G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Kif5c (MGI)
Mus musculus
kinesin family member 5C
G00002028 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTMUSG00000012481 (Vega mouse gene)
ENSMUSG00000026764 (Ensembl mouse gene)
16574 (Entrez Gene)
1191 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
NM_008449 (Allen Brain Atlas)
604593 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:1098269 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
P28738 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • Khc

Literature (23)

Pubmed - other

  • Stable kinesin and dynein assemblies drive the axonal transport of mammalian prion protein vesicles.

    Encalada SE, Szpankowski L, Xia CH and Goldstein LS

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, 92093, USA. sencalada@ucsd.edu

    Kinesin and dynein are opposite-polarity microtubule motors that drive the tightly regulated transport of a variety of cargoes. Both motors can bind to cargo, but their overall composition on axonal vesicles and whether this composition directly modulates transport activity are unknown. Here we characterize the intracellular transport and steady-state motor subunit composition of mammalian prion protein (PrP(C)) vesicles. We identify Kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein as major PrP(C) vesicle motor complexes and show that their activities are tightly coupled. Regulation of normal retrograde transport by Kinesin-1 is independent of dynein-vesicle attachment and requires the vesicle association of a complete Kinesin-1 heavy and light chain holoenzyme. Furthermore, motor subunits remain stably associated with stationary as well as with moving vesicles. Our data suggest a coordination model wherein PrP(C) vesicles maintain a stable population of associated motors whose activity is modulated by regulatory factors instead of by structural changes to motor-cargo associations.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG000216, AG032180, R01 AG032180, R01 AG032180-01, R01 AG032180-02, R01 AG032180-03, R01 AG032180-04, R01 AG032180-05, T32 AG000216; NIGMS NIH HHS: T32 GM008806; NINDS NIH HHS: P30 NS047101

    Cell 2011;144;4;551-65

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • mNUDC is required for plus-end-directed transport of cytoplasmic dynein and dynactins by kinesin-1.

    Yamada M, Toba S, Takitoh T, Yoshida Y, Mori D, Nakamura T, Iwane AH, Yanagida T, Imai H, Yu-Lee LY, Schroer T, Wynshaw-Boris A and Hirotsune S

    Department of Genetic Disease Research, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan.

    Lissencephaly is a devastating neurological disorder caused by defective neuronal migration. The LIS1 (or PAFAH1B1) gene was identified as the gene mutated in lissencephaly patients, and was found to regulate cytoplasmic dynein function and localization. In particular, LIS1 is essential for anterograde transport of cytoplasmic dynein as a part of the cytoplasmic dynein-LIS1-microtubule complex in a kinesin-1-dependent manner. However, the underlying mechanism by which a cytoplasmic dynein-LIS1-microtubule complex binds kinesin-1 is unknown. Here, we report that mNUDC (mammalian NUDC) interacts with kinesin-1 and is required for the anterograde transport of a cytoplasmic dynein complex by kinesin-1. mNUDC is also required for anterograde transport of a dynactin-containing complex. Inhibition of mNUDC severely suppressed anterograde transport of distinct cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin complexes, whereas motility of kinesin-1 remained intact. Reconstruction experiments clearly demonstrated that mNUDC mediates the interaction of the dynein or dynactin complex with kinesin-1 and supports their transport by kinesin-1. Our findings have uncovered an essential role of mNUDC for anterograde transport of dynein and dynactin by kinesin-1.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD47380, R01 HD047380; NINDS NIH HHS: NS41030, R01 NS041030

    The EMBO journal 2010;29;3;517-31

  • Csf2 null mutation alters placental gene expression and trophoblast glycogen cell and giant cell abundance in mice.

    Sferruzzi-Perri AN, Macpherson AM, Roberts CT and Robertson SA

    Research Centre for Reproductive Health, School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

    Genetic deficiency in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF2, GM-CSF) results in altered placental structure in mice. To investigate the mechanism of action of CSF2 in placental morphogenesis, the placental gene expression and cell composition were examined in Csf2 null mutant and wild-type mice. Microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses on Embryonic Day (E) 13 placentae revealed that the Csf2 null mutation caused altered expression of 17 genes not previously known to be associated with placental development, including Mid1, Cd24a, Tnfrsf11b, and Wdfy1. Genes controlling trophoblast differentiation (Ascl2, Tcfeb, Itgav, and Socs3) were also differentially expressed. The CSF2 ligand and the CSF2 receptor alpha subunit were predominantly synthesized in the placental junctional zone. Altered placental structure in Csf2 null mice at E15 was characterized by an expanded junctional zone and by increased Cx31(+) glycogen cells and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C(+), P57(Kip2+)) giant cells, accompanied by elevated junctional zone transcription of genes controlling spongiotrophoblast and giant cell differentiation and secretory function (Ascl2, Hand1, Prl3d1, and Prl2c2). Granzyme genes implicated in tissue remodeling and potentially in trophoblast invasion (Gzmc, Gzme, and Gzmf) were downregulated in the junctional zone of Csf2 null mutant placentae. These data demonstrate aberrant placental gene expression in Csf2 null mutant mice that is associated with altered differentiation and/or functional maturation of junctional zone trophoblast lineages, glycogen cells, and giant cells. We conclude that CSF2 is a regulator of trophoblast differentiation and placental development, which potentially influences the functional capacity of the placenta to support optimal fetal growth in pregnancy.

    Biology of reproduction 2009;81;1;207-21

  • Association of the kinesin-binding domain of RanBP2 to KIF5B and KIF5C determines mitochondria localization and function.

    Cho KI, Cai Y, Yi H, Yeh A, Aslanukov A and Ferreira PA

    Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

    The Ran-binding protein 2 (RanBP2) is a large mosaic protein with a pleiotropic role in cell function. Although the contribution of each partner and domain of RanBP2 to its biological functions are not understood, physiological deficits of RanBP2 downregulate glucose catabolism and energy homeostasis and lead to delocalization of mitochondria components in photosensory neurons. The kinesin-binding domain (KBD) of RanBP2 associates selectively in the central nervous system (CNS), and directly, with the ubiquitous and CNS-specific kinesins, KIF5B and KIF5C, respectively, but not with the highly homologous KIF5A. Here, we determine the molecular and biological bases of the selective interaction between RanBP2 and KIF5B/KIF5C. This interaction is conferred by a approximately 100-residue segment, comprising a portion of the coiled-coil and globular tail cargo-binding domains of KIF5B/KIF5C. A single residue conserved in KIF5B and KIF5C, but not KIF5A, confers KIF5-isotype-specific association with RanBP2. This interaction is also mediated by a conserved leucine-like heptad motif present in KIF5s and KBD of RanBP2. Selective inhibition of the interaction between KBD of RanBP2 and KIF5B/KIF5C in cell lines causes perinuclear clustering of mitochondria, but not of lysosomes, deficits in mitochondrial membrane potential and ultimately, cell shrinkage. Collectively, the data provide a rationale of the KIF5 subtype-specific interaction with RanBP2 and support a novel kinesin-dependent role of RanBP2 in mitochondria transport and function. The data also strengthen a model whereby the selection of a large array of cargoes for transport by a restricted number of motor proteins is mediated by adaptor proteins such as RanBP2.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: 2P30-EY005722-21, EY11993, R01 EY011993

    Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 2007;8;12;1722-35

  • Self-organization of MTOCs replaces centrosome function during acentrosomal spindle assembly in live mouse oocytes.

    Schuh M and Ellenberg J

    Gene Expression Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.

    Chromosome segregation in mammalian oocytes is driven by a microtubule spindle lacking centrosomes. Here, we analyze centrosome-independent spindle assembly by quantitative high-resolution confocal imaging in live maturing mouse oocytes. We show that spindle assembly proceeds by the self-organization of over 80 microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) that form de novo from a cytoplasmic microtubule network in prophase and that functionally replace centrosomes. Initially distributed throughout the ooplasm, MTOCs congress at the center of the oocyte, where they contribute to a massive, Ran-dependent increase of the number of microtubules after nuclear envelope breakdown and to the individualization of clustered chromosomes. Through progressive MTOC clustering and activation of kinesin-5, the multipolar MTOC aggregate self-organizes into a bipolar intermediate, which then elongates and thereby establishes chromosome biorientation. Finally, a stable barrel-shaped acentrosomal metaphase spindle with oscillating chromosomes and astral-like microtubules forms that surprisingly exhibits key properties of a centrosomal spindle.

    Cell 2007;130;3;484-98

  • Candidate genes and their regulatory elements: alcohol preference and tolerance.

    Saba L, Bhave SV, Grahame N, Bice P, Lapadat R, Belknap J, Hoffman PL and Tabakoff B

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, 12801 East 17th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

    QTL analysis of behavioral traits and mouse brain gene expression studies were combined to identify candidate genes involved in the traits of alcohol preference and acute functional alcohol tolerance. The systematic application of normalization and statistical analysis of differential gene expression, behavioral and expression QTL location, and informatics methodologies resulted in identification of 8 candidate genes for the trait of alcohol preference and 22 candidate genes for acute functional tolerance. Pathway analysis, combined with clustering by ontology, indicated the importance of transcriptional regulation and DNA and protein binding elements in the acute functional tolerance trait, and protein kinases and intracellular signal transduction elements in the alcohol preference trait. A rudimentary search for transcription control elements that could indicate coregulation of the panels of candidate genes produced modest results, implicating SMAD-3 in the regulation of four of the eight candidate genes for alcohol preference. However, the realization of the many caveats related to transcription factor binding site analysis, and attempts to correlate between transcription factor binding and function, forestalled any definitive global analysis of transcriptional control of differentially expressed candidate genes.

    Funded by: NIAAA NIH HHS: P60 AA010760

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 2006;17;6;669-88

  • Coordinated transport of phosphorylated amyloid-beta precursor protein and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-interacting protein-1.

    Muresan Z and Muresan V

    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. zoia.muresan@case.edu

    The transmembrane protein amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) and the vesicle-associated protein c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase-interacting protein-1 (JIP-1) are transported into axons by kinesin-1. Both proteins may bind to kinesin-1 directly and can be transported separately. Because JIP-1 and APP can interact, kinesin-1 may recruit them as a complex, enabling their cotransport. In this study, we tested whether APP and JIP-1 are transported together or separately on different vesicles. We found that, within the cellular context, JIP-1 preferentially interacts with Thr(668)-phosphorylated APP (pAPP), compared with nonphosphorylated APP. In neurons, JIP-1 colocalizes with vesicles containing pAPP and is excluded from those containing nonphosphorylated APP. The accumulation of JIP-1 and pAPP in neurites requires kinesin-1, and the expression of a phosphomimetic APP mutant increases JIP-1 transport. Down-regulation of JIP-1 by small interfering RNA specifically impairs transport of pAPP, with no effect on the trafficking of nonphosphorylated APP. These results indicate that the phosphorylation of APP regulates the formation of a pAPP-JIP-1 complex that accumulates in neurites independent of nonphosphorylated APP.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG08012, P50 AG008012; NIGMS NIH HHS: 5R01GM068596-02, R01 GM068596

    The Journal of cell biology 2005;171;4;615-25

  • The ciliary rootlet interacts with kinesin light chains and may provide a scaffold for kinesin-1 vesicular cargos.

    Yang J and Li T

    The Berman-Gund Laboratory for the Study of Retinal Degenerations, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 243 Charles Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA. jun_yang@meei.harvard.edu

    The ciliary rootlet is a large striated fibrous network originating from basal bodies in ciliated cells. To explore its postulated role in intracellular transport, we investigated the interaction between kinesin light chains (KLCs) and rootletin, the structural component of ciliary rootlets. We show here that KLCs directly interact with rootletin and are located along ciliary rootlets. Their interactions are mediated by the heptad repeats of KLCs. Further studies found that these interactions tethered kinesin heavy chains along ciliary rootlets. However, the ciliary rootlet-bound kinesin-1 did not recruit microtubules or move along ciliary rootlets. Additionally, amyloid precursor protein (APP; a kinesin-1 vesicular cargo receptor) and presenilin 1 (a presumed cargo of APP/kinesin-1) were found to be enriched along the rootletin fibers, suggesting that the interaction between ciliary rootlets and kinesin-1 recruits APP and presenilin 1 along ciliary rootlets. These findings indicate that ciliary rootlets may provide a scaffold for kinesin-1 vesicular cargos and, thus, play a role in the intracellular transport in ciliated cells.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY14104, EY14426, P30 EY014104, R01 EY014226

    Experimental cell research 2005;309;2;379-89

  • The KIF3 motor transports N-cadherin and organizes the developing neuroepithelium.

    Teng J, Rai T, Tanaka Y, Takei Y, Nakata T, Hirasawa M, Kulkarni AB and Hirokawa N

    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

    In the developing brain, the organization of the neuroepithelium is maintained by a critical balance between proliferation and cell-cell adhesion of neural progenitor cells. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this are still largely unknown. Here, through analysis of a conditional knockout mouse for the Kap3 gene, we show that post-Golgi transport of N-cadherin by the KIF3 molecular motor complex is crucial for maintaining this balance. N-cadherin and beta-catenin associate with the KIF3 complex by co-immunoprecipitation, and colocalize with KIF3 in cells. Furthermore, in KAP3-deficient cells, the subcellular localization of N-cadherin was disrupted. Taken together, these results suggest a potential tumour-suppressing activity for this molecular motor.

    Nature cell biology 2005;7;5;474-82

  • Genomic analysis of mouse retinal development.

    Blackshaw S, Harpavat S, Trimarchi J, Cai L, Huang H, Kuo WP, Weber G, Lee K, Fraioli RE, Cho SH, Yung R, Asch E, Ohno-Machado L, Wong WH and Cepko CL

    Department of Genetics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    The vertebrate retina is comprised of seven major cell types that are generated in overlapping but well-defined intervals. To identify genes that might regulate retinal development, gene expression in the developing retina was profiled at multiple time points using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). The expression patterns of 1,051 genes that showed developmentally dynamic expression by SAGE were investigated using in situ hybridization. A molecular atlas of gene expression in the developing and mature retina was thereby constructed, along with a taxonomic classification of developmental gene expression patterns. Genes were identified that label both temporal and spatial subsets of mitotic progenitor cells. For each developing and mature major retinal cell type, genes selectively expressed in that cell type were identified. The gene expression profiles of retinal Müller glia and mitotic progenitor cells were found to be highly similar, suggesting that Müller glia might serve to produce multiple retinal cell types under the right conditions. In addition, multiple transcripts that were evolutionarily conserved that did not appear to encode open reading frames of more than 100 amino acids in length ("noncoding RNAs") were found to be dynamically and specifically expressed in developing and mature retinal cell types. Finally, many photoreceptor-enriched genes that mapped to chromosomal intervals containing retinal disease genes were identified. These data serve as a starting point for functional investigations of the roles of these genes in retinal development and physiology.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P20 CA096470, P20 CA96470; NEI NIH HHS: EY08064, R01 EY008064

    PLoS biology 2004;2;9;E247

  • Kinesin transports RNA: isolation and characterization of an RNA-transporting granule.

    Kanai Y, Dohmae N and Hirokawa N

    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

    RNA transport is an important and fundamental event for local protein synthesis, especially in neurons. RNA is transported as large granules, but little is known about them. Here, we isolated a large RNase-sensitive granule (size: 1000S approximately) as a binding partner of conventional kinesin (KIF5). We identified a total of 42 proteins with mRNAs for CaMKIIalpha and Arc in the granule. Seventeen of the proteins (hnRNP-U, Pur alpha and beta, PSF, DDX1, DDX3, SYNCRIP, TLS, NonO, HSPC117, ALY, CGI-99, staufen, three FMRPs, and EF-1alpha) were extensively investigated, including their classification, binding combinations, and necessity for the "transport" of RNA. These proteins and the mRNAs were colocalized to the kinesin-associated granules in dendrites. The granules moved bidirectionally, and the distally directed movement was enhanced by the overexpression of KIF5 and reduced by its functional blockage. Thus, kinesin transports RNA via this granule in dendrites coordinately with opposite motors, such as dynein.

    Neuron 2004;43;4;513-25

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of mouse homologues of KIAA gene: I. The complete nucleotide sequences of 100 mouse KIAA-homologous cDNAs identified by screening of terminal sequences of cDNA clones randomly sampled from size-fractionated libraries.

    Okazaki N, Kikuno R, Ohara R, Inamoto S, Hara Y, Nagase T, Ohara O and Koga H

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 2-6-7 Kazusa-Kamatari, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0818, Japan.

    We have been conducting a human cDNA project to predict protein-coding sequences in long cDNAs (> 4 kb) since 1994. The number of these newly identified human genes exceeds 2000 and these genes are known as KIAA genes. As an extension of this project, we herein report characterization of cDNAs derived from mouse KIAA-homologous genes. A primary aim of this study was to prepare a set of mouse. KIAA-homologous cDNAs that could be used to analyze the physiological roles of KIAA genes in mice. In addition, comparison of the structures of mouse and human KIAA cDNAs might enable us to evaluate the integrity of KIAA cDNAs more convincingly. In this study, we selected mouse KIAA-homologous cDNA clones to be sequenced by screening a library of terminal sequences of mouse cDNAs in size-fractionated libraries. We present the entire sequences of 100 cDNA clones thus selected and predict their protein-coding sequences. The average size of the 100 cDNA sequences reached 5.1 kb and that of mouse KIAA-homologous proteins predicted from these cDNAs was 989 amino acid residues.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2002;9;5;179-88

  • Glutamate-receptor-interacting protein GRIP1 directly steers kinesin to dendrites.

    Setou M, Seog DH, Tanaka Y, Kanai Y, Takei Y, Kawagishi M and Hirokawa N

    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

    In cells, molecular motors operate in polarized sorting of molecules, although the steering mechanisms of motors remain elusive. In neurons, the kinesin motor conducts vesicular transport such as the transport of synaptic vesicle components to axons and of neurotransmitter receptors to dendrites, indicating that vesicles may have to drive the motor for the direction to be correct. Here we show that an AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate) receptor subunit--GluR2-interacting protein (GRIP1)--can directly interact and steer kinesin heavy chains to dendrites as a motor for AMPA receptors. As would be expected if this complex is functional, both gene targeting and dominant negative experiments of heavy chains of mouse kinesin showed abnormal localization of GRIP1. Moreover, expression of the kinesin-binding domain of GRIP1 resulted in accumulation of the endogenous kinesin predominantly in the somatodendritic area. This pattern was different from that generated by the overexpression of the kinesin-binding scaffold protein JSAP1 (JNK/SAPK-associated protein-1, also known as Mapk8ip3), which occurred predominantly in the somatoaxon area. These results indicate that directly binding proteins can determine the traffic direction of a motor protein.

    Nature 2002;417;6884;83-7

  • Unusual properties of the fungal conventional kinesin neck domain from Neurospora crassa.

    Kallipolitou A, Deluca D, Majdic U, Lakämper S, Cross R, Meyhöfer E, Moroder L, Schliwa M and Woehlke G

    Adolf-Butenandt-Institute, Cell Biology 1b, Universität München, Schillerstrasse 42, D-80336 Munich, Germany.

    Fungal conventional kinesins are unusually fast microtubule motor proteins. To compare the functional organization of fungal and animal conventional kinesins, a set of C-terminal deletion mutants of the Neurospora crassa conventional kinesin, NcKin, was investigated for its biochemical and biophysical properties. While the shortest, monomeric construct comprising the catalytic core and the neck-linker (NcKin343) displays very high steady-state ATPase (k(cat) = 260/s), constructs including both the full neck and adjacent hinge domains (NcKin400, NcKin433 and NcKin480) show wild-type behaviour: they are dimeric, show fast gliding and slower ATP turnover rates (k(cat) = 60-84/s), and are chemically processive. Unexpectedly, a construct (NcKin378, corresponding to Drosophila KHC381) that includes just the entire coiled-coil neck is a monomer. Its ATPase activity is slow (k(cat) = 27/s), and chemical processivity is abolished. Together with a structural analysis of synthetic neck peptides, our data demonstrate that the NcKin neck domain behaves differently from that of animal conventional kinesins and may be tuned to drive fast, processive motility.

    The EMBO journal 2001;20;22;6226-35

  • The docking of kinesins, KIF5B and KIF5C, to Ran-binding protein 2 (RanBP2) is mediated via a novel RanBP2 domain.

    Cai Y, Singh BB, Aslanukov A, Zhao H and Ferreira PA

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA.

    The Ran-binding protein 2 (RanBP2) is a vertebrate mosaic protein composed of four interspersed RanGTPase binding domains (RBDs), a variable and species-specific zinc finger cluster domain, leucine-rich, cyclophilin, and cyclophilin-like (CLD) domains. Functional mapping of RanBP2 showed that the domains, zinc finger and CLD, between RBD1 and RBD2, and RBD3 and RBD4, respectively, associate specifically with the nuclear export receptor, CRM1/exportin-1, and components of the 19 S regulatory particle of the 26 S proteasome. Now, we report the mapping of a novel RanBP2 domain located between RBD2 and RBD3, which is also conserved in the partially duplicated isoform RanBP2L1. Yet, this domain leads to the neuronal association of only RanBP2 with two kinesin microtubule-based motor proteins, KIF5B and KIF5C. These kinesins associate directly in vitro and in vivo with RanBP2. Moreover, the kinesin light chain and RanGTPase are part of this RanBP2 macroassembly complex. These data provide evidence of a specific docking site in RanBP2 for KIF5B and KIF5C. A model emerges whereby RanBP2 acts as a selective signal integrator of nuclear and cytoplasmic trafficking pathways in neurons.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY012665, EY11993, R01 EY011993

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;45;41594-602

  • A LIS1/NUDEL/cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain complex in the developing and adult nervous system.

    Sasaki S, Shionoya A, Ishida M, Gambello MJ, Yingling J, Wynshaw-Boris A and Hirotsune S

    Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics, Odakura Nishigo Nishishirakawa, 961-8061, Fukushima, Japan.

    Mutations in mammalian Lis1 (Pafah1b1) result in neuronal migration defects. Several lines of evidence suggest that LIS1 participates in pathways regulating microtubule function, but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that LIS1 directly interacts with the cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain (CDHC) and NUDEL, a murine homolog of the Aspergillus nidulans nuclear migration mutant NudE. LIS1 and NUDEL colocalize predominantly at the centrosome in early neuroblasts but redistribute to axons in association with retrograde dynein motor proteins. NUDEL is phosphorylated by Cdk5/p35, a complex essential for neuronal migration. NUDEL and LIS1 regulate the distribution of CDHC along microtubules, and establish a direct functional link between LIS1, NUDEL, and microtubule motors. These results suggest that LIS1 and NUDEL regulate CDHC activity during neuronal migration and axonal retrograde transport in a Cdk5/p35-dependent fashion.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: 1PO1NS39404-01

    Neuron 2000;28;3;681-96

  • KIF5C, a novel neuronal kinesin enriched in motor neurons.

    Kanai Y, Okada Y, Tanaka Y, Harada A, Terada S and Hirokawa N

    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

    Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are the molecular motors conveying cargos along microtubules. KIF5s, the heavy chains of conventional kinesin (KHC), are originally identified members of KIFs, and neuronal KIF5A and ubiquitous KIF5B have been identified so far. In the present work, we cloned a novel member of KIF5, KIF5C, and generated specific antibodies against three KIF5s to investigate their distribution and functions. KIF5A showed pan-neuronal distribution in the nervous system. KIF5B showed a glial cell distribution pattern in general; however, interestingly, its expression was strongly upregulated in axon-elongating neurons, such as olfactory primary neurons and mossy fibers. KIF5C was also a neuronal KIF5 like KIF5A but was highly expressed in lower motor neurons in 2-week-old or older mice, suggesting its important roles in the maintenance of motor neurons rather than in their formation, such as axonal elongation. Because a large part of KIF5s in adult motor neurons were expected to be KIF5C, we generated mice lacking the kif5C gene to investigate the functions of KIF5C in neurons in living animals. The mutant mice showed smaller brain size but were viable and did not show gross changes in the nervous system. Closer examinations revealed the relative loss of motor neurons to sensory neurons. Because three KIF5s showed high similarity in the amino acid sequence, could rescue the KIF5B mutant cells, and could form heterodimers, we think that there are functional redundancy among the three KIF5s and that KIF5A and KIF5B prevented the KIF5C null mice from the severe phenotype.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: N01-HD-2-3144

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2000;20;17;6374-84

  • Consequences of Stat6 deletion on Sis/PDGF- and IL-4-induced proliferation and transcriptional activation in murine fibroblasts.

    Kriebel P, Patel BK, Nelson SA, Grusby MJ and LaRochelle WJ

    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, Building 37 Room 1E24, Bethesda, Maryland, MD 20892, USA.

    Aberrant communication among growth factors and cytokines that regulate tissue homeostasis often results in malignancy. Among the many cell types that participate in this process, stromal fibroblasts communicate in a paracrine and juxtracrine manner with cells of epithelial, endothelial, and hematopoietic origin. For fibroblasts, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a major proliferative and differentiation agent. Interleukin-4 (IL-4), however, possesses only modulating functions in this cell type. Here, we investigated the consequences of deleting Stat6 on PDGF and IL-4 signaling, proliferation, and transcriptional activation by establishing and characterizing early passage fibroblasts from wild-type and Stat6 null mice. Both wild-type and Stat6-/- fibroblasts showed nearly identical PDGFR and IL-4R activation, gross substrate tyrosine phosphorylation, PI 3-kinase activation, as well as Stat1, 3 and 5 DNA binding activities. Unexpectedly, IL-4's enhancement of PDGF-induced [3H]thymidine incorporation was greatly diminished in Stat6-/-, but not wild-type fibroblasts. PDGF-induced [3H]thymidine uptake was largely unaffected. Strikingly, IL-4, but not PDGF induction of the proinflammatory gene products, IL-6 and MCP-1 was markedly reduced in Stat6-/- fibroblasts. Thus, Stat6 is an important and specific mediator of IL-4-enhanced PDGF-induced proliferation as well as IL-4's transcriptional activation of IL-6 and MCP-1.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI40171

    Oncogene 1999;18;51;7294-302

  • Chromosomal localization reveals three kinesin heavy chain genes in mouse.

    Xia Ch, Rahman A, Yang Z and Goldstein LS

    Division of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California, 92093-0683, USA.

    Kinesin-related proteins constitute a superfamily of microtubule-dependent motors that play important roles in organelle transport and cell division. These molecules share a conserved motor region of approximately 340 amino acids, which is attached to diverse "tail" or cargo-binding domains. The kinesin superfamily was first defined by kinesin heavy chain, which is the principal component of "true" kinesin. Invertebrates appear to possess only a single gene encoding kinesin heavy chain. Mammals appear to have two or more genes encoding kinesin heavy chain, although the precise situation has been unclear. Here we definitively demonstrate that mouse has three kinesin heavy chain genes, Kif5a, Kif5b, and Kif5c. Kif5a, Kif5b, and Kif5c map to mouse chromosomes 10, 18, and 2; Kif5a and Kif5c appear to be expressed only in neuronal tissues by Northern blot analysis while Kif5b appears to be ubiquitous in its expression.

    Genomics 1998;52;2;209-13

  • Identification and classification of 16 new kinesin superfamily (KIF) proteins in mouse genome.

    Nakagawa T, Tanaka Y, Matsuoka E, Kondo S, Okada Y, Noda Y, Kanai Y and Hirokawa N

    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan.

    KIF (kinesin superfamily) proteins are microtubule-dependent molecular motors that play important roles in intracellular transport and cell division. The extent to which KIFs are involved in various transporting phenomena, as well as their regulation mechanism, are unknown. The identification of 16 new KIFs in this report doubles the existing number of KIFs known in the mouse. Conserved nucleotide sequences in the motor domain were amplified by PCR using cDNAs of mouse nervous tissue, kidney, and small intestine as templates. The new KIFs were studied with respect to their expression patterns in different tissues, chromosomal location, and molecular evolution. Our results suggest that (i) there is no apparent tendency among related subclasses of KIFs of cosegregation in chromosomal mapping, and (ii) according to their tissue distribution patterns, KIFs can be divided into two classes-i.e., ubiquitous and specific tissue-dominant. Further characterization of KIFs may elucidate unknown fundamental phenomena underlying intracellular transport. Finally, we propose a straightforward nomenclature system for the members of the mouse kinesin superfamily.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997;94;18;9654-9

  • KIF1B, a novel microtubule plus end-directed monomeric motor protein for transport of mitochondria.

    Nangaku M, Sato-Yoshitake R, Okada Y, Noda Y, Takemura R, Yamazaki H and Hirokawa N

    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    To further elucidate the mechanism of organelle transport, we cloned a novel member of the mouse kinesin superfamily, KIF1B. This N-terminal-type motor protein is expressed ubiquitously in various kinds of tissues. In situ hybridization revealed that KIF1B is expressed abundantly in differentiated nerve cells. Interestingly, K1F1B works as a monomer, having a microtubule plus end-directed motility. Our rotary shadowing electron microscopy revealed mostly single globular structures. Immunocytochemically, KIF1B was colocalized with mitochondria in vivo. Furthermore, a subcellular fractionation study showed that KIF1B was concentrated in the mitochondrial fraction, and purified K1F1B could transport mitochondria along microtubules in vitro. These data strongly suggested that KIF1B works as a monomeric motor for anterograde transport of mitochondria.

    Cell 1994;79;7;1209-20

  • A Collection of cDNA Clones with Specific Expression Patterns in Mouse Brain.

    Kato K

    MRC Molecular Genetics Unit, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, UK.

    A total of 950 cDNA clones were randomly selected from mouse cerebellar cDNA libraries, and of these, about 130 clones were found to correspond to mRNAs which were expressed unequally between the cerebellum and other parts of mouse brain. Their distribution patterns in adult mouse brain were analysed by in situ hybridization, and eight clones were found restricted to specific regions of the brain, including four clones specific to cerebellar granule cells and one clone specific to Purkinje cells. Another 27 clones were preferentially expressed in a diverse, but distinctive subpopulation of brain cells. Among them seven clones were especially abundant in specific nuclei, and three in specific fibre bundles. These clones will be useful in defining new subpopulations of brain cells characterized by different gene expression.

    The European journal of neuroscience 1990;2;8;704-711

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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