G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Hapln1 (MGI)
Mus musculus
hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1
G00001879 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (8)

ENSMUSG00000021613 (Ensembl mouse gene)
12950 (Entrez Gene)
1055 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
NM_013500 (Allen Brain Atlas)
12950 (Genepaint)
115435 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:1337006 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
Q9QUP5 (UniProt)

Synonyms (5)

  • CLP
  • Crtl1
  • Crtl1l
  • cartilage linking protein 1
  • link protein

Literature (29)

Pubmed - other

  • Animals lacking link protein have attenuated perineuronal nets and persistent plasticity.

    Carulli D, Pizzorusso T, Kwok JC, Putignano E, Poli A, Forostyak S, Andrews MR, Deepa SS, Glant TT and Fawcett JW

    Cambridge University Centre for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Robinson Way, Cambridge, CB2 0PY, UK.

    Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix restrict plasticity in the adult central nervous system and their digestion with chondroitinase reactivates plasticity. However the structures in the extracellular matrix that restrict plasticity are unknown. There are many changes in the extracellular matrix as critical periods for plasticity close, including changes in chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan core protein levels, changes in glycosaminoglycan sulphation and the appearance of dense chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan-containing perineuronal nets around many neurons. We show that formation of perineuronal nets is triggered by neuronal production of cartilage link protein Crtl1 (Hapln1), which is up-regulated in the visual cortex as perineuronal nets form during development and after dark rearing. Mice lacking Crtl1 have attenuated perineuronal nets, but the overall levels of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans and their pattern of glycan sulphation are unchanged. Crtl1 knockout animals retain juvenile levels of ocular dominance plasticity and their visual acuity remains sensitive to visual deprivation. In the sensory pathway, axons in knockout animals but not controls sprout into the party denervated cuneate nucleus. The organization of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan into perineuronal nets is therefore the key event in the control of central nervous system plasticity by the extracellular matrix.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council; Wellcome Trust

    Brain : a journal of neurology 2010;133;Pt 8;2331-47

  • Versican facilitates chondrocyte differentiation and regulates joint morphogenesis.

    Choocheep K, Hatano S, Takagi H, Watanabe H, Kimata K, Kongtawelert P and Watanabe H

    Institute for Molecular Science of Medicine, Aichi Medical University, Karimata 21, Yazako, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1195, Japan.

    Versican/PG-M is a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in the extracellular matrix, which is transiently expressed in mesenchymal condensation areas during tissue morphogenesis. Here, we generated versican conditional knock-out mice Prx1-Cre/Vcan(flox/flox), in which Vcan is pruned out by site-specific Cre recombinase driven by the Prx1 promoter. Although Prx1-Cre/Vcan(flox/flox) mice are viable and fertile, they develop distorted digits. Histological analysis of newborn mice reveals hypertrophic chondrocytic nodules in cartilage, tilting of the joint, and a slight delay of chondrocyte differentiation in digits. By immunostaining, whereas the joint interzone of Prx1-Cre/Vcan(+/+) shows an accumulation of TGF-beta, concomitant with versican, that of Prx1-Cre/Vcan(flox/flox) without versican expression exhibits a decreased incorporation of TGF-beta. In a micromass culture system of mesenchymal cells from limb bud, whereas TGF-beta and versican are co-localized in the perinodular regions of developing cartilage in Prx1-Cre/Vcan(+/+), TGF-beta is widely distributed in Prx1-Cre/Vcan(flox/flox). These results suggest that versican facilitates chondrogenesis and joint morphogenesis, by localizing TGF-beta in the extracellular matrix and regulating its signaling.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2010;285;27;21114-25

  • Periovulatory expression of hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1 (Hapln1) in the rat ovary: hormonal regulation and potential function.

    Liu J, Park ES, Curry TE and Jo M

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chandler Medical Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536-0298, USA.

    Periovulatory follicular matrix plays an important role in cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) expansion, ovulation, and luteal formation. Hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1 (HAPLN1), a component of follicular matrix, was shown to enhance COC expansion in vitro. However, the regulatory mechanisms of periovulatory expression of Hapln1 and its role in periovulatory granulosa cells have not been elucidated. We first determined the periovulatory expression pattern of Hapln1 using pregnant mare serum gonadotropin/human chorionic gonadotropin (PMSG/hCG)-primed immature rat ovaries. Hapln1 expression was transiently induced both in intact ovaries and granulosa cells at 8 h and 12 h after hCG injection. This in vivo expression of Hapln1 was recapitulated by culturing preovulatory granulosa cells with hCG. The stimulatory effect of hCG was blocked by inhibition of protein kinase A, phosphatidylinositol-dependent kinase, p38 MAPK, epidermal growth factor signaling, and prostaglandin synthesis, revealing key mediators involved in LH-induced Hapln1 expression. In addition, knockdown of Runx1 and Runx2 expression by small interfering RNA or inhibition of RUNX activities by dominant-negative RUNX decreased hCG or agonist-induced Hapln1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays verified the in vivo binding of RUNX1 and RUNX2 to the Hapln1 promoter in periovulatory granulosa cells. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that mutation of the RUNX binding sites completely obliterated the agonist-induced activity of the Hapln1 promoter. These data conclusively identified RUNX proteins as the crucial transcription regulators for LH-induced Hapln1 expression. Functionally, treatment with HAPLN1 increased the viability of cultured granulosa cells and decreased the number of the cells undergoing apoptosis, whereas knockdown of Hapln1 expression decreased granulosa cells viability. This novel finding indicates that HAPLN1 may promote periovulatory granulosa cell survival, which would facilitate their differentiation into luteal cells.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P20 RR 15592, P20 RR015592

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 2010;24;6;1203-17

  • Ets1 is required for proper migration and differentiation of the cardiac neural crest.

    Gao Z, Kim GH, Mackinnon AC, Flagg AE, Bassett B, Earley JU and Svensson EC

    Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

    Defects in cardiac neural crest lead to congenital heart disease through failure of cardiac outflow tract and ventricular septation. In this report, we demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for the transcription factor Ets1 in the regulation of cardiac neural crest development. When bred onto a C57BL/6 genetic background, Ets1(-/-) mice have a nearly complete perinatal lethality. Histologic examination of Ets1(-/-) embryos revealed a membranous ventricular septal defect and an abnormal nodule of cartilage within the heart. Lineage-tracing experiments in Ets1(-/-) mice demonstrated that cells of the neural crest lineage form this cartilage nodule and do not complete their migration to the proximal aspects of the outflow tract endocardial cushions, resulting in the failure of membranous interventricular septum formation. Given previous studies demonstrating that the MEK/ERK pathway directly regulates Ets1 activity, we cultured embryonic hearts in the presence of the MEK inhibitor U0126 and found that U0126 induced intra-cardiac cartilage formation, suggesting the involvement of a MEK/ERK/Ets1 pathway in blocking chondrocyte differentiation of cardiac neural crest. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Ets1 is required to direct the proper migration and differentiation of cardiac neural crest in the formation of the interventricular septum, and therefore could play a role in the etiology of human congenital heart disease.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL071063, R01-HL071063

    Development (Cambridge, England) 2010;137;9;1543-51

  • Notch pathway regulation of chondrocyte differentiation and proliferation during appendicular and axial skeleton development.

    Mead TJ and Yutzey KE

    Division of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.

    The role of Notch signaling in cartilage differentiation and maturation in vivo was examined. Conditional Notch pathway gain and loss of function was achieved using a Cre/loxP approach to manipulate Notch signaling in cartilage precursors and chondrocytes of the developing mouse embryo. Conditional overexpression of activated Notch intracellular domain (NICD) in the chondrocyte lineage results in skeletal malformations with decreased cartilage precursor proliferation and inhibited hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation. Likewise, expression of NICD in cartilage precursors inhibits sclerotome differentiation, resulting in severe axial skeleton abnormalities. Furthermore, conditional loss of Notch signaling via RBP-J gene deletion in the chondrocyte lineage results in increased chondrocyte proliferation and skeletal malformations consistent with the observed increase in hypertrophic chondrocytes. In addition, the Notch pathway inhibits expression of Sox9 and its target genes required for normal chondrogenic cell proliferation and differentiation. Together, our results demonstrate that appropriate Notch pathway signaling is essential for proper chondrocyte progenitor proliferation and for the normal progression of hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation into bone in the developing appendicular and axial skeletal elements.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P50 HL074728, P50HL074728; NIEHS NIH HHS: T32 ES007051, T32 ES07051

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009;106;34;14420-5

  • Three-dimensional visualization of testis cord morphogenesis, a novel tubulogenic mechanism in development.

    Combes AN, Lesieur E, Harley VR, Sinclair AH, Little MH, Wilhelm D and Koopman P

    Division of Molecular Genetics and Development, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

    Testis cords are specialized tubes essential for generation and export of sperm, yet the mechanisms directing their formation, and the regulation of their position, size, shape, and number remain unclear. Here, we use a novel fluorescence-based three-dimensional modeling approach to show that cords initially form as a network of irregular cell clusters that are subsequently remodeled to form regular parallel loops, joined by a flattened plexus at the mesonephric side. Variation in cord number and structure demonstrates that cord specification is not stereotypic, although cord alignment and diameter becomes relatively consistent, implicating compensatory growth mechanisms. Branched, fused, and internalized cords were commonly observed. We conclude that the tubule-like structure of testis cords arise through a novel form of morphogenesis consisting of coalescence, partitioning, and remodeling. The methods we describe are applicable to investigating defects in testis cord development in mouse models, and more broadly, studying morphogenesis of other tissues.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK070136, U01 DK070136

    Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists 2009;238;5;1033-41

  • Global comparative transcriptome analysis of cartilage formation in vivo.

    Cameron TL, Belluoccio D, Farlie PG, Brachvogel B and Bateman JF

    Murdoch Childrens Research Institute and Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. trevor.cameron@mcri.edu.au

    Background: During vertebrate embryogenesis the initial stages of bone formation by endochondral ossification involve the aggregation and proliferation of mesenchymal cells into condensations. Continued growth of the condensations and differentiation of the mesenchymal cells into chondrocytes results in the formation of cartilage templates, or anlagen, which prefigure the shape of the future bones. The chondrocytes in the anlagen further differentiate by undergoing a complex sequence of maturation and hypertrophy, and are eventually replaced by mineralized bone. Regulation of the onset of chondrogenesis is incompletely understood, and would be informed by comprehensive analyses of in vivo gene expression.

    Results: Tibial and fibular pre-condensed mesenchyme was microdissected from mouse hind limbs at 11.5 dpc, and the corresponding condensations at 12.5 dpc and cartilage anlagen at 13.5 dpc. Total RNA was isolated, and cRNA generated by linear amplification was interrogated using mouse whole genome microarrays. Differential expression was validated by quantitative PCR for Agc1, Bmp8a, Col2a1, Fgfr4, Foxa3, Gdf5, Klf2, Klf4, Lepre1, Ncad, Sox11, and Trpv4. Further, independent validation of the microarray data was achieved by in situ hybridization to analyse the expression of Lepre1, Pcdh8, Sox11, and Trpv4 from 11.5 dpc to 13.5 dpc during mouse hind limb development. We found significant differential expression of 931 genes during these early stages of chondrogenesis. Of these, 380 genes were down-regulated and 551 up-regulated. Our studies characterized the expression pattern of gene families previously associated with chondrogenesis, such as adhesion molecules, secreted signalling molecules, transcription factors, and extracellular matrix components. Gene ontology approaches identified 892 differentially expressed genes not previously identified during the initiation of chondrogenesis. These included several Bmp, Gdf, Wnt, Sox and Fox family members.

    Conclusion: These data represent the first global gene expression profiling analysis of chondrogenic tissues during in vivo development. They identify genes for further study on their functional roles in chondrogenesis, and provide a comprehensive and important resource for future studies on cartilage development and disease.

    BMC developmental biology 2009;9;20

  • Role of ERK1/2 signaling in congenital valve malformations in Noonan syndrome.

    Krenz M, Gulick J, Osinska HE, Colbert MC, Molkentin JD and Robbins J

    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039, USA.

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is the most common nonchromosomal genetic disorder associated with cardiovascular malformations. The most prominent cardiac defects in NS are pulmonary valve stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Gain-of-function mutations in the protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 have been identified in 50% of NS families. We created a NS mouse model with selective overexpression of mutant Shp2 (Q79R-Shp2) in the developing endocardial cushions. In our model, Cre recombinase driven by the Tie2 promoter irreversibly activates transgenic Q79R-Shp2 expression in the endothelial-derived cell lineage. Q79R-Shp2 expression resulted in embryonic lethality by embryonic day 14.5. Importantly, mutant embryos showed significantly enlarged endocardial cushions in the atrioventricular canal and in the outflow tract. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type Shp2 protein at comparable levels did not enhance endocardial cushion growth or alter the morphology of the mature adult valves. Expression of Q79R-Shp2 was accompanied by increased ERK1/2 activation in a subset of cells within the cushion mesenchyme, suggesting that hyperactivation of this signaling pathway may play a pathogenic role. To test this hypothesis in vivo, Q79R-Shp2-expressing mice were crossed with mice carrying either a homozygous ERK1 or a heterozygous ERK2 deletion. Deletion of ERK1 completely rescued the endocardial cushion phenotype, whereas ERK2 protein reduction did not affect endocardial cushion size. Constitutive hyperactivation of ERK1/2 signaling alone with a transgenic approach resulted in a phenocopy of the valvular phenotype. The data demonstrate both necessity and sufficiency of increased ERK activation downstream of Shp2 in mediating abnormal valve development in a NS mouse model.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P01 HL059408, P01HL059408, P01HL69799, P50HL07701, R01 HL087862, R01HL087862

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2008;105;48;18930-5

  • Microarray analysis of Foxa2 mutant mouse embryos reveals novel gene expression and inductive roles for the gastrula organizer and its derivatives.

    Tamplin OJ, Kinzel D, Cox BJ, Bell CE, Rossant J and Lickert H

    Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X8, Canada. owen.tamplin@utoronto.ca

    Background: The Spemann/Mangold organizer is a transient tissue critical for patterning the gastrula stage vertebrate embryo and formation of the three germ layers. Despite its important role during development, there are still relatively few genes with specific expression in the organizer and its derivatives. Foxa2 is a forkhead transcription factor that is absolutely required for formation of the mammalian equivalent of the organizer, the node, the axial mesoderm and the definitive endoderm (DE). However, the targets of Foxa2 during embryogenesis, and the molecular impact of organizer loss on the gastrula embryo, have not been well defined.

    Results: To identify genes specific to the Spemann/Mangold organizer, we performed a microarray-based screen that compared wild-type and Foxa2 mutant embryos at late gastrulation stage (E7.5). We could detect genes that were consistently down-regulated in replicate pools of mutant embryos versus wild-type, and these included a number of known node and DE markers. We selected 314 genes without previously published data at E7.5 and screened for expression by whole mount in situ hybridization. We identified 10 novel expression patterns in the node and 5 in the definitive endoderm. We also found significant reduction of markers expressed in secondary tissues that require interaction with the organizer and its derivatives, such as cardiac mesoderm, vasculature, primitive streak, and anterior neuroectoderm.

    Conclusion: The genes identified in this screen represent novel Spemann/Mangold organizer genes as well as potential Foxa2 targets. Further investigation will be needed to define these genes as novel developmental regulatory factors involved in organizer formation and function. We have placed these genes in a Foxa2-dependent genetic regulatory network and we hypothesize how Foxa2 may regulate a molecular program of Spemann/Mangold organizer development. We have also shown how early loss of the organizer and its inductive properties in an otherwise normal embryo, impacts on the molecular profile of surrounding tissues.

    BMC genomics 2008;9;511

  • Scleraxis is required for cell lineage differentiation and extracellular matrix remodeling during murine heart valve formation in vivo.

    Levay AK, Peacock JD, Lu Y, Koch M, Hinton RB, Kadler KE and Lincoln J

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Leonard M Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33101, USA.

    Heart valve structures, derived from mesenchyme precursor cells, are composed of differentiated cell types and extracellular matrix arranged to facilitate valve function. Scleraxis (scx) is a transcription factor required for tendon cell differentiation and matrix organization. This study identified high levels of scx expression in remodeling heart valve structures at embryonic day 15.5 through postnatal stages using scx-GFP reporter mice and determined the in vivo function using mice null for scx. Scx(-/-) mice display significantly thickened heart valve structures from embryonic day 17.5, and valves from mutant mice show alterations in valve precursor cell differentiation and matrix organization. This is indicated by decreased expression of the tendon-related collagen type XIV, increased expression of cartilage-associated genes including sox9, as well as persistent expression of mesenchyme cell markers including msx1 and snai1. In addition, ultrastructure analysis reveals disarray of extracellular matrix and collagen fiber organization within the valve leaflet. Thickened valve structures and increased expression of matrix remodeling genes characteristic of human heart valve disease are observed in juvenile scx(-/-) mice. In addition, excessive collagen deposition in annular structures within the atrioventricular junction is observed. Collectively, our studies have identified an in vivo requirement for scx during valvulogenesis and demonstrate its role in cell lineage differentiation and matrix distribution in remodeling valve structures.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL091878, R01 HL091878-01A1

    Circulation research 2008;103;9;948-56

  • Identification of integrin-alpha4, Rb1, and syncytin a as murine placental target genes of the transcription factor GCMa/Gcm1.

    Schubert SW, Lamoureux N, Kilian K, Klein-Hitpass L and Hashemolhosseini S

    Institut für Biochemie, Emil-Fischer-Zentrum, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Fahrstr. 17, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany.

    Members of the GCM (glial cells missing) transcription factor family have been shown to act as master regulators in different cells during mammalian and fly development being responsible for processes including gliogenesis, hematopoiesis, placental formation, and development of the parathyroidea. In the central nervous system of flies, several target genes for GCM have been reported, namely repo, pointed, and tramtrack. In mammals, two GCM genes are known (GCMa and GCMb), but the knowledge of their target genes is very limited. Here, we present for the first time a global approach aimed to identify GCMa target genes. We found 66 genes up-regulated and 11 genes down-regulated in GCMa-deficient chorionic tissue of mice at embryonic day 9.5. Moreover, we verified by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR all 11 down-regulated genes. The two most strongly down-regulated genes, integrin-alpha4 and retinoblastoma (Rb1), were further analyzed by promoter studies. Additionally, we identified down-regulation of the murine syncytin A gene, which is fundamental for syncytiotrophoblast formation. Finally, we proved strong down-regulation of integrin-alpha4 and Rb1 transcript levels by in situ hybridization in murine GCMa-deficient placentae at embryonic day 9.5. Our data demonstrate for the first time that genes encoding key regulators of placental tissue formation and architecture are regulated by GCMa.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;9;5460-5

  • Cartilage link protein 1 (Crtl1), an extracellular matrix component playing an important role in heart development.

    Wirrig EE, Snarr BS, Chintalapudi MR, O'neal JL, Phelps AL, Barth JL, Fresco VM, Kern CB, Mjaatvedt CH, Toole BP, Hoffman S, Trusk TC, Argraves WS and Wessels A

    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Cardiovascular Developmental Biology Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.

    To expand our insight into cardiac development, a comparative DNA microarray analysis was performed using tissues from the atrioventricular junction (AVJ) and ventricular chambers of mouse hearts at embryonic day (ED) 10.5-11.0. This comparison revealed differential expression of approximately 200 genes, including cartilage link protein 1 (Crtl1). Crtl1 stabilizes the interaction between hyaluronan (HA) and versican, two extracellular matrix components essential for cardiac development. Immunohistochemical studies showed that, initially, Crtl1, versican, and HA are co-expressed in the endocardial lining of the heart, and in the endocardially derived mesenchyme of the AVJ and outflow tract (OFT). At later stages, this co-expression becomes restricted to discrete populations of endocardially derived mesenchyme. Histological analysis of the Crtl1-deficient mouse revealed a spectrum of cardiac malformations, including AV septal and myocardial defects, while expression studies showed a significant reduction in versican levels. Subsequent analysis of the hdf mouse, which carries an insertional mutation in the versican gene (CSPG2), demonstrated that haploinsufficient versican mice display septal defects resembling those seen in Crtl1(-/-) embryos, suggesting that reduced versican expression may contribute to a subset of the cardiac abnormalities observed in the Crtl1(-/-) mouse. Combined, these findings establish an important role for Crtl1 in heart development.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA095841, R24 CA095841; NCRR NIH HHS: C06 RR015455, C06 RR015455-01A1, C06 RR018823, C06 RR018823-01, P20 RR016434, P20 RR016434-07; NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL033756, R01 HL084285, R01 HL084285-01A1, T32 HL007260, T32 HL007260-30, T32 HL07260

    Developmental biology 2007;310;2;291-303

  • Sox9 is required for precursor cell expansion and extracellular matrix organization during mouse heart valve development.

    Lincoln J, Kist R, Scherer G and Yutzey KE

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33101, USA.

    Heart valve structures derived from mesenchymal cells of the endocardial cushions (ECs) are composed of highly organized cell lineages and extracellular matrix. Sox9 is a transcription factor required for both early and late stages of cartilage formation that is also expressed in the developing valves of the heart. The requirements for Sox9 function during valvulogenesis and adult valve homeostasis in mice were examined by conditional inactivation of Sox9 using Tie2-cre and Col2a1-cre transgenes. Sox9(flox/flox);Tie2-cre mice die before E14.5 with hypoplastic ECs, reduced cell proliferation and altered extracellular matrix protein (ECM) deposition. Sox9(flox/flox);Col2a1-cre mice die at birth with thickened heart valve leaflets, reduced expression of cartilage-associated proteins and abnormal ECM patterning. Thickened valve leaflets and calcium deposits, characteristic of valve disease, are observed in heterozygous adult Sox9(flox/+);Col2a1-cre mice. Therefore, Sox9 is required early in valve development for expansion of the precursor cell population and later is required for normal expression and distribution of valvular ECM proteins. These data indicate that Sox9 is required for early and late stages of valvulogenesis and identify a potential role for Sox9 in valve disease mechanisms.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P50 HL074728, R01 HL082716

    Developmental biology 2007;305;1;120-32

  • Nell1-deficient mice have reduced expression of extracellular matrix proteins causing cranial and vertebral defects.

    Desai J, Shannon ME, Johnson MD, Ruff DW, Hughes LA, Kerley MK, Carpenter DA, Johnson DK, Rinchik EM and Culiat CT

    Graduate School for Genome Science and Technology, University of Tennessee-Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1060 Commerce Park, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA.

    The mammalian Nell1 gene encodes a protein kinase C-beta1 (PKC-beta1) binding protein that belongs to a new class of cell-signaling molecules controlling cell growth and differentiation. Over-expression of Nell1 in the developing cranial sutures in both human and mouse induces craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the growing cranial bone fronts. Here, we report the generation, positional cloning and characterization of Nell1(6R), a recessive, neonatal-lethal point mutation in the mouse Nell1 gene, induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. Nell1(6R) has a T-->A base change that converts a codon for cysteine into a premature stop codon [Cys(502)Ter], resulting in severe truncation of the predicted protein product and marked reduction in steady-state levels of the transcript. In addition to the expected alteration of cranial morphology, Nell1(6R) mutants manifest skeletal defects in the vertebral column and ribcage, revealing a hitherto undefined role for Nell1 in signal transduction in endochondral ossification. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays of 219 genes showed an association between the loss of Nell1 function and reduced expression of genes for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins critical for chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Several affected genes are involved in the human cartilage disorder Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and other disorders associated with spinal curvature anomalies. Nell1(6R) mutant mice are a new tool for elucidating basic mechanisms in osteoblast and chrondrocyte differentiation in the developing skull and vertebral column and understanding how perturbations in the production of ECM proteins can lead to anomalies in these structures.

    Human molecular genetics 2006;15;8;1329-41

  • Bmpr1a and Bmpr1b have overlapping functions and are essential for chondrogenesis in vivo.

    Yoon BS, Ovchinnikov DA, Yoshii I, Mishina Y, Behringer RR and Lyons KM

    Department of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

    Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to promote chondrogenic differentiation in vitro. However, the in vivo role of BMP signaling during chondrogenesis has been unclear. We report here that BMP signaling is essential for multiple aspects of early chondrogenesis. Whereas mice deficient in type 1 receptors Bmpr1a or Bmpr1b in cartilage are able to form intact cartilaginous elements, double mutants develop a severe generalized chondrodysplasia. The majority of skeletal elements that form through endochondral ossification are absent, and the ones that form are rudimentary. The few cartilage condensations that form in double mutants are delayed in the prechondrocytic state and never form an organized growth plate. The reduced size of mutant condensations results from increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Moreover, the expression of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix proteins is severely reduced in mutant elements. We demonstrate that this defect in chondrocytic differentiation can be attributed to lack of Sox9, L-Sox5, and Sox6 expression in precartilaginous condensations in double mutants. In summary, our study demonstrates that BMPR1A and BMPR1B are functionally redundant during early chondrogenesis and that BMP signaling is required for chondrocyte proliferation, survival, and differentiation in vivo.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: NHLBI-T32-69766; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR42919, AR44528, P01 AR042919, R01 AR044528

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2005;102;14;5062-7

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Cartilage link protein interacts with neurocan, which shows hyaluronan binding characteristics different from CD44 and TSG-6.

    Rauch U, Hirakawa S, Oohashi T, Kappler J and Roos G

    Department of Experimental Pathology, Lund University, University Hospital, 22185 Lund, Sweden. uwe.rauch@pat.lu.se

    The interaction of neurocan with hyaluronan was qualitatively characterized with alkaline phosphatase fusion proteins secreted by mammalian cells. The wild type neurocan hyaluronan binding domain fused to alkaline phosphatase bound to immobilized hyaluronan under physiological as well as moderately hypertonic conditions, whereas its ability to bind to immobilized chondroitin sulfate dropped rapidly with increasing salt concentration. Strong hyaluronan binding ability was still evident when in both link modules within the hyaluronan binding domain a basic amino acid was mutated, which is well conserved among link modules of hyaluronan binding proteins. A strong enhancement of the binding of neurocan to immobilized hyaluronan was observed after preincubation of the immobilized hyaluronan with cartilage link protein. Moreover, this preincubation mediated also the binding of a fusion protein representing only the immunoglobulin module of neurocan linked to alkaline phosphatase, which showed no binding to immobilized hyaluronan alone. The interaction of the neurocan immunoglobulin module with link protein could also be shown by overlay blot analysis. These observations suggest that the hyaluronan binding characteristics of paired link modules are different from those of single link modules, and that the reported temporal co-expression of cartilage link protein and of neurocan in developing brain implicates the possibility of a cooperative function of these molecules.

    Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology 2004;22;8;629-39

  • Genetic rescue of chondrodysplasia and the perinatal lethal effect of cartilage link protein deficiency.

    Czipri M, Otto JM, Cs-Szabó G, Kamath RV, Vermes C, Firneisz G, Kolman KJ, Watanabe H, Li Y, Roughley PJ, Yamada Y, Olsen BR and Glant TT

    Section of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Departments of Orthopedic Surgery and Biochemistry, Rush University at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.

    The targeted disruption of cartilage link protein gene (Crtl1) in homozygous mice resulted in a severe chondrodysplasia and perinatal lethality. This raised the question of whether the abnormalities seen in Crtl1 null mice are all caused by the absence of link protein in cartilage or whether the deficiency of the protein in other tissues and organs contributed to the phenotype. To address this question we have generated transgenic mice overexpressing cartilage link protein under the control of a cartilage-specific promoter, and then these transgenic mice were used for a genetic rescue of abnormalities in Crtl1 null mice. While the overexpression of cartilage link protein resulted in no abnormal phenotype, the cartilage-specific transgene expression of link protein could completely prevent the perinatal mortality of link protein-deficient mice and, depending on the level of the link protein expression, rescue skeletal abnormalities. Although link protein was originally isolated from cartilage, we found and determined Crtl1 transcripts and corresponding proteins in every organ tested from mouse embryos to aging animals. We also identified three additional members of the link protein family, all co-localized with hyaluronic acid-binding proteoglycans in the mouse genome. The ubiquitous presence of link protein suggests a general and systemic function of link protein in the organization of extracellular matrix in a number of tissues, possibly interacting with other proteoglycans, such as versican, brevican, and neurocan.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR40310, AR47135

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;40;39214-23

  • In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry of versican, aggrecan and link protein, and histochemistry of hyaluronan in the developing mouse limb bud cartilage.

    Shibata S, Fukada K, Imai H, Abe T and Yamashita Y

    Maxillofacial Anatomy, Department of Maxillofacial Biology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan. S.Shibata.mfa@tmd.ac.jp

    We investigated the expression pattern of versican, aggrecan, link protein and hyaluronan in the developing limb bud cartilage of the fetal mouse using in situ hybridization and/or immunohistochemistry. Versican mRNA and immunostaining were detected in the mesenchymal cell condensation of the future digital bone at E13. Versican mRNA expression rapidly disappeared from the tibial cartilage, as cartilage formation progressed during E13-15, but the immunostaining was gradually replaced by aggrecan immunostaining from the diaphysis. Immunostaining for both molecules thus had a 'nega-posi' pattern and consequently versican immunostaining was still detected at the epiphyseal end at E15. This result indicated that versican functions as a temporary framework in newly formed cartilage matrix. An aggrecan-positive region within the cartilage invariably had intense hyaluronan staining, whereas a versican-positive region also had affinity for hyaluronan within the cartilage, but not in the mesenchymal cell condensation. Therefore, the presence of versican aggregates was not confirmed in the developing limb bud cartilage. Furthermore, although link protein was more closely related with aggrecan than versican during limb bud cartilage formation, there was a discrepancy between the expression of aggrecan and link protein in tibial cartilage at E15. In particular, only a link protein-positive region was present in the marginal area of the metaphysis and the epiphysis at this stage. This finding may indicate a novel role for link protein.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: N01-HD-; PHS HHS: -3263

    Journal of anatomy 2003;203;4;425-32

  • A hyaluronan binding link protein gene family whose members are physically linked adjacent to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein genes: the missing links.

    Spicer AP, Joo A and Bowling RA

    Center for Extracellular Matrix Biology, Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. aspicer@ibt.tamu.edu

    We describe a vertebrate hyaluronan and proteoglycan binding link protein gene family (HAPLN), consisting of four members including cartilage link protein. The encoded proteins share 45-52% overall amino acid identity. In contrast to the average sequence identity between family members, the sequence conservation between vertebrate species was very high. Human and mouse link proteins share 81-96% amino acid sequence identity. Two of the four link protein genes (HAPLN2 and HAPLN4) were restricted in expression to the brain/central nervous system, while one of the four genes (HAPLN3) was widely expressed. Genomic structures revealed that all four HAPLN genes were similar in exon-intron organization and were also similar in genomic organization to the 5' exons for the CSPG core protein genes. Strikingly, all four HAPLN genes were located immediately adjacent to the four CSPG core protein genes creating four pairs of CSPG-HAPLN genes within the mammalian genome. Furthermore, the two brain-specific HAPLN genes (HAPLN2 and HAPLN4) were physically linked to the brain-specific CSPG genes encoding brevican and neurocan, respectively. The tight physical association of the HAPLN and CSPG genes supports a hypothesis that the first HAPLN gene arose as a partial gene duplication event from an ancestral CSPG gene. There is some degree of coordinated expression of each gene pair. Collectively, the four HAPLN genes are expressed by most tissue types, reflecting the fundamental importance of the hyaluronan-dependent extracellular matrix to tissue architecture and function in vertebrate species. Comparison of the genomic structures for the HAPLN, CSPG genes and other members of the link module superfamily provide strong support for a common evolutionary origin from an ancestral gene containing one link module encoding exon.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;23;21083-91

  • Connective tissue growth factor coordinates chondrogenesis and angiogenesis during skeletal development.

    Ivkovic S, Yoon BS, Popoff SN, Safadi FF, Libuda DE, Stephenson RC, Daluiski A and Lyons KM

    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

    Coordinated production and remodeling of the extracellular matrix is essential during development. It is of particular importance for skeletogenesis, as the ability of cartilage and bone to provide structural support is determined by the composition and organization of the extracellular matrix. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, CCN2) is a secreted protein containing several domains that mediate interactions with growth factors, integrins and extracellular matrix components. A role for CTGF in extracellular matrix production is suggested by its ability to mediate collagen deposition during wound healing. CTGF also induces neovascularization in vitro, suggesting a role in angiogenesis in vivo. To test whether CTGF is required for extracellular matrix remodeling and/or angiogenesis during development, we examined the pattern of Ctgf expression and generated Ctgf-deficient mice. Ctgf is expressed in a variety of tissues in midgestation embryos, with highest levels in vascular tissues and maturing chondrocytes. We confirmed that CTGF is a crucial regulator of cartilage extracellular matrix remodeling by generating Ctgf(-/-) mice. Ctgf deficiency leads to skeletal dysmorphisms as a result of impaired chondrocyte proliferation and extracellular matrix composition within the hypertrophic zone. Decreased expression of specific extracellular matrix components and matrix metalloproteinases suggests that matrix remodeling within the hypertrophic zones in Ctgf mutants is defective. The mutant phenotype also revealed a role for Ctgf in growth plate angiogenesis. Hypertrophic zones of Ctgf mutant growth plates are expanded, and endochondral ossification is impaired. These defects are linked to decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the hypertrophic zones of Ctgf mutants. These results demonstrate that CTGF is important for cell proliferation and matrix remodeling during chondrogenesis, and is a key regulator coupling extracellular matrix remodeling to angiogenesis at the growth plate.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR44528, AR45879, R01 AR044528, R01 AR052686; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM07185, T32 GM007185

    Development (Cambridge, England) 2003;130;12;2779-91

  • The transcription factors L-Sox5 and Sox6 are essential for cartilage formation.

    Smits P, Li P, Mandel J, Zhang Z, Deng JM, Behringer RR, de Crombrugghe B and Lefebvre V

    Department of Molecular Genetics, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA.

    L-Sox5 and Sox6 are highly identical Sry-related transcription factors coexpressed in cartilage. Whereas Sox5 and Sox6 single null mice are born with mild skeletal abnormalities, Sox5; Sox6 double null fetuses die with a severe, generalized chondrodysplasia. In these double mutants, chondroblasts poorly differentiate. They express the genes for all essential cartilage extracellular matrix components at low or undetectable levels and initiate proliferation after a long delay. All cartilages are thus extracellular matrix deficient and remain rudimentary. While chondroblasts in the center of cartilages ultimately activate prehypertrophic chondrocyte markers, epiphyseal chondroblasts ectopically activate hypertrophic chondrocyte markers. Thick intramembranous bone collars develop, but the formation of cartilage growth plates and endochondral bones is disrupted. L-Sox5 and Sox6 are thus redundant, potent enhancers of chondroblast functions, thereby essential for endochondral skeleton formation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA16672; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR42919, AR46249

    Developmental cell 2001;1;2;277-90

  • Comparative mapping between humans and pigs: localization of 58 anchorage markers (TOASTs) by use of porcine somatic cell and radiation hybrid panels.

    Lahbib-Mansais Y, Leroux S, Milan D, Yerle M, Robic A, Jiang Z, André C and Gellin J

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Castanet-Tolosan, France. lahbib@toulouse.inra.fr

    To increase the number of Type I markers that are directly informative for comparative mapping, 58 anchorage markers, TOASTs (Traced Orthologous Amplified Sequence Tags), were mapped in pig. With specific consensus primers, 76 TOASTs were tested in pig: 50 were regionally localized in pig on a somatic cell hybrid panel (SCHP), and 51 were mapped on the whole genome, INRA/University of Minnesota porcine Radiation Hybrid panel (IMpRH). Comparison of marker positions on RH and cytogenetic maps indicated general concordance except for two chromosomal regions. For RH mapping, all markers, apart from one, were significantly linked (LOD > 4.8) to a marker of the first-generation radiation hybrid map. Localization of new markers on the initial map is necessary for drawing a framework map as shown for Chromosome Sscr 14. The addition of four TOASTs has enabled us to propose an improved map, using a threshold likelihood ratio of 1000/1. At the whole-genome level, this work significantly increased (by 50%) the number of precisely mapped genes on the porcine RH map and confirmed that the IMpRH panel is a valuable tool for high-resolution gene mapping in pig. Porcine PCR products were sequenced and compared with human sequences to verify their identity. Most of the localizations made it possible to either confirm or refine the previous comparative data between humans and pigs obtained through heterologous chromosomal painting or gene mapping. Moreover, the use of TOASTs in mapping studies appears to be a complement to other strategies using CATS, human ESTs, or heterologous FISH with BACs which had already been applied to improve the gene density of comparative genomic maps for mammals.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 2000;11;12;1098-106

  • The brain link protein-1 (BRAL1): cDNA cloning, genomic structure, and characterization as a novel link protein expressed in adult brain.

    Hirakawa S, Oohashi T, Su WD, Yoshioka H, Murakami T, Arata J and Ninomiya Y

    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Okayama University Medical School, Okayama, 700-8558, Japan.

    We report here molecular cloning and expression analysis of the gene for a novel human brain link protein-1 (BRAL1) which is predominantly expressed in brain. The predicted open reading frame of human brain link protein-1 encoded a polypeptide of 340 amino acids containing three protein modules, the immunoglobulin-like fold and proteoglycan tandem repeat 1 and 2 domains, with an estimated mass of 38 kDa. The brain link protein-1 mRNA was exclusively present in brain. When analyzed during mouse development, it was detected solely in the adult brain. Concomitant expression pattern of mRNAs for brain link protein-1 and various lectican proteoglycans in brain suggests a possibility that brain link protein-1 functions to stabilize the binding between hyaluronan and brevican. The human BRAL1 gene contained 7 exons and spanned approximately 6 kb. The entire immunoglobulin-like fold was encoded by a single exon and the proteoglycan tandem repeat 1 and 2 domains were encoded by a single and two exons, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence of human brain link protein-1 exhibited 45% identity with human cartilage link protein-1 (CRTL1), previously reported as link protein to stabilize aggregates of aggrecan and hyaluronan in cartilage. These results suggest that brain link protein-1 may have distinct function from cartilage link protein-1 and play specific roles, especially in the adult brain.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2000;276;3;982-9

  • Identification and genetic mapping of differentially expressed genes in mice differing at the If1 interferon regulatory locus.

    Kozak CA, Su Y, Raj NB and Pitha PM

    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Building 4, Room 329, 4 Center Drive MSC 0460, Bethesda, Maryland 20982-0460, USA.

    A subtractive cDNA library was used to identify differentially expressed genes in mouse strains that differ at If1, a locus that regulates response to interferon induction by Newcastle Disease Virus infection. Among the isolated clones, sequence analysis identified the ribosomal proteins L37a and S8 as well as cDNAs for thymosine beta4, the QM transcriptional factor, and a novel genetic sequence. Analysis of two multilocus mouse crosses showed that the thymosine beta4 gene, Ptmb4, is present as a single-copy gene that maps to distal Chr X. The L37a, S8, and QM clones are all members of large multilocus families. These five clones were used to determine the map locations for 37 loci, of which 31 had not previously been described. The novel genetic sequence, D3Ppr1, mapped to distal Chr 3 near the position of the If1 locus, suggesting it may be a candidate for this regulatory gene.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI19737

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1999;10;9;853-7

  • Mice lacking link protein develop dwarfism and craniofacial abnormalities.

    Watanabe H and Yamada Y

    Craniofacial Developmental Biology and Regeneration Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    Link protein (LP), an extracellular matrix protein in cartilage, stabilizes aggregates of aggrecan and hyaluronan, giving cartilage its tensile strength and elasticity. Cartilage provides the template for endochondral ossification and is crucial for determining the length and width of the skeleton. During endochondral bone formation, hypertrophic chondrocytes die and the cartilage is replaced with bone matrix. Here, we have generated targeted mutations in mice in the gene encoding LP (Crtl1). Homozygotes showed defects in cartilage development and delayed bone formation with short limbs and craniofacial anomalies. Most Crtl1(tm1Nid/tm1Nid) mice died shortly after birth due to respiratory failure, but some survived and developed progressive dwarfism and lordosis of the cervical spine. They showed small epiphysis, slightly flared metaphysis of long bones and flattened vertebrae, characteristic of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias. The cartilage contained significantly reduced aggrecan depositions in the hypertrophic zone, and decreased numbers of prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes. Reduced Indian hedgehog (Ihh) expression was observed in prehypertrophic chondrocytes, and apoptosis was inhibited in hypertrophic chondrocytes. These results indicate that LP is important for the formation of proteoglycan aggregates and normal organization of hypertrophic chondrocytes, and suggest that cartilage matrix has a role in chondrocyte differentiation and maturation.

    Nature genetics 1999;21;2;225-9

  • Characterization and chromosome location of the mouse link protein gene (Crtl1).

    Deák F, Mátés L, Krysan K, Liu Z, Szabó PE, Mann JR, Beier DR and Kiss I

    Institute of Biochemistry, Biological Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged, Hungary.

    Link protein (LP) plays an essential role in endochondral bone formation by stabilizing the supramolecular assemblies of aggrecan and hyaluronan. We have isolated and characterized the mouse link protein gene (Crtl1). It is longer than 40 kb and transcribed from two alternative promoters, leading to heterogenous mRNAs between 5.3 and 1.3 kb in size. Apart from the coding sequence, the 5' flanking region is also highly conserved in mammals. Immunostaining revealed high levels of LP expression in the cartilaginous primordia of skeletal elements and low levels in other tissues. Using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, Crtl1 was assigned to mouse chromosome 13, tightly linked to Dhfr.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK45639

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1999;87;1-2;75-9

  • Disrupted expression of matrix genes in the growth plate of the mouse cartilage matrix deficiency (cmd) mutant.

    Wai AW, Ng LJ, Watanabe H, Yamada Y, Tam PP and Cheah KS

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Hong Kong, China.

    Chondrodysplasia in the autosomal recessive cartilage matrix deficiency (cmd) mutant is caused by lack of the proteoglycan aggrecan arising from a mutation in the gene. Homozygous cmd/cmd mice are characterized by disorganisation of chondrocytes in the growth plate, disproportionate dwarfism, cleft palate, and perinatal lethality. We have studied the impact of the aggrecan deficiency on the expression of other matrix genes during the differentiation of chondrocytes in the growth plate of cmd/cmd 18.5 day fetuses. Compared with the wild-type, there are significant differences in the growth plates of cmd mutants in the combinations of co-expression of genes encoding the glycoprotein link protein, proteoglycan syndecan 3, collagens alpha 1 (X) [Col10a1], alpha 2(XI) [Col11a2], and the alternative transcripts of alpha 1 (II) [Col2a1 type IIA form], and alpha 1 (IX) [Col9a1 long and short forms]. The discordance of gene expression in cmd chondrocytes may be additional factors contributing to the disrupted cellular architecture of the growth plate resulting from the primary absence of aggrecan.

    Developmental genetics 1998;22;4;349-58

  • Complete amino acid sequence of human cartilage link protein (CRTL1) deduced from cDNA clones and chromosomal assignment of the gene.

    Osborne-Lawrence SL, Sinclair AK, Hicks RC, Lacey SW, Eddy RL, Byers MG, Shows TB and Duby AD

    Harold C. Simmons Arthritis Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235.

    Little is known about the primary amino acid structure of human cartilage link protein (CRTL1). We screened a human genomic library with a cDNA encoding the 3' untranslated region and the adjoining B1 domain of chicken link protein. One clone was isolated and characterized. A 3.5-kb EcoRI-KpnI fragment from this genomic clone that contains the human B1 exon was used to map the gene to chromosome 5q13----q14.1. The same fragment was used to screen a cDNA library prepared from mRNA of Caco-2, a human colon tumor cell line. Two overlapping clones were isolated and shown to encode all of CRTL1. The deduced amino acid sequence is 354 residues long. The amino acid sequence shows a striking degree of identity to the porcine (96%), rat (96%), and chicken (85%) link protein sequences. Furthermore, there is greater than 86% homology between the 3' untranslated region of the genes encoding human and porcine link proteins. These results indicate that there has been strong evolutionary pressure against changes in the coding and 3' untranslated regions of the gene encoding cartilage link protein.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM20454

    Genomics 1990;8;3;562-7

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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