G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00000987
Gene symbol
Napg (MGI)
Species
Mus musculus
Description
N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein attachment protein gamma
Orthologue
G00002236 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSMUSG00000024581 (Ensembl mouse gene)
108123 (Entrez Gene)
1110 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
MGI:104561 (Allen Brain Atlas)
Literature
603216 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:104561 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
Q9CWZ7 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • SNARE

Literature (8)

Pubmed - other

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • Microarray analysis of Foxa2 mutant mouse embryos reveals novel gene expression and inductive roles for the gastrula organizer and its derivatives.

    Tamplin OJ, Kinzel D, Cox BJ, Bell CE, Rossant J and Lickert H

    Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X8, Canada. owen.tamplin@utoronto.ca

    Background: The Spemann/Mangold organizer is a transient tissue critical for patterning the gastrula stage vertebrate embryo and formation of the three germ layers. Despite its important role during development, there are still relatively few genes with specific expression in the organizer and its derivatives. Foxa2 is a forkhead transcription factor that is absolutely required for formation of the mammalian equivalent of the organizer, the node, the axial mesoderm and the definitive endoderm (DE). However, the targets of Foxa2 during embryogenesis, and the molecular impact of organizer loss on the gastrula embryo, have not been well defined.

    Results: To identify genes specific to the Spemann/Mangold organizer, we performed a microarray-based screen that compared wild-type and Foxa2 mutant embryos at late gastrulation stage (E7.5). We could detect genes that were consistently down-regulated in replicate pools of mutant embryos versus wild-type, and these included a number of known node and DE markers. We selected 314 genes without previously published data at E7.5 and screened for expression by whole mount in situ hybridization. We identified 10 novel expression patterns in the node and 5 in the definitive endoderm. We also found significant reduction of markers expressed in secondary tissues that require interaction with the organizer and its derivatives, such as cardiac mesoderm, vasculature, primitive streak, and anterior neuroectoderm.

    Conclusion: The genes identified in this screen represent novel Spemann/Mangold organizer genes as well as potential Foxa2 targets. Further investigation will be needed to define these genes as novel developmental regulatory factors involved in organizer formation and function. We have placed these genes in a Foxa2-dependent genetic regulatory network and we hypothesize how Foxa2 may regulate a molecular program of Spemann/Mangold organizer development. We have also shown how early loss of the organizer and its inductive properties in an otherwise normal embryo, impacts on the molecular profile of surrounding tissues.

    BMC genomics 2008;9;511

  • Libraries enriched for alternatively spliced exons reveal splicing patterns in melanocytes and melanomas.

    Watahiki A, Waki K, Hayatsu N, Shiraki T, Kondo S, Nakamura M, Sasaki D, Arakawa T, Kawai J, Harbers M, Hayashizaki Y and Carninci P

    Genome Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako main campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 Japan.

    It is becoming increasingly clear that alternative splicing enables the complex development and homeostasis of higher organisms. To gain a better understanding of how splicing contributes to regulatory pathways, we have developed an alternative splicing library approach for the identification of alternatively spliced exons and their flanking regions by alternative splicing sequence enriched tags sequencing. Here, we have applied our approach to mouse melan-c melanocyte and B16-F10Y melanoma cell lines, in which 5,401 genes were found to be alternatively spliced. These genes include those encoding important regulatory factors such as cyclin D2, Ilk, MAPK12, MAPK14, RAB4, melastatin 1 and previously unidentified splicing events for 436 genes. Real-time PCR further identified cell line-specific exons for Tmc6, Abi1, Sorbs1, Ndel1 and Snx16. Thus, the ASL approach proved effective in identifying splicing events, which suggest that alternative splicing is important in melanoma development.

    Nature methods 2004;1;3;233-9

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • The hyh mutation uncovers roles for alpha Snap in apical protein localization and control of neural cell fate.

    Chae TH, Kim S, Marz KE, Hanson PI and Walsh CA

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Department of Neurology and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School, HIM 816, 4 Blackfan Circle, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    The hyh (hydrocephalus with hop gait) mouse shows a markedly small cerebral cortex at birth and dies postnatally from progressive enlargement of the ventricular system. Here we show that the small hyh cortex reflects altered cell fate. Neural progenitor cells withdraw prematurely from the cell cycle, producing more early-born, deep-layer cerebral cortical neurons but depleting the cortical progenitor pool, such that late-born, upper-layer cortical neurons are underproduced, creating a small cortex. hyh mice carry a hypomorphic missense mutation in the gene Napa encoding soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein alpha (alpha Snap), involved in SNAP receptor (SNARE)-mediated vesicle fusion in many cellular contexts. A targeted null Napa mutation is embryonically lethal. Altered neural cell fate is accompanied by abnormal localization of many apical proteins implicated in regulation of neural cell fate, including E-cadherin, beta-catenin, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and INADL (inactivation-no-afterpotential D-like, also known as protein associated with Lin7, or Pals1). Apical localization of the SNARE Vamp7 is also disrupted. Thus, alpha Snap is essential for apical protein localization and cell fate determination in neuroepithelial cells.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;3;264-70

  • A new beat for the SNARE drum.

    Götte M and von Mollard GF

    Max-Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Dept of Molecular Genetics, Göttingen, Germany. gottevm@a1.tch.harvard.edu

    Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound compartments that are connected by trafficking of vesicular intermediates. To maintain compartmental organization, proper targeting of transport vesicles is achieved by specific evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that reside on vesicles and target membranes. According to the original SNARE hypothesis, the formation of a complex of an NEM-sensitive fusion protein (NSF), soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs) and membrane-bound SNAP receptor proteins (SNAREs) ensures docking specificity and leads to membrane fusion driven by the ATPase activity of NSF. Recent results have challenged some aspects of this hypothesis and led to a reassessment of models of SNARE interactions and the events leading to vesicle docking and fusion.

    Trends in cell biology 1998;8;6;215-8

  • Seven novel mammalian SNARE proteins localize to distinct membrane compartments.

    Advani RJ, Bae HR, Bock JB, Chao DS, Doung YC, Prekeris R, Yoo JS and Scheller RH

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5345, USA.

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins of the vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) and syntaxin families play a central role in vesicular trafficking through the formation of complexes between proteins present on vesicle and target membranes. Formation of these complexes is proposed to mediate aspects of the specificity of vesicle trafficking and to promote fusion of the lipid bilayers. In order to further understand the molecular mechanisms that organize membrane compartments, we have characterized seven new mammalian proteins of the VAMP and syntaxin families. The proteins are broadly expressed; however, syntaxin 13 is enriched in brain and VAMP 8 in kidney. The seven novel SNAREs localize in distinct patterns overlapping with Golgi, endosomal, or lysosomal markers. Our studies support the hypothesis that evolutionary radiation of these two gene families gave rise to sets of proteins whose differential expression and combinatorial associations define and organize the membrane compartments of cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;17;10317-24

  • The sequence complexity of exons trapped from the mouse genome.

    Nehls M, Pfeifer D, Micklem G, Schmoor C and Boehm T

    Department of Medicine I, University of Freiburg, Germany.

    Background: A central issue in genome analysis is the identification and characterization of coding regions. Estimating the coding complexity of vertebrate genomes by measuring the kinetic complexity of mRNA populations and by sequence analysis of cDNAs is limited by the fact that any given source of mRNA represents a very biased sample of all genes. Exon trapping is a method that enables the identification of genes irrespective of their transcriptional status.

    Results: Exons were trapped from the entire mouse genome, and the resulting fragments cloned. About 7% of a random sample of exons taken from this library have significant structural homology or sequence similarity to previously sequenced genes. Using cDNAs derived from several stages of mouse development, evidence for expression of about 62% of this sample of exons was found. These data suggest that the great majority of 'exons' in the library are derived from genes. We estimate that the fraction of the genome contained in trapped exons is 2.4%; this corresponds to a sequence complexity of about 72 megabases.

    Conclusions: The library of exons trapped from the entire mouse genome probably represents one of the least biased and most comprehensive libraries of mouse coding regions, and should therefore prove very useful for finding genes during genome mapping and sequencing.

    Current biology : CB 1994;4;11;983-9

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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