86

  • PSD-95 and Lin-7b interact with acid-sensing ion channel-3 and have opposite effects on H+- gated current.

    Hruska-Hageman AM, Benson CJ, Leonard AS, Price MP and Welsh MJ

    Department of Internal Medicine, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA.

    The acid-sensing ion channel-3 (ASIC3) is a degenerin/epithelial sodium channel expressed in the peripheral nervous system. Previous studies indicate that it participates in the response to mechanical and painful stimuli, perhaps contributing to mechanoreceptor and/or H+ -gated nociceptor function. ASIC3 subunits contain intracellular N and C termini that may control channel localization and function. We found that a PDZ-binding motif at the ASIC3 C terminus interacts with four different proteins that contain PDZ domains: PSD-95, Lin-7b, MAGI-1b, and PIST. ASIC3 and these interacting proteins were expressed in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord, and PSD-95 co-precipitated ASIC3 from spinal cord. When expressed in heterologous cells, PSD-95 reduced the amplitude of ASIC3 acid-evoked currents, whereas Lin-7b increased current amplitude. PSD-95 and Lin-7b altered current density by decreasing or increasing, respectively, the amount of ASIC3 on the cell surface. The finding that multiple PDZ-containing proteins bind ASIC3 and can influence its presence in the plasma membrane suggests that they may play an important role in the contribution of ASIC3 to nociception and mechanosensation.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK54759

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;45;46962-8

  • Activity-dependent transcription regulation of PSD-95 by neuregulin-1 and Eos.

    Bao J, Lin H, Ouyang Y, Lei D, Osman A, Kim TW, Mei L, Dai P, Ohlemiller KK and Ambron RT

    Department of Otolaryngology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. jbao@wustl.edu

    Neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1) contains an intracellular domain (Nrg-ICD) that translocates into the nucleus, where it may regulate gene expression upon neuronal depolarization. However, the identity of its target promoters and the mechanisms by which it regulates transcription have been elusive. Here we report that, in the mouse cochlea, synaptic activity increases the level of nuclear Nrg-ICD and upregulates postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), a scaffolding protein that is enriched in post-synaptic structures. Nrg-ICD enhances the transcriptional activity of the PSD-95 promoter by binding to a zinc-finger transcription factor, Eos. The Nrg-ICD-Eos complex induces endogenous PSD-95 expression in vivo through a signaling pathway that is mostly independent of gamma-secretase regulation. This upregulation of PSD-95 expression by the Nrg-ICD-Eos complex provides a molecular basis for activity-dependent synaptic plasticity.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG01016, AG05681

    Nature neuroscience 2004;7;11;1250-8

  • The complexity of PDZ domain-mediated interactions at glutamatergic synapses: a case study on neuroligin.

    Meyer G, Varoqueaux F, Neeb A, Oschlies M and Brose N

    Max-Planck-Institute for Experimental Medicine, Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Centre for Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Hermann-Rein-Strasse 3, D-37075 Göttingen, Germany. gmeyer@em.mpg.de

    The postsynaptic specialisation at glutamatergic synapses is composed of a network of proteins located within the membrane and the underlying postsynaptic density. The strong interconnectivity between the protein components is mediated by a limited number of interaction modes. Particularly abundant are PDZ domain-mediated interactions. An obstacle in understanding the fidelity of postsynaptic processes involving PDZ domains is the high degree of overlap with respect to their binding specificities. Focussing on transsynaptic adhesion molecules, we used the yeast two-hybrid system to obtain an overview of the binding specificities of selected C-terminal PDZ binding motifs. Neuroligin, a postsynaptic cell surface protein that spans the synaptic cleft and interacts with beta-neurexin, served as a starting point. Neuroligin binds to the PDZ domain-containing proteins PSD95, SAP102, Chapsyn110, S-SCAM, Magi1 and 3, Shank1 and 3, Pick1, GOPC, SPAR, Semcap3 and PDZ-RGS3. Next, we examined the relationship between neuroligin and synaptic cell adhesion molecules or glutamate receptor subunits with respect to PDZ-mediated interactions. We found a limited overlap in the PDZ-domain binding specificities of neuroligin with those of Sidekick2 and Ephrin-B2. In contrast, Syndecan2 and IgSF4 show no overlap with the PDZ-domain specificity of neuroligin, instead, they bind to GRIP and syntenin. The AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 interacts with Semcap3 and PDZ-RGS3, whereas the kainate receptor subunits GluR5 and GluR6 show weak interactions with PSD95. In summary, we can sketch a complex pattern of overlap in the binding specificities of synaptic cell surface proteins towards PDZ-domain proteins.

    Neuropharmacology 2004;47;5;724-33

  • Protein trafficking and anchoring complexes revealed by proteomic analysis of inward rectifier potassium channel (Kir2.x)-associated proteins.

    Leonoudakis D, Conti LR, Anderson S, Radeke CM, McGuire LM, Adams ME, Froehner SC, Yates JR and Vandenberg CA

    Department of Molecular, Cellular, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA.

    Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels play important roles in the maintenance and control of cell excitability. Both intracellular trafficking and modulation of Kir channel activity are regulated by protein-protein interactions. We adopted a proteomics approach to identify proteins associated with Kir2 channels via the channel C-terminal PDZ binding motif. Detergent-solubilized rat brain and heart extracts were subjected to affinity chromatography using a Kir2.2 C-terminal matrix to purify channel-interacting proteins. Proteins were identified with multidimensional high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, N-terminal microsequencing, and immunoblotting with specific antibodies. We identified eight members of the MAGUK family of proteins (SAP97, PSD-95, Chapsyn-110, SAP102, CASK, Dlg2, Dlg3, and Pals2), two isoforms of Veli (Veli-1 and Veli-3), Mint1, and actin-binding LIM protein (abLIM) as Kir2.2-associated brain proteins. From heart extract purifications, SAP97, CASK, Veli-3, and Mint1 also were found to associate with Kir2 channels. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that components of the dystrophin-associated protein complex, including alpha1-, beta1-, and beta2-syntrophin, dystrophin, and dystrobrevin, interact with Kir2 channels, as demonstrated by immunoaffinity purification and affinity chromatography from skeletal and cardiac muscle and brain. Affinity pull-down experiments revealed that Kir2.1, Kir2.2, Kir2.3, and Kir4.1 all bind to scaffolding proteins but with different affinities for the dystrophin-associated protein complex and SAP97, CASK, and Veli. Immunofluorescent localization studies demonstrated that Kir2.2 co-localizes with syntrophin, dystrophin, and dystrobrevin at skeletal muscle neuromuscular junctions. These results suggest that Kir2 channels associate with protein complexes that may be important to target and traffic channels to specific subcellular locations, as well as anchor and stabilize channels in the plasma membrane.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS33145, NS43377

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;21;22331-46

  • A multiprotein trafficking complex composed of SAP97, CASK, Veli, and Mint1 is associated with inward rectifier Kir2 potassium channels.

    Leonoudakis D, Conti LR, Radeke CM, McGuire LM and Vandenberg CA

    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, and Neuroscience Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA.

    Strong inward rectifier potassium (Kir2) channels are important in the control of cell excitability, and their functions are modulated by interactions with intracellular proteins. Here we identified a complex of scaffolding/trafficking proteins in brain that associate with Kir2.1, Kir2.2, and Kir2.3 channels. By using a combination of affinity interaction pulldown assays and co-immunoprecipitations from brain and transfected cells, we demonstrated that a complex composed of SAP97, CASK, Veli, and Mint1 associates with Kir2 channels via the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. We further demonstrated by using in vitro protein interaction assays that SAP97, Veli-1, or Veli-3 binds directly to the Kir2.2 C terminus and recruits CASK. Co-immunoprecipitations indicated that specific Veli isoforms participate in forming distinct protein complexes in brain, where Veli-1 stably associates with CASK and SAP97, Veli-2 associates with CASK and Mint1, and Veli-3 associates with CASK, SAP97, and Mint1. Additionally, immunocytochemistry of rat cerebellum revealed overlapping expression of Kir2.2, SAP97, CASK, Mint1, with Veli-1 in the granule cell layer and Veli-3 in the molecular layer. We propose a model whereby Kir2.2 associates with distinct SAP97-CASK-Veli-Mint1 complexes. In one complex, SAP97 interacts directly with the Kir2 channels and recruits CASK, Veli, and Mint1. Alternatively, Veli-1 or Veli-3 interacts directly with the Kir2 channels and recruits CASK and SAP97; association of Mint1 with the complex requires Veli-3. Expression of Kir2.2 in polarized epithelial cells resulted in targeting of the channels to the basolateral membrane and co-localization with SAP97 and CASK, whereas a dominant interfering form of CASK caused the channels to mislocalize. Therefore, CASK appears to be a central protein of a macromolecular complex that participates in trafficking and plasma membrane localization of Kir2 channels.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS43377

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;18;19051-63

  • Appropriate NR1-NR1 disulfide-linked homodimer formation is requisite for efficient expression of functional, cell surface N-methyl-D-aspartate NR1/NR2 receptors.

    Papadakis M, Hawkins LM and Stephenson FA

    Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of London, 29/39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, United Kingdom.

    A c-Myc epitope-tagged N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1-2a subunit was generated, NR1-2a(c-Myc), where the tag was inserted after amino acid 81. NR1-2a(c-Myc) /NR2A receptors when expressed in mammalian cells are not trafficked to the cell surface nor do they yield cell cytotoxicity post-transfection. NR1-2a(c-Myc) was, however, shown to assemble with NR2A subunits by immunoprecipitation and [(3)H]MK801 radioligand binding assays. Immunoblots of cells co-transfected with wild-type NR1-2a/NR2A subunits yielded two NR1-2a immunoreactive species with molecular masses of 115 and 226 kDa. Two-dimensional electrophoresis under non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed that the 226-kDa band contained disulfide-linked NR1-2a subunits. Only the 115-kDa NR1-2a species was detected for NR1-2a(c-Myc)/NR2A. The c-Myc epitope is inserted adjacent to cysteine 79 of the NR1-2a subunit; therefore, it is possible that the tag may prevent the formation of NR1 disulfide bridges. A series of cysteine --> alanine NR1-2a mutants was generated, and the NR1-2a mutants were co-expressed with NR2A or NR2B subunits in mammalian cells and characterized with respect to cell surface expression, cell cytotoxicity post-transfection, co-association by immunoprecipitation, and immunoblotting following SDS-PAGE under both reducing and non-reducing conditions. When co-expressed with NR2A in mammalian cells, NR1-2a(C79A)/NR2A displayed similar properties to NR1-2a(c-Myc)/NR2A in that the 226-kDa NR1 immunoreactive species was not detectable, and trafficking to the cell surface was impaired compared with wild-type NR1/NR2 receptors. These results provide the first biochemical evidence for the formation of NR1-NR1 intersubunit disulfide-linked homodimers involving cysteine 79. They suggest that disulfide bridging and structural integrity within the NR1 N-terminal domain is requisite for cell surface N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;15;14703-12

  • Increased numbers of coassembled PSD-95 to NMDA-receptor subunits NR2B and NR1 in human epileptic cortical dysplasia.

    Ying Z, Bingaman W and Najm IM

    Department of Neurology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. yingz@ccf.org

    Purpose: Glutamatergic transmission between neurons occurs at chemical synapses. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor subclass of ionotropic glutamate receptors has been implicated in the epileptogenic mechanisms in human cortical dysplasia (CD). NMDA receptors are clustered at the postsynaptic membrane by anchoring to the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95, a putative ion channel-clustering protein. In this study, we quantitatively investigated the coassembly of PSD-95 to NR2B and NR1 in human epileptogenic cortex as compared with nonepileptic cortex.

    Methods: We used coimmunoprecipitation and immunoblotting techniques to quantify and compare the numbers of coassembled PSD-95 with NR2B, PSD-95 with NR1, and NR2B with NR1 in the membrane proteins of brain tissues resected from four patients (aged 3.5, 6, 14, and 18 years) with medically intractable neocortical epilepsy associated with CD. The resected cortical tissues were grouped into epileptic and nonepileptic, as determined by prolonged subdural electrode recordings in three patients and direct intraoperative electrocorticographic recording in one patient.

    Results: In all patients, the amounts of immunoprecipitated complexes, which reflect the numbers of coassembled PSD-95 proteins to NR2B subunits, were increased in epileptic cortex as compared with nonepileptic cortex.

    Conclusions: These results suggest that increased coassembly of NR2B and NR1 with PSD-95 may underlie one of the cellular mechanisms that contribute to the in situ increased hyperexcitability, leading to seizure generation in focal CD.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: K08 NS-02046, R21 NS42354

    Epilepsia 2004;45;4;314-21

  • Proteomic identification of brain proteins that interact with dynein light chain LC8.

    Navarro-Lérida I, Martínez Moreno M, Roncal F, Gavilanes F, Albar JP and Rodríguez-Crespo I

    Departamento de Bioquímicay Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. nacho@bbml.ucm.es

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a large minus end-directed microtubule motor that translocates cargos towards the minus end of microtubules. Light chain 8 of the dynein machinery (LC8) has been reported to interact with a large variety of proteins that possess K/RSTQT or GIQVD motifs in their sequence, hence permitting their transport in a retrograde manner. Yeast two-hybrid analysis has revealed that in brain, LC8 associates directly with several proteins such as neuronal nitric oxide synthase, guanylate kinase domain-associated protein and gephyrin. In this work, we report the identification of over 40 polypeptides, by means of a proteomic approach, that interact with LC8 either directly or indirectly. Many of the neuronal proteins that we identified cluster at the post-synaptic terminal, and some of them such as phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase or aldolase are directly involved in glutamate metabolism. Other pool of proteins identified displayed the LC8 consensus binding motif. Finally, recombinant LC8 was produced and a library of overlapping dodecapeptides (pepscan) was employed to map the LC8 binding site of some of the proteins that were previously identified using the proteomic approach, hence confirming binding to the consensus binding sites.

    Proteomics 2004;4;2;339-46

  • The NMDA receptor is coupled to the ERK pathway by a direct interaction between NR2B and RasGRF1.

    Krapivinsky G, Krapivinsky L, Manasian Y, Ivanov A, Tyzio R, Pellegrino C, Ben-Ari Y, Clapham DE and Medina I

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Children's Hospital, 1309 Enders Building, 320 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    The NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDAR) at excitatory neuronal synapses plays a key role in synaptic plasticity. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1,2 or ERK) pathway is an essential component of NMDAR signal transduction controlling the neuroplasticity underlying memory processes, neuronal development, and refinement of synaptic connections. Here we show that NR2B, but not NR2A or NR1 subunits of the NMDAR, interacts in vivo and in vitro with RasGRF1, a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent Ras-guanine-nucleotide-releasing factor. Specific disruption of this interaction in living neurons abrogates NMDAR-dependent ERK activation. Thus, RasGRF1 serves as NMDAR-dependent regulator of the ERK kinase pathway. The specific association of RasGRF1 with the NR2B subunit and study of ERK activation in neurons with varied content of NR2B suggests that NR2B-containing channels are the dominant activators of the NMDA-dependent ERK pathway.

    Neuron 2003;40;4;775-84

  • Activation of peripheral NMDA receptors contributes to human pain and rat afferent discharges evoked by injection of glutamate into the masseter muscle.

    Cairns BE, Svensson P, Wang K, Hupfeld S, Graven-Nielsen T, Sessle BJ, Berde CB and Arendt-Nielsen L

    Department of Anesthesia, Harvard Medical School/Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Peripheral N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are found in deep tissues and may play a role in deep tissue pain. Injection of the endogenous NMDA receptor agonist glutamate into the masseter muscle excites deep craniofacial afferent fibers in rats and evokes pain in human subjects. It is not clear whether peripheral NMDA receptors play a role in these effects of glutamate. Accordingly, the effect of NMDA on afferent activity as well as the effect of locally administered NMDA receptor antagonists on glutamate-evoked afferent discharges in acutely anesthetized rats and muscle pain in human subjects was examined. Injection of NMDA into the masseter muscle evoked afferent discharges in a concentration-related manner. It was found that the NMDA receptor antagonists 2-amino-5-phosphonvalerate (APV, 10 mM), ketamine (10 mM), and dextromethorphan (40 mM) significantly decreased glutamate-evoked afferent discharges. The effects of APV and ketamine, but not dextromethorphan, were selective for glutamate-evoked afferent discharges and did not affect hypertonic saline-evoked afferent discharges. In human experiments, it was found that 10 mM ketamine decreased glutamate-evoked muscle pain but had no effect on hypertonic saline-evoked muscle pain. These results indicate that injection of glutamate into the masseter muscle evokes afferent discharges in rats and muscle pain in humans in part through activation of peripheral NMDA receptors. It is conceivable that activation of peripheral NMDA receptors may contribute to masticatory muscle pain and that peripherally acting NMDA receptor antagonists could prove to be effective analgesics for this type of pain.

    Journal of neurophysiology 2003;90;4;2098-105

  • Mutation and association analysis of the DAP-1 gene with schizophrenia.

    Aoyama S, Shirakawa O, Ono H, Hashimoto T, Kajimoto Y and Maeda K

    Department of Environmental Health and Safety, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.

    Glutamate dysfunction has been hypothesized to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The human homolog of Drosophila discs large protein (hDLG) and post-synaptic density-95-associated protein-1 (DAP-1) is one of the major proteins that are involved in intracellular signal transduction via N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. In the present study 33 Japanese patients with schizophrenia were screened for mutations in the DAP-1 gene. A single nucleotide polymorphism was identified in the DAP-1 gene (1618A/G). A case-control study using a larger sample of unrelated patients and controls did not reveal a significant association between this polymorphism and schizophrenia. The results do not provide evidence that the DAP-1 gene is involved in vulnerability to schizophrenia.

    Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences 2003;57;5;545-7

  • SAP97 increases Kv1.5 currents through an indirect N-terminal mechanism.

    Eldstrom J, Choi WS, Steele DF and Fedida D

    Department of Physiology, University of British Columbia, 2146 Health Sciences Mall, V6T 1Z3, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

    The functional interaction of the voltage-gated potassium channel hKv1.5 with the PDZ domain containing protein SAP97 has been investigated. In marked contrast with the known dependence of SAP97-induced Kv1 potassium current down-regulation on the channel C-termini, SAP97 increased hKv1.5 current through an indirect interaction with the Kv1.5 N-terminus. Deletion of the Kv1.5 N-terminus eliminated the SAP97-mediated increase in potassium currents whereas deletion of the channel's C-terminal PDZ binding motif had no effect. In contrast with other Kv1-SAP97 interactions, no physical interaction could be detected in vivo or in vitro between the two proteins. The proteins did not co-localize in cardiac myocytes nor did they co-immunoprecipitate from transfected HEK cells. Yeast two-hybrid experiments also failed to detect any interaction between the two proteins, but in one experiment of six, Kv1.5 co-immunoprecipitated very inefficiently with SAP97 from rat ventricular myocytes. Thus, we conclude that the influence of SAP97 on Kv1.5 potassium current levels is dependent upon a novel regulatory mechanism.

    FEBS letters 2003;547;1-3;205-11

  • Selective interaction of megalin with postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95)-like membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) proteins.

    Larsson M, Hjälm G, Sakwe AM, Engström A, Höglund AS, Larsson E, Robinson RC, Sundberg C and Rask L

    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, PO Box 582, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden. Marten.Larsson@imbim.uu.se

    Megalin is an integral membrane receptor belonging to the low-density lipoprotein receptor family. In addition to its role as an endocytotic receptor, megalin has also been proposed to have signalling functions. Using interaction cloning in yeast, we identified the membrane-associated guanylate kinase family member postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) as an interaction partner for megalin. PSD-95 and a truncated version of megalin were co-immunoprecipitated from HEK-293 cell lysates overexpressing the two proteins, which confirmed the interaction. The two proteins were found to be co-localized in these cells by confocal microscopy. Immunocytochemical studies showed that cells in the parathyroid, proximal tubuli of the kidney and placenta express both megalin and PSD-95. We found that the interaction between the two proteins is mediated by the binding of the C-terminus of megalin, which has a type I PSD-95/ Drosophila discs-large/zona occludens 1 (PDZ)-binding motif, to the PDZ2 domain of PSD-95. The PSD-95-like membrane-associated guanylate kinase ('MAGUK') family contains three additional members: PSD-93, synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97) and SAP102. We detected these proteins, apart from SAP102, in parathyroid chief cells, a cell type having a marked expression of megalin. The PDZ2 domains of PSD-93 and SAP102 were also shown to interact with megalin, whereas no interaction was detected for SAP97. The SAP97 PDZ2 domain differed at four positions from the other members of the PSD-95 subfamily. One of these residues was Thr(389), located in the alphaB-helix and part of the hydrophobic pocket of the PDZ2 domain. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that mutation of SAP97 Thr(389) to alanine, as with the other PSD-95-like membrane-associated guanylate kinases, induced binding to megalin.

    The Biochemical journal 2003;373;Pt 2;381-91

  • Exocyst complex subunit sec8 binds to postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95): a novel interaction regulated by cypin (cytosolic PSD-95 interactor).

    Riefler GM, Balasingam G, Lucas KG, Wang S, Hsu SC and Firestein BL

    Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Nelson Biological Laboratories, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082, USA.

    The PDZ domains of postsynaptic density (PSD) protein-95 play a role in the localization of PSD-95 and binding partners to neuronal synapses. The identification of binding partners to these PDZ domains can help us in understanding how signalling complexes are assembled. We observed that one of the subunits in the sec6/8 or exocyst complex, sec8, contains a C-terminal consensus sequence for PDZ binding. Sec8 binds to PDZ1-2 of PSD-95, and this binding can be competed with a peptide that binds to PDZ1 and PDZ2 in the peptide-binding site. In addition, binding of sec8 is dependent on its C-terminal-binding sequence namely Thr-Thr-Val (TTV). Immunoblotting of rat tissue extracts shows that sec8 and PSD-95 are enriched in the same brain regions, and sec8 and PSD-95 have the same subcellular distribution in pheochromocytoma cells, suggesting that these proteins may interact in vivo. Immunoprecipitation studies of sec8 and PSD-95 in brain provide further evidence of a sec8 and PSD-95 interaction. Furthermore, the cytosolic PSD-95 interactor competes with sec8 for interaction with PSD-95. Taken together, our results suggest that the cytosolic PSD-95 interactor may function to regulate the ability of sec8 to bind to PSD-95.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS388892

    The Biochemical journal 2003;373;Pt 1;49-55

  • A direct interaction of PSD-95 with 5-HT2A serotonin receptors regulates receptor trafficking and signal transduction.

    Xia Z, Gray JA, Compton-Toth BA and Roth BL

    Department of Biochemistry, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) 2A receptor (5-HT2A) is an important G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that mediates the effects of hallucinogens and is the target of a number of commonly prescribed medications including atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants, and anxiolytics. The 5-HT2A receptor possesses a canonical Type I PDZ-binding domain (X-Ser/Thr-X-Phi) at the carboxyl terminus and has been predicted, but never demonstrated, to interact with PDZ domain-containing proteins. We discovered that PSD-95, a prototypic PDZ domain-containing protein, directly associates with the 5-HT2A receptor and regulates 5-HT2A receptor-mediated signaling and trafficking in HEK-293 cells. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that the native 5-HT2A receptor, but not a mutant lacking the PDZ-binding domain, interacted directly with PSD-95. The association with PSD-95 enhanced 5-HT2A receptor-mediated signal transduction, a novel action of PSD-95 on GPCRs. The augmentation of 5-HT2A receptor signaling by PSD-95 was not accompanied by alteration in the kinetics of 5-HT2A receptor desensitization but was associated with the inhibition of agonist-induced 5-HT2A receptor internalization. Additional studies demonstrated that 5-HT2A receptor and PSD-95 were co-localized in clusters on the cell surface of HEK-293 cells. Taken together, the present work elucidates novel roles for PSD-95 in regulating the functional activity and intracellular trafficking of 5-HT2A receptors and possibly other GPCRs.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG 00271; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 07250; NIMH NIH HHS: K02 MH 01366, R01 MH 61887

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;24;21901-8

  • NMDA receptor trafficking through an interaction between PDZ proteins and the exocyst complex.

    Sans N, Prybylowski K, Petralia RS, Chang K, Wang YX, Racca C, Vicini S and Wenthold RJ

    Laboratory of Neurochemistry, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Building 50, Room 4146, 50 South Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-8027, USA. sansn@nidcd.nih.gov

    NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors (NMDARs) are targeted to dendrites and anchored at the post-synaptic density (PSD) through interactions with PDZ proteins. However, little is known about how these receptors are sorted from the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus to the synapse. Here, we find that synapse-associated protein 102 (SAP102) interacts with the PDZ-binding domain of Sec8, a member of the exocyst complex. Our results show that interactions between SAP102 and Sec8 are involved in the delivery of NMDARs to the cell surface in heterologous cells and neurons. Furthermore, they suggest that an exocyst-SAP102-NMDAR complex is an important component of NMDAR trafficking.

    Nature cell biology 2003;5;6;520-30

  • Interaction of the tyrosine kinase Pyk2 with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex via the Src homology 3 domains of PSD-95 and SAP102.

    Seabold GK, Burette A, Lim IA, Weinberg RJ and Hell JW

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1532, USA.

    The protein-tyrosine kinase Pyk2/CAKbeta/CADTK is a key activator of Src in many cells. At hippocampal synapses, induction of long term potentiation requires the Pyk2/Src signaling pathway, which up-regulates the activity of N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors. Because localization of protein kinases close to their substrates is crucial for effective phosphorylation, we investigated how Pyk2 might be recruited to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor complex. This interaction is mediated by PSD-95 and its homolog SAP102. Both proteins colocalize with Pyk2 at postsynaptic dendritic spines in the cerebral cortex. The proline-rich regions in the C-terminal half of Pyk2 bind to the SH3 domain of PSD-95 and SAP102. The SH3 and guanylate kinase homology (GK) domain of PSD-95 and SAP102 interact intramolecularly, but the physiological significance of this interaction has been unclear. We show that Pyk2 effectively binds to the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of SAP102 only when the GK domain is removed from the SH3 domain. Characterization of PSD-95 and SAP102 as adaptor proteins for Pyk2 fills a critical gap in the understanding of the spatial organization of the Pyk2-Src signaling pathway at the postsynaptic site and reveals a physiological function of the intramolecular SH3-GK domain interaction in SAP102.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG17502; NINDS NIH HHS: NS35563, NS39444

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;17;15040-8

  • Tamalin is a scaffold protein that interacts with multiple neuronal proteins in distinct modes of protein-protein association.

    Kitano J, Yamazaki Y, Kimura K, Masukado T, Nakajima Y and Nakanishi S

    Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, and the Department of Molecular and System Biology, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan.

    Tamalin is a scaffold protein that comprises multiple protein-interacting domains, including a 95-kDa postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/discs-large/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain, a leucine-zipper region, and a carboxyl-terminal PDZ binding motif. Tamalin forms a complex with metabotropic glutamate receptors and guanine nucleotide exchange factor cytohesins and promotes intracellular trafficking and cell surface expression of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors. In the present study, using several different approaches we have shown that tamalin interacts with multiple neuronal proteins through its distinct protein-binding domains. The PDZ domain of tamalin binds to the PDZ binding motifs of SAP90/PSD-95-associated protein and tamalin itself, whereas the PDZ binding motif of tamalin is capable of interacting with the PDZ domain of S-SCAM. In addition, tamalin forms a complex with PSD-95 and Mint2/X11beta/X11L by mechanisms different from the PDZ-mediated interaction. Tamalin has the ability to assemble with these proteins in vivo; their protein complex with tamalin was verified by coimmunoprecipitation of rat brain lysates. Interestingly, the distinct protein-interacting domains of tamalin are evolutionarily conserved, and mRNA expression is developmentally up-regulated at the postnatal period. The results indicate that tamalin exists as a key element that forms a protein complex with multiple postsynaptic and protein-trafficking scaffold proteins.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;17;14762-8

  • RICS, a novel GTPase-activating protein for Cdc42 and Rac1, is involved in the beta-catenin-N-cadherin and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor signaling.

    Okabe T, Nakamura T, Nishimura YN, Kohu K, Ohwada S, Morishita Y and Akiyama T

    Laboratory of Molecular and Genetic Information, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan.

    Cadherin adhesion molecules are believed to be important for synaptic plasticity. beta-Catenin, which links cadherins and the actin cytoskeleton, is a modulator of cadherin adhesion and regulates synaptic structure and function. Here we show that beta-catenin interacts with a novel GTPase-activating protein, named RICS, that acts on Cdc42 and Rac1. The RICS-beta-catenin complex was found to be associated with N-cadherin, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, and postsynaptic density-95, and localized to the postsynaptic density. Furthermore, the GTPase-activating protein activity of RICS was inhibited by phosphorylation by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. These results suggest that RICS is involved in the synaptic adhesion- and N-methyl-d-aspartate-mediated organization of cytoskeletal networks and signal transduction. Thus, RICS may regulate dendritic spine morphology and strength by modulating Rho GTPases.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;11;9920-7

  • Overlapping gene structure of human VLCAD and DLG4.

    Zhou C and Blumberg B

    Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, 5205 McGaugh Hall, Irvine, CA 92697-2300, USA.

    Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is a major enzyme catalysing the first step in mitochondrial beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. During analysis of the VLCAD promoter, we discovered that another gene, discs-large-related 4 (DLG4), overlaps VLCAD and is transcribed in the opposite direction. DLG4 encodes postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95) protein, which plays critical roles in the formation and maintenance of synaptic junctions. The transcription start site of the VLCAD gene was determined by primer extension analysis and the overlapping structure of VLCAD and DLG4 was clarified. VLCAD and DLG4 are arranged in a head-to-head orientation on chromosome 17p13, and share a 245 bp overlapping region that contains part of DLG4 exon 1 and the entire exon 1 of VLCAD including 62 bp of protein coding sequence. Despite the overlap of their 5' ends, DLG4 and VLCAD exhibit peak mRNA expression in different tissues, suggesting that they are independently regulated at the transcriptional level. Interestingly, VLCAD and DLG4 genes do not overlap in the mouse or Drosophila genomes.

    Gene 2003;305;2;161-6

  • Rapid and differential regulation of AMPA and kainate receptors at hippocampal mossy fibre synapses by PICK1 and GRIP.

    Hirbec H, Francis JC, Lauri SE, Braithwaite SP, Coussen F, Mulle C, Dev KK, Coutinho V, Meyer G, Isaac JT, Collingridge GL, Henley JM and Couthino V

    MRC Centre for Synaptic Plasticity, Department of Anatomy, School of Medical Sciences, University Walk, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, United Kingdom.

    We identified four PDZ domain-containing proteins, syntenin, PICK1, GRIP, and PSD95, as interactors with the kainate receptor (KAR) subunits GluR5(2b,) GluR5(2c), and GluR6. Of these, we show that both GRIP and PICK1 interactions are required to maintain KAR-mediated synaptic function at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. In addition, PKC alpha can phosphorylate ct-GluR5(2b) at residues S880 and S886, and PKC activity is required to maintain KAR-mediated synaptic responses. We propose that PICK1 targets PKC alpha to phosphorylate KARs, causing their stabilization at the synapse by an interaction with GRIP. Importantly, this mechanism is not involved in the constitutive recycling of AMPA receptors since blockade of PDZ interactions can simultaneously increase AMPAR- and decrease KAR-mediated synaptic transmission at the same population of synapses.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G9629038; Wellcome Trust: 059917

    Neuron 2003;37;4;625-38

  • N-terminal PDZ-binding domain in Kv1 potassium channels.

    Eldstrom J, Doerksen KW, Steele DF and Fedida D

    Department of Physiology, University of British Columbia, 2146 Health Sciences Mall, V6T 1Z3, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

    We have investigated the interactions of prototypical PDZ domains with both the C- and N-termini of Kv1.5 and other Kv channels. A combination of in vitro binding and yeast two-hybrid assays unexpectedly showed that PDZ domains derived from PSD95 bind both the C- and N-termini of the channels with comparable avidity. From doubly transfected HEK293 cells, Kv1.5 was found to co-immunoprecipitate with the PDZ protein, irrespective of the presence of the canonical C-terminal PDZ-binding motif in Kv1.5. Imaging analysis of the same HEK cell lines demonstrated that co-localization of Kv1.5 with PSD95 at the cell surface is similarly independent of the canonical PDZ-binding motif. Deletion analysis localized the N-terminal PDZ-binding site in Kv1.5 to the T1 region of the channel. Co-expression of PSD95 with Kv1.5 N- and C-terminal deletions in HEK cells had contrasting effects on the magnitudes of the potassium currents across the membranes of these cells. These findings may have important implications for the regulation of channel expression and function by PDZ proteins like PSD95.

    FEBS letters 2002;531;3;529-37

  • Activation of NMDA receptors and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels mediates enhanced formation of Fyn-PSD95-NR2A complex after transient brain ischemia.

    Hou XY, Zhang GY, Yan JZ, Chen M and Liu Y

    Research Center for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Xuzhou Medical College, 84 West Huai-hai Road, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221002, China.

    Recent studies have indicated that tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit 2A (NR2A) by Src family kinases (Src, Fyn, etc.) up-regulates NMDA receptors activity and postsynaptic density protein 95 kDa (PSD95) may mediate the regulation. To investigate whether the above processes are involved in brain ischemia-induced enhancement of NMDA receptors function, we examined the effects of transient (15 min) brain ischemia followed by reperfusion on interactions involving Fyn, NR2A and PSD95 in rat hippocampus by co-immunoprecipitation. Transient brain ischemia was induced by the method of four-vessel occlusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. Association between Fyn and NR2A increased immediately after brain ischemia and the increase was maintained for at least 24 h during followed reperfusion, up to about 1.7-1.8-fold relative to sham-groups. The 15-min reperfusion after brain ischemia induced enhanced co-immunoprecipitation of PSD95, Fyn and NR2A with one another. The associations of PSD95 with Fyn and NR2A increased at 0-24 h, 0-1 h of reperfusion, up to 6.9- and 2.1-fold relative to sham groups, respectively. Inhibiting activation of NMDA receptors or L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCC) by ketamine or nifedipine attenuated the above increases of associations. These results suggest that stimulation of NMDA receptors and L-VGCC facilitates formation of a ternary complex: Fyn-PSD95-NR2A during transient brain ischemia followed by reperfusion, which may result in potentiation of NMDA receptor function and contribute to ischemic neuronal cell death.

    Brain research 2002;955;1-2;123-32

  • Densin-180, a synaptic protein, links to PSD-95 through its direct interaction with MAGUIN-1.

    Ohtakara K, Nishizawa M, Izawa I, Hata Y, Matsushima S, Taki W, Inada H, Takai Y and Inagaki M

    Division of Biochemistry, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8681, Japan.

    Background: Densin-180, a brain-specific protein highly concentrated at the postsynaptic density (PSD), belongs to the LAP [leucine-rich repeats and PSD-95/Dlg-A/ZO-1 (PDZ) domains] family of proteins, some of which play fundamental roles in the establishment of cell polarity.

    Results: To identify new Densin-180-interacting proteins, we screened a yeast two-hybrid library using the COOH-terminal fragment of Densin-180 containing the PDZ domain as bait, and we isolated MAGUIN-1 as a Densin-180-binding protein. MAGUIN-1, a mammalian homologue of Drosophila connector enhancer of KSR (CNK), is known to interact with PSD-95 and has a short isoform, MAGUIN-2. The Densin-180 PDZ domain bound to the COOH-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif of MAGUIN-1. Densin-180 co-immunoprecipitated with MAGUIN-1 as well as with PSD-95 from the rat brain. In dissociated hippocampal neurones Densin-180 co-localized with MAGUINs and PSD-95, mainly at neuritic spines. In transfected cells, Densin-180 formed a ternary complex with MAGUIN-1 and PSD-95, whereas no association was detected between Densin-180 and PSD-95 in the absence of MAGUIN-1. MAGUIN-1 formed a dimer or multimer via the COOH-terminal leucine-rich region which is present in MAGUIN-1 but not in -2. Among the PDZ domains of PSD-95, the first was sufficient for interaction with MAGUIN-1.

    Conclusion: These results suggest that the potential to dimerize or multimerize allows MAGUIN-1 to bind simultaneously to both Densin-180 and PSD-95, leading to the ternary complex assembly of these proteins at the postsynaptic membrane.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2002;7;11;1149-60

  • Direct interactions between PSD-95 and stargazin control synaptic AMPA receptor number.

    Schnell E, Sizemore M, Karimzadegan S, Chen L, Bredt DS and Nicoll RA

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143.

    Excitatory synapses in the brain exhibit a remarkable degree of functional plasticity, which largely reflects changes in the number of synaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs). However, mechanisms involved in recruiting AMPARs to synapses are unknown. Here we use hippocampal slice cultures and biolistic gene transfections to study the targeting of AMPARs to synapses. We show that AMPARs are localized to synapses through direct binding of the first two PDZ domains of synaptic PSD-95 (postsynaptic density protein of 95 kDa) to the AMPAR-associated protein, stargazin. Increasing the level of synaptic PSD-95 recruits new AMPARs to synapses without changing the number of surface AMPARs. At the same time, we show that stargazin overexpression drastically increases the number of extra-synaptic AMPARs, but fails to alter synaptic currents if synaptic PSD-95 levels are kept constant. Finally, we make compensatory mutations to both PSD-95 and stargazin to demonstrate the central role of direct interactions between them in determining the number of synaptic AMPARs.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;21;13902-7

  • Postsynaptic targeting of alternative postsynaptic density-95 isoforms by distinct mechanisms.

    Chetkovich DM, Bunn RC, Kuo SH, Kawasaki Y, Kohwi M and Bredt DS

    Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-0444, USA.

    Members of the postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95)/synapse-associated protein-90 (SAP90) family of scaffolding proteins contain a common set of modular protein interaction motifs including PDZ (postsynaptic density-95/Discs large/zona occludens-1), Src homology 3, and guanylate kinase domains, which regulate signaling and plasticity at excitatory synapses. We report that N-terminal alternative splicing of PSD95 generates an isoform, PSD95beta that contains an additional "L27" motif, which is also present in SAP97. Using yeast two hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrate that this N-terminal L27 domain of PSD-95beta, binds to an L27 domain in the membrane-associated guanylate kinase calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine kinase, and to Hrs, an endosomal ATPase that regulates vesicular trafficking. By transfecting heterologous cells and hippocampal neurons, we find that interactions with the L27 domain regulate synaptic clustering of PSD95beta. Disrupting Hrs-regulated early endosomal sorting in hippocampal neurons selectively blocks synaptic clustering of PSD95beta but does not interfere with trafficking of the palmitoylated isoform, PSD95alpha. These studies identify molecular and functional heterogeneity in synaptic PSD95 complexes and reveal critical roles for L27 domain interactions and Hrs regulated vesicular trafficking in postsynaptic protein clustering.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2002;22;15;6415-25

  • Association of the kinesin superfamily motor protein KIF1Balpha with postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), synapse-associated protein-97, and synaptic scaffolding molecule PSD-95/discs large/zona occludens-1 proteins.

    Mok H, Shin H, Kim S, Lee JR, Yoon J and Kim E

    Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.

    Mutation in KIF1B, a kinesin superfamily motor protein, causes a peripheral neuropathy known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A (CMT2A). Little is known, however, about how a defective KIF1B gene leads to CMT2A. Here we report that KIF1Balpha, one of the two splice variants of KIF1B, directly interacts through its C-terminal postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95)/discs large/zona occludens (PDZ) domain-binding motif with PDZ proteins including PSD-95/synapse-associated protein-90 (SAP90), SAP97, and synaptic scaffolding molecule (S-SCAM)-90 (SAP90). KIF1Balpha selectively interacts with PSD-95, SAP97, and S-SCAM in yeast two-hybrid, pull-down, and in vivo coimmunoprecipitation experiments. KIF1Balpha, SAP97, and S-SCAM are widely distributed to both dendrites and axons of cultured neurons and are enriched in the small membrane fraction of the brain. In the flotation assay, KIF1Balpha cofractionates and coimmunoprecipitates with PSD-95, SAP97, and S-SCAM. These results suggest that the PSD-95 family proteins and S-SCAM have a novel function as KIF1Balpha receptors, linking KIF1Balpha to its specific cargos, and are involved in peripheral neuropathies.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2002;22;13;5253-8

  • Direct interaction of Frizzled-1, -2, -4, and -7 with PDZ domains of PSD-95.

    Hering H and Sheng M

    Center for Learning and Memory, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, RIKEN-MIT Neuroscience Research Center, and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue (E18-215), Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

    In Drosophila, the frizzled gene plays a critical role in the establishment of tissue polarity, but the function of the Frizzled family of proteins in mammals is largely unknown. Recent evidence suggested that Frizzleds are receptors for the Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins which are involved in cell fate determination. However, it is unclear how Frizzled receptors transduce Wnt signals to intracellular signaling components. Here we show that the mouse Frizzled-1, -2, -4 and -7 can bind to proteins of the PSD-95 family, which are implicated in the assembly and localization of multiprotein signaling complexes in the brain. Moreover, PSD-95 can form a ternary complex with Frizzled-2 and the adenomatous polyposis coli protein, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, suggesting that members of the PSD-95 family may serve to recruit intracellular signaling molecules of the Wnt/Frizzled pathway into the vicinity of the receptor.

    FEBS letters 2002;521;1-3;185-9

  • Selectivity and promiscuity of the first and second PDZ domains of PSD-95 and synapse-associated protein 102.

    Lim IA, Hall DD and Hell JW

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1532, USA.

    PDZ domains typically interact with the very carboxyl terminus of their binding partners. Type 1 PDZ domains usually require valine, leucine, or isoleucine at the very COOH-terminal (P(0)) position, and serine or threonine 2 residues upstream at P(-2). We quantitatively defined the contributions of carboxyl-terminal residues to binding selectivity of the prototypic interactions of the PDZ domains of postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) and its homolog synapse-associated protein 90 (SAP102) with the NR2b subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor. Our studies indicate that all of the last five residues of NR2b contribute to the binding selectivity. Prominent were a requirement for glutamate or glutamine at P(-3) and for valine at P(0) for high affinity binding and a preference for threonine over serine at P(-2), in the context of the last 11 residues of the NR2b COOH terminus. This analysis predicts a COOH-terminal (E/Q)(S/T)XV consensus sequence for the strongest binding to the first two PDZ domains of PSD-95 and SAP102. A search of the human genome sequences for proteins with a COOH-terminal (E/Q)(S/T)XV motif yielded 50 proteins, many of which have not been previously identified as PSD-95 or SAP102 binding partners. Two of these proteins, brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 and protein kinase Calpha, co-immunoprecipitated with PSD-95 and SAP102 from rat brain extracts.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG00213; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK07759; NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS35563

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;24;21697-711

  • Further characterization of the molecular interaction between PSD-95 and NMDA receptors: the effect of the NR1 splice variant and evidence for modulation of channel gating.

    Rutter AR, Freeman FM and Stephenson FA

    Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of London, London, UK.

    Coexpression of PSD-95(c-Myc) with NR1-1a/NR2A NMDA receptors in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells resulted in a decrease in efficacy for the glycine stimulation of [3 H]MK801 binding similar to that previously described for l-glutamate. The inhibition constants (K (I) s) for the binding of l-glutamate and glycine to NR1-1a/NR2A determined by [3 H]CGP 39653 and [3 H]MDL 105 519 displacement assays, respectively, were not significantly different between NR1-1a/NR2A receptors coexpressed +/- PSD-95(c-Myc). The increased EC(50) for l-glutamate enhancement of [3 H]MK801 binding was also found for NR1-2a/NR2A and NR1-4b/NRA receptors thus the altered EC(50) is not dependent on the N1, C1 or C2 exon of the NR1 subunit. The NR1-4b but not the NR1-1a subunit was expressed efficiently at the cell surface in the absence of NR2 subunits. Total NR1-4b and NR1-4b/NR2A expression was enhanced by PSD-95(c-Myc) but whole cell enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assays (ELISAs) showed that this increase was not due to increased expression at the cell surface. It is suggested that PSD-95(c-Myc) has a dual effect on NMDA receptors expressed in mammalian cells, a reduction in channel gating and an enhanced expression of NMDA receptor subunits containing C-terminal E(T/S)XV PSD-95 binding motifs.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2002;81;6;1298-307

  • Inward rectifier K+ channel Kir2.3 is localized at the postsynaptic membrane of excitatory synapses.

    Inanobe A, Fujita A, Ito M, Tomoike H, Inageda K and Kurachi Y

    Department of Pharmacology II, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

    Classical inwardly rectifying K+ channels (Kir2.0) are responsible for maintaining the resting membrane potential near the K+ equilibrium potential in various cells, including neurons. Although Kir2.3 is known to be expressed abundantly in the forebrain, its precise localization has not been identified. Using an antibody specific to Kir2.3, we examined the subcellular localization of Kir2.3 in mouse brain. Kir2.3 immunoreactivity was detected in a granular pattern in restricted areas of the brain, including the olfactory bulb (OB). Immunoelectron microscopy of the OB revealed that Kir2.3 immunoreactivity was specifically clustered on the postsynaptic membrane of asymmetric synapses between granule cells and mitral/tufted cells. The immunoprecipitants for Kir2.3 obtained from brain contained PSD-95 and chapsyn-110, PDZ domain-containing anchoring proteins. In vitro binding assay further revealed that the COOH-terminal end of Kir2.3 is responsible for the association with these anchoring proteins. Therefore, the Kir channel may be involved in formation of the resting membrane potential of the spines and, thus, would affect the response of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor channels at the excitatory postsynaptic membrane.

    American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 2002;282;6;C1396-403

  • Synaptic multiprotein complexes associated with 5-HT(2C) receptors: a proteomic approach.

    Bécamel C, Alonso G, Galéotti N, Demey E, Jouin P, Ullmer C, Dumuis A, Bockaert J and Marin P

    CNRS UPR9023, CCIPE 141 rue de la Cardonille, F-34094 Montpellier Cedex 05, France.

    Membrane-bound receptors such as tyrosine kinases and ionotropic receptors are associated with large protein networks structured by protein-protein interactions involving multidomain proteins. Although these networks have emerged as a general mechanism of cellular signalling, much less is known about the protein complexes associated with G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Using a proteomic approach based on peptide affinity chromatography followed by mass spectrometry and immunoblotting, we have identified 15 proteins that interact with the C- terminal tail of the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT(2C)) receptor, a GPCR. These proteins include several synaptic multidomain proteins containing one or several PDZ domains (PSD95 and the proteins of the tripartite complex Veli3-CASK-Mint1), proteins of the actin/spectrin cytoskeleton and signalling proteins. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that 5-HT(2C) receptors interact with PSD95 and the Veli3-CASK-Mint1 complex in vivo. Electron microscopy also indicated a synaptic enrichment of Veli3 and 5-HT(2C) receptors and their colocalization in microvilli of choroidal cells. These results indicate that the 5-HT(2C) receptor is associated with protein networks that are important for its synaptic localization and its coupling to the signalling machinery.

    The EMBO journal 2002;21;10;2332-42

  • Phosphorylation of stargazin by protein kinase A regulates its interaction with PSD-95.

    Choi J, Ko J, Park E, Lee JR, Yoon J, Lim S and Kim E

    Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.

    Stargazin is the first transmembrane protein known to associate with AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate) glutamate receptors (AMPARs) and regulate their synaptic targeting by two distinct mechanisms, specifically via delivery of AMPARs to the surface membrane and synaptic targeting of these receptors by binding to PSD-95/SAP-90 and related PDZ proteins. However, it is not known whether and how this stargazin-mediated synaptic targeting of AMPARs is regulated. Stargazin interacts with the PDZ domains of PSD-95 through the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. The stargazin C terminus contains a consensus sequence for phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). Phosphorylation site-specific stargazin antibodies reveal that the stargazin C terminus is phosphorylated at the Thr-321 residue in heterologous cells and in vivo. Stargazin phosphorylation is enhanced by the catalytic subunit of PKA. Mutations mimicking stargazin phosphorylation (T321E and T321D) lead to elimination of yeast two-hybrid interactions, in vitro coimmunoprecipitation, and coclustering between stargazin and PSD-95. Phosphorylated stargazin shows a selective loss of coimmunoprecipitation with PSD-95 in heterologous cells and limited enrichment in postsynaptic density fractions of rat brain. These results suggest that phosphorylation of the stargazin C terminus by PKA regulates its interaction with PSD-95 and synaptic targeting of AMPARs.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;14;12359-63

  • Microtubule-associated protein 1A is a modifier of tubby hearing (moth1).

    Ikeda A, Zheng QY, Zuberi AR, Johnson KR, Naggert JK and Nishina PM

    The Jackson Laboratory, 600 Main Street, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA.

    Once a mutation in the gene tub was identified as the cause of obesity, retinal degeneration and hearing loss in tubby mice, it became increasingly evident that the members of the tub gene family (tulps) influence maintenance and function of the neuronal cell lineage. Suggested molecular functions of tubby-like proteins include roles in vesicular trafficking, mediation of insulin signaling and gene transcription. The mechanisms through which tub functions in neurons, however, have yet to be elucidated. Here we report the positional cloning of an auditory quantitative trait locus (QTL), the modifier of tubby hearing 1 gene (moth1), whose wildtype alleles from strains AKR/J, CAST/Ei and 129P2/OlaHsd protect tubby mice from hearing loss. Through a transgenic rescue experiment, we verified that sequence polymorphisms in the neuron-specific microtubule-associated protein 1a gene (Mtap1a) observed in the susceptible strain C57BL/6J (B6) are crucial for the hearing-loss phenotype. We also show that these polymorphisms change the binding efficiency of MTAP1A to postsynaptic density molecule 95 (PSD95), a core component in the cytoarchitecture of synapses. This indicates that at least some of the observed polymorphisms are functionally important and that the hearing loss in C57BL/6J-tub/tub (B6-tub/tub) mice may be caused by impaired protein interactions involving MTAP1A. We therefore propose that tub may be associated with synaptic function in neuronal cells.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: R01 EY016501, R01 EY016501-06; NIDCD NIH HHS: R01 DC004301, R01 DC004301-01, R01 DC005827, R01 DC005827-01, R03 DC004376-01A1; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK046977, R01 DK046977-07, R01 DK046977-10

    Nature genetics 2002;30;4;401-5

  • The PDZ1 domain of SAP90. Characterization of structure and binding.

    Piserchio A, Pellegrini M, Mehta S, Blackman SM, Garcia EP, Marshall J and Mierke DF

    Department of Chemistry, Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA.

    The structural features of the PDZ1 domain of the synapse-associated protein SAP90 have been characterized by NMR. A comparison with the structures of the PDZ2 and PDZ3 domains of SAP90 illustrates significant differences, which may account for the unique binding properties of these homologous domains. Within the postsynaptic density, SAP90 functions as a molecular scaffold with a number of the protein-protein interactions mediated through the PDZ1 domain. Here, using fluorescence anisotropy and NMR chemical shift analysis, we have characterized the association of PDZ1 to the C-terminal peptides of the GluR6 subunit of the kainate receptor, voltage-gated K(+) channel Kv1.4, and microtubule-associate protein CRIPT, all of which are known to associate with SAP90. The latter two, which possess the consensus sequence for binding to PDZ domains (T/S-X-V-oh), have low micromolar binding affinities (1.5-15 microm). The C terminus of GluR6, RLPGKETMA-oh, lacking the consensus sequence, binds to PDZ1 of SAP90 with an affinity of 160 microm. The NMR data illustrate that although all three peptides occupy the binding groove capped by the GLGF loop of PDZ1, specific differences are present, consistent with the variation in binding affinities.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;9;6967-73

  • A functional interaction between CD46 and DLG4: a role for DLG4 in epithelial polarization.

    Ludford-Menting MJ, Thomas SJ, Crimeen B, Harris LJ, Loveland BE, Bills M, Ellis S and Russell SM

    Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, Trescowthick Research Laboratories, St. Andrew's Place, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002, Australia.

    Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified a physical interaction between CD46 and DLG4. CD46 is a ubiquitous human cell-surface receptor for the complement components C3b and C4b and for measles virus and human herpesvirus 6. DLG4 is a scaffold protein important for neuronal signaling and is homologous to the Drosophila tumor suppressor DLG. We show that an interaction between CD46 and DLG4 is important for polarization in epithelial cells. Specifically, we show (i) biochemical evidence for an interaction between CD46 and DLG4, (ii) that this interaction is specific for the Cyt1 (but not Cyt2) domain of CD46, (iii) that both CD46 and an alternatively spliced isoform of DLG4 are polarized in normal human epithelial cells, and (iv) that the polarized expression of CD46 in epithelial cells requires the DLG4-binding domain and alters with expression of a truncated form of DLG4. This is the first identification of a direct and cytoplasmic domain-specific interaction between CD46 and an intracellular signaling molecule and provides a molecular mechanism for the polarization of CD46. These data also indicate that, in addition to the known role for DLG4 in neuronal cells, DLG4 may be important for polarization in epithelial cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;6;4477-84

  • Ligand binding of the second PDZ domain regulates clustering of PSD-95 with the Kv1.4 potassium channel.

    Imamura F, Maeda S, Doi T and Fujiyoshi Y

    Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Oiwake, Kitasirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the protein assembly at synaptic junctions are thought to be important for neural functions. PSD-95, one of the major postsynaptic density proteins, is composed of three PDZ domains (PDZ1, PDZ2, and PDZ3), an SH3 domain, and a GK (guanylate kinase ) domain. It binds to the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor NR2 subunit or to the Shaker-type K(+) channel, Kv1.4, via the PDZ1 or PDZ2 domain, whereas PDZ3 binds to distinct partners. The intramolecular interaction of these multiple domains has been implicated in efficient protein clustering. We introduced missense and deletion mutations into PDZ1 (PDZ1mDelta) and/or PDZ2 (PDZ2mDelta) of the full-length PSD-95 to disrupt the association of each domain with the target proteins, while preserving the overall structure. The ion channel clustering activities of the PSD-95 mutants were analyzed in COS-1 cells coexpressing each mutant and Kv1.4. The mutant bearing the dysfunctional PDZ2 (PSD-95:1-2mDelta) showed significantly reduced clustering efficiency, whereas the mutant with the dysfunctional PDZ1 (PSD-95:1mDelta-2) exhibited activity comparable with the wild-type activity. Furthermore, we also examined the requirements for the position of PDZ2 in full-length PSD-95 by constructing a series of PDZ1-PDZ2 inversion mutants. Surprisingly, the clustering activity of PSD-95:2-1mDelta was severely defective. Taken together, these findings show that PDZ2, which is endowed with the highest affinity for Kv1.4, is required for efficient ligand binding. In addition, the ligand binding at the position of the second PDZ domain in full-length PSD-95 is prerequisite for efficient and typical cluster formation. This study suggests that the correct placement of the multiple domains in the full-length PSD-95 protein is necessary for the optimal protein activity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;5;3640-6

  • Parkin and CASK/LIN-2 associate via a PDZ-mediated interaction and are co-localized in lipid rafts and postsynaptic densities in brain.

    Fallon L, Moreau F, Croft BG, Labib N, Gu WJ and Fon EA

    Centre for Neuronal Survival, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada.

    Mutations in the gene encoding parkin cause an autosomal recessive juvenile-onset form of Parkinson's disease. Parkin functions as a RING-type E3 ubiquitin-ligase, coordinating the transfer of ubiquitin to substrate proteins and thereby targeting them for degradation by the proteasome. We now report that the extreme C terminus of parkin, which is selectively truncated by a Parkinson's disease-causing mutation, functions as a class II PDZ-binding motif that binds CASK, the mammalian homolog of Caenorhabditis elegans Lin-2, but not other PDZ proteins in brain extracts. Importantly, parkin co-localizes with CASK at synapses in cultured cortical neurons as well as in postsynaptic densities and lipid rafts in brain. Further, parkin associates not only with CASK but also with other postsynaptic proteins in the N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-signaling complex, in rat brain in vivo. Finally, despite exhibiting E2-dependent ubiquitin ligase activity, rat brain parkin does not ubiquitinate CASK, suggesting that CASK may function in targeting or scaffolding parkin within the postsynaptic complex rather than as a direct substrate for parkin-mediated ubiquitination. These data implicate for the first time a PDZ-mediated interaction between parkin and CASK in neurodegeneration and possibly in ubiquitination of proteins involved in synaptic transmission and plasticity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;1;486-91

  • Guanylyl cyclase/PSD-95 interaction: targeting of the nitric oxide-sensitive alpha2beta1 guanylyl cyclase to synaptic membranes.

    Russwurm M, Wittau N and Koesling D

    Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Medizinische Fakultät MA N1, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany.

    The signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) exerts most of its effects by the stimulation of the NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase. Two isoforms of the NO receptor molecule exist: the ubiquitously occurring alpha(1)beta(1) and the alpha(2)beta(1) with a more limited distribution. As the isoforms are functionally indistinguishable, the physiological relevance of these isoforms remained unclear. The neuronal NO synthase has been reported to be associated with PSD-95. Here, we demonstrate the interaction of the so far unnoticed alpha(2)beta(1) isoform with PSD-95 in rat brain as shown by coprecipitation. The interaction is mediated by the alpha(2) C-terminal peptide and the third PDZ domain of PSD-95. As a consequence of the PSD-95 interaction, the so far considered "soluble" alpha(2)beta(1) isoform is recruited to the membrane fraction of synaptosomes, whereas the alpha(1)beta(1) isoform is found in the cytosol. Our results establish the alpha(1)beta(1) as the cytosolic and the alpha(2)beta(1) as the membrane-associated NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase and suggest the alpha(2)beta(1) isoform as the sensor for the NO formed by the PSD-95-associated neuronal NO synthase.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;48;44647-52

  • Lano, a novel LAP protein directly connected to MAGUK proteins in epithelial cells.

    Saito H, Santoni MJ, Arsanto JP, Jaulin-Bastard F, Le Bivic A, Marchetto S, Audebert S, Isnardon D, Adélaïde J, Birnbaum D and Borg JP

    U119 INSERM, Molecular Oncology, 27 boulevard Lei Roure, 13009 Marseille, France.

    Protein networks asymetrically distributed to basolateral and apical epithelial membranes maintain cell polarity and homeostasis of epithelial tissues. Genetic studies in non-vertebrates assigned two families of basolateral proteins, MAGUK (membrane-associated and guanylate kinase) and LAP (leucine-rich repeats and PDZ) proteins, to a common pathway crucial for the epithelial architecture and acting as a gatekeeper to malignancy. In mammals, three LAP proteins have been described, Densin-180, Erbin, and hScribble. Here, we identify a protein called Lano (LAP and no PDZ) only present in vertebrates and presenting strong identities with LAP proteins. Despite the lack of PDZ domain, Lano is located at the basolateral side of epithelial cells in a similar manner to Erbin and hScribble. Using in vitro and in vivo experiments, we demonstrate that Lano directly interacts with the PDZ domains of MAGUK proteins, including hDLG (human disc large), in epithelial cells. A second pool of Lano is complexed to Erbin. These LAP-MAGUK protein complexes coexist at the basolateral side of epithelial cells. We provide evidence for a direct interaction between LAP and MAGUK proteins, and we propose that various LAP-MAGUK networks targeted to the basolateral side of epithelial cells participate to homeostasis of epithelial tissues and tumor growth.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;34;32051-5

  • Effect of gestational ethanol exposure on the NMDA receptor complex in rat forebrain: from gene transcription to cell surface.

    Hughes PD, Wilson WR and Leslie SW

    Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy and the Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, The University of Texas at Austin, 78712, USA. ph@uts.cc.utexas.edu

    Effects of gestational ethanol exposure on the trafficking of the NMDA receptor complex were investigated. Studies focused on three distinct processes in NMDA receptor translocation: (1) the level of gene transcription (2) nascent NMDA receptor subunits (NR) associated with the endoplasmic reticulum bound chaperone protein calnexin and (3) NMDA receptors associated with the cell surface anchoring protein PSD-95. Forebrain mRNA and membrane proteins were isolated from postnatal day 1 rat pups from prenatally ethanol exposed, pair-fed and ad libitum experimental groups. Ribonuclease protection assays were carried out to determine the levels of NR2A, NR2B, and NR2C mRNA within the treatment groups determined. Results indicated that gestational ethanol exposure did not affect the gene transcription of the NR2 subunits. Immunoprecipitation experiments were conducted with an anti-calnexin antibody or an anti-PSD-95 antibody and the immunoprecipitates probed for NR1 and NR2 subunits. Within the anti-calnexin immunoprecipitates, no NR2A, NR2B or NR2C subunits were detectable, but a significant pool of NR1 subunits was identified. These findings suggest that NR1 subunits but not NR2 subunits are associated with calnexin within the endoplasmic reticulum. Further, gestational ethanol exposure significantly increased the NR1 polypeptide levels in the anti-calnexin immunoprecipitate. Anti-PSD-95 immunoprecipitates revealed an abundance of NR1 and NR2B subunits, and these complexes were unaffected by gestational ethanol exposure. No NR2A or NR2C subunits were detected. These results suggest that gestational ethanol exposure significantly affects the assembly and transport of NMDA receptors. Gestational ethanol exposure may not alter the composition of the PSD-95 associated NMDA receptor complex.

    Funded by: NIAAA NIH HHS: 1 R01 AA11836, R37 AA05809

    Brain research. Developmental brain research 2001;129;2;135-45

  • Regulation of dendritic spine morphology by SPAR, a PSD-95-associated RapGAP.

    Pak DT, Yang S, Rudolph-Correia S, Kim E and Sheng M

    Department of Neurobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

    The PSD-95/SAP90 family of scaffold proteins organizes the postsynaptic density (PSD) and regulates NMDA receptor signaling at excitatory synapses. We report that SPAR, a Rap-specific GTPase-activating protein (RapGAP), interacts with the guanylate kinase-like domain of PSD-95 and forms a complex with PSD-95 and NMDA receptors in brain. In heterologous cells, SPAR reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton and recruits PSD-95 to F-actin. In hippocampal neurons, SPAR localizes to dendritic spines and causes enlargement of spine heads, many of which adopt an irregular appearance with putative multiple synapses. Dominant negative SPAR constructs cause narrowing and elongation of spines. The effects of SPAR on spine morphology depend on the RapGAP and actin-interacting domains, implicating Rap signaling in the regulation of postsynaptic structure.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS10886, NS35050

    Neuron 2001;31;2;289-303

  • Semaphorin4F interacts with the synapse-associated protein SAP90/PSD-95.

    Schultze W, Eulenburg V, Lessmann V, Herrmann L, Dittmar T, Gundelfinger ED, Heumann R and Erdmann KS

    Department of Molecular Neurobiochemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

    Semaphorins are a family of secreted and membrane-associated proteins involved in growth cone guidance during development. Here, we describe the interaction of Semaphorin4F (Sema4F) with the post-synaptic density protein SAP90/PSD-95. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and coprecipitation assays we were able to show an interaction between the extreme C-terminus of Sema4F and the PDZ domains of SAP90/PSD-95. Heterologous coexpression of a chimeric EphrinB1/Semaphorin4F protein with SAP90/PSD-95 in COS cells leads to translocation of SAP90/PSD-95 from the cytosol to the membrane. Deletion analysis shows that this translocation activity of Sema4F is completely dependent on the presence of the last three C-terminal amino acids. In addition, Sema4F immunoreactivity is present in synaptosome fractions and enriched in post-synaptic density fractions. Consistently, in cultured hippocampal neurons, we demonstrate punctate colocalization of Sema4F and SAP90/PSD-95 in dendrites, furthermore we found colocalization of Sema4F with synapsin1 suggesting a synaptic localization. Our data implicate a new functional context for semaphorins at glutamatergic synapses.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2001;78;3;482-9

  • Polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin promotes sensitization of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors via post-synaptic density 95.

    Sun Y, Savanenin A, Reddy PH and Liu YF

    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Northeastern University, 715 Albany St., Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Increased glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (Tabrizi, S. J., Cleeter, M. W., Xuereb, J., Taaman, J. W., Cooper, J. M., and Schapira, A. H. (1999) Ann. Neurol. 45, 25-32). However, how polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin promotes glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity remains a mystery. In this study we provide evidence that (i) normal huntingtin is associated with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and kainate receptors via postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95), (ii) the SH3 domain of PSD-95 mediates its binding to huntingtin, and (iii) polyglutamine expansion interferes with the ability of huntingtin to interact with PSD-95. The expression of polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin causes sensitization of NMDA receptors and promotes neuronal apoptosis induced by glutamate. The addition of the NMDA receptor antagonist significantly attenuates neuronal toxicity induced by glutamate and polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin. The overexpression of normal huntingtin significantly inhibits neuronal toxicity mediated by NMDA or kainate receptors. Our results demonstrate that polyglutamine expansion impairs the ability of huntingtin to bind PSD-95 and inhibits glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. These changes may be essential for the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;27;24713-8

  • Plasma membrane Ca2+-atpase isoforms 2b and 4b interact promiscuously and selectively with members of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase family of PDZ (PSD95/Dlg/ZO-1) domain-containing proteins.

    DeMarco SJ and Strehler EE

    Program in Molecular Neuroscience, Department of Biochemistry, Mayo Graduate School, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

    Spatial and temporal regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling depends on localized Ca(2+) microdomains containing the requisite molecular components for Ca(2+) influx, efflux, and signal transmission. Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) isoforms of the "b" splice type contain predicted PDZ (PSD95/Dlg/ZO-1) interaction domains. The COOH-terminal tail of PMCA2b isolated the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein SAP97/hDlg as a binding partner in a yeast two-hybrid screen. The related MAGUKs SAP90/PSD95, PSD93/chapsyn-110, SAP97, and SAP102 all bound to the COOH-terminal tail of PMCA4b, whereas only the first three bound to the tail of PMCA2b. Coimmunoprecipitations confirmed the interaction selectivity between PMCA4b and SAP102 as opposed to the promiscuity of PMCA2b and 4b in interacting with other SAPs. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed the exclusive presence and colocalization of PMCA4b and SAP97 in the basolateral membrane of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells. In hippocampal neurons, PMCA2b was abundant throughout the somatodendritic compartment and often extended into the neck and head of individual spines where it colocalized with SAP90/PSD95. These data show that PMCA "b" splice forms interact promiscuously but also with specificity with different members of the PSD95 family of SAPs. PMCA-SAP interactions may play a role in the recruitment and maintenance of the PMCA at specific membrane domains involved in local Ca(2+) regulation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-58710

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;24;21594-600

  • Erbin is a protein concentrated at postsynaptic membranes that interacts with PSD-95.

    Huang YZ, Wang Q, Xiong WC and Mei L

    Departments of Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA.

    Neuregulin is a factor essential for synapse-specific transcription of acetylcholine receptor genes at the neuromuscular junction. Its receptors, ErbB receptor tyrosine kinases, are localized at the postjunctional membrane presumably to ensure localized signaling. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic localization of ErbBs are unknown. Our recent studies indicate that ErbB4 interacts with postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 (SAP90), a PDZ domain-containing protein that does not interact with ErbB2 or ErbB3. Using as bait the ErbB2 C terminus, we identified Erbin, another PDZ domain-containing protein that interacts specifically with ErbB2. Erbin is concentrated in postsynaptic membranes at the neuromuscular junction and in the central nervous system, where ErbB2 is concentrated. Expression of Erbin increases the amount of ErbB2 labeled by biotin in transfected cells, suggesting that Erbin is able to increase ErbB2 surface expression. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Erbin interacts with PSD-95 in both transfected cells and synaptosomes. Thus ErbB proteins can interact with a network of PDZ domain-containing proteins. This interaction may play an important role in regulation of neuregulin signaling and/or subcellular localization of ErbB proteins.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS34062, NS40480

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;22;19318-26

  • Identification of a novel neuroligin in humans which binds to PSD-95 and has a widespread expression.

    Bolliger MF, Frei K, Winterhalter KH and Gloor SM

    Institute of Biochemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, CH-8092 Zürich, Switzerland.

    Neuroligins, first discovered in rat brain, form a family of three synaptically enriched membrane proteins. Using reverse transcription-PCR of human brain polyadenylated RNA and extensive database searches, we identified the human homologues of the three rat neuroligins and a cDNA encoding a fourth member, which we named neuroligin 4. Neuroligin 4 has 63-73% amino acid identity with the other members of the human neuroligin family, and the same predicted domain structure. DNA database analyses, furthermore, indicated that a possible fifth neuroligin gene may be present in the human genome. Northern-blot analysis revealed expression of neuroligin 4 in heart, liver, skeletal muscle and pancreas, but barely at all in brain. Overexpression of neuroligin 4 cDNA in COS-7 cells led to the production of a 110 kDa protein. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that the protein was integrated into the plasma membrane. Overexpression of cDNAs encoding neuroligin 4 and the PDZ-domain protein, PSD-95, in COS-7 cells resulted in the formation of detergent-resistant complexes. Neuroligin 4 did not bind to ZO-1, another PDZ-domain protein. Together, our data show that the human neuroligin family is composed of at least one additional member, and suggest that neuroligin 4 may also be produced outside the central nervous system.

    The Biochemical journal 2001;356;Pt 2;581-8

  • Molecular mechanisms regulating the differential association of kainate receptor subunits with SAP90/PSD-95 and SAP97.

    Mehta S, Wu H, Garner CC and Marshall J

    Department Of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biotechnology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA.

    Recent studies have demonstrated that kainate receptors are associated with members of the SAP90/PSD-95 family (synapse-associated proteins (SAPs)) in neurons and that SAP90 can cluster and modify the electrophysiological properties of GluR6/KA2 kainate receptors when co-expressed in transfected cells. In vivo, SAP90 tightly binds kainate receptor subunits, while SAP97 is only weakly associated, suggesting that this glutamate receptor differentially associates with SAP90/PSD-95 family members. Here, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged chimeras and deletion mutants of SAP97 and SAP90 were employed to define the molecular mechanism underlying their differential association with kainate receptors. Our results show that a weak interaction between GluR6 and the PDZ1 domain of SAP97 can account for the weak association of GluR6 with the full-length SAP97 observed in vivo. Expression studies in HEK293 cells and in vitro binding studies further show that although the individual Src homology 3 and guanylate kinase domains in SAP97 can interact with the C-terminal tail of KA2 subunit, specific intramolecular interactions in SAP97 (e.g. the SAP97 N terminus (S97N) binding to the Src homology 3 domain) interfere with KA2 binding to the full-length molecule. Because receptor subunits are known to segregate to different parts of the neuron, our results imply that differential association of kainate receptors with SAP family proteins may be one mechanism of subcellular localization.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG 06569-09, AG 12978-02, AG12978-02; NICHD NIH HHS: P50 HD32901

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;19;16092-9

  • Kainate receptor activation induces mixed lineage kinase-mediated cellular signaling cascades via post-synaptic density protein 95.

    Savinainen A, Garcia EP, Dorow D, Marshall J and Liu YF

    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Kainate receptor glutamate receptor 6 (GluR6) subunit-deficient and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3)-null mice share similar phenotypes including resistance to kainite-induced epileptic seizures and neuronal toxicity (Yang, D. D., Kuan, C-Y., Whitmarsh, A. J., Rincon, M., Zheng, T. S., Davis, R. J., Rakis, P., and Flavell, R. (1997) Nature 389, 865-869; Mulle, C., Seiler, A., Perez-Otano, I., Dickinson-Anson, H., Castillo, P. E., Bureau, I., Maron, C., Gage, F. H., Mann, J. R., Bettler, B., and Heinemmann, S. F. (1998) Nature 392, 601-605). This suggests that JNK activation may be involved in GluR6-mediated excitotoxicity. We provide evidence that post-synaptic density protein (PSD-95) links GluR6 to JNK activation by anchoring mixed lineage kinase (MLK) 2 or MLK3, upstream activators of JNKs, to the receptor complex. Association of MLK2 and MLK3 with PSD-95 in HN33 cells and rat brain preparations is dependent upon the SH3 domain of PSD-95, and expression of GluR6 in HN33 cells activated JNKs and induced neuronal apoptosis. Deletion of the PSD-95-binding site of GluR6 reduced both JNK activation and neuronal toxicity. Co-expression of dominant negative MLK2, MLK3, or mitogen-activated kinase kinase (MKK) 4 and MKK7 also significantly attenuated JNK activation and neuronal toxicity mediated by GluR6, and co-expression of PSD-95 with a deficient Src homology 3 domain also inhibited GluR6-induced JNK activation and neuronal toxicity. Our results suggest that PSD-95 plays a critical role in GluR6-mediated JNK activation and excitotoxicity by anchoring MLK to the receptor complex.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;14;11382-6

  • The introduction of MR in the Nordic countries with special reference to Norway: central control versus local initiatives.

    Smith HJ

    Department of Radiology, The National Hospital, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. h.j.smith@rh.uio.no

    The introduction of MR technology in Norway differed from that in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. In the latter countries, decisions were made at county or local level while in Norway the process was steered by the government and the national health authorities. For several reasons the steering was not very successful, and the intention of buying one MR unit ended with the purchase of five units. As a counter-reaction, for seven years only university hospitals were allowed to purchase MR equipment. In 1993, the strict regulations were abolished, and during the succeeding years all four Nordic countries experienced similar exponential growth in the number of MR units.

    Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI 2001;13;4;639-44

  • Sema4c, a transmembrane semaphorin, interacts with a post-synaptic density protein, PSD-95.

    Inagaki S, Ohoka Y, Sugimoto H, Fujioka S, Amazaki M, Kurinami H, Miyazaki N, Tohyama M and Furuyama T

    Group of Neurobiology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Osaka University Faculty of Medicine, Yamadaoka 1-7, Suita-shi, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan. inagaki@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp

    Semaphorins are known to act as chemorepulsive molecules that guide axons during neural development. Sema4C, a group 4 semaphorin, is a transmembrane semaphorin of unknown function. The cytoplasmic domain of Sema4C contains a proline-rich region that may interact with some signaling proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that Sema4C is enriched in the adult mouse brain and associated with PSD-95 isoforms containing PDZ (PSD-95/DLG/ZO-1) domains, such as PSD-95/SAP90, PSD-93/chapsin110, and SAP97/DLG-1, which are concentrated in the post-synaptic density of the brain. In the neocortex, S4C is enriched in the synaptic vesicle fraction and Triton X-100 insoluble post-synaptic density fraction. Immunostaining for Sema4C overlaps that for PSD-95 in superficial layers I-IV of the neocortex. In neocortical culture, S4C is colocalized with PSD-95 in neurons, with a dot-like pattern along the neurites. Sema4C thus may function in the cortical neurons as a bi-directional transmembrane ligand through interacting with PSD-95.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;12;9174-81

  • Hippocampal synaptic plasticity involves competition between Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and postsynaptic density 95 for binding to the NR2A subunit of the NMDA receptor.

    Gardoni F, Schrama LH, Kamal A, Gispen WH, Cattabeni F and Di Luca M

    Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy. fabrizio.gardoni@unimi.it

    NMDA receptor, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alphaCaMKII), and postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) are three major components of the PSD fraction. Both alphaCaMKII and PSD-95 have been shown previously to bind NR2 subunits of the NMDA receptor complex. The nature and mechanisms of targeting to the NMDA receptor subunits are, however, not completely understood. Here we report that the C-terminal NR2A(S1389-V1464) sequence was sufficient to guarantee the association of both native and recombinant alphaCaMKII and PSD-95. PSD-95(54-256) was able to compete with the binding of both native and recombinant alphaCaMKII to the NR2A C-tail. Accordingly, alphaCaMKII(1-325) competes with both the native PSD-95 and the native kinase itself for the binding to NR2A. In addition, Ser/Ala1289 and Ser/Asp1289 point mutations on the unique CaMKII phosphosite of NR2A did not significantly influence the binding of native alphaCaMKII and PSD-95 to the NR2A C-tail. Finally, the association-dissociation of alphaCaMKII and PSD-95 to and from the NR2A C-tail was significantly modulated by activation of NMDA receptor achieved by either pharmacological tools or long-term potentiation induction, underlining the importance of dynamic and reciprocal interactions of NMDA receptor, alphaCaMKII, and PSD-95 in hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    Funded by: Telethon: 946

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2001;21;5;1501-9

  • Stargazin regulates synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors by two distinct mechanisms.

    Chen L, Chetkovich DM, Petralia RS, Sweeney NT, Kawasaki Y, Wenthold RJ, Bredt DS and Nicoll RA

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA.

    Stargazer, an ataxic and epileptic mutant mouse, lacks functional AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate) receptors on cerebellar granule cells. Stargazin, the mutated protein, interacts with both AMPA receptor subunits and synaptic PDZ proteins, such as PSD-95. The interaction of stargazin with AMPA receptor subunits is essential for delivering functional receptors to the surface membrane of granule cells, whereas its binding with PSD-95 and related PDZ proteins through a carboxy-terminal PDZ-binding domain is required for targeting the AMPA receptor to synapses. Expression of a mutant stargazin lacking the PDZ-binding domain in hippocampal pyramidal cells disrupts synaptic AMPA receptors, indicating that stargazin-like mechanisms for targeting AMPA receptors may be widespread in the central nervous system.

    Nature 2000;408;6815;936-43

  • beta 1-adrenergic receptor association with PSD-95. Inhibition of receptor internalization and facilitation of beta 1-adrenergic receptor interaction with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.

    Hu LA, Tang Y, Miller WE, Cong M, Lau AG, Lefkowitz RJ and Hall RA

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Departments of Medicine and Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    The beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (beta(1)AR) is the most abundant subtype of beta-adrenergic receptor in the mammalian brain and is known to potently regulate synaptic plasticity. To search for potential neuronal beta(1)AR-interacting proteins, we screened a rat brain cDNA library using the beta(1)AR carboxyl terminus (beta(1)AR-CT) as bait in the yeast two-hybrid system. These screens identified PSD-95, a multiple PDZ domain-containing scaffolding protein, as a specific binding partner of the beta(1)AR-CT. This interaction was confirmed by in vitro fusion protein pull-down and blot overlay experiments, which demonstrated that the beta(1)AR-CT binds specifically to the third PDZ domain of PSD-95. Furthermore, the full-length beta(1)AR associates with PSD-95 in cells, as determined by co-immunoprecipitation experiments and immunofluorescence co-localization studies. The interaction between beta(1)AR and PSD-95 is mediated by the last few amino acids of the beta(1)AR, and mutation of the beta(1)AR carboxyl terminus eliminated the binding and disrupted the co-localization of the beta(1)AR and PSD-95 in cells. Agonist-induced internalization of the beta(1)AR in HEK-293 cells was markedly attenuated by PSD-95 co-expression, whereas co-expression of PSD-95 has no significant effect on either desensitization of the beta(1)AR or beta(1)AR-induced cAMP accumulation. Furthermore, PSD-95 facilitated the formation of a complex between the beta(1)AR and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation. These data reveal that PSD-95 is a specific beta(1)AR binding partner that modulates beta(1)AR function and facilitates physical association of the beta(1)AR with synaptic proteins, such as the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, which are known to be regulated by beta(1)AR stimulation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL16037; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM60982

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;49;38659-66

  • The G protein-coupled receptor CL1 interacts directly with proteins of the Shank family.

    Tobaben S, Südhof TC and Stahl B

    Max Planck-Institute for Experimental Medicine, 37075 Göttingen, Germany.

    PDZ domains play a pivotal role in the synaptic localization of ion channels, receptors, signaling enzymes, and cell adhesion molecules. These domains mediate protein-protein interactions via the recognition of a conserved sequence motif at the extreme C terminus of their target proteins. By means of a yeast two-hybrid screen using the C terminus of the G protein-coupled alpha-latrotoxin receptor CL1 as bait, three PDZ domain proteins of the Shank family were identified. These proteins belong to a single protein family characterized by a common domain organization. The PDZ domain is highly conserved among the family members, significantly different from other known PDZ domains, and specifically binds to the C terminus of CL1. Shank1 and CL1 are expressed primarily in brain, and both proteins co-enrich in the postsynaptic density. Furthermore, Shank1 induces a clustering of CL1 in transfected cells, strongly supporting an interaction of both proteins in vivo.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;46;36204-10

  • Intramolecular interactions regulate SAP97 binding to GKAP.

    Wu H, Reissner C, Kuhlendahl S, Coblentz B, Reuver S, Kindler S, Gundelfinger ED and Garner CC

    University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Neurobiology, 1719 Sixth Avenue South CIRC 589, Birmingham, AL 35294-0021, USA.

    Membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologs (MAGUKs) are multidomain proteins found to be central organizers of cellular junctions. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms that regulate the interaction of the MAGUK SAP97 with its GUK domain binding partner GKAP (GUK-associated protein). The GKAP-GUK interaction is regulated by a series of intramolecular interactions. Specifically, the association of the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain and sequences situated between the SH3 and GUK domains with the GUK domain was found to interfere with GKAP binding. In contrast, N-terminal sequences that precede the first PDZ domain in SAP97, facilitated GKAP binding via its association with the SH3 domain. Utilizing crystal structure data available for PDZ, SH3 and GUK domains, molecular models of SAP97 were generated. These models revealed that SAP97 can exist in a compact U-shaped conformation in which the N-terminal domain folds back and interacts with the SH3 and GUK domains. These models support the biochemical data and provide new insights into how intramolecular interactions may regulate the association of SAP97 with its binding partners.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG 06569-09, AG 12978-02; NICHD NIH HHS: P50 HD32901

    The EMBO journal 2000;19;21;5740-51

  • The colorectal tumour suppressor APC is present in the NMDA-receptor-PSD-95 complex in the brain.

    Yanai H, Satoh K, Matsumine A and Akiyama T

    Laboratory of Molecular and Genetic Information, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan.

    Background: The synaptic protein PSD-95/SAP90 interacts with ion channels such as the N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor (NMDA-R) via its PDZ domain, and is involved in their clustering. Moreover, it interacts with signalling molecules and plays an important role in coupling NMDA-R to pathways that control synaptic plasticity and learning.

    Results: We report that PSD-95 interacts with the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor protein via its PDZ domain. Furthermore, we found that PSD-95, NMDA-R and APC are contained in the same complex in vivo. PSD-95-NMDA-R-APC association was found to require two cysteine residues conserved in the amino-terminus of PSD-95 that are known to be critical for its multimerization.

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the PSD-95-NMDA-R-APC complex forms due to the multimerization of PSD-95 monomers, each of which can associate with either NMDA-R or APC. It is possible that APC is involved in the regulation of ion channel clustering and/or organization of signalling molecules.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2000;5;10;815-22

  • GAKIN, a novel kinesin-like protein associates with the human homologue of the Drosophila discs large tumor suppressor in T lymphocytes.

    Hanada T, Lin L, Tibaldi EV, Reinherz EL and Chishti AH

    Section of Hematology-Oncology Research, Departments of Medicine, Anatomy, and Cellular Biology, St. Elizabeth's Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02135, USA.

    Reorganization of the cortical cytoskeleton is a hallmark of T lymphocyte activation. Upon binding to antigen presenting cells, the T cells rapidly undergo cytoskeletal re-organization thus forming a cap at the cell-cell contact site leading to receptor clustering, protein segregation, and cellular polarization. Previously, we reported cloning of the human lymphocyte homologue of the Drosophila Discs Large tumor suppressor protein (hDlg). Here we show that a novel protein termed GAKIN binds to the guanylate kinase-like domain of hDlg. Affinity protein purification, peptide sequencing, and cloning of GAKIN cDNA from Jurkat J77 lymphocytes identified GAKIN as a novel member of the kinesin superfamily of motor proteins. GAKIN mRNA is ubiquitously expressed, and the predicted amino acid sequence shares significant sequence similarity with the Drosophila kinesin-73 motor protein. GAKIN sequence contains a motor domain at the NH(2) terminus, a central stalk domain, and a putative microtubule-interacting sequence called the CAP-Gly domain at the COOH terminus. Among the MAGUK superfamily of proteins examined, GAKIN binds to the guanylate kinase-like domain of PSD-95 but not of p55. The hDlg and GAKIN are localized mainly in the cytoplasm of resting T lymphocytes, however, upon CD2 receptor cross-linking the hDlg can translocate to the lymphocyte cap. We propose that the GAKIN-hDlg interaction lays the foundation for a general paradigm of coupling MAGUKs to the microtubule-based cytoskeleton, and that this interaction may be functionally important for the intracellular trafficking of MAGUKs and associated protein complexes in vivo.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI21226

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;37;28774-84

  • Interactions of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene family with cytosolic adaptor and scaffold proteins suggest diverse biological functions in cellular communication and signal transduction.

    Gotthardt M, Trommsdorff M, Nevitt MF, Shelton J, Richardson JA, Stockinger W, Nimpf J and Herz J

    Department of Molecular Genetics and Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75390-9046, USA.

    The members of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene family bind a broad spectrum of extracellular ligands. Traditionally, they had been regarded as mere cargo receptors that promote the endocytosis and lysosomal delivery of these ligands. However, recent genetic experiments in mice have revealed critical functions for two LDL receptor family members, the very low density lipoprotein receptor and the apoE receptor-2, in the transmission of extracellular signals and the activation of intracellular tyrosine kinases. This process regulates neuronal migration and is crucial for brain development. Signaling through these receptors requires the interaction of their cytoplasmic tails with the intracellular adaptor protein Disabled-1 (DAB1). Here, we identify an extended set of cytoplasmic proteins that might also participate in signal transmission by the LDL receptor gene family. Most of these novel proteins are adaptor or scaffold proteins that contain PID or PDZ domains and function in the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, cell adhesion, vesicle trafficking, or neurotransmission. We show that binding of DAB1 interferes with receptor internalization suggesting a mechanism by which signaling through this class of receptors might be regulated. Taken together, these findings imply much broader physiological functions for the LDL receptor family than had previously been appreciated. They form the basis for the elucidation of the molecular pathways by which cells respond to the diversity of ligands that bind to these multifunctional receptors on the cell surface.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL20948, HL63762, R37 HL063762

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;33;25616-24

  • Targeting of PKA to glutamate receptors through a MAGUK-AKAP complex.

    Colledge M, Dean RA, Scott GK, Langeberg LK, Huganir RL and Scott JD

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201, USA.

    Compartmentalization of glutamate receptors with the signaling enzymes that regulate their activity supports synaptic transmission. Two classes of binding proteins organize these complexes: the MAGUK proteins that cluster glutamate receptors and AKAPs that anchor kinases and phosphatases. In this report, we demonstrate that glutamate receptors and PKA are recruited into a macromolecular signaling complex through direct interaction between the MAGUK proteins, PSD-95 and SAP97, and AKAP79/150. The SH3 and GK regions of the MAGUKs mediate binding to the AKAP. Cell-based studies indicate that phosphorylation of AMPA receptors is enhanced by a SAP97-AKAP79 complex that directs PKA to GluR1 via a PDZ domain interaction. As AMPA receptor phosphorylation is implicated in regulating synaptic plasticity, these data suggest that a MAGUK-AKAP complex may be centrally involved.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM48231

    Neuron 2000;27;1;107-19

  • Interaction of the postsynaptic density-95/guanylate kinase domain-associated protein complex with a light chain of myosin-V and dynein.

    Naisbitt S, Valtschanoff J, Allison DW, Sala C, Kim E, Craig AM, Weinberg RJ and Sheng M

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neurobiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.

    NMDA receptors interact directly with postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), a scaffold protein that organizes a cytoskeletal- signaling complex at the postsynaptic membrane. The molecular mechanism by which the PSD-95-based protein complex is trafficked to the postsynaptic site is unknown but presumably involves specific motor proteins. Here we demonstrate a direct interaction between the PSD-95-associated protein guanylate kinase domain-associated protein (GKAP) and dynein light chain (DLC), a light chain subunit shared by myosin-V (an actin-based motor) and cytoplasmic dynein (a microtubule-based motor). A yeast two-hybrid screen with GKAP isolated DLC2, a novel protein 93% identical to the previously cloned 8 kDa dynein light chain (DLC1). A complex containing PSD-95, GKAP, DLC, and myosin-V can be immunoprecipitated from rat brain extracts. DLC colocalizes with PSD-95 and F-actin in dendritic spines of cultured neurons and is enriched in biochemical purifications of PSD. Immunogold electron microscopy reveals a concentration of DLC in the postsynaptic compartment of asymmetric synapses of brain in which it is associated with the PSD and the spine apparatus. We discuss the possibility that the GKAP/DLC interaction may be involved in trafficking of the PSD-95 complex by motor proteins.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS29879, NS33184, NS35050

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2000;20;12;4524-34

  • Regulation of neuregulin signaling by PSD-95 interacting with ErbB4 at CNS synapses.

    Huang YZ, Won S, Ali DW, Wang Q, Tanowitz M, Du QS, Pelkey KA, Yang DJ, Xiong WC, Salter MW and Mei L

    Department of Neurobiology, Pathology, and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA.

    Neuregulins (NRGs) and their receptors, the ErbB protein tyrosine kinases, are essential for neuronal development, but their functions in the adult CNS are unknown. We report that ErbB4 is enriched in the postsynaptic density (PSD) and associates with PSD-95. Heterologous expression of PSD-95 enhanced NRG activation of ErbB4 and MAP kinase. Conversely, inhibiting expression of PSD-95 in neurons attenuated NRG-mediated activation of MAP kinase. PSD-95 formed a ternary complex with two molecules of ErbB4, suggesting that PSD-95 facilitates ErbB4 dimerization. Finally, NRG suppressed induction of long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 region without affecting basal synaptic transmission. Thus, NRG signaling may be synaptic and regulated by PSD-95. A role of NRG signaling in the adult CNS may be modulation of synaptic plasticity.

    Neuron 2000;26;2;443-55

  • The neuregulin receptor ErbB-4 interacts with PDZ-containing proteins at neuronal synapses.

    Garcia RA, Vasudevan K and Buonanno A

    Unit on Molecular Neurobiology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    Neuregulins regulate the expression of ligand- and voltage-gated channels in neurons and skeletal muscle by the activation of their cognate tyrosine kinase receptors, ErbB 1-4. The subcellular distribution and mechanisms that regulate the localization of ErbB receptors are unknown. We have found that ErbB receptors are present in brain subcellular fractions enriched for postsynaptic densities (PSD). The ErbB-4 receptor is unique among the ErbB proteins because its C-terminal tail (T-V-V) conforms to a sequence that binds to a protein motif known as the PDZ domain. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we found that the C-terminal region of ErbB-4 interacts with the three related membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) PSD-95/SAP90, PSD-93/chapsyn-110, and SAP 102, which harbor three PDZ domains, as well as with beta(2)-syntrophin, which has a single PDZ domain. As with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, ErbB4 interacts with the first two PDZ domains of PSD-95. Using coimmunoprecipitation assays, we confirmed the direct interactions between ErbB-4 and PSD-95 in transfected heterologous cells, as well as in vivo, where both proteins are coimmunoprecipitated from brain lysates. Moreover, evidence for colocalization of these proteins was also observed by immunofluorescence in cultured hippocampal neurons. ErbB-4 colocalizes with PSD-95 and NMDA receptors at a subset of excitatory synapses apposed to synaptophysin-positive presynaptic terminals. The capacity of ErbB receptors to interact with PDZ-domain proteins at cell junctions is conserved from invertebrates to mammals. As discussed, the interactions found between receptor tyrosine kinases and MAGUKs at neuronal synapses may have important implications for activity-dependent plasticity.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;7;3596-601

  • A developmental change in NMDA receptor-associated proteins at hippocampal synapses.

    Sans N, Petralia RS, Wang YX, Blahos J, Hell JW and Wenthold RJ

    Laboratory of Neurochemistry, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. sansn@nidcd.nih.gov

    The membrane-associated guanylate kinases [Chapsyn-110/postsynaptic density-93 (PSD-93), synapse-associated protein-90 (SAP-90)/PSD-95, and SAP-102] are believed to cluster and anchor NMDA receptors at the synapse and to play a role in signal transduction. We have investigated the developmental changes in expression of these proteins in rat hippocampus using biochemical analyses and quantitative immunogold electron microscopy. At postnatal day 2 (P2), SAP-102 was highly expressed, whereas PSD-93 and PSD-95 were low. SAP-102 expression increased during the first week, stayed stable through P35, and showed a reduced expression at 6 months. From P2 through 6 months, PSD-93 and PSD-95 increased. For PSD-95, the percent of labeled synapses increased almost threefold with age, whereas the number of gold particles per labeled synapse did not change significantly, suggesting that the increase in PSD-95 is attributable primarily to an increase in the number of synapses containing PSD-95. In contrast, for SAP-102, both percent labeled synapses and the number of gold particles per labeled synapse decreased during this time. From Western blots of hippocampus and immunogold analysis of CA1 synapses, the high expression of NR2B at P2 coincides with the high level of SAP-102 at synapses, whereas the later expression of NR2A coincides with that of PSD-93 and PSD-95. To determine whether the changes in PSD-93/95 and SAP-102 reflect preferred associations with NR2A and NR2B, respectively, we measured co-immunoprecipitation in the adult hippocampus. These studies suggest that there is a preference for complexes of NR2A/PSD-93/95 and NR2B/SAP-102. These results indicate that individual receptor-associated proteins may have specific functions that are critical to synapse development.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 35563

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2000;20;3;1260-71

  • Neuronal inwardly rectifying K(+) channels differentially couple to PDZ proteins of the PSD-95/SAP90 family.

    Nehring RB, Wischmeyer E, Döring F, Veh RW, Sheng M and Karschin A

    Molecular Neurobiology of Signal Transduction, Max-Planck-Institut for Biophysical Chemistry, 37070 Göttingen, Germany.

    Several signaling proteins clustered at the postsynaptic density specialization in neurons harbor a conserved C-terminal PDZ domain recognition sequence (X-S/T-X-V/I) that mediates binding to members of the PSD-95/SAP90 protein family. This motif is also present in the C termini of some inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channels. Constitutively active Kir2 channels as well as G protein-gated Kir3 channels, which are fundamental for neuronal excitability, were analyzed as candidates for binding to PSD-95/SAP90 family members. Therefore C termini of Kir2.1(+), Kir2.3(+), Kir2.4(-), Kir3.1(-), Kir3.2(+), Kir3.3(+) and Kir3.4(-) subunits (+, motif present; -, motif absent) were used as baits in the yeast two-hybrid assay to screen for in vivo interaction with PDZ domains 1-3 of PSD-95/SAP90. In contrast to Kir2.1 and Kir2.3, all Kir3 fragments failed to bind PSD-95 in this assay, which was supported by the lack of coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization of the entire proteins in mammalian cells. A detailed analysis of interaction domains demonstrated that the C-terminal motif in Kir3 channels is insufficient for binding PDZ domains. Kir2.1 and Kir2.3 subunits on the other hand coprecipitate with PSD-95. When coexpressed in a bicistronic internal ribosome entry site expression vector in HEK-293 cells macroscopic and elementary current analysis revealed that PSD-95 suppressed the activity of Kir2.3 channels by >50%. This inhibitory action of PSD-95, which predominantly affects the single-channel conductance, is likely attributable to a molecular association with additional internal interaction sites in the Kir2.3 protein.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2000;20;1;156-62

  • Cypin: a cytosolic regulator of PSD-95 postsynaptic targeting.

    Firestein BL, Firestein BL, Brenman JE, Aoki C, Sanchez-Perez AM, El-Husseini AE and Bredt DS

    Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA.

    Postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95/SAP-90) is a membrane associated guanylate kinase (GK) PDZ protein that scaffolds glutamate receptors and associated signaling networks at excitatory synapses. Affinity chromatography identifies cypin as a major PSD-95-binding protein in brain extracts. Cypin is homologous to a family of hydrolytic bacterial enzymes and shares some similarity with collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP), a cytoplasmic mediator of semaphorin III signalling. Cypin is discretely expressed in neurons and is polarized to basal membranes in intestinal epithelial cells. Overexpression of cypin in hippocampal neurons specifically perturbs postsynaptic trafficking of PSD-95 and SAP-102, an effect not produced by overexpression of other PDZ ligands. In fact, PSD-95 can induce postsynaptic clustering of an otherwise diffusely localized K+ channel, Kv1.4. By regulating postsynaptic protein sorting, cypin may influence synaptic development and plasticity.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: R01-EY08055; NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS36017

    Neuron 1999;24;3;659-72

  • Proline-rich synapse-associated proteins ProSAP1 and ProSAP2 interact with synaptic proteins of the SAPAP/GKAP family.

    Boeckers TM, Winter C, Smalla KH, Kreutz MR, Bockmann J, Seidenbecher C, Garner CC and Gundelfinger ED

    Department of Neurochemistry and Molecular Biology, Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Magdeburg, 39118, Germany. bockers@uni-muenster.de

    We have recently isolated a novel proline-rich synapse-associated protein-1 (ProSAP1) that is highly enriched in postsynaptic density (PSD). A closely related multidomain protein, ProSAP2, shares a highly conserved PDZ (PSD-95/discs-large/ZO-1) domain (80% identity), a ppI domain that mediates the interaction with cortactin, and a C-terminal SAM (sterile alpha-motif) domain. In addition, ProSAP2 codes for five ankyrin repeats and a SH3 (Src homology 3) domain. Transcripts for both proteins are coexpressed in many regions of rat brain, but show a distinct expression pattern in the cerebellum. Using the PDZ domains of ProSAP1 and 2 as bait in the yeast two-hybrid system, we isolated several clones of the SAPAP/GKAP (SAP90/PSD-95-associated protein/guanylate kinase-associated protein) family. The association of the proteins was verified by coimmunoprecipitation and cotransfection in HEK cells. Therefore, proteins of the ProSAP family represent a novel link between SAP90/PSD-95 bound membrane receptors and the cytoskeleton at glutamatergic synapses of the central nervous system.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG12978-02; NICHD NIH HHS: P50 HD32901

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1999;264;1;247-52

  • PSD-95 assembles a ternary complex with the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor and a bivalent neuronal NO synthase PDZ domain.

    Christopherson KS, Hillier BJ, Lim WA and Bredt DS

    Department of Physiology, and Program in Biomedical Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0444, USA.

    Nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis in cerebellum is preferentially activated by calcium influx through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors, suggesting that there is a specific link between these receptors and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS). Here, we find that PSD-95 assembles a postsynaptic protein complex containing nNOS and NMDA receptors. Formation of this complex is mediated by the PDZ domains of PSD-95, which bind to the COOH termini of specific NMDA receptor subunits. In contrast, nNOS is recruited to this complex by a novel PDZ-PDZ interaction in which PSD-95 recognizes an internal motif adjacent to the consensus nNOS PDZ domain. This internal motif is a structured "pseudo-peptide" extension of the nNOS PDZ that interacts with the peptide-binding pocket of PSD-95 PDZ2. This asymmetric interaction leaves the peptide-binding pocket of the nNOS PDZ domain available to interact with additional COOH-terminal PDZ ligands. Accordingly, we find that the nNOS PDZ domain can bind PSD-95 PDZ2 and a COOH-terminal peptide simultaneously. This bivalent nature of the nNOS PDZ domain further expands the scope for assembly of protein networks by PDZ domains.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS34822

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;39;27467-73

  • Protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta/RPTPbeta interacts with PSD-95/SAP90 family.

    Kawachi H, Tamura H, Watakabe I, Shintani T, Maeda N and Noda M

    Division of Molecular Neurobiology, National Institute for Basic Biology, 38 Nishigonaka, Myodaiji-cho, Okazaki, Japan.

    PTPzeta/RPTPbeta is a proteoglycan-type receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase specifically expressed in the brain. Although several ligands of PTPzeta have been identified, proteins interacting with the intracellular region of PTPzeta are still unknown. We performed yeast two-hybrid screening using the intracellular region of PTPzeta as a bait, and found that the C-terminal sequence of PTPzeta binds to the PSD-95/SAP90 family through the second PDZ domain. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PTPzeta and PSD-95/SAP90 are similarly distributed in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus and neocortex. Furthermore, subcellular fractionation experiments indicated that PTPzeta is concentrated in the postsynaptic density fraction. These results suggested that PTPzeta is involved in the regulation of synaptic function as postsynaptic macromolecular complexes with PSD-95/SAP90.

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 1999;72;1;47-54

  • Ras-specific exchange factor GRF: oligomerization through its Dbl homology domain and calcium-dependent activation of Raf.

    Anborgh PH, Qian X, Papageorge AG, Vass WC, DeClue JE and Lowy DR

    Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    The full-length versions of the Ras-specific exchange factors Ras-GRF1 (GRF1) and Ras-GRF2 (GRF2), which are expressed in brain and a restricted number of other organs, possess an ionomycin-dependent activation of Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in 293T cells (C. L. Farnsworth et al., Nature 376:524-527, 1995; N. P. Fam et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:1396-1406, 1996). Each GRF protein contains a Dbl homology (DH) domain. A yeast two-hybrid screen was used to identify polypeptides that associate with the DH domain of GRF1. In this screen, a positive cDNA clone from a human brain cDNA library was isolated which consisted of the GRF2 DH domain and its adjacent ilimaquinone domain. Deletion analysis verified that the two-hybrid interaction required only the DH domains, and mutation of Leu-263 to Gln (L263Q) in the N terminus of the GRF1 DH domain abolished the two-hybrid interaction, while a cluster of more C-terminally located mutations in the DH domain did not eliminate the interaction. Oligomers between GRF1 and GRF2 were detected in a rat brain extract, and forced expression of GRF1 and GRF2 in cultured mammalian cells formed homo- and hetero-oligomers. Introduction of the L263Q mutation in GRF1 led to a protein that was deficient in oligomer formation, while GRF1 containing the DH cluster mutations formed homo-oligomers with an efficiency similar to that of wild type. Compared to wild-type GRF1, the focus-forming activity on NIH 3T3 cells of the GRF1 DH cluster mutant was reduced, while the L263Q mutant was inactive. Both mutants were impaired in their ability to mediate ionomycin-dependent Erk activity in 293T cells. In the absence of ionomycin, 293T cells expressing wild-type GRF1 contained much higher levels of Ras-GTP than control cells; the increase in Erk activity induced by ionomycin in the GRF1-expressing cells also induced a concomitant increase in Raf kinase activity, but without a further increase in the level Ras-GTP. We conclude that GRF1 and GRF2 can form homo- and hetero-oligomers via their DH domains, that mutational inactivation of oligomer formation by GRF1 is associated with impaired biological and signaling activities, and that in 293T cells GRF1 mediates at least two pathways for Raf activation: one a constitutive signal that is mainly Ras-dependent, and one an ionomycin-induced signal that cooperates with the constitutive signal without further augmenting the level of GTP-Ras.

    Molecular and cellular biology 1999;19;7;4611-22

  • Shank, a novel family of postsynaptic density proteins that binds to the NMDA receptor/PSD-95/GKAP complex and cortactin.

    Naisbitt S, Kim E, Tu JC, Xiao B, Sala C, Valtschanoff J, Weinberg RJ, Worley PF and Sheng M

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neurobiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114, USA.

    NMDA receptors are linked to intracellular cytoskeletal and signaling molecules via the PSD-95 protein complex. We report a novel family of postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins, termed Shank, that binds via its PDZ domain to the C terminus of PSD-95-associated protein GKAP. A ternary complex of Shank/GKAP/PSD-95 assembles in heterologous cells and can be coimmunoprecipitated from rat brain. Synaptic localization of Shank in neurons is inhibited by a GKAP splice variant that lacks the Shank-binding C terminus. In addition to its PDZ domain, Shank contains a proline-rich region that binds to cortactin and a SAM domain that mediates multimerization. Shank may function as a scaffold protein in the PSD, potentially cross-linking NMDA receptor/PSD-95 complexes and coupling them to regulators of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA103009; NINDS NIH HHS: NS29879, NS35050; ...

    Neuron 1999;23;3;569-82

  • Specific coupling of NMDA receptor activation to nitric oxide neurotoxicity by PSD-95 protein.

    Sattler R, Xiong Z, Lu WY, Hafner M, MacDonald JF and Tymianski M

    Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Lab 11-416, 399 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada.

    The efficiency with which N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) trigger intracellular signaling pathways governs neuronal plasticity, development, senescence, and disease. In cultured cortical neurons, suppressing the expression of the NMDAR scaffolding protein PSD-95 (postsynaptic density-95) selectively attenuated excitotoxicity triggered via NMDARs, but not by other glutamate or calcium ion (Ca2+) channels. NMDAR function was unaffected, because receptor expression, NMDA currents, and 45Ca2+ loading were unchanged. Suppressing PSD-95 blocked Ca2+-activated nitric oxide production by NMDARs selectively, without affecting neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression or function. Thus, PSD-95 is required for efficient coupling of NMDAR activity to nitric oxide toxicity, and imparts specificity to excitotoxic Ca2+ signaling.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 39060

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1999;284;5421;1845-8

  • Characterization of MALS/Velis-1, -2, and -3: a family of mammalian LIN-7 homologs enriched at brain synapses in association with the postsynaptic density-95/NMDA receptor postsynaptic complex.

    Jo K, Derin R, Li M and Bredt DS

    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-0444, USA.

    Protein assembly at the postsynaptic density (PSD) of neuronal synapses is mediated in part by protein interactions with PSD-95/discs large/zona occludens-1 (PDZ) motifs. Here, we identify MALS-1, -2, -3, a family of small synaptic proteins containing little more than a single PDZ domain. MALS-1, -2, and -3 are mammalian homologs LIN-7, a Caenorhabditis elegans protein essential for vulval development. In contrast to functions for LIN-7 in epithelial cells, MALS-1 and -2 are selectively expressed in specific neuronal populations in brain and are enriched in PSD fractions. In cultured hippocampal neurons, MALS proteins are clustered together with PSD-95 and NMDA type glutamate receptors, consistent with a postsynaptic localization for MALS proteins. Immunoprecipitation and affinity chromatography studies readily identify association of MALS with PSD-95 and an NMDA receptor subunit. The PDZ domain of MALS selectively binds to peptides terminating in E-T/S-R/X-V/I/L, which corresponds to the C terminus of NMDA type 2 receptors and numerous other ion channels at the PSD. This work suggests a role for MALS proteins in regulating recruitment of neurotransmitter receptors to the PSD.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM36017; NINDS NIH HHS: NS33324

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1999;19;11;4189-99

  • Differential interaction of the tSXV motifs of the NR1 and NR2A NMDA receptor subunits with PSD-95 and SAP97.

    Bassand P, Bernard A, Rafiki A, Gayet D and Khrestchatisky M

    Université René Descartes (Paris V), INSERM U-29, Paris, France.

    The NR1 and NR2 subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor are encoded by distinct genes. In the rat brain, four C-terminal variants of the NR1 subunit (NR1-1 to NR1-4) are encoded by a single gene, and are generated by alternative splicing of the C1 and C2 exon cassettes, while four different genes encode the NR2 subunits (NR2 A-D). Functional NMDA receptors result from the heteromultimeric assembly of NR1 variants with distinct NR2 subunits. The NR2B subunit interacts with post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), SAP97 and members of the membrane-associated guanylate-like kinase (MAGUK) family of proteins. This interaction occurs through the binding of the C-terminal tSXV intracellular motif of the NR2B subunit to the N-terminal PDZ (PSD-95, discs-large, ZO-1) domains of the PSD-95 and SAP97 proteins. Both NR1-3 and NR1-4 also display a consensus C-terminal tSXV motif. Using the two-hybrid genetic system in yeast and site-directed mutagenesis, we compared the binding of the NR2A, NR1-3 and NR1-4 tSXV motifs with the PDZ domains of PSD-95 and SAP97. The main conclusions of the present report are that: (i) while NR2A displays a strong interaction with PSD-95 and SAP97, the NR1-3 and NR1-4 NMDA receptor subunits do not display any interaction despite the presence of tSXV motifs; (ii) the C-terminal tSXV motif of the NR2A subunit is mandatory but not sufficient for efficient interaction with the PSD-95 and SAP97 proteins; (iii) as yet unidentified upstream sequences of the receptor subunits determine whether the tSXV motifs will bind to the PSD-95 and SAP97 PDZ domains; (iv) different tSXV motifs elicit interactions of variable strengths; and (v) residues in positions -3 and -4 modulate the binding affinity of the C-terminal tSXV motifs. Using immunohistochemistry, we also compared the distribution of the PSD-95, NR2A and SAP97 proteins in adult rat brain, and we show that in the cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum, there is evidence for colocalization of these proteins.

    The European journal of neuroscience 1999;11;6;2031-43

  • MAGUIN, a novel neuronal membrane-associated guanylate kinase-interacting protein.

    Yao I, Hata Y, Ide N, Hirao K, Deguchi M, Nishioka H, Mizoguchi A and Takai Y

    Takai Biotimer Project, Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o JCR Pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd., 2-2-10 Murotani, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2241, Japan.

    Postsynaptic density (PSD)-95/Synapse-associated protein (SAP) 90 and synaptic scaffolding molecule (S-SCAM) are neuronal membrane-associated guanylate kinases. Because PSD-95/SAP90 and S-SCAM function as synaptic scaffolding proteins, identification of ligands for these proteins is important to elucidate the structure of synaptic junctions. Here, we report a novel protein interacting with the PDZ domains of PSD-95/SAP90 and S-SCAM and named it MAGUIN-1 (membrane-associated guanylate kinase-interacting protein-1). MAGUIN-1 has one sterile alpha motif, one PDZ, and one plekstrin homology domain. MAGUIN-1 is localized at the plasma membrane via the plekstrin homology domain and the C-terminal region and interacts with PSD-95/SAP90 and S-SCAM via a C-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif. MAGUIN-1 has a short isoform, MAGUIN-2, which lacks a PDZ domain-binding motif. MAGUINs are expressed in neurons and localized in the cell body and neurites and are coimmunoprecipitated with PSD-95/SAP90 and S-SCAM from rat crude synaptosome. MAGUIN-1 may play an important role with PSD-95/SAP90 and S-SCAM to assemble the components of synaptic junctions.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;17;11889-96

  • Interaction of NE-dlg/SAP102, a neuronal and endocrine tissue-specific membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein, with calmodulin and PSD-95/SAP90. A possible regulatory role in molecular clustering at synaptic sites.

    Masuko N, Makino K, Kuwahara H, Fukunaga K, Sudo T, Araki N, Yamamoto H, Yamada Y, Miyamoto E and Saya H

    Department of Tumor Genetics and Biology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, 2-2-1, Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811, Japan.

    NE-dlg/SAP102, a neuronal and endocrine tissue-specific membrane-associated guanylate kinase family protein, is known to bind to C-terminal ends of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B (NR2B) through its PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domains. NE-dlg/SAP102 and NR2B colocalize at synaptic sites in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, and their expressions increase in parallel with the onset of synaptogenesis. We have identified that NE-dlg/SAP102 interacts with calmodulin in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The binding site for calmodulin has been determined to lie at the putative basic alpha-helix region located around the src homology 3 (SH3) domain of NE-dlg/SAP102. Using a surface plasmon resonance measurement system, we detected specific binding of recombinant NE-dlg/SAP102 to the immobilized calmodulin with a Kd value of 44 nM. However, the binding of Ca2+/calmodulin to NE-dlg/SAP102 did not modulate the interaction between PDZ domains of NE-dlg/SAP102 and the C-terminal end of rat NR2B. We have also identified that the region near the calmodulin binding site of NE-dlg/SAP102 interacts with the GUK-like domain of PSD-95/SAP90 by two-hybrid screening. Pull down assay revealed that NE-dlg/SAP102 can interact with PSD-95/SAP90 in the presence of both Ca2+ and calmodulin. These findings suggest that the Ca2+/calmodulin modulates interaction of neuronal membrane-associated guanylate kinase proteins and regulates clustering of neurotransmitter receptors at central synapses.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;9;5782-90

  • PSD-95 promotes Fyn-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR2A.

    Tezuka T, Umemori H, Akiyama T, Nakanishi S and Yamamoto T

    Department of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.

    Fyn, a member of the Src-family protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK), is implicated in learning and memory that involves N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function. In this study, we examined how Fyn participates in synaptic plasticity by analyzing the physical and functional interaction between Fyn and NMDA receptors. Results showed that tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2A, one of the NMDA receptor subunits, was reduced in fyn-mutant mice. NR2A was tyrosine-phosphorylated in 293T cells when coexpressed with Fyn. Therefore, NR2A would be a substrate for Fyn in vivo. Results also showed that PSD-95, which directly binds to and coclusters with NMDA receptors, promotes Fyn-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2A. Different regions of PSD-95 associated with NR2A and Fyn, respectively, and so PSD-95 could mediate complex formation of Fyn with NR2A. PSD-95 also associated with other Src-family PTKs, Src, Yes, and Lyn. These results suggest that PSD-95 is critical for regulation of NMDA receptor activity by Fyn and other Src-family PTKs, serving as a molecular scaffold for anchoring these PTKs to NR2A.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1999;96;2;435-40

  • Citron binds to PSD-95 at glutamatergic synapses on inhibitory neurons in the hippocampus.

    Zhang W, Vazquez L, Apperson M and Kennedy MB

    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA.

    Synaptic NMDA-type glutamate receptors are anchored to the second of three PDZ (PSD-95/Discs large/ZO-1) domains in the postsynaptic density (PSD) protein PSD-95. Here, we report that citron, a protein target for the activated form of the small GTP-binding protein Rho, preferentially binds the third PDZ domain of PSD-95. In GABAergic neurons from the hippocampus, citron forms a complex with PSD-95 and is concentrated at the postsynaptic side of glutamatergic synapses. Citron is expressed only at low levels in glutamatergic neurons in the hippocampus and is not detectable at synapses onto these neurons. In contrast to citron, p135 SynGAP, an abundant synaptic Ras GTPase-activating protein that can bind to all three PDZ domains of PSD-95, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) are concentrated postsynaptically at glutamatergic synapses on glutamatergic neurons. CaM kinase II is not expressed and p135 SynGAP is expressed in less than half of hippocampal GABAergic neurons. Segregation of citron into inhibitory neurons does not occur in other brain regions. For example, citron is expressed at high levels in most thalamic neurons, which are primarily glutamatergic and contain CaM kinase II. In several other brain regions, citron is present in a subset of neurons that can be either GABAergic or glutamatergic and can sometimes express CaM kinase II. Thus, in the hippocampus, signal transduction complexes associated with postsynaptic NMDA receptors are different in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons and are specialized in a way that is specific to the hippocampus.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS28710

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1999;19;1;96-108

  • Enhanced long-term potentiation and impaired learning in mice with mutant postsynaptic density-95 protein.

    Migaud M, Charlesworth P, Dempster M, Webster LC, Watabe AM, Makhinson M, He Y, Ramsay MF, Morris RG, Morrison JH, O'Dell TJ and Grant SG

    Centre for Genome Research, University of Edinburgh, UK.

    Specific patterns of neuronal firing induce changes in synaptic strength that may contribute to learning and memory. If the postsynaptic NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors are blocked, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission and the learning of spatial information are prevented. The NMDA receptor can bind a protein known as postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), which may regulate the localization of and/or signalling by the receptor. In mutant mice lacking PSD-95, the frequency function of NMDA-dependent LTP and LTD is shifted to produce strikingly enhanced LTP at different frequencies of synaptic stimulation. In keeping with neural-network models that incorporate bidirectional learning rules, this frequency shift is accompanied by severely impaired spatial learning. Synaptic NMDA-receptor currents, subunit expression, localization and synaptic morphology are all unaffected in the mutant mice. PSD-95 thus appears to be important in coupling the NMDA receptor to pathways that control bidirectional synaptic plasticity and learning.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Nature 1998;396;6710;433-9

  • Localization of postsynaptic density-93 to dendritic microtubules and interaction with microtubule-associated protein 1A.

    Brenman JE, Topinka JR, Cooper EC, McGee AW, Rosen J, Milroy T, Ralston HJ and Bredt DS

    Department of Physiology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-0444, USA.

    Postsynaptic density-93 (PSD-93)/Chapsyn-110 is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of PDZ domain-containing proteins. MAGUKs are widely expressed in the brain and are critical elements of the cytoskeleton and of certain synapses. In the ultrastructural studies that are described here, PSD-93 localizes to both postsynaptic densities and dendritic microtubules of cerebellar Purkinje neurons. The microtubule localization is paralleled by a high-affinity in vivo interaction of PSD-93 via its guanylate kinase (GK) domain with microtubule-associated protein 1A (MAP1A). GK domain truncations that mimic genetically identified mutations of a Drosophila MAGUK, discs-large, disrupt the GK/MAP-1A interaction. Additional biochemical experiments demonstrate that intact MAGUKs do not bind to MAP1A as effectively as do isolated GK domains. This appears to be attributable to an intramolecular inhibition of the GK domain by the PDZs, because GK binding activity of full-length MAGUKs is partially restored by a variety of PDZ ligands, including the C termini of NMDA receptor 2B, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), and CRIPT. Beyond demonstrating a novel cytoskeletal link for PSD-93, these experiments support a model in which intramolecular interactions between the multiple domains of MAGUKs regulate intermolecular associations and thereby may play a role in the proper targeting and function of MAGUK proteins.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS23347, NS36017

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1998;18;21;8805-13

  • BEGAIN (brain-enriched guanylate kinase-associated protein), a novel neuronal PSD-95/SAP90-binding protein.

    Deguchi M, Hata Y, Takeuchi M, Ide N, Hirao K, Yao I, Irie M, Toyoda A and Takai Y

    Takai Biotimer Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o JCR Pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd., 2-2-10 Murotani, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2241, Japan.

    PSD-95/SAP90 is a synaptic membrane-associated guanylate kinase with three PDZ, one SH3, and one guanylate kinase (GK) domain. PSD-95/SAP90 binds various proteins through the PDZ domains and organizes synaptic junctions. PSD-95/SAP90 also interacts with the postsynaptic density (PSD) fraction-enriched protein, named SAPAP (also called GKAP and DAP), through the GK domain. SAPAP is Triton X-100-insoluble and recruits PSD-95/SAP90 into the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction in the transfected cells, suggesting that SAPAP may fix PSD-95/SAP90 to the PSD. Here we report a novel protein interacting with the GK domain of PSD-95/SAP90, BEGAIN. BEGAIN is specifically expressed in brain and enriched in the PSD fraction. BEGAIN is Triton X-100-soluble in the transfected cells but is recruited to the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction by SAPAP when coexpressed with PSD-95/SAP90. BEGAIN may be a novel PSD component associated with the core complex of PSD-95/SAP90 and SAPAP.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;41;26269-72

  • SAP90 binds and clusters kainate receptors causing incomplete desensitization.

    Garcia EP, Mehta S, Blair LA, Wells DG, Shang J, Fukushima T, Fallon JR, Garner CC and Marshall J

    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biotechnology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA.

    The mechanism of kainate receptor targeting and clustering is still unresolved. Here, we demonstrate that members of the SAP90/PSD-95 family colocalize and associate with kainate receptors. SAP90 and SAP102 coimmunoprecipitate with both KA2 and GluR6, but only SAP97 coimmunoprecipitates with GluR6. Similar to NMDA receptors, GluR6 clustering is mediated by the interaction of its C-terminal amino acid sequence, ETMA, with the PDZ1 domain of SAP90. In contrast, the KA2 C-terminal region binds to, and is clustered by, the SH3 and GK domains of SAP90. Finally, we show that SAP90 coexpressed with GluR6 or GluR6/KA2 receptors alters receptor function by reducing desensitization. These studies suggest that the organization and electrophysiological properties of synaptic kainate receptors are modified by association with members of the SAP90/PSD-95 family.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: R01 HD023924, R01 HD052083; NINDS NIH HHS: R29 NS 33914-02

    Neuron 1998;21;4;727-39

  • Role of actin in anchoring postsynaptic receptors in cultured hippocampal neurons: differential attachment of NMDA versus AMPA receptors.

    Allison DW, Gelfand VI, Spector I and Craig AM

    Department of Cell and Structural Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.

    We used actin-perturbing agents and detergent extraction of primary hippocampal cultures to test directly the role of the actin cytoskeleton in localizing GABAA receptors, AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors, and potential anchoring proteins at postsynaptic sites. Excitatory postsynaptic sites on dendritic spines contained a high concentration of F-actin that was resistant to cytochalasin D but could be depolymerized using the novel compound latrunculin A. Depolymerization of F-actin led to a 40% decrease in both the number of synaptic NMDA receptor (NMDAR1) clusters and the number of AMPA receptor (GluR1)-labeled spines. The nonsynaptic NMDA receptors appeared to remain clustered and to coalesce in cell bodies. alpha-Actinin-2, which binds both actin and NMDA receptors, dissociated from the receptor clusters, but PSD-95 remained associated with both the synaptic and nonsynaptic receptor clusters, consistent with a proposed cross-linking function. AMPA receptors behaved differently; on GABAergic neurons, the clusters redistributed to nonsynaptic sites, whereas on pyramidal neurons, many of the clusters appeared to disperse. Furthermore, in control neurons, AMPA receptors were detergent extractable from pyramidal cell spines, whereas AMPA receptors on GABAergic neurons and NMDA receptors were unextractable. GABAA receptors were not dependent on F-actin for the maintenance or synaptic localization of clusters. These results indicate fundamental differences in the mechanisms of receptor anchoring at postsynaptic sites, both regarding the anchoring of a single receptor (the AMPA receptor) in pyramidal cells versus GABAergic interneurons and regarding the anchoring of different receptors (AMPA vs NMDA receptors) at a single class of postsynaptic sites on pyramidal cell dendritic spines.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM52111-01; NINDS NIH HHS: NS33184

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1998;18;7;2423-36

  • CRIPT, a novel postsynaptic protein that binds to the third PDZ domain of PSD-95/SAP90.

    Niethammer M, Valtschanoff JG, Kapoor TM, Allison DW, Weinberg RJ, Craig AM and Sheng M

    Department of Neurobiology and Howard Huges Medical Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114, USA.

    The synaptic protein PSD-95/SAP90 binds to and clusters a variety of membrane proteins via its two N-terminal PDZ domains. We report a novel protein, CRIPT, which is highly conserved from mammals to plants and binds selectively to the third PDZ domain (PDZ3) of PSD-95 via its C terminus. While conforming to the consensus PDZ-binding C-terminal sequence (X-S/T-X-V-COOH), residues at the -1 position and upstream of the last four amino acids of CRIPT determine its specificity for PDZ3. In heterologous cells, CRIPT causes a redistribution of PSD-95 to microtubules. In brain, CRIPT colocalizes with PSD-95 in the postsynaptic density and can be coimmunoprecipitated with PSD-95 and tubulin. These findings suggest that CRIPT may regulate PSD-95 interaction with a tubulin-based cytoskeleton in excitatory synapses.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS29879, NS33184, NS35050

    Neuron 1998;20;4;693-707

  • SynGAP: a synaptic RasGAP that associates with the PSD-95/SAP90 protein family.

    Kim JH, Liao D, Lau LF and Huganir RL

    Department of Neuroscience, Howard Huges Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    The PSD-95/SAP90 family of proteins has recently been implicated in the organization of synaptic structure. Here, we describe the isolation of a novel Ras-GTPase activating protein, SynGAP, that interacts with the PDZ domains of PSD-95 and SAP102 in vitro and in vivo. SynGAP is selectively expressed in brain and is highly enriched at excitatory synapses, where it is present in a large macromolecular complex with PSD-95 and the NMDA receptor. SynGAP stimulates the GTPase activity of Ras, suggesting that it negatively regulates Ras activity at excitatory synapses. Ras signaling at the postsynaptic membrane may be involved in the modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission by NMDA receptors and neurotrophins. These results indicate that SynGAP may play an important role in the modulation of synaptic plasticity.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: T32NS07368

    Neuron 1998;20;4;683-91

  • The C-terminus of the HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein mediates interaction with the PDZ domain of cellular proteins.

    Rousset R, Fabre S, Desbois C, Bantignies F and Jalinot P

    Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Centre national de la Recherche Scientifique UMR49, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, France.

    Infection by HTLV-1 has been correlated with the appearance of various proliferative or degenerative diseases. Some of these disorders have been observed in transgenic mice expressing the Tax protein, which is known to transactivate various viral and cellular promoters through interactions with several transcription factors. In this study we show that the C-terminus of this viral oncoprotein represents a motif permitting binding of Tax to the PDZ domains of several cellular proteins. A two-hybrid screen with Tax as bait indeed yielded complementary DNAs coding for six proteins including PDZ domains. Two of them correspond to truncated forms of the PSD-95 and beta1-syntrophin proteins, another clone codes for a protein homologous to the product of the C. elegans gene lin-7. The other three clones code for new human members of the PDZ family of cellular proteins. The interaction of Tax with the products of these clones was confirmed by immunoprecipitation assays in mammalian cells, and analysis of various mutants of Tax established the importance of the C-terminal amino acids for several of these interactions. These data suggest that Tax could perturb the normal function of targeted cellular proteins by strongly interacting with their PDZ domains.

    Oncogene 1998;16;5;643-54

  • Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase isoform 4b binds to membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) proteins via their PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domains.

    Kim E, DeMarco SJ, Marfatia SM, Chishti AH, Sheng M and Strehler EE

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114, USA.

    Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPases are P-type pumps important for intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. The extreme C termini of alternatively spliced "b"-type Ca2+ pump isoforms resemble those of K+ channels and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits that interact with channel-clustering proteins of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family via PDZ domains. Yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated strong interaction of Ca2+ pump 4b with the PDZ1 + 2 domains of several mammalian MAGUKs. Pump 4b and PSD-95 could be co-immunoprecipitated from COS-7 cells overexpressing these proteins. Surface plasmon resonance revealed that a C-terminal pump 4b peptide interacted with the PDZ1 + 2 domains of hDlg with nanomolar affinity (KD = 1.6 nM), whereas binding to PDZ3 was in the micromolar range (KD = 1.2 microM). In contrast, the corresponding C-terminal peptide of Ca2+ pump 2b interacted weakly with PDZ1 + 2 and not at all with PDZ3 of hDlg. Ca2+ pump 4b bound strongly to PDZ1 + 2 + 3 of hDlg on filter assays, whereas isoform 2b bound weakly, and the splice variants 2a and 4a failed to bind. Together, these data demonstrate a direct physical binding of Ca2+ pump isoform 4b to MAGUKs via their PDZ domains and reveal a novel role of alternative splicing within the family of plasma membrane Ca2+ pumps. Alternative splicing may dictate their specific interaction with PDZ domain-containing proteins, potentially influencing their localization and incorporation into functional multiprotein complexes at the plasma membrane.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 66263

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;3;1591-5

  • Adjacent asparagines in the NR2-subunit of the NMDA receptor channel control the voltage-dependent block by extracellular Mg2+.

    Wollmuth LP, Kuner T and Sakmann B

    Abteilung Zellphysiologie, Max-Planck-Institut für medizinische Forschung, Heidelberg, Germany. wollmuth@sunny.mpimf-Heidelberg.mpg.de

    1. The voltage-dependent block of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channels by extracellular Mg2+ is a critical determinant of its contribution to CNS synaptic physiology. The function of the narrow constriction of the channel in determining the block was investigated by analysing the effects of a set different amino acid substitutions at exposed residues positioned at or near this region. NMDA receptor channels, composed of wild-type and mutant NR1- and NR2A-subunits, were expressed in Xenopus oocytes or human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. 2. In wild-type channels, the voltage dependence (delta) of the block Mg2+ was concentration dependent with values of delta of integral of 0.82 in 0.07 mM and higher concentrations. Under bionic conditions with high extracellular Mg2+ and K+ as the reference ion, Mg2+ weakly permeated the channel. Over intermediate potentials (approximately -60 to -10 mV), this weak permeability had no apparent effect on the block but at potentials negative to approximately -60mV, it attenuated the extent and voltage dependence of the block. 3. Substitutions of glycine, serine, glutamine or aspartate for the N-site asparagine in the NR1-subunit enhanced the extent of block over intermediate potentials but left the voltage dependence of the block unchanged indicating that structural determinants of the block remained. These same substitutions either attenuated or left unchanged the apparent Mg2+ permeability. 4. In channels containing substitutions of glycine, serine or glutamine for the N-site asparagine in the NR2A-subunit, the block Mg2+ was reduced at negative potentials. Over intermediate potentials, the block was not strongly attenuated except for the glutamine substitution which reduced the voltage dependence of the block to integral of 0.57 in 0.7 mM Mg2+. 5. Equivalent substitutions for the N + 1 site asparagine in the NR2A-subunit strongly attenuated the block over the entire voltage range. In 0.7 mM Mg2+, the voltage dependence of the block was reduced to 0.50 (glycine), 0.53 (serine) and 0.46 (glutamine). 6. Channels containing substitutions of the N-site or N + 1 site asparagines in the NR2A-subunit showed an increased Mg2+ permeability suggesting that these adjacent asparagines form a barrier for inward Mg2+ flux. Changes in this barrier contribute, at least in part, to the mechanism underlying disruption of the block following substitution of these residues. 7. The adjacent NR2A-subunit asparagines are positioned at or near the narrow constriction of the channel. Pore size, however, did not determine how effectively Mg2+ blocks mutant channels. 8. It is concluded that, at the narrow constriction in the NMDA receptor channel, the adjacent NR2A-subunit asparagines, the N-site and N + 1 site, but not the N-site asparagine of the NR1-subunit, form a critical blocking site for extracellular Mg2+. The contribution to the blocking site, in contrast to the prevailing view, is stronger for the N + 1 site than for the N-site asparagine. The block may involve binding of Mg2+ to these residues.

    The Journal of physiology 1998;506 ( Pt 1);13-32

  • CAPON: a protein associated with neuronal nitric oxide synthase that regulates its interactions with PSD95.

    Jaffrey SR, Snowman AM, Eliasson MJ, Cohen NA and Snyder SH

    The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is important for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent neurotransmitter release, neurotoxicity, and cyclic GMP elevations. The coupling of NMDA receptor-mediated calcium influx and nNOS activation is postulated to be due to a physical coupling of the receptor and the enzyme by an intermediary adaptor protein, PSD95, through a unique PDZ-PDZ domain interaction between PSD95 and nNOS. Here, we report the identification of a novel nNOS-associated protein, CAPON, which is highly enriched in brain and has numerous colocalizations with nNOS. CAPON interacts with the nNOS PDZ domain through its C terminus. CAPON competes with PSD95 for interaction with nNOS, and overexpression of CAPON results in a loss of PSD95/nNOS complexes in transfected cells. CAPON may influence nNOS by regulating its ability to associate with PSD95/NMDA receptor complexes.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA00074; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-07309; NIMH NIH HHS: MH-10341; ...

    Neuron 1998;20;1;115-24

  • Binding of high-risk human papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins to the human homologue of the Drosophila discs large tumor suppressor protein.

    Kiyono T, Hiraiwa A, Fujita M, Hayashi Y, Akiyama T and Ishibashi M

    Laboratory of Viral Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Research Institute, 1-1 Kanokoden, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464, Japan.

    In the majority of cervical cancers, DNAs of high-risk mucosotpropic human papillomaviruses (HPVs), such as type 16, are maintained so as to express two viral proteins, E6 and E7, suggesting an essential importance to carcinogenesis. The high-risk HPV E6 proteins are known to inactivate p53 tumor suppressor protein but appear to have an additional, molecularly unknown function(s). In this study, we demonstrate that these E6 proteins can bind to the second PDZ domain of the human homologue of the Drosophila discs large tumor suppressor protein (hDLG) through their C-terminal XS/TXV/L (where X represents any amino acid, S/T serine or threonine, and V/L valine or leucine) motif. This finding is similar to the interaction between the adenomatous polyposis coli gene product and hDLG. E6 mutants losing the ability to bind to hDLG are no longer able to induce E6-dependent transformation of rodent cells. These results suggest an intriguing possibility that interaction between the E6 protein and hDLG or other PDZ domain-containing proteins could be an underlying mechanism in the development of HPV-associated cancers.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997;94;21;11612-6

  • Binding of neuroligins to PSD-95.

    Irie M, Hata Y, Takeuchi M, Ichtchenko K, Toyoda A, Hirao K, Takai Y, Rosahl TW and Südhof TC

    Takai Biotimer Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 2-2-10, Murotani, Nishi-ku, Kobe, 651-22, Japan.

    PSD-95 is a component of postsynaptic densities in central synapses. It contains three PDZ domains that localize N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2 (NMDA2 receptor) and K+ channels to synapses. In mouse forebrain, PSD-95 bound to the cytoplasmic COOH-termini of neuroligins, which are neuronal cell adhesion molecules that interact with beta-neurexins and form intercellular junctions. Neuroligins bind to the third PDZ domain of PSD-95, whereas NMDA2 receptors and K+ channels interact with the first and second PDZ domains. Thus different PDZ domains of PSD-95 are specialized for distinct functions. PSD-95 may recruit ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors to intercellular junctions formed between neurons by neuroligins and beta-neurexins.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: R01-MH52804

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1997;277;5331;1511-5

  • Human postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95): location of the gene (DLG4) and possible function in nonneural as well as in neural tissues.

    Stathakis DG, Hoover KB, You Z and Bryant PJ

    Developmental Biology Center, University of California at Irvine 92697-2275, USA. dgstatha@UCI.EDU

    We have determined the cDNA sequence, expression pattern, and chromosomal location of the human gene DLG4, encoding the postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95) protein. hPSD95 is a 723-amino-acid protein that is 99% identical to its rodent counterparts. This is the fourth human protein identified as showing significant similarity to the Drosophila tumor suppressor Dlg. These proteins constitute the DLG subfamily of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein family. The expression of DLG4 in neural tissue is consistent with the pattern observed for its rat homolog. However, DLG4 is also expressed in a wide range of nonneural tissues, suggesting that the protein may have additional roles in humans. Using radiation-hybrid mapping panels, we mapped the DLG4 locus to 17p13.1, a region associated with several diseases, the phenotypes of which are consistent with loss of PSD95 function.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA62203, R03 CA70557

    Genomics 1997;44;1;71-82

  • DAP-1, a novel protein that interacts with the guanylate kinase-like domains of hDLG and PSD-95.

    Satoh K, Yanai H, Senda T, Kohu K, Nakamura T, Okumura N, Matsumine A, Kobayashi S, Toyoshima K and Akiyama T

    Department of Oncogene Research, Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.

    Background: The human homologue of the Drosophila discs large tumour suppressor protein (hDLG) and closely related proteins such as postsynaptic density protein 95 kDa (PSD-95) are associated with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA-R) and Shaker-type K+ channels, and are thought to be involved in their clustering.

    Results: We have identified a protein named DAP-1 that binds to the guanylate kinase-like domains of hDLG and PSD-95. DAP-1 was found to associate with hDLG, PSD-95, NMDA-R and adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC). Furthermore, we found that DAP-1 is specifically expressed in the brain and colocalizes with PSD-95 and APC in mouse cerebellum. We also found that DAP-1 is colocalized with PSD-95 and NMDA-R at the synapses in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that DAP-1 may play several roles in the molecular organization of synapses and neuronal cell signalling by interacting with hDLG and PSD-95, which in turn are associated with receptors, ion channels and APC.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 1997;2;6;415-24

  • Clustering and enhanced activity of an inwardly rectifying potassium channel, Kir4.1, by an anchoring protein, PSD-95/SAP90.

    Horio Y, Hibino H, Inanobe A, Yamada M, Ishii M, Tada Y, Satoh E, Hata Y, Takai Y and Kurachi Y

    Department of Pharmacology II, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565, Japan.

    An inwardly rectifying potassium channel predominantly expressed in glial cells, Kir4.1/KAB-2, has a sequence of Ser-Asn-Val in its carboxyl-terminal end, suggesting a possible interaction with an anchoring protein of the PSD-95 family. We examined the effects of PSD-95 on the distribution and function of Kir4.1 in a mammalian cell line. When Kir4.1 was expressed alone, the channel immunoreactivity was distributed homogeneously. In contrast, when co-expressed with PSD-95, prominent clustering of Kir4.1 in the cell membrane occurred. Kir4.1 was co-immunoprecipitated with PSD-95 in the co-expressed cells. Glutathione S-transferase-fusion protein of COOH terminus of Kir4.1 bound to PSD-95. These interactions disappeared when the Ser-Asn-Val motif was deleted. The magnitude of whole-cell Kir4.1 current was increased by 2-fold in cells co-expressing Kir4.1 and PSD-95 compared with cells expressing Kir4. 1 alone. SAP97, another member of the PSD-95 family, showed similar effects on Kir4.1. Furthermore, we found that Kir4.1 as well as SAP97 distributed not diffusely but clustered in retinal glial cells. Therefore, PSD-95 family proteins may be a physiological regulator of the distribution and function of Kir4.1 in glial cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;20;12885-8

  • SAPAPs. A family of PSD-95/SAP90-associated proteins localized at postsynaptic density.

    Takeuchi M, Hata Y, Hirao K, Toyoda A, Irie M and Takai Y

    Takai Biotimer Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o JCR Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., 2-2-10 Murotani, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-22, Japan.

    PSD-95/SAP90 is a member of membrane-associated guanylate kinases localized at postsynaptic density (PSD) in neuronal cells. Membrane-associated guanylate kinases are a family of signaling molecules expressed at various submembrane domains which have the PDZ (DHR) domains, the SH3 domain, and the guanylate kinase domain. PSD-95/SAP90 interacts with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors 2A/B, Shaker-type potassium channels, and brain nitric oxide synthase through the PDZ (DHR) domains and clusters these molecules at synaptic junctions. However, neither the function of the SH3 domain or the guanylate kinase domain of PSD-95/SAP90, nor the protein interacting with these domains has been identified. We have isolated here a novel protein family consisting of at least four members which specifically interact with PSD-95/SAP90 and its related proteins through the guanylate kinase domain, and named these proteins SAPAPs (SAP90/PSD-95-Associated Proteins). SAPAPs are specifically expressed in neuronal cells and enriched in the PSD fraction. SAPAPs induce the enrichment of PSD-95/SAP90 to the plasma membrane in transfected cells. Thus, SAPAPs may have a potential activity to maintain the structure of PSD by concentrating its components to the membrane area.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;18;11943-51

  • Disulfide-linked head-to-head multimerization in the mechanism of ion channel clustering by PSD-95.

    Hsueh YP, Kim E and Sheng M

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Neurobiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston 02214, USA.

    The PSD-95/SAP90 family of PDZ-containing proteins is directly involved in the clustering of specific ion channels at synapses. We report that channel clustering depends on a conserved N-terminal domain of PSD-95 that mediates multimerization and disulfide linkage of PSD-95 protomers. This N-terminal multimerization domain confers channel clustering activity on a single PDZ domain. Thus, channel clustering depends on aggregation of PDZ domains achieved by head-to-head multimerization of PSD-95, rather than by concatenation of PDZ domains in PSD-95 monomers. This mechanism predicts that PSD-95 can organize heterogeneous membrane protein clusters via differential binding specificities of its three PDZ domains. PSD-95 and its relative chapsyn-110 exist as disulfide-linked complexes in rat brain, consistent with head-to-head multimerization of these proteins in vivo.

    Neuron 1997;18;5;803-14

  • GKAP, a novel synaptic protein that interacts with the guanylate kinase-like domain of the PSD-95/SAP90 family of channel clustering molecules.

    Kim E, Naisbitt S, Hsueh YP, Rao A, Rothschild A, Craig AM and Sheng M

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neurobiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114, USA.

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the organization of ion channels and signaling molecules at the synaptic junction are largely unknown. Recently, members of the PSD-95/SAP90 family of synaptic MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase) proteins have been shown to interact, via their NH2-terminal PDZ domains, with certain ion channels (NMDA receptors and K+ channels), thereby promoting the clustering of these proteins. Although the function of the NH2-terminal PDZ domains is relatively well characterized, the function of the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain and the guanylate kinase-like (GK) domain in the COOH-terminal half of PSD-95 has remained obscure. We now report the isolation of a novel synaptic protein, termed GKAP for guanylate kinase-associated protein, that binds directly to the GK domain of the four known members of the mammalian PSD-95 family. GKAP shows a unique domain structure and appears to be a major constituent of the postsynaptic density. GKAP colocalizes and coimmunoprecipitates with PSD-95 in vivo, and coclusters with PSD-95 and K+ channels/NMDA receptors in heterologous cells. Given their apparent lack of guanylate kinase enzymatic activity, the fact that the GK domain can act as a site for protein-protein interaction has implications for the function of diverse GK-containing proteins (such as p55, ZO-1, and LIN-2/CASK).

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS33184

    The Journal of cell biology 1997;136;3;669-78

  • Competitive binding of alpha-actinin and calmodulin to the NMDA receptor.

    Wyszynski M, Lin J, Rao A, Nigh E, Beggs AH, Craig AM and Sheng M

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.

    The mechanisms by which neurotransmitter receptors are immobilized at postsynaptic sites in neurons are largely unknown. The activity of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors is mechanosensitive and dependent on the integrity of actin, suggesting a functionally important interaction between NMDA receptors and the postsynaptic cytoskeleton. alpha-Actinin-2, a member of the spectrin/dystrophin family of actin-binding proteins, is identified here as a brain postsynaptic density protein that colocalizes in dendritic spines with NMDA receptors and the putative NMDA receptor-clustering molecule PSD-95. alpha-Actinin-2 binds by its central rod domain to the cytoplasmic tail of both NR1 and NR2B subunits of the NMDA receptor, and can be immunoprecipitated with NMDA receptors and PSD-95 from rat brain. Intriguingly, NR1-alpha-actinin binding is directly antagonized by Ca2+/calmodulin. Thus alpha-actinin may play a role in both the localization of NMDA receptors and their modulation by Ca2+.

    Nature 1997;385;6615;439-42

  • Heteromultimerization and NMDA receptor-clustering activity of Chapsyn-110, a member of the PSD-95 family of proteins.

    Kim E, Cho KO, Rothschild A and Sheng M

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neurobiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114, USA.

    Chapsyn-110, a novel membrane-associated putative guanylate kinase (MAGUK) that binds directly to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and Shaker K+ channel subunits, is 70%-80% identical to, and shares an identical domain organization with, PSD-95/SAP90 and SAP97. In rat brain, chapsyn-110 protein shows a somatodendritic expression pattern that overlaps partly with PSD-95 but that contrasts with the axonal distribution of SAP97. Chapsyn-110 associates tightly with the postsynaptic density in brain, and mediates the clustering of both NMDA receptors and K+ channels in heterologous cells. Indeed, chapsyn-110 and PSD-95 can heteromultimerize with each other and are recruited into the same NMDA receptor and K+ channel clusters. Thus, chapsyn-110 and PSD-95 may interact at postsynaptic sites to form a multimeric scaffold for the clustering of receptors, ion channels, and associated signalling proteins.

    Neuron 1996;17;1;103-13

  • Interaction between the C terminus of NMDA receptor subunits and multiple members of the PSD-95 family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases.

    Niethammer M, Kim E and Sheng M

    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.

    Selective concentration and anchoring of ionotropic receptors at the synapse is essential for neuronal signaling. Little is known about the molecules that mediate receptor clustering in the CNS. With use of the yeast two-hybrid system to screen a rat brain cDNA library and by in vitro binding assays, we have identified an interaction between NMDA receptor subunits 2A and 2B (NR2A and NR2B) and three distinct members of the PSD-95/SAP90 family of membrane-associated putative guanylate kinases. The interaction is mediated by binding of the C terminus of the NMDA receptor subunits to the first two PDZ (also known as GLGF or DHR) domains of PSD-95/SAP90, an abundant synaptic protein associated with the membrane cytoskeleton. PSD-95 is also known to bind and cluster Shaker-type voltage-gated K+ channels. Similarities between the C-termini of NR2 subunits and K+ channels suggest a common C-terminal binding motif for PDZ domains. These data suggest that PDZ domains can function as modules for protein-protein interactions. Members of the PSD-95 family might serve to anchor NMDA receptors to the submembrane cytoskeleton and aid in the assembly of signal transduction complexes at postsynaptic sites.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1996;16;7;2157-63

  • Expression of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase types II and IV, and reduced DNA synthesis due to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor KN-62 (1-[N,O-bis(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl]-4-phenyl piperazine) in small cell lung carcinoma.

    Williams CL, Phelps SH and Porter RA

    Molecular Pharmacology Laboratory, Guthrie Research Institute, Sayre, PA 18840, USA.

    Because changes in intracellular Ca2+ affect progression through the mitotic cell cycle, we investigated the role of Ca2+-binding proteins in regulating cell cycle progression. Evidence was found demonstrating that the activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) inhibits cell cycle progression in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cells. We also demonstrated that SCLC cells express both CaM kinase type II (CaMKII) and CaM kinase type IV (CaMKIV). Five independent SCLC cell lines expressed proteins reactive with antibody to the CaMKII beta subunit, but none expressed detectable proteins reactive with antibody to the CaMKII alpha subunit. All SCLC cell lines tested expressed both the alpha and beta isoforms of CaMKIV. Immunoprecipitation of CaMKII from SCLC cells yielded multiple proteins that autophosphorylated in the presence of Ca2+ / calmodulin. Autophosphorylation was inhibited by the CaMKII(281-302) peptide, which corresponds to the CaMKII autoinhibitory domain, and by 1-[N,O-bis(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl]-4- phenylpiperazine (KN-62), a specific CaM kinase antagonist. Influx of Ca2+ through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels stimulated phosphorylation of CaMKII in SCLC cells, and this was inhibited by KN-62. Incubation of SCLC cells of KN-62 potently inhibited DNA synthesis, and slowed progression through S phase. Similar anti-proliferative effects of KN-62 occurred in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells, which express both CaMKII and CaMKIV, and in K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells, which express CaMKII but not CaMKIV. The expression of both CaMKII and CaMKIV by SCLC cells, and the sensitivity of these cells to the anti-proliferative effects of KN-62, suggest a role for CaM kinase in regulating SCLC proliferation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA52471

    Biochemical pharmacology 1996;51;5;707-15

  • Interaction of nitric oxide synthase with the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 and alpha1-syntrophin mediated by PDZ domains.

    Brenman JE, Chao DS, Gee SH, McGee AW, Craven SE, Santillano DR, Wu Z, Huang F, Xia H, Peters MF, Froehner SC and Bredt DS

    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of California at San Fancisco, California 94143, USA.

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is concentrated at synaptic junctions in brain and motor endplates in skeletal muscle. Here, we show that the N-terminus of nNOS, which contains a PDZ protein motif, interacts with similar motifs in postsynaptic density-95 protein (PSD-95) and a related novel protein, PSD-93.nNOS and PSD-95 are coexpressed in numerous neuronal populations, and a PSD-95/nNOS complex occurs in cerebellum. PDZ domain interactions also mediate binding of nNOS to skeletal muscle syntrophin, a dystrophin-associated protein. nNOS isoforms lacking a PDZ domain, identified in nNOSdelta/delta mutant mice, do not associate with PSD-95 in brain or with skeletal muscle sarcolemma. Interaction of PDZ-containing domains therefore mediates synaptic association of nNOS and may play a more general role in formation of macromolecular signaling complexes.

    Cell 1996;84;5;757-67

  • Differential K+ channel clustering activity of PSD-95 and SAP97, two related membrane-associated putative guanylate kinases.

    Kim E and Sheng M

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neurobiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114, USA.

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the clustering and localization of K+ channels in specific microdomains on the neuronal surface are largely unknown. The Shaker subclass of voltage-gated K+ channel alpha-subunits interact through their cytoplasmic C-terminus with a family of membrane-associated putative guanylate kinases, including PSD-95 and SAP97. We show here that heterologous coexpression of either sap97 or PSD-95 with various Shaker-type subunits results in the coclustering of these proteins with the K+ channels. Mutation of the C-terminal sequence (-ETDV) of the Shaker subunit Kv1.4 abolishes its binding to, and prevents its clustering with, SAP97 and PSD-95. Whereas PSD-95 induces plaque-like clusters of K+ channels at the cell surface; however, SAP97 coexpression results in the formation of large round intracellular aggregates into which both SAP97 and the K+ channel proteins are colocalized. The efficiency of surface clustering by PSD-95 varies with different Shaker subunits: striking Kv1.4 clustering occurs in > 60% of cotransfected cells, whereas Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 form convincing clusters with PSD-95 only in approximately 10% of cells.

    Neuropharmacology 1996;35;7;993-1000

  • Clustering of Shaker-type K+ channels by interaction with a family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases.

    Kim E, Niethammer M, Rothschild A, Jan YN and Sheng M

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114, USA.

    ANCHORING of ion channels at specific subcellular sites is critical for neuronal signalling, but the mechanisms underlying channel localization and clustering are largely unknown (reviewed in ref. 1). Voltage-gated K+ channels are concentrated in various neuronal domains, including presynaptic terminals, nodes of Ranvier and dendrites, where they regulate local membrane excitability. Here we present functional and biochemical evidence that cell-surface clustering of Shaker-subfamily K+ channels is mediated by the PSD-95 family of membrane-associated putative guanylate kinases, as a result of direct binding of the carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic tails to the K+ channel subunits to two PDZ (also known as GLGF or DHR) domains in the PSD-95 protein. The ability of PDZ domains to function as independent modules for protein-protein interaction, and their presence in other junction-associated molecules (such as ZO-1 (ref. 3) and syntrophin), suggest that PDZ-domain-containing polypeptides may be widely involved in the organization of proteins at sites of membrane specialization.

    Nature 1995;378;6552;85-8

  • Developmental rearrangements of cortical glutamate-NMDA receptor binding sites in late human gestation.

    Andersen DL, Tannenberg AE, Burke CJ and Dodd PR

    Royal Brisbane Hospital Research Foundation, Australia.

    NMDA-preferring glutamate receptor biding sites were characterized using the site-selective ligand [3H]MK801, in synaptic membranes prepared from cerebral cortex tissue obtained postmortem from human infants who had died with minimal neurological and neuropathological impairment between 22 and 42 weeks' gestation. It proved necessary to modify the assay protocol used with adult tissue before reliable data could be obtained. In the four cortical region studied (prefrontal, motor, occipital, temporal), [3H]MK801 bound to a single class of sites which showed significant variations in affinity only in motor cortex. The density of [3H]MK801 binding sites (calculated at constant affinity) showed marked increases in all cortical regions over this period. The extent to which glutamate could enhance [3H]MK801 binding became significantly lower in prefrontal and motor cortex as gestation progressed, so that at term, little activation was apparent. In occipital and temporal cortex, this parameter was low throughout late gestation. The evidence suggests that Glutamate-NMDA binding sites may undergo structural rearrangements which alter their ability to interact with ligands during the later stages of human gestation, and that such changes are regionally variable.

    Brain research. Developmental brain research 1995;88;2;178-85

  • Domain interaction between NMDA receptor subunits and the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95.

    Kornau HC, Schenker LT, Kennedy MB and Seeburg PH

    Center for Molecular Biology (ZMBH), University of Heidelberg, Germany.

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subserves synaptic glutamate-induced transmission and plasticity in central neurons. The yeast two-hybrid system was used to show that the cytoplasmic tails of NMDA receptor subunits interact with a prominent postsynaptic density protein PSD-95. The second PDZ domain in PSD-95 binds to the seven-amino acid, COOH-terminal domain containing the terminal tSXV motif (where S is serine, X is any amino acid, and V is valine) common to NR2 subunits and certain NR1 splice forms. Transcripts encoding PSD-95 are expressed in a pattern similar to that of NMDA receptors, and the NR2B subunit co-localizes with PSD-95 in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. The interaction of these proteins may affect the plasticity of excitatory synapses.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS-28710

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1995;269;5231;1737-40

OMIM - other

Gene lists (11)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000032 G2C Homo sapiens Pocklington H1 Human orthologues of cluster 1 (mouse) from Pocklington et al (2006) 21
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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