G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Slc3a2 (MGI)
Mus musculus
solute carrier family 3 (activators of dibasic and neutral amino acid transport), member 2
G00006748 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (3)

ENSMUSG00000010095 (Ensembl mouse gene)
17254 (Entrez Gene)
Marker Symbol
MGI:96955 (MGI)

Synonyms (6)

  • 4F2HC
  • Cd98
  • Ly-10
  • Ly-m10
  • Mdu1
  • Mgp-2hc

Literature (51)

Pubmed - other

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • Polyamine transport is mediated by both endocytic and solute carrier transport mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Uemura T, Stringer DE, Blohm-Mangone KA and Gerner EW

    The Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA.

    The polyamines spermidine and spermine, and their precursor putrescine, are required for cell growth and cellular functions. The high levels of tissue polyamines are implicated in carcinogenesis. The major sources of exogenous polyamines are diet and intestinal luminal bacteria in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues. Both endocytic and solute carrier-dependent mechanisms have been described for polyamine uptake. Knocking down of caveolin-1 protein increased polyamine uptake in colon cancer-derived HCT116 cells. Dietary supplied putrescine was accumulated in GI tissues and liver in caveolin-1 knockout mice more than wild-type mice. Knocking out of nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), which has been implicated in the release of exogenous polyamines from internalized vesicles, abolished the accumulation of dietary putrescine in GI tissues. Under conditions of reduced endogenous tissue putrescine contents, caused by treatment with the polyamine synthesis inhibitor difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), small intestinal and colonic mucosal polyamine contents increased with dietary putrescine levels, even in mice lacking NOS2. Knocking down the solute carrier transporter SLC3A2 in HCT116-derived Hkh2 cells reduced the accumulation of exogenous putrescine and total polyamine contents in DFMO treated cells, relative to non-DFMO-treated cells. These data demonstrate that exogenous putrescine is transported into GI tissues by caveolin-1- and NOS2-dependent mechanisms, but that the solute carrier transporter SLC3A2 can function bidirectionally to import putrescine under conditions of low tissue polyamines.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA095060, CA123065, R01 CA123065

    American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 2010;299;2;G517-22

  • Dependence of proliferative vascular smooth muscle cells on CD98hc (4F2hc, SLC3A2).

    Fogelstrand P, Féral CC, Zargham R and Ginsberg MH

    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

    Activation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to migrate and proliferate is essential for the formation of intimal hyperplasia. Hence, selectively targeting activated VSMCs is a potential strategy against vaso-occlusive disorders such as in-stent restenosis, vein-graft stenosis, and transplant vasculopathy. We show that CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) is markedly up-regulated in neointimal and cultured VSMCs, and that activated but not quiescent VSMCs require CD98hc for survival. CD98hc mediates integrin signaling and localizes amino acid transporters to the plasma membrane. SMC-specific deletion of CD98hc did not affect normal vessel morphology, indicating that CD98hc was not required for the maintenance of resident quiescent VSMCs; however, CD98hc deletion reduced intimal hyperplasia after arterial injury. Ex vivo and in vitro, loss of CD98hc suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in VSMCs. Furthermore, reconstitution with CD98hc mutants showed that CD98hc interaction with integrins was necessary for the survival of VSMCs. These studies establish the importance of CD98hc in VSMC proliferation and survival. Furthermore, loss of CD98hc was selectively deleterious to activated VSMCs while sparing resident quiescent VSMCs, suggesting that activated VSMCs are physiologically dependent on CD98hc, and hence, CD98hc is a potential therapeutic target in vaso-occlusive disorders.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 078784, HL 31950, P01 HL031950, P01 HL078784; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR27214, R01 AR027214, R37 AR027214

    The Journal of experimental medicine 2009;206;11;2397-406

  • CD98hc facilitates B cell proliferation and adaptive humoral immunity.

    Cantor J, Browne CD, Ruppert R, Féral CC, Fässler R, Rickert RC and Ginsberg MH

    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, USA.

    The proliferation of antigen-specific lymphocytes and resulting clonal expansion are essential for adaptive immunity. We report here that B cell-specific deletion of the heavy chain of CD98 (CD98hc) resulted in lower antibody responses due to total suppression of B cell proliferation and subsequent plasma cell formation. Deletion of CD98hc did not impair early B cell activation but did inhibit later activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase Erk1/2 and downregulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27. Reconstitution of CD98hc-deficient B cells with CD98hc mutants showed that the integrin-binding domain of CD98hc was required for B cell proliferation but that the amino acid-transport function of CD98hc was dispensable for this. Thus, CD98hc supports integrin-dependent rapid proliferation of B cells. We propose that the advantage of adaptive immunity favored the appearance of CD98hc in vertebrates.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL0780784, HL31950, P01 HL031950, P01 HL031950-240012, P01 HL057900, P01 HL057900-12A10002, P01 HL057900-12A19001, P01 HL078784, P01 HL078784-05, T32 HL007444; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR27214, R01 AR027214, R01 AR027214-30, R37 AR027214

    Nature immunology 2009;10;4;412-9

  • CD98hc (SLC3A2) interaction with the integrin beta subunit cytoplasmic domain mediates adhesive signaling.

    Prager GW, Féral CC, Kim C, Han J and Ginsberg MH

    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.

    In mammals, beta1 integrin adhesion receptors generate signals that mediate cell spreading, migration, proliferation, and survival. CD98, a heterodimeric transmembrane protein, physically associates with certain integrin beta subunit cytoplasmic domains (tails) via its heavy chain, CD98hc (SLC3A2), and loss of CD98hc impairs integrin signaling. Here we have used the lack of CD98hc interaction with the Drosophila integrin betaPS tail for a homology scanning analysis that implicated the C-terminal 8 residues of beta3 (Thr(755)-Thr(802)) in CD98hc binding. We then identified point mutations in the beta3 C terminus (T755K and T758M) that abolish CD98hc association and a double mutation in the corresponding residues in the betaPS tail (K839T,M842T), which resulted in gain of CD98hc interaction. Furthermore, the loss of function beta3(T755K) mutation or the gain of function beta3/betaPS(K839T,M842T) led to a loss or gain of integrin-mediated cell spreading, respectively. Thus, we have identified critical integrin residues required for CD98hc interaction and in doing so have shown that CD98c interaction with the integrin beta tail is required for its ability to mediate integrin signaling. These studies also provide new insights into how CD98hc may cooperate with other cytoplasmic domain binding proteins to modulate integrin functions and into the evolution of integrin signaling.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL078784, HL31950; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR27214; NIGMS NIH HHS: U54 GM064346

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;33;24477-84

  • CD98hc (SLC3A2) participates in fibronectin matrix assembly by mediating integrin signaling.

    Féral CC, Zijlstra A, Tkachenko E, Prager G, Gardel ML, Slepak M and Ginsberg MH

    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

    Integrin-dependent assembly of the fibronectin (Fn) matrix plays a central role in vertebrate development. We identify CD98hc, a membrane protein, as an important component of the matrix assembly machinery both in vitro and in vivo. CD98hc was not required for biosynthesis of cellular Fn or the maintenance of the repertoire or affinity of cellular Fn binding integrins, which are important contributors to Fn assembly. Instead, CD98hc was involved in the cell's ability to exert force on the matrix and did so by dint of its capacity to interact with integrins to support downstream signals that lead to activation of RhoA small GTPase. Thus, we identify CD98hc as a membrane protein that enables matrix assembly and establish that it functions by interacting with integrins to support RhoA-driven contractility. CD98hc expression can vary widely; our data show that these variations in CD98hc expression can control the capacity of cells to assemble an Fn matrix, a process important in development, wound healing, and tumorigenesis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: K01 CA120711

    The Journal of cell biology 2007;178;4;701-11

  • Recycling of aromatic amino acids via TAT1 allows efflux of neutral amino acids via LAT2-4F2hc exchanger.

    Ramadan T, Camargo SM, Herzog B, Bordin M, Pos KM and Verrey F

    Zurich Centre for Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057, Zurich, Switzerland.

    The rate of amino acid efflux from individual cells needs to be adapted to cellular demands and plays a central role for the control of extracellular amino acid homeostasis. A particular example of such an outward amino acid transport is the basolateral efflux from transporting epithelial cells located in the small intestine and kidney proximal tubule. Because LAT2-4F2hc (Slc7a8-Slc3a2), the best known basolateral neutral amino acid transporter of these epithelial cells, functions as an obligatory exchanger, we tested whether TAT1 (Slc16a10), the aromatic amino-acid facilitated diffusion transporter, might allow amino acid efflux via this exchanger by recycling its influx substrates. In this study, we show by immunofluorescence that TAT1 and LAT2 indeed colocalize in the early kidney proximal tubule. Using the Xenopus laevis oocytes expression system, we show that L-glutamine is released from oocytes into an amino-acid-free medium only when both transporters are coexpressed. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis reveals that several other neutral amino acids are released as well. The transport function of both TAT1 and LAT2-4F2hc is necessary for this efflux, as coexpression of functionally inactive but surface-expressed mutants is ineffective. Based on negative results of coimmunoprecipitation and crosslinking experiments, the physical interaction of these transporters does not appear to be required. Furthermore, replacement of TAT1 or LAT2-4F2hc by the facilitated diffusion transporter LAT4 or the obligatory exchanger LAT1, respectively, supports similar functional cooperation. Taken together, the results suggest that the aromatic amino acid diffusion pathway TAT1 can control neutral amino acid efflux via neighboring exchanger LAT2-4F2hc, by recycling its aromatic influx substrates.

    Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology 2007;454;3;507-16

  • Distribution of the cystine/glutamate antiporter system xc- in the brain, kidney, and duodenum.

    Burdo J, Dargusch R and Schubert D

    Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    System x(c)(-), one of the main transporters responsible for central nervous system cystine transport, is comprised of two subunits, xCT and 4F2hc. The transport of cystine into cells is rate limiting for glutathione synthesis, the major antioxidant and redox cofactor in the brain. Alterations in glutathione status are prevalent in numerous neurodegenerative diseases, emphasizing the importance of proper cystine homeostasis. However, the distribution of xCT and 4F2hc within the brain and other areas has not been described. Using specific antibodies, both xCT and 4F2hc were localized predominantly to neurons in the mouse and human brain, but some glial cells were labeled as well. Border areas between the brain proper and periphery including the vascular endothelial cells, ependymal cells, choroid plexus, and leptomeninges were also highly positive for the system x(c)(-) components. xCT and 4F2hc are also present at the brush border membranes in the kidney and duodenum. These results indicate that system x(c)(-) is likely to play a role in cellular health throughout many areas of the brain as well as other organs by maintaining intracellular cystine levels, thereby resulting in low levels of oxidative stress.

    The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 2006;54;5;549-57

  • Possible activation of murine T lymphocyte through CD98 is independent of interleukin 2/interleukin 2 receptor system.

    Komada H, Imai A, Hattori E, Ito M, Tsumura H, Onoda T, Kuramochi M, Tani M, Yamamoto K, Yamane M, Kawano M, Nishio M, Yuasa K, O'Brien M, Yamamoto H, Uematsu J, Tsurudome M and Ito Y

    Department of Microbiology, Mie University School of Medicine, Mie, Japan.

    CD98 is a widely expressed cell surface heterodimeric protein of 125 kDa. Its expression is upregulated during lymphocyte activation induced by mitogen, superantigen, conventional antigen, and a combination of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin. However, the role of CD98 in the immune system is not so well understood. The role of CD98 in murine T lymphocyte proliferation was investigated, especially in correlation with the interleukin 2 (IL-2)/interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) system. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against murine CD98 heavy chain (mCD98HC) suppressed the proliferation of lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A). Anti-mCD98HC mAb did not suppress the expression of IL-2Ralpha. Anti-IL-2Ralpha mAb, which suppressed DNA synthesis, did not inhibit the expression of CD98HC. Murine IL-2 (recombinant), which induced considerable DNA synthesis by lymphocytes stimulated with a sub-optimal dose of Con A, did not induce CD98HC expression in lymphocytes. In addition, anti-mCD98HC mAb did not inhibit the production of IL-2 by lymphocyte stimulated with Con A. Taken together with these findings, it was speculated that the CD98 system is independent of the IL-2/IL-2R system in murine T lymphocyte activation.

    Biomedical research (Tokyo, Japan) 2006;27;2;61-7

  • Activation of epithelial CD98 glycoprotein perpetuates colonic inflammation.

    Kucharzik T, Lugering A, Yan Y, Driss A, Charrier L, Sitaraman S and Merlin D

    Department of Medicine B, Münster University of Münster, Germany.

    Anomalies in the regulation and function of integrins have been implicated in the etiology of various pathologic conditions, including inflammatory disorders such as irritable bowel disease. Several classes of cell surface glycoproteins such as CD98 have been shown to play roles in integrins-mediated events. Here, we investigated the role of CD98 in intestinal inflammation using both in vivo and in vitro approaches. We found that in Caco2-BBE monolayers and colonic tissues, expression of CD98 was upregulated by the proinflammatory cytokine, interferon gamma (INF gamma). Furthermore, CD98 was highly upregulated in colonic tissues from mice with active colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), but not in DSS-treated INF gamma -/- mice. Administration of an anti-CD98 antibody worsened DSS-induced colitis in mice but had no effect on untreated control mice. Finally, we used Caco2-BBE cell monolayers to model intestinal epithelial wound healing, and found that activation of epithelial CD98 in DSS-treated monolayers inhibited monolayer reconstitution, but had no affect on untreated control monolayers. Our data collectively indicate that (i) CD98 upregulation is mediated by INF gamma during intestinal inflammation and (ii) activation of epithelial CD98 protein aggravates intestinal inflammation by reducing intestinal epithelial reconstitution. Overall, our data suggest that epithelial CD98 plays an important role in the perpetuation of intestinal inflammation.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01-DK-061941-01A1, R01DK064711-01, R24-DK-064399

    Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology 2005;85;7;932-41

  • CD98 modulates integrin beta1 function in polarized epithelial cells.

    Cai S, Bulus N, Fonseca-Siesser PM, Chen D, Hanks SK, Pozzi A and Zent R

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

    The type II transmembrane protein CD98, best known as the heavy chain of the heterodimeric amino acid transporters (HAT), is required for the surface expression and basolateral localization of this transporter complex in polarized epithelial cells. CD98 also interacts with beta1 integrins resulting in an increase in their affinity for ligand. In this study we explored the role of the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of CD98 on integrin-dependent cell adhesion and migration in polarized renal epithelial cells. We demonstrate that the transmembrane domain of CD98 was sufficient, whereas the five N-terminal amino acids of this domain were required for CD98 interactions with beta1 integrins. Overexpression of either full-length CD98 or CD98 lacking its cytoplasmic tail increased cell adhesion and migration, whereas deletion of the five N-terminal amino acids of the transmembrane domain of CD98 abrogated this effect. CD98 and mutants that interacted with beta1 integrins increased both focal adhesion formation and FAK and AKT phosphorylation. CD98-induced cell adhesion and migration was inhibited by addition of phosphoinositol 3-OH kinase (PI3-K) inhibitors suggesting these cell functions are PI3-K-dependent. Finally, CD98 and mutants that interacted with beta1, induced marked changes in polarized renal epithelial cell branching morphogenesis in collagen gels. Thus, in polarized renal epithelial cells, CD98 might be viewed as a scaffolding protein that interacts with basolaterally expressed amino acid transporters and beta1 integrins and can alter diverse cellular functions such as amino acid transport as well as cell adhesion, migration and branching morphogenesis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA94849-01; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK39261, R01 DK069921-01; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM49882

    Journal of cell science 2005;118;Pt 5;889-99

  • CD98hc (SLC3A2) mediates integrin signaling.

    Feral CC, Nishiya N, Fenczik CA, Stuhlmann H, Slepak M and Ginsberg MH

    Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    Integrins regulate cellular behaviors through signaling pathways, including Rho GTPases and kinases. CD98 heterodimers, comprised of a heavy chain (CD98hc, SLC3A2) and one of several light chains, interact with integrins through CD98hc. CD98hc overexpression leads to anchorage-independent cell growth and tumorigenesis in 3T3 fibroblasts and activates certain integrin-regulated signaling pathways. To establish the biological function of CD98hc, we disrupted the gene and analyzed CD98hc-null cells. Here we report that CD98hc contributes to integrin-dependent cell spreading, cell migration, and protection from apoptosis. Furthermore, CD98hc is required for efficient adhesion-induced activation of Akt and Rac GTPase, major contributors to the integrin-dependent signals involved in cell survival and cell migration. CD98 promotes amino acid transport through its light chains; however, a CD98hc mutant that interacts with beta1 integrins, but not CD98 light chains, restored integrin-dependent signaling and protection from apoptosis. beta1 integrins are involved in the pathogenesis of certain cancers. CD98hc deletion markedly impaired the ability of embryonic stem cells to form teratocarcinomas in mice; teratocarcinoma formation was reconstituted by reexpression of CD98hc or of the mutant that interacts exclusively with integrins. Thus, CD98hc is an integrin-associated protein that mediates integrin-dependent signals, which promote tumorigenesis.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2005;102;2;355-60

  • Transcriptional control of cystine/glutamate transporter gene by amino acid deprivation.

    Sato H, Nomura S, Maebara K, Sato K, Tamba M and Bannai S

    Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575, Japan.

    Recent studies have demonstrated that depletion of amino acids results in the induction of several genes and that a genomic cis-element termed amino acid response element (AARE) is required for the induction. System x(c)(-) is an anionic amino acid transport system highly specific for cystine and glutamate, and its activity is known to be induced by cystine deprivation. This transporter is composed of two protein components, xCT and 4F2 heavy chain, and xCT is thought to mediate the transport activity. In the present study, the molecular mechanism for the induction of xCT by amino acid deprivation has been investigated. In mouse NIH3T3 cells, the activity of system x(c)(-) and xCT mRNA is induced not only by deprivation of cystine but also by deprivation of other amino acids. Two AAREs, each located in the opposite direction with an intervening sequence, were found in the 5'-flanking region of the mouse xCT gene. Promoter analysis revealed that both AAREs were necessary for the maximal induction of xCT mRNA in response to the amino acid deprivation. Glucose deprivation had no effect on the induction of the activity of system x(c)(-). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that ATF4, but not ATF2, is involved in the amino acid control of xCT expression. These results demonstrate that xCT is a new member of the proteins whose transcriptional control by the amino acid deprivation is mediated by AARE.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;325;1;109-16

  • Libraries enriched for alternatively spliced exons reveal splicing patterns in melanocytes and melanomas.

    Watahiki A, Waki K, Hayatsu N, Shiraki T, Kondo S, Nakamura M, Sasaki D, Arakawa T, Kawai J, Harbers M, Hayashizaki Y and Carninci P

    Genome Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako main campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 Japan.

    It is becoming increasingly clear that alternative splicing enables the complex development and homeostasis of higher organisms. To gain a better understanding of how splicing contributes to regulatory pathways, we have developed an alternative splicing library approach for the identification of alternatively spliced exons and their flanking regions by alternative splicing sequence enriched tags sequencing. Here, we have applied our approach to mouse melan-c melanocyte and B16-F10Y melanoma cell lines, in which 5,401 genes were found to be alternatively spliced. These genes include those encoding important regulatory factors such as cyclin D2, Ilk, MAPK12, MAPK14, RAB4, melastatin 1 and previously unidentified splicing events for 436 genes. Real-time PCR further identified cell line-specific exons for Tmc6, Abi1, Sorbs1, Ndel1 and Snx16. Thus, the ASL approach proved effective in identifying splicing events, which suggest that alternative splicing is important in melanoma development.

    Nature methods 2004;1;3;233-9

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • A natural allele of Nxf1 suppresses retrovirus insertional mutations.

    Floyd JA, Gold DA, Concepcion D, Poon TH, Wang X, Keithley E, Chen D, Ward EJ, Chinn SB, Friedman RA, Yu HT, Moriwaki K, Shiroishi T and Hamilton BA

    Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, UCSD School of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0644, USA.

    Endogenous retroviruses have shaped the evolution of mammalian genomes. Host genes that control the effects of retrovirus insertions are therefore of great interest. The modifier-of-vibrator-1 locus (Mvb1) controls levels of correctly processed mRNA from genes mutated by endogenous retrovirus insertions into introns, including the Pitpn(vb) tremor mutation and the Eya1(BOR) model of human branchiootorenal syndrome. Positional complementation cloning identifies Mvb1 as the nuclear export factor Nxf1, providing an unexpected link between the mRNA export receptor and pre-mRNA processing. Population structure of the suppressive allele in wild Mus musculus castaneus suggests selective advantage. A congenic Mvb1(CAST) allele is a useful tool for modifying gene expression from existing mutations and could be used to manipulate engineered mutations containing retroviral elements.

    Funded by: NIDCD NIH HHS: R01 DC004796, R01 DC004796-05; NIGMS NIH HHS: T32 GM008666; NIMH NIH HHS: R01 MH059207, R01 MH059207-01, R01 MH059207-02, R01 MH059207-03, R01 MH059207-04, R01 MH059207-05, R01 MH059207-06

    Nature genetics 2003;35;3;221-8

  • Activation of CEA-CAM-1-mediated cell adhesion via CD98: involvement of PKCdelta.

    Kakugawa K, Hattori M, Beauchemin N and Minato N

    Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, 606-8502 Kyoto, Japan.

    CD98 is a multifunctional protein involved in amino acid transport and regulation of integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Herein, we demonstrated that CD98 stimulation by anti-CD98 antibodies induced CEA-CAM-1-mediated cell adhesion in BaF3 cells expressing CEA-CAM-1, and suggest that this might be responsible for compact clumping of F9 embryonic carcinoma cells by CD98 stimulation. CEA-CAM-1 was co-immunoprecipitated by anti-CD98 antibody. CD98 stimulation induced the translocation of cytoplasmic protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta) to the cell adhesion sites, and rottlerin that inhibited the PKCdelta translocation abolished the cell aggregation without affecting integrin activation. The results suggested that CD98 stimulation could activate CEA-CAM-1-mediated cell adhesion independently of integrins.

    FEBS letters 2003;552;2-3;184-8

  • The targeted disruption of the CD98 gene results in embryonic lethality.

    Tsumura H, Suzuki N, Saito H, Kawano M, Otake S, Kozuka Y, Komada H, Tsurudome M and Ito Y

    Functional Genomics Institutes, Life Science Research Center, Mie University, 2-174, Edobashi, Tsu-Shi, Mie Prefecture 514-8507, Japan.

    CD98 is one of the important molecules for development, cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and regulation of cellular function. In this study, CD98 heavy chain (HC) knockout mice were produced and analyzed. Five targeted ES clones were obtained and colony frequency was about 2%. One (clone 113) of the five heterozygous ES cell clones had undergone aberrant recombination at the 5' side. The aberrant recombination happened at the site between second intron and 5' arm. All lines from correctly targeted clones could not transmit the mutated allele to spermatozoa. The mutated allele derived from the aberrant targeted clone was transmitted to the progeny. However, none of the F2 mice was homozygous for the CD98 mutation, indicating that the targeted disruption of the CD98 gene results in embryonic lethality. The point of embryonic lethality is considered to be between 3.5 and 9.5 dps. These findings indicate that CD98 molecules are essential for mouse embryogenesis.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;308;4;847-51

  • A large-scale, gene-driven mutagenesis approach for the functional analysis of the mouse genome.

    Hansen J, Floss T, Van Sloun P, Füchtbauer EM, Vauti F, Arnold HH, Schnütgen F, Wurst W, von Melchner H and Ruiz P

    Institute of Developmental Genetics, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    A major challenge of the postgenomic era is the functional characterization of every single gene within the mammalian genome. In an effort to address this challenge, we assembled a collection of mutations in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, which is the largest publicly accessible collection of such mutations to date. Using four different gene-trap vectors, we generated 5,142 sequences adjacent to the gene-trap integration sites (gene-trap sequence tags; http://genetrap.de) from >11,000 ES cell clones. Although most of the gene-trap vector insertions occurred randomly throughout the genome, we found both vector-independent and vector-specific integration "hot spots." Because >50% of the hot spots were vector-specific, we conclude that the most effective way to saturate the mouse genome with gene-trap insertions is by using a combination of gene-trap vectors. When a random sample of gene-trap integrations was passaged to the germ line, 59% (17 of 29) produced an observable phenotype in transgenic mice, a frequency similar to that achieved by conventional gene targeting. Thus, gene trapping allows a large-scale and cost-effective production of ES cell clones with mutations distributed throughout the genome, a resource likely to accelerate genome annotation and the in vivo modeling of human disease.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;17;9918-22

  • BayGenomics: a resource of insertional mutations in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Stryke D, Kawamoto M, Huang CC, Johns SJ, King LA, Harper CA, Meng EC, Lee RE, Yee A, L'Italien L, Chuang PT, Young SG, Skarnes WC, Babbitt PC and Ferrin TE

    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    The BayGenomics gene-trap resource (http://baygenomics.ucsf.edu) provides researchers with access to thousands of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines harboring characterized insertional mutations in both known and novel genes. Each cell line contains an insertional mutation in a specific gene. The identity of the gene that has been interrupted can be determined from a DNA sequence tag. Approximately 75% of our cell lines contain insertional mutations in known mouse genes or genes that share strong sequence similarities with genes that have been identified in other organisms. These cell lines readily transmit the mutation to the germline of mice and many mutant lines of mice have already been generated from this resource. BayGenomics provides facile access to our entire database, including sequence tags for each mutant ES cell line, through the World Wide Web. Investigators can browse our resource, search for specific entries, download any portion of our database and BLAST sequences of interest against our entire set of cell line sequence tags. They can then obtain the mutant ES cell line for the purpose of generating knockout mice.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR001081, P41 RR01081; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL066621, U01 HL66621

    Nucleic acids research 2003;31;1;278-81

  • Predisposition to efficient mammary tumor metastatic progression is linked to the breast cancer metastasis suppressor gene Brms1.

    Hunter KW, Broman KW, Voyer TL, Lukes L, Cozma D, Debies MT, Rouse J and Welch DR

    Laboratory of Population Genetics, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. Hunterk@mail.nih.gov

    Tumor metastasis is one of the most important clinical aspects of neoplastic disease because patient mortality is frequently attributable to disseminated rather than primary tumors. However, it still is not possible to definitively distinguish those individuals at high risk for disseminated disease, who would benefit from aggressive adjuvant therapy, from the low-risk patients who might be spared the side effects of additional anticancer therapy. To identify factors that predispose toward metastatic disease, we have used a genetic approach. Using a highly metastatic model of mammary cancer, we identified previously inbred mouse strains (DBA/2J, NZB/B1NJ, and I/LnJ) that harbor genetic factors that significantly suppress metastatic efficiency. In this study, we report the results of four experiments to localize the genetic map locations of the metastasis efficiency modifier genes. One statistically significant locus was identified on proximal Chr 19 designated Mtes1. Secondary candidate intervals were detected on Chrs 6, 9, 13, and 17. Interestingly, Mtes1 colocalizes with the murine orthologue of the human breast cancer metastasis suppressor gene Brms1, suggesting that allelic variants of Brms1 might be responsible for the metastasis suppression observed.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA88728

    Cancer research 2001;61;24;8866-72

  • The zebrafish fth1, slc3a2, men1, pc, fgf3 and cycd1 genes define two regions of conserved synteny between linkage group 7 and human chromosome 11q13.

    Yoder JA and Litman GW

    Children's Research Institute, University of South Florida College of Medicine/All Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, 140 Seventh Avenue South, FL 33701, St. Petersburg, USA.

    In addition to being an excellent model system for studying vertebrate development, the zebrafish has become a great tool for gene discovery by mutational analysis. The recent availability of the zebrafish EST database and radiation hybrid mapping panels has dramatically expanded the framework for genomic research in this species. Developing comparative maps of the zebrafish and human genomes is of particular importance for zebrafish mutagenesis studies in which human orthologs are sought for zebrafish genes. However, only partial cDNA sequences are determined routinely for mapped ESTs, leaving the identity of the EST in question. It previously had been reported that zebrafish linkage group 7 shares conserved synteny with human chromosome 11q13. In an effort to further define this relationship, five full-length zebrafish cDNAs, fth1, slc3a2, prkri, cd81, and pc, as well as one putative human gene, DBX were identified and their map positions ascertained. These six genes, along with men1, fgf3 and cycd1 define two regions of conserved synteny between linkage group 7 and 11q13.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: R37 AI23338; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM30321

    Gene 2000;261;2;235-42

  • Genome-wide expression profiling of mid-gestation placenta and embryo using a 15,000 mouse developmental cDNA microarray.

    Tanaka TS, Jaradat SA, Lim MK, Kargul GJ, Wang X, Grahovac MJ, Pantano S, Sano Y, Piao Y, Nagaraja R, Doi H, Wood WH, Becker KG and Ko MS

    Laboratory of Genetics and DNA Array Unit, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224-6820, USA.

    cDNA microarray technology has been increasingly used to monitor global gene expression patterns in various tissues and cell types. However, applications to mammalian development have been hampered by the lack of appropriate cDNA collections, particularly for early developmental stages. To overcome this problem, a PCR-based cDNA library construction method was used to derive 52,374 expressed sequence tags from pre- and peri-implantation embryos, embryonic day (E) 12.5 female gonad/mesonephros, and newborn ovary. From these cDNA collections, a microarray representing 15,264 unique genes (78% novel and 22% known) was assembled. In initial applications, the divergence of placental and embryonic gene expression profiles was assessed. At stage E12.5 of development, based on triplicate experiments, 720 genes (6.5%) displayed statistically significant differences in expression between placenta and embryo. Among 289 more highly expressed in placenta, 61 placenta-specific genes encoded, for example, a novel prolactin-like protein. The number of genes highly expressed (and frequently specific) for placenta has thereby been increased 5-fold over the total previously reported, illustrating the potential of the microarrays for tissue-specific gene discovery and analysis of mammalian developmental programs.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;16;9127-32

  • Identification and characterization of a Na(+)-independent neutral amino acid transporter that associates with the 4F2 heavy chain and exhibits substrate selectivity for small neutral D- and L-amino acids.

    Fukasawa Y, Segawa H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kim DK, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H and Kanai Y

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611, Japan.

    A cDNA was isolated from the mouse brain that encodes a novel Na(+)-independent neutral amino acid transporter. The encoded protein, designated as Asc-1 (asc-type amino acid transporter 1), was found to be structurally related to recently identified mammalian amino acid transporters for the transport systems L, y(+)L, x(C)(-), and b(0,+), which are linked, via a disulfide bond, to the type II membrane glycoproteins, 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc), or rBAT (related to b(0,+) amino acid transporter). Asc-1 required 4F2hc for its functional expression. In Western blot analysis in the nonreducing condition, a 118-kDa band, which seems to correspond to the heterodimeric complex of Asc-1 and 4F2hc, was detected in the mouse brain. The band shifted to 33 kDa in the reducing condition, confirming that Asc-1 and 4F2hc are linked via a disulfide bond. Asc-1-mediated transport was not dependent on the presence of Na(+) or Cl(-). Although Asc-1 showed a high sequence homology (66% identity at the amino acid level) to the Na(+)-independent broad scope neutral amino acid transporter LAT2 (Segawa, H., Fukasawa, Y., Miyamoto, K., Takeda, E., Endou, H., and Kanai, Y. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 19745-19751), Asc-1 also exhibited distinctive substrate selectivity and transport properties. Asc-1 preferred small neutral amino acids such as Gly, L-Ala, L-Ser, L-Thr, and L-Cys, and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid as substrates. Asc-1 also transported D-isomers of the small neutral amino acids, in particular D-Ser, a putative endogenous modulator of N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors, with high affinity. Asc-1 operated preferentially, although not exclusively, in an exchange mode. Asc-1 mRNA was detected in the brain, lung, small intestine, and placenta. The functional properties of Asc-1 seem to be consistent with those of a transporter subserving the Na(+)-independent small neutral amino acid transport system asc.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;13;9690-8

  • Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against murine FRP-1/CD98/4F2 heavy chain: murine FRP-1 is an alloantigen and amino acid change at 129 (P<-->R) is related to the alloantigenicity.

    Tsumura H, Kawano M, Tajima M, Kusaura T, Kozuka Y, Yoshimura S, Komada H, Tsurudome M, Nishio M, Kusagawa S, Shimura K and Ito Y

    Department of Microbiology, Mie University School of Medicine, Mie-ken, Japan. tsumura@doc.medic.mie-u.ac.jp

    Nineteen mAb directed against murine fusion regulatory protein-1 (mFRP-1)/4F2/CD98 were isolated and their biological properties were analysed. Intriguingly, mFRP-1 was found to be an alloantigen, namely, FRP-1.1 (DBA/2 and CBA mice type) and FRP-1.2 (BALB/c, C57BL/6 and C3H/He mice type). The nucleotide sequences of FRP-1.1 and FRP-1.2 were determined, demonstrating that amino acid change at 129 (P<-->R) is related to the alloantigenicity. mFRP-1 is expressed on thymocytes, on spleen cells, on peripheral lymphocytes and on blood monocytes, suggesting that the physiological role in vivo of murine FRP-1 is different from that of human FRP-1. The biological activities of antimFRP-1 mAbs showed by the present study are: (i) enhancement of Newcastle disease virus-induced cell fusion; (ii) suppression of HIVgp160-mediated cell fusion; and (iii) induction of aggregation and multinucleated giant cells of monocytes/macrophages.

    Immunology and cell biology 1999;77;1;19-27

  • 4F2 (CD98) heavy chain is associated covalently with an amino acid transporter and controls intracellular trafficking and membrane topology of 4F2 heterodimer.

    Nakamura E, Sato M, Yang H, Miyagawa F, Harasaki M, Tomita K, Matsuoka S, Noma A, Iwai K and Minato N

    Department of Immunology and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.

    4F2, also termed CD98, is an integral membrane protein consisting of a heavy chain linked to a light chain by disulfide bond. We have generated a monoclonal antibody to the mouse 4F2 light chain and cloned the cDNA. It encodes a mouse counterpart of rat L-type amino acid transporter-1, and induces system L amino acid transport in Xenopus oocytes in the presence of 4F2 heavy chain. Transfection studies in mammalian cells have indicated that the 4F2 heavy chain is expressed on the plasma membrane on its own, whereas the 4F2 light chain can be transported to the surface only in the presence of 4F2 heavy chain. 4F2 heavy chain is expressed diffusely on the surface of fibroblastic L cells, whereas it is localized selectively to the cell-cell adhesion sites in L cells expressing cadherins. These results indicate that the 4F2 heavy chain is associated covalently with an amino acid transporter and controls the cell surface expression as well as the membrane topology of the 4F2 heterodimer. Although 4F2 heavy and light chains are expressed coordinately in most tissues, the light chain is barely detected by the antibody in kidney and intestine, despite the presence of heavy chain in a complex form. The results predict the presence of multiple 4F2 light chains.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;5;3009-16

  • Genetic mapping of the galanin-GMAP (Galn) gene to mouse chromosome 19.

    Guida LC, Charlton P, Gilbert DJ, Jenkins NA, Copeland NG and Nicholls RD

    Department of Genetics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-4955, USA.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1998;9;3;240-2

  • Comparative mapping of two adjacent regions of MMU19 with their human counterpart on HSA11q13.

    Fernandes M, Lespinasse F, Rotomondo F, Poirier C, Guenet JL, Gaudray P and Carle GF

    CNRS/UNSA UMR 6549, Faculté de Médecine, Nice, France.

    High resolution physical maps of two adjacent regions of MMU19 were constructed in order to establish a comparative map between the pericentromeric region of MMU19 and its human counterpart on HSA11q13. These two physical maps span 2.5 and 0.5 megabases on MMU19. Long range restriction analysis and YAC contigs have been built, five genes were located on MMU19 and eight new STSs were generated. The 0.5-Mb map which has been positioned close to the centromere of MMU19, based on dual-color FISH experiments and genetic data, includes eight genes (Type I markers), three microsatellites (Type II markers) and five new STSs. The 2.5-Mb map is located more telomeric and contains seven genes, four microsatellites and four new STSs. Gene order and physical distances appear to be similar in human and in mouse in this 2.5-Mb region. Strikingly, the 0.5-Mb region has a similar size in human but gene order is shuffled. The overall comparative map shows that these two regions are inverted on MMU19 when compared with HSA11q13.

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1998;81;3-4;237-46

  • Genetic mapping of mouse centromere protein (Incenp and Cenpe) genes.

    Fowler KJ, Saffery R, Kile BT, Irvine DV, Hudson DF, Trowell HE and Choo KH

    The Murdoch Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. fowlerk@cryptic.rch.unimelb.edu.au

    Inner centromere protein (INCENP) and centromere protein E (CENPE) are two functionally important proteins of the higher eukaryotic centromere. Using a mouse Incenp genomic DNA and a mouse Cenpe cDNA to analyze recombinant inbred mouse sets, as well as interspecific backcross panels, we have mapped these genes to the proximal regions of mouse Chromosomes 19 and 6, respectively. Comparison of Cenpe and human CENPE, which maps to chromosome region 4q24-->q25, has further identified a new region of homology between the two species.

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1998;82;1-2;67-70

  • Tissue-specific regulation of mouse core 2 beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase.

    Sekine M, Nara K and Suzuki A

    Department of Membrane Biochemistry, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan.

    Mouse kidney beta-1,6-GlcNAc-transferase (GNT) is the key enzyme for the synthesis of a glycosphingolipid (Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAcbeta1-6(Galbeta1 -3)GalNAcbeta1-3Galalph a1-4Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-ceramide) that contains the LeX trisaccharide epitope at its nonreducing terminus. The expression of this glycolipid in the kidney is polymorphic; it is expressed in BALB/c but not DBA/2 mice; and a single autosomal gene (Gsl5) is responsible for this polymorphism. We report here the cDNA sequence that encodes the kidney GNT of BALB/c mice, which possess a wild-type Gsl5 gene. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibits 84% identity to that of human core 2 beta-1,6-GlcNAc-transferase, which suggests that kidney GNT is a mouse homologue of human core 2 beta-1, 6-GlcNAc-transferase. The GNT mRNA is expressed abundantly in the kidney, but was not detected in other BALB/c organs or in the kidneys of DBA/2 mice by Northern blot analysis. In addition, we were able to clone and sequence another homologous cDNA from the submandibular gland. The two sequences differ only in their 5'-untranslated region. The submandibular gland type of cDNA was detected in various organs of DBA/2 mice by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, which indicates that the submandibular gland type is ubiquitous and that its expression is not regulated by the Gsl5 gene. Results obtained using the long accurate polymerase chain reaction method indicate that the GNT gene is approximately 45 kilobases long, and the order of the exons from the 5'-end is exon 1 of the kidney type, exon 1 of the ubiquitous type, exon 2, and exon 3. Exons 2 and 3 are present in both transcripts, and the translated region is in exon 3. These data suggest that the expression of GNT is regulated by an alternative splicing mechanism and also probably by tissue-specific enhancers and that Gsl5 regulates the expression of GNT only in the kidney.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;43;27246-52

  • Mitogen-inducible SIPA1 is mapped to the conserved syntenic groups of chromosome 19 in mouse and chromosome 11q13.3 centromeric to BCL1 in human.

    Wada Y, Kubota H, Maeda M, Taniwaki M, Hattori M, Imamura S, Iwai K and Minato N

    Department of Immunology and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Japan.

    Sipa1, previously called Spa1, is transcriptionally induced in the murine lymphoid cells following mitogenic stimulation and encodes a protein with a domain related to Rap1 GTPase activating protein (Rap1GAP) at the N-terminus and to PEST sequences followed by a leucine zipper motif at the C-terminus. Herein mouse genomic Sipa1, which consisted of 16 exons, was cloned. Gene linkage analysis using (BXD) recombinant inbred strains indicated that Sipa1 was mapped to the most centromeric region of chromosome 19 syntenic with the long arm of human chromosome 11. Human SIPA1 cDNA exhibited a striking homology to that of mouse throughout the entire region, with the overall identity being 90% at the amino acid level. Human genomic clones, which hybridized with both mouse and human SIPA1 cDNA but not with RAP1GAP cDNA, were then isolated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using the human genomic clones indicated that SIPA1 was indeed mapped to chromosome 11q13, most likely to the 11q13.3 subregion. It was further indicated by double-color FISH that SIPA1 was located in the centromeric neighborhood of CCND1/ PRAD1, a presumed BCL1 oncogene.

    Genomics 1997;39;1;66-73

  • CD98: a type II transmembrane glycoprotein expressed from the beginning of primitive and definitive hematopoiesis may play a critical role in the development of hematopoietic cells.

    Warren AP, Patel K, McConkey DJ and Palacios R

    Department of Immunology, University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA.

    In our search for cell surface markers expressed on hematopoietic stem cells and/or very early progenitor cells we found that the Joro 177 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) bound to most hematopoietic cells in day 8/8.5 yolk sac, day 12 fetal liver, and day 13 fetal thymocytes; it stained hematopoietic stem cells and less immature lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid-lineage cells, but not most thymocytes and splenic lymphocytes in adult mice. Joro 177 MoAb stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of an integral of 124-kD protein and induced homotypic aggregation of lymphoid progenitor cells. Importantly, Joro 177 MoAb inhibited cell survival/growth and consequently the generation of lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid lineage cells in vitro from early Lin- hematopoietic precursors. Joro 177 MoAb induced apoptosis of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Molecular cloning and expression indicated that Joro 177 MoAb recognizes a type II transmembrane protein, which is the mouse homologue of the human CD98 heavy chain gene. We suggest that CD98 is a cell membrane receptor involved in the control of cell survival/death of hematopoietic cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-16672

    Blood 1996;87;9;3676-87

  • The 4F2hc surface antigen is necessary for expression of system L-like neutral amino acid-transport activity in C6-BU-1 rat glioma cells: evidence from expression studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Bröer S, Bröer A and Hamprecht B

    Physiologisch-Chemisches Institut der Universität, Tübingen, Germany.

    Mammalian cells possess a variety of amino acid-transport systems with overlapping substrate specificity. System L is one of the major amino acid-transport systems in all non-epithelial cells. Its molecular structure is not known. To clone the neutral amino acid-transporter system L, we followed an expression cloning strategy using Xenopus laevis oocytes. A cDNA library derived from C6-BU-1 rat glioma cells was used as a source, because high expression of system L activity could be demonstrated with polyadenylated RNA isolated from these cells, when injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes [Bröer, Bröer and Hamprecht (1994) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1192, 95-100]. A single clone (ILAT) was identified, the sense cRNA of which, on injection into Xenopus laevis oocytes, stimulated sodium-independent isoleucine transport by about 100-fold. Further characterization revealed that transport of cationic amino acids was also stimulated. Sequencing of the cDNA showed that the identified clone is the heavy chain of the rat 4F2 surface antigen, a marker of tumour cells and activated lymphocytes. Uptake of neutral and cationic amino acids was not stimulated by the presence of Na+ ions. Antisense cRNA transcribed from this clone or antisense oligonucleotides, when co-injected with polyadenylated RNA from C6-BU-1 rat glioma cells, completely suppressed system L-like isoleucine-transport activity. We conclude that ILAT is necessary for expression of system L-like amino acid-transport activity by polyadenylated RNA from C6-BU-1 rat glioma cells.

    The Biochemical journal 1995;312 ( Pt 3);863-70

  • Typing recombinant inbred mouse strains for microsatellite markers on chromosomes 10, 16, 18, 19, and X.

    Taylor BA and Phillips SJ

    Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA.

    A total of 57 different microsatellite variants have been typed in one or more of five different sets of recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains. The present report concentrates on markers for Chromosomes (Chrs) 10, 16, 18, 19 and X. These markers extend the regions swept in these RI strains, provide reference markers for integrating RI and conventional maps, and provide additional estimates of genetic distances. Multilocus maps, based on maximum likelihood analysis of present and previously published RI SDPs on five chromosomes, are presented. Unexpectedly, three microsatellite markers, previously assigned to Chr 10, detected polymorphic fragments mapping to other chromosomes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA33093; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM18684

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1995;6;8;493-8

  • Mapping of human and murine genes for latent TGF-beta binding protein-2 (LTBP2).

    Li X, Yin W, Pérez-Jurado L, Bonadio J and Francke U

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Beckman Center, Stanford University Medical Center, California 94305-5428.

    A novel gene, isolated because of structural similarities to fibrillin, was called LTBP2 when its 4.6-kb transcript was found to encode a protein sequence related to the latent TGF-beta binding protein (LTBP1), which is encoded on human chromosome (Chr) 2, region p12-q22. We have assigned the human and murine LTBP2 loci to regions of conserved synteny on human Chr 11 and mouse Chr 19. By PCR analysis of somatic cell hybrid DNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization, LTBP2 was mapped to human Chr band 11q12 and Ltbp2 to mouse Chr band 19B. Differences between inbred strains were discovered by single-strand conformation analysis of PCR products from the 3' untranslated region. Analysis of BXD and AKXL recombinant inbred strains have placed Ltbp2 between D19Rp19 and Ly10 on proximal mouse Chr 19.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00298; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR40673

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1995;6;1;42-5

  • Assignment of a locus for mouse lung tumor susceptibility to proximal chromosome 19.

    Devereux TR, Wiseman RW, Kaplan N, Garren S, Foley JF, White CM, Anna C, Watson MA, Patel A, Jarchow S et al.

    Environmental Carcinogenesis Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709.

    Previous studies have hypothesized that at least three genetic loci contribute to differences in pulmonary adenoma susceptibility between mouse strains A/J and C57BL/6J. One gene that may confer susceptibility to lung tumorigenesis is the Kras protooncogene. To identify other relevant loci involved in this polygenic trait, we determined tumor multiplicity in 56 randomly chosen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-treated (A/J x C57BL/6J) N1 x C57BL/6 backcross (AB6N2) progeny and correlated it with genotypes at 77 microsatellite markers spanning the genome. A correlation of lung tumor multiplicity phenotypes with genotypes of microsatellite markers on distal Chromosome (Chr) 6 in the Kras region (Pas1) was confirmed, and a new region on Chr 19 (designated Pas3) was identified that also contributes to susceptibility. Linkage analysis on Chr 19 with 270 AB6N2 mice localized the region flanked by D19Mit42 and D19Mit19 that is most closely associated with lung tumor susceptibility. The Pas3 locus may be an enhancer of the susceptibility locus on Chr 6.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1994;5;12;749-55

  • Corrected centromere orientation for mouse chromosome 19 MIT markers.

    Eicher EM, Shown EP, Bhat D and Seldin MF

    Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00101; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK42923; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM20919

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1993;4;4;223-5

  • Emk, a protein kinase with homologs in yeast maps to mouse chromosome 19.

    Inglis JD, Lee M and Hill RE

    MRC Human Genetics Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1993;4;7;401-3

  • A linkage map of mouse chromosome 19: definition of comparative mapping relationships with human chromosomes 10 and 11 including the MEN1 locus.

    Rochelle JM, Watson ML, Oakey RJ and Seldin MF

    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.

    A linkage map of mouse Chromosome (Chr) 19 was constructed using an interspecific cross and markers defined by restriction fragment length variants. The map includes 20 markers, 9 of which had not been mapped previously in the mouse. The data further defined the relationship between genes on mouse Chr 19 and those on the long arm of human Chr 10 and the pericentric region of the long arm of human Chr 11. The comparative mapping analysis suggests that the proximal segment of mouse Chr 19 may contain the MEN1 locus and that the current study has identified additional genes that may be useful for positional cloning of this putative tumor suppressor gene.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG-00101

    Genomics 1992;14;1;26-31

  • The relaxin gene is located on chromosome 19 in the mouse.

    Fowler KJ, Clouston WM, Fournier RE and Evans BA

    Howard Florey Institute of Experimental Physiology and Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

    Relaxin is a polypeptide hormone that exerts a variety of physiological effects during pregnancy. To investigate the possibility that known genetic mutations affecting aspects of reproductive physiology result in alterations in the structure or production of relaxin, we have determined the chromosomal location of the mouse gene. The finding of a BamHI restriction fragment length polymorphism in AKR mice enabled us to use recombinant inbred strains to make an assignment to chromosome 19. This was confirmed by Southern analysis of DNA from microcell hybrids.

    FEBS letters 1991;292;1-2;183-6

  • Mouse lipocortin I gene structure and chromosomal assignment: gene duplication and the origins of a gene family.

    Horlick KR, Cheng IC, Wong WT, Wakeland EK and Nick HS

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville 32610.

    Using cDNA probes obtained from library screening and anchored polymerase chain reaction, we have isolated and characterized three overlapping mouse genomic clones that contain the mouse lipocortin I (Lipo I) structural gene. Restriction enzyme mapping, Southern blotting, and DNA sequencing were carried out on the cloned genomic DNA. Lipo I spans about 17 kb and is divided into 13 exons encoding a protein of 346 amino acid residues. The promoter region of the gene has a TATA box and a CCAAT box located upstream of the transcription initiation site at -31 and -76 bp, respectively. Analysis of the strain distribution pattern of Lipo 1 in BXD and AKXD collections of recombinant inbred strains establishes that Lipo I is located on chromosome 19 in close proximity to Ea-4. While no striking relationship exists between the exon/intron structure of the gene and the four repeated 70-amino-acid domains of the protein, three of the four 17-amino-acid repeats believed to be responsible for Ca2+/phospholipid binding are encoded by the last codon of one exon and the first 16 codons of the following exon. This pattern supports the gene duplication theory, and the similarity in gene structure between mouse Lipo I and Lipo II suggests they have a recent evolutionary ancestor.

    Genomics 1991;10;2;365-74

  • Localization of the gene for plasma retinol binding protein to the distal half of mouse chromosome 19.

    Chainani M, Sampsell B and Elliott RW

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, New York State Department of Health, Buffalo 14263.

    A DNA polymorphism for the mouse retinol binding protein has been identified using the enzyme BamHI and a rat partial cDNA probe. Analysis of the polymorphism in DNA from 64 inbred mouse strains demonstrated the presence of a single gene with two alleles, Rbp-4b and Rbp-4d. Comparison of the segregation patterns of these alleles in three sets of recombinant inbred strains with allele segregation patterns of previously characterized loci shows that the Rbp-4 locus is closely linked to the locus for phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P450-2c (Cyp-2c) that has been shown by in situ hybridization to lie on chromosome 19, bands D1-D2. The Rbp-4 locus is just proximal to Cyp-2c at the distal end of chromosome 19.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM28464

    Genomics 1991;9;2;376-9

  • cDNA cloning of human oxysterol-binding protein and localization of the gene to human chromosome 11 and mouse chromosome 19.

    Levanon D, Hsieh CL, Francke U, Dawson PA, Ridgway ND, Brown MS and Goldstein JL

    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235.

    Cellular cholesterol metabolism is regulated primarily through sterol-mediated feedback suppression of the activity of the low-density lipoprotein receptor and several enzymes of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. We previously described the cloning of a rabbit cDNA for the oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), a cytosolic protein of 809 amino acids that may participate in these regulatory events. We now use the rabbit OSBP cDNA to clone the human OSBP cDNA and 5' genomic region. Comparison of the human and rabbit OSBP sequences revealed a remarkably high degree of conservation. The cDNA sequence in the coding region showed 94% identity between the two species, and the predicted amino acid sequence showed 98% identity. The human cDNA was used to determine the chromosomal localization of the OSBP gene by Southern blot hybridization to panels of somatic cell hybrid clones containing subsets of human or mouse chromosomes and by RFLP analysis of recombinant inbred mouse strains. The OSBP locus mapped to the long arm of human chromosome 11 and the proximal end of mouse chromosome 19. Along with previously mapped genes including Ly-1 and CD20, OSBP defines a new conserved syntenic group on the long arm of chromosome 11 in the human and the proximal end of chromosome 19 in the mouse.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 07624, HL 20948; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 26105

    Genomics 1990;7;1;65-74

  • Gene mapping of the three subunits of the high affinity FcR for IgE to mouse chromosomes 1 and 19.

    Hupp K, Siwarski D, Mock BA and Kinet JP

    Laboratory of Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892.

    The high affinity receptor for IgE (Fc epsilon RI) is a tetrameric structure consisting of a single IgE-binding alpha subunit, a single beta subunit, and two disulfide-linked gamma subunits. The alpha subunit of Fc epsilon RI and most Fc receptors are homologous members of the Ig superfamily. By contrast, the beta and gamma subunits from Fc epsilon RI are not homologous to the Ig superfamily. The gamma-chains do share a region of high homology with the zeta-chain of the TCR. No homology has been found to date for beta with any published sequence. Here, we report that a single copy gene encodes Fc epsilon RI beta and that the locus for Fc epsilon RI beta is found on mouse chromosome 19, genetically linked to the Ly-1 (Ly-12) locus and in a region that also contains Ly-10 and Ly-44 (CD20). Homology comparisons among these molecules reveal limited regions of homology between Fc epsilon RI beta and Ly-44 (CD20) as well as other striking similarities: both molecules have four putative transmembrane segments and a probably topology where both amino- and carboxytermini protrude into the cytoplasm. In addition, we show that a single gene for FC epsilon RI gamma is found at the distal end of mouse chromosome 1, clustered in a region where Fc epsilon RI alpha has also been linked to Fc gamma RII. At least one of the two forms of Fc gamma RII has recently been shown to contain gamma subunits identical to the gamma subunits of Fc epsilon RI. The close association of the genes for Fc epsilon RI alpha, FC gamma RII, and their shared gamma subunits raises interesting implications regarding coordinate regulation of gene expression.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1989;143;11;3787-91

  • Structure, expression and regulation of the murine 4F2 heavy chain.

    Parmacek MS, Karpinski BA, Gottesdiener KM, Thompson CB and Leiden JM

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor.

    The murine 4F2 molecule is a 125 kilodalton disulfide-linked heterodimeric cell-surface glycoprotein which has been shown to be involved in the processes of cellular activation and proliferation (1). To elucidate the structure, expression, and regulation of the 4F2 molecule, a murine 4F2 heavy chain (4F2HC) cDNA has been isolated and structurally characterized. The murine 4F2HC is a 526 amino acid (aa) type II membrane glycoprotein which is composed of a 75 aa N-terminal intracytoplasmic region, a single hydrophobic putative transmembrane domain, and a 428 aa C-terminal extracellular domain. Comparison with the human 4F2HC cDNA reveals the highest degree of sequence identity within the transmembrane and intracytoplasmic domains. Northern blot analyses have demonstrated that the 4F2HC gene is expressed at relatively high levels in adult testis, lung, brain, kidney, and spleen, and at significantly lower levels in adult liver and cardiac and skeletal muscle. Studies designed to elucidate the pattern of regulation of the murine 4F2HC gene have demonstrated that it is induced during the process of cell activation, but is subsequently expressed at constant levels throughout the cell cycle in exponentially growing cells.

    Nucleic acids research 1989;17;5;1915-31

  • The mouse Ly-12.1 specificity: genetic and biochemical relationship to Ly-1.

    Hogarth PM, Houlden BA, Latham SE, Cherry M, Taylor BA and McKenzie IF

    Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 33093; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 18684

    Immunogenetics 1988;27;5;383-7

  • Molecular cloning of complementary DNAs encoding the heavy chain of the human 4F2 cell-surface antigen: a type II membrane glycoprotein involved in normal and neoplastic cell growth.

    Quackenbush E, Clabby M, Gottesdiener KM, Barbosa J, Jones NH, Strominger JL, Speck S and Leiden JM

    Complementary DNA (cDNA) clones encoding the heavy chain of the heterodimeric human membrane glycoprotein 4F2 have been isolated by immunoscreening of a lambda gt11 expression library. The identity of these clones has been confirmed by hybridization to RNA and DNA prepared from mouse L-cell transfectants, which were produced by whole cell gene transfer and selected for cell-surface expression of the human 4F2 heavy chain. DNA sequence analysis suggests that the 4F2 heavy-chain cDNAs encode an approximately 526-amino acid type II membrane glycoprotein, which is composed of a large C-terminal extracellular domain, a single potential transmembrane region, and a 50-81 amino acid N-terminal intracytoplasmic domain. Southern blotting experiments have shown that the 4F2 heavy-chain cDNAs are derived from a single-copy gene that has been highly conserved during mammalian evolution.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: A115669, A121163

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1987;84;18;6526-30

  • Endogenous xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related sequences map to chromosomal regions encoding mouse lymphocyte antigens.

    Wejman JC, Taylor BA, Jenkins NA and Copeland NG

    DNAs of all inbred mouse strains contain multiple copies (18 to 28 copies per haploid mouse genome) of endogenous xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related sequences detectable by Southern analysis with a xenotropic murine leukemia virus env gene-specific probe. After PvuII digestion, we identified a subset of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related sequences that are well resolved by agarose gel electrophoresis and can be mapped to specific chromosomes by using recombinant inbred mouse strains. Interestingly, three of six xenotropic proviral loci that we mapped were integrated near genes encoding mouse lymphocyte antigens (Ly-m22, chromosome 1; Ly-m6, chromosome 2; and Ly-m10, chromosome 19) and a fourth xenotropic proviral locus mapped near a gene on chromosome 4 that has a major influence on xenotropic virus cell surface antigen levels. These studies indicate that xenotropic proviral loci are located on many different mouse chromosomes and may be useful markers for molecularly cloning and characterizing regions of the mouse genome important in lymphocyte development.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-32324, CA-33093; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-07386

    Journal of virology 1984;50;1;237-47

  • Further genetic characterization of mouse Ly-m10 alloantigen.

    Kimura S, Tada N, Liu-Lam Y and Hämmerling U

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-08748; NIAID NIH HHS: AI-14831

    Immunogenetics 1983;17;2;211-4

  • Immunogenetics of mouse B-cell alloantigen systems defined by monoclonal antibodies and gene-cluster formation of these loci.

    Tada N, Kimura S and Hammerling U

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-07848, CA-25508; NIAID NIH HHS: AI-14831

    Immunological reviews 1982;69;99-126

Gene lists (3)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
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EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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