G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00000295
Gene symbol
Exoc4 (MGI)
Species
Mus musculus
Description
exocyst complex component 4
Orthologue
G00001544 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTMUSG00000014760 (Vega mouse gene)
Gene
ENSMUSG00000029763 (Ensembl mouse gene)
20336 (Entrez Gene)
631 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
MGI:1096376 (Allen Brain Atlas)
Literature
608185 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:1096376 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
O35382 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • Sec8
  • Sec8l1

Literature (25)

Pubmed - other

  • The neural cell adhesion molecule promotes FGFR-dependent phosphorylation and membrane targeting of the exocyst complex to induce exocytosis in growth cones.

    Chernyshova Y, Leshchyns'ka I, Hsu SC, Schachner M and Sytnyk V

    Zentrum für Molekulare Neurobiologie, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

    The exocyst complex is an essential regulator of polarized exocytosis involved in morphogenesis of neurons. We show that this complex binds to the intracellular domain of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). NCAM promotes FGF receptor-mediated phosphorylation of two tyrosine residues in the sec8 subunit of the exocyst complex and is required for efficient recruitment of the exocyst complex to growth cones. NCAM at the surface of growth cones induces Ca(2+)-dependent vesicle exocytosis, which is blocked by an inhibitor of L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and tetanus toxin. Preferential exocytosis in growth cones underlying neurite outgrowth is inhibited in NCAM-deficient neurons as well as in neurons transfected with phosphorylation-deficient sec8 and dominant-negative peptides derived from the intracellular domain of NCAM. Thus, we reveal a novel role for a cell adhesion molecule in that it regulates addition of the new membrane to the cell surface of growth cones in developing neurons.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2011;31;10;3522-35

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • Pals1 is a major regulator of the epithelial-like polarization and the extension of the myelin sheath in peripheral nerves.

    Ozçelik M, Cotter L, Jacob C, Pereira JA, Relvas JB, Suter U and Tricaud N

    Institute of Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland.

    Diameter, organization, and length of the myelin sheath are important determinants of the nerve conduction velocity, but the basic molecular mechanisms that control these parameters are only partially understood. Cell polarization is an essential feature of differentiated cells, and relies on a set of evolutionarily conserved cell polarity proteins. We investigated the molecular nature of myelin sheath polarization in connection with the functional role of the cell polarity protein pals1 (Protein Associated with Lin Seven 1) during peripheral nerve myelin sheath extension. We found that, in regard to epithelial polarity, the Schwann cell outer abaxonal domain represents a basolateral-like domain, while the inner adaxonal domain and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures form an apical-like domain. Silencing of pals1 in myelinating Schwann cells in vivo resulted in a severe reduction of myelin sheath thickness and length. Except for some infoldings, the structure of compact myelin was not fundamentally affected, but cells produced less myelin turns. In addition, pals1 is required for the normal polarized localization of the vesicular markers sec8 and syntaxin4, and for the distribution of E-cadherin and myelin proteins PMP22 and MAG at the plasma membrane. Our data show that the polarity protein pals1 plays an essential role in the radial and longitudinal extension of the myelin sheath, likely involving a functional role in membrane protein trafficking. We conclude that regulation of epithelial-like polarization is a critical determinant of myelin sheath structure and function.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2010;30;11;4120-31

  • Insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of the exocyst protein Sec8 in adipocytes.

    Lyons PD, Peck GR, Kettenbach AN, Gerber SA, Roudaia L and Lienhard GE

    Department of Biochemistry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03755, USA.

    The signal transduction pathway leading from the insulin receptor to stimulate the fusion of vesicles containing the glucose transporter GLUT4 with the plasma membrane in adipocytes and muscle cells is not completely understood. Current evidence suggests that in addition to the Rab GTPase-activating protein AS160, at least one other substrate of Akt (also called protein kinase B), which is as yet unidentified, is required. Sec8 is a component of the exocyst complex that has been previously implicated in GLUT4 trafficking. In the present study, we report that insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of Sec8 on Ser-32 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. On the basis of the sequence around Ser-32 and the finding that phosphorylation is inhibited by the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) inhibitor wortmannin, it is likely that Akt is the kinase for Ser-32. We examined the possible role of Ser-32 phosphorylation in the insulin-stimulated trafficking of GLUT4, as well as the TfR (transferrin receptor), to the plasma membrane by determining the effects of overexpression of the non-phosphorylatable S32A mutant of Sec8 and the phosphomimetic S32E mutant of Sec8. Substantial overexpression of both mutants had no effect on the amount of GLUT4 or TfR at the cell surface in either the untreated or insulin-treated states. These results indicate that insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Sec8 is not part of the mechanism by which insulin enhances the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA023108; NCRR NIH HHS: P20 RR018787, RR018787; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK25336, DK42816, R01 DK025336, R01 DK042816, R56 DK025336, R56 DK042816

    Bioscience reports 2009;29;4;229-35

  • Dlg1, Sec8, and Mtmr2 regulate membrane homeostasis in Schwann cell myelination.

    Bolis A, Coviello S, Visigalli I, Taveggia C, Bachi A, Chishti AH, Hanada T, Quattrini A, Previtali SC, Biffi A and Bolino A

    Dulbecco Telethon Institute, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132 Milan, Italy.

    How membrane biosynthesis and homeostasis is achieved in myelinating glia is mostly unknown. We previously reported that loss of myotubularin-related protein 2 (MTMR2) provokes autosomal recessive demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 4B1 neuropathy, characterized by excessive redundant myelin, also known as myelin outfoldings. We generated a Mtmr2-null mouse that models the human neuropathy. We also found that, in Schwann cells, Mtmr2 interacts with Discs large 1 (Dlg1), a scaffold involved in polarized trafficking and membrane addition, whose localization in Mtmr2-null nerves is altered. We here report that, in Schwann cells, Dlg1 also interacts with kinesin 13B (kif13B) and Sec8, which are involved in vesicle transport and membrane tethering in polarized cells, respectively. Taking advantage of the Mtmr2-null mouse as a model of impaired membrane formation, we provide here the first evidence for a machinery that titrates membrane formation during myelination. We established Schwann cell/DRG neuron cocultures from Mtmr2-null mice, in which myelin outfoldings were reproduced and almost completely rescued by Mtmr2 replacement. By exploiting this in vitro model, we propose a mechanism whereby kif13B kinesin transports Dlg1 to sites of membrane remodeling where it coordinates a homeostatic control of myelination. The interaction of Dlg1 with the Sec8 exocyst component promotes membrane addition, whereas with Mtmr2, negatively regulates membrane formation. Myelin outfoldings thus arise as a consequence of the loss of negative control on the amount of membrane, which is produced during myelination.

    Funded by: Telethon: TCR05002

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2009;29;27;8858-70

  • EUCOMM--the European conditional mouse mutagenesis program.

    Friedel RH, Seisenberger C, Kaloff C and Wurst W

    GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Developmental Genetics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    Functional analysis of the mammalian genome is an enormous challenge for biomedical scientists. To facilitate this endeavour, the European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program (EUCOMM) aims at generating up to 12 000 mutations by gene trapping and up to 8000 mutations by gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. These mutations can be rendered into conditional alleles, allowing Cre recombinase-mediated disruption of gene function in a time- and tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, the EUCOMM program will generate up to 320 mouse lines from the EUCOMM resource and up to 20 new Cre driver mouse lines. The EUCOMM resource of vectors, mutant ES cell lines and mutant mice will be openly available to the scientific community. EUCOMM will be one of the cornerstones of an international effort to create a global mouse mutant resource.

    Briefings in functional genomics & proteomics 2007;6;3;180-5

  • Dual role of the exocyst in AMPA receptor targeting and insertion into the postsynaptic membrane.

    Gerges NZ, Backos DS, Rupasinghe CN, Spaller MR and Esteban JA

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0632, USA.

    Intracellular membrane trafficking of glutamate receptors at excitatory synapses is critical for synaptic function. However, little is known about the specialized trafficking events occurring at the postsynaptic membrane. We have found that two components of the exocyst complex, Sec8 and Exo70, separately control synaptic targeting and insertion of AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Sec8 controls the directional movement of receptors towards synapses through PDZ-dependent interactions. In contrast, Exo70 mediates receptor insertion at the postsynaptic membrane, but it does not participate in receptor targeting. Thus, interference with Exo70 function accumulates AMPA receptors inside the spine, forming a complex physically associated, but not yet fused with the postsynaptic membrane. Electron microscopic analysis of these complexes indicates that Exo70 mediates AMPA receptor insertion directly within the postsynaptic density, rather than at extrasynaptic membranes. Therefore, we propose a molecular and anatomical model that dissects AMPA receptor sorting and synaptic delivery within the spine, and uncovers new functions of the exocyst at the postsynaptic membrane.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM63032; NIMH NIH HHS: MH070417, R01 MH070417

    The EMBO journal 2006;25;8;1623-34

  • Neurotransmitter release regulated by a MALS-liprin-alpha presynaptic complex.

    Olsen O, Moore KA, Fukata M, Kazuta T, Trinidad JC, Kauer FW, Streuli M, Misawa H, Burlingame AL, Nicoll RA and Bredt DS

    Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    Synapses are highly specialized intercellular junctions organized by adhesive and scaffolding molecules that align presynaptic vesicular release with postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. The MALS/Veli-CASK-Mint-1 complex of PDZ proteins occurs on both sides of the synapse and has the potential to link transsynaptic adhesion molecules to the cytoskeleton. In this study, we purified the MALS protein complex from brain and found liprin-alpha as a major component. Liprin proteins organize the presynaptic active zone and regulate neurotransmitter release. Fittingly, mutant mice lacking all three MALS isoforms died perinatally with difficulty breathing and impaired excitatory synaptic transmission. Excitatory postsynaptic currents were dramatically reduced in autaptic cultures from MALS triple knockout mice due to a presynaptic deficit in vesicle cycling. These findings are consistent with a model whereby the MALS-CASK-liprin-alpha complex recruits components of the synaptic release machinery to adhesive proteins of the active zone.

    The Journal of cell biology 2005;170;7;1127-34

  • Mammalian exocyst complex is required for the docking step of insulin vesicle exocytosis.

    Tsuboi T, Ravier MA, Xie H, Ewart MA, Gould GW, Baldwin SA and Rutter GA

    Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrated Cell Signalling and Department of Biochemistry, School of Medical Sciences, University Walk, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, United Kingdom.

    Glucose stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells by inducing the recruitment and fusion of insulin vesicles to the plasma membrane. However, little is currently known about the mechanism of the initial docking or tethering of insulin vesicles prior to fusion. Here, we examined the role of the SEC6-SEC8 (exocyst) complex, implicated in trafficking of secretory vesicles to fusion sites in the plasma membrane in yeast and in regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic MIN6 beta cells. We show first that SEC6 is concentrated on insulin-positive vesicles, whereas SEC5 and SEC8 are largely confined to the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane, respectively. Overexpression of truncated, dominant-negative SEC8 or SEC10 mutants decreased the number of vesicles at the plasma membrane, whereas expression of truncated SEC6 or SEC8 inhibited overall insulin secretion. When single exocytotic events were imaged by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, the fluorescence of the insulin surrogate, neuropeptide Y-monomeric red fluorescent protein brightened, diffused, and then vanished with kinetics that were unaffected by overexpression of truncated SEC8 or SEC10. Together, these data suggest that the exocyst complex serves to selectively regulate the docking of insulin-containing vesicles at sites of release close to the plasma membrane.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;27;25565-70

  • Characterization of an exchangeable gene trap using pU-17 carrying a stop codon-beta geo cassette.

    Taniwaki T, Haruna K, Nakamura H, Sekimoto T, Oike Y, Imaizumi T, Saito F, Muta M, Soejima Y, Utoh A, Nakagata N, Araki M, Yamamura K and Araki K

    Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, Kuhonji 4-24-1, Kumamoto 862-0976, Japan.

    We have developed a new exchangeable gene trap vector, pU-17, carrying the intron-lox71-splicing acceptor (SA)-beta geo-loxP-pA-lox2272-pSP73-lox511. The SA contains three stop codons in-frame with the ATG of beta galactosidase/neomycin-resistance fusion gene (beta geo) that can function in promoter trapping. We found that the trap vector was highly selective for integrations in the introns adjacent to the exon containing the start codon. Furthermore, by using the Cre-mutant lox system, we successfully replaced the beta geo gene with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene, established mouse lines with the replaced clones, removed the selection marker gene by mating with Flp-deleter mice, and confirmed that the replaced EGFP gene was expressed in the same pattern as the beta geo gene. Thus, using this pU-17 trap vector, we can initially carry out random mutagenesis, and then convert it to a gain-of-function mutation by replacing the beta geo gene with any gene of interest to be expressed under the control of the trapped promoter through Cre-mediated recombination.

    Development, growth & differentiation 2005;47;3;163-72

  • Libraries enriched for alternatively spliced exons reveal splicing patterns in melanocytes and melanomas.

    Watahiki A, Waki K, Hayatsu N, Shiraki T, Kondo S, Nakamura M, Sasaki D, Arakawa T, Kawai J, Harbers M, Hayashizaki Y and Carninci P

    Genome Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako main campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 Japan.

    It is becoming increasingly clear that alternative splicing enables the complex development and homeostasis of higher organisms. To gain a better understanding of how splicing contributes to regulatory pathways, we have developed an alternative splicing library approach for the identification of alternatively spliced exons and their flanking regions by alternative splicing sequence enriched tags sequencing. Here, we have applied our approach to mouse melan-c melanocyte and B16-F10Y melanoma cell lines, in which 5,401 genes were found to be alternatively spliced. These genes include those encoding important regulatory factors such as cyclin D2, Ilk, MAPK12, MAPK14, RAB4, melastatin 1 and previously unidentified splicing events for 436 genes. Real-time PCR further identified cell line-specific exons for Tmc6, Abi1, Sorbs1, Ndel1 and Snx16. Thus, the ASL approach proved effective in identifying splicing events, which suggest that alternative splicing is important in melanoma development.

    Nature methods 2004;1;3;233-9

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of mouse homologues of KIAA gene: IV. The complete nucleotide sequences of 500 mouse KIAA-homologous cDNAs identified by screening of terminal sequences of cDNA clones randomly sampled from size-fractionated libraries.

    Okazaki N, F-Kikuno R, Ohara R, Inamoto S, Koseki H, Hiraoka S, Saga Y, Seino S, Nishimura M, Kaisho T, Hoshino K, Kitamura H, Nagase T, Ohara O and Koga H

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 2-6-7 Kazusa-Kamatari, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0818, Japan.

    We have been conducting a mouse cDNA project to predict protein-coding sequences of mouse homologues of human KIAA and FLJ genes since 2001. As an extension of these projects, we herein present the entire sequences of 500 mKIAA cDNA clones and 4 novel cDNA clones that were incidentally identified during this project. We have isolated cDNA clones from the size-fractionated mouse cDNA libraries derived from 7 tissues and 3 types of cultured cells. The average size of the 504 cDNA sequences reached 4.3 kb and that of the deduced amino acid sequences from these cDNAs was 807 amino acid residues. We assigned the integrity of CDSs from the comparison with the corresponding human KIAA cDNA sequences. The comparison of mouse and human sequences revealed that two different human KIAA cDNAs are derived from single genes. Furthermore, 3 out of 4 proteins encoded in the novel cDNA clones showed moderate sequence similarity with human KIAA proteins, thus we could obtain new members of KIAA protein families through our mouse cDNA projects.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2004;11;3;205-18

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • A large-scale, gene-driven mutagenesis approach for the functional analysis of the mouse genome.

    Hansen J, Floss T, Van Sloun P, Füchtbauer EM, Vauti F, Arnold HH, Schnütgen F, Wurst W, von Melchner H and Ruiz P

    Institute of Developmental Genetics, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    A major challenge of the postgenomic era is the functional characterization of every single gene within the mammalian genome. In an effort to address this challenge, we assembled a collection of mutations in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, which is the largest publicly accessible collection of such mutations to date. Using four different gene-trap vectors, we generated 5,142 sequences adjacent to the gene-trap integration sites (gene-trap sequence tags; http://genetrap.de) from >11,000 ES cell clones. Although most of the gene-trap vector insertions occurred randomly throughout the genome, we found both vector-independent and vector-specific integration "hot spots." Because >50% of the hot spots were vector-specific, we conclude that the most effective way to saturate the mouse genome with gene-trap insertions is by using a combination of gene-trap vectors. When a random sample of gene-trap integrations was passaged to the germ line, 59% (17 of 29) produced an observable phenotype in transgenic mice, a frequency similar to that achieved by conventional gene targeting. Thus, gene trapping allows a large-scale and cost-effective production of ES cell clones with mutations distributed throughout the genome, a resource likely to accelerate genome annotation and the in vivo modeling of human disease.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;17;9918-22

  • NMDA receptor trafficking through an interaction between PDZ proteins and the exocyst complex.

    Sans N, Prybylowski K, Petralia RS, Chang K, Wang YX, Racca C, Vicini S and Wenthold RJ

    Laboratory of Neurochemistry, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Building 50, Room 4146, 50 South Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-8027, USA. sansn@nidcd.nih.gov

    NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors (NMDARs) are targeted to dendrites and anchored at the post-synaptic density (PSD) through interactions with PDZ proteins. However, little is known about how these receptors are sorted from the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus to the synapse. Here, we find that synapse-associated protein 102 (SAP102) interacts with the PDZ-binding domain of Sec8, a member of the exocyst complex. Our results show that interactions between SAP102 and Sec8 are involved in the delivery of NMDARs to the cell surface in heterologous cells and neurons. Furthermore, they suggest that an exocyst-SAP102-NMDAR complex is an important component of NMDAR trafficking.

    Nature cell biology 2003;5;6;520-30

  • BayGenomics: a resource of insertional mutations in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Stryke D, Kawamoto M, Huang CC, Johns SJ, King LA, Harper CA, Meng EC, Lee RE, Yee A, L'Italien L, Chuang PT, Young SG, Skarnes WC, Babbitt PC and Ferrin TE

    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    The BayGenomics gene-trap resource (http://baygenomics.ucsf.edu) provides researchers with access to thousands of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines harboring characterized insertional mutations in both known and novel genes. Each cell line contains an insertional mutation in a specific gene. The identity of the gene that has been interrupted can be determined from a DNA sequence tag. Approximately 75% of our cell lines contain insertional mutations in known mouse genes or genes that share strong sequence similarities with genes that have been identified in other organisms. These cell lines readily transmit the mutation to the germline of mice and many mutant lines of mice have already been generated from this resource. BayGenomics provides facile access to our entire database, including sequence tags for each mutant ES cell line, through the World Wide Web. Investigators can browse our resource, search for specific entries, download any portion of our database and BLAST sequences of interest against our entire set of cell line sequence tags. They can then obtain the mutant ES cell line for the purpose of generating knockout mice.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR001081, P41 RR01081; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL066621, U01 HL66621

    Nucleic acids research 2003;31;1;278-81

  • The septin CDCrel-1 is dispensable for normal development and neurotransmitter release.

    Peng XR, Jia Z, Zhang Y, Ware J and Trimble WS

    Programmes in Cell Biology. Brain and Behavior, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Septins are GTPases required for the completion of cytokinesis in a variety of organisms, yet their role in this process is not known. Septins may have additional functions since the mammalian septin CDCrel-1 is predominantly expressed in the nervous system, a largely postmitotic tissue. While relatively little is known about the function of this protein, we have previously shown that it is involved in regulated secretion. In addition, the gene encoding this protein maps to a locus often deleted in velo-cardiofacial and DiGeorge syndromes, and CDCrel-1 has recently been shown to be a direct target of the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of Parkin, a causative agent in autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson's disease. Here we show that CDCrel-1 expression rises at the time of synaptic maturation and that CDCrel-1 is present in a complex that includes the septins Nedd5 and CDC10. To investigate its function in the nervous system, we generated homozygotic CDCrel-1 null mice and showed that these mice appear normal with respect to synaptic properties and hippocampal neuron growth in vitro. Moreover, we found that while the expression of a number of synaptic proteins is not affected in the CDCrel-1 mutant mice, the expression of other septins is altered. Together, these data suggest that CDCrel-1 is not essential for neuronal development or function, and that changes in expression of other septins may account for its functional redundancy.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL069951, R01 HL069951-01

    Molecular and cellular biology 2002;22;1;378-87

  • Genome-wide expression profiling of mid-gestation placenta and embryo using a 15,000 mouse developmental cDNA microarray.

    Tanaka TS, Jaradat SA, Lim MK, Kargul GJ, Wang X, Grahovac MJ, Pantano S, Sano Y, Piao Y, Nagaraja R, Doi H, Wood WH, Becker KG and Ko MS

    Laboratory of Genetics and DNA Array Unit, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224-6820, USA.

    cDNA microarray technology has been increasingly used to monitor global gene expression patterns in various tissues and cell types. However, applications to mammalian development have been hampered by the lack of appropriate cDNA collections, particularly for early developmental stages. To overcome this problem, a PCR-based cDNA library construction method was used to derive 52,374 expressed sequence tags from pre- and peri-implantation embryos, embryonic day (E) 12.5 female gonad/mesonephros, and newborn ovary. From these cDNA collections, a microarray representing 15,264 unique genes (78% novel and 22% known) was assembled. In initial applications, the divergence of placental and embryonic gene expression profiles was assessed. At stage E12.5 of development, based on triplicate experiments, 720 genes (6.5%) displayed statistically significant differences in expression between placenta and embryo. Among 289 more highly expressed in placenta, 61 placenta-specific genes encoded, for example, a novel prolactin-like protein. The number of genes highly expressed (and frequently specific) for placenta has thereby been increased 5-fold over the total previously reported, illustrating the potential of the microarrays for tissue-specific gene discovery and analysis of mammalian developmental programs.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;16;9127-32

  • Large-scale cDNA analysis reveals phased gene expression patterns during preimplantation mouse development.

    Ko MS, Kitchen JR, Wang X, Threat TA, Wang X, Hasegawa A, Sun T, Grahovac MJ, Kargul GJ, Lim MK, Cui Y, Sano Y, Tanaka T, Liang Y, Mason S, Paonessa PD, Sauls AD, DePalma GE, Sharara R, Rowe LB, Eppig J, Morrell C and Doi H

    ERATO Doi Bioasymmetry Project, JST, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA. kom@grc.nia.nih.gov

    Little is known about gene action in the preimplantation events that initiate mammalian development. Based on cDNA collections made from each stage from egg to blastocyst, 25438 3'-ESTs were derived, and represent 9718 genes, half of them novel. Thus, a considerable fraction of mammalian genes is dedicated to embryonic expression. This study reveals profound changes in gene expression that include the transient induction of transcripts at each stage. These results raise the possibility that development is driven by the action of a series of stage-specific expressed genes. The new genes, 798 of them placed on the mouse genetic map, provide entry points for analyses of human and mouse developmental disorders.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: R01HD32243

    Development (Cambridge, England) 2000;127;8;1737-49

  • Exchangeable gene trap using the Cre/mutated lox system.

    Araki K, Imaizumi T, Sekimoto T, Yoshinobu K, Yoshimuta J, Akizuki M, Miura K, Araki M and Yamamura K

    Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Japan. yamamura@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp

    The gene trap technique is a powerful approach for characterizing and mutating genes involved in mouse development. However, one shortcoming of gene trapping is the relative inability to induce subtle mutations. This problem can be overcome by introducing a knock-in system into the gene trap strategy. Here, we have constructed a new gene trap vector, pU-Hachi, employing the Cre-mutated lox system (Araki et al., 1997), in which a pair of mutant lox, lox71 and lox66, was used to promote targeted integrative reaction by Cre recombinase. The pU-Hachi carries splicing acceptor (SA)-lox71-internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-beta-geo-pA-loxP-pA-pUC. By using this vector, we can carry out random insertional mutagenesis as the first step, and then we can replace the beta-geo gene with any gene of interest through Cre-mediated integration. We have isolated 109 trap clones electroporated with pU-Hachi, and analyzed their integration patterns by Southern blotting to select those carrying a single copy of the trap vector. By use of some of these clones, we have succeeded in exchanging the reporter gene at high efficiency, ranging between 20-80%. This integration system is also quite useful for plasmid rescue to recover flanking genomic sequences, because a plasmid vector sequence can be introduced even when the pUC sequence of the trap vector is lost through integration into the genome. Thus, this method, termed exchangeable gene trapping, has many advantages as the trapped clones can be utilized to express genes with any type of mutation.

    Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France) 1999;45;5;737-50

  • Human-mouse comparative mapping of the genomic region containing CDK6: localization of an evolutionary breakpoint.

    Thomas JW, Lee-Lin SQ and Green ED

    Genome Technology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 49 Convent Drive, Bldg 49, Room 2A08, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1999;10;7;764-7

  • Genetic mapping of mouse centromere protein (Incenp and Cenpe) genes.

    Fowler KJ, Saffery R, Kile BT, Irvine DV, Hudson DF, Trowell HE and Choo KH

    The Murdoch Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. fowlerk@cryptic.rch.unimelb.edu.au

    Inner centromere protein (INCENP) and centromere protein E (CENPE) are two functionally important proteins of the higher eukaryotic centromere. Using a mouse Incenp genomic DNA and a mouse Cenpe cDNA to analyze recombinant inbred mouse sets, as well as interspecific backcross panels, we have mapped these genes to the proximal regions of mouse Chromosomes 19 and 6, respectively. Comparison of Cenpe and human CENPE, which maps to chromosome region 4q24-->q25, has further identified a new region of homology between the two species.

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1998;82;1-2;67-70

  • The secretory protein Sec8 is required for paraxial mesoderm formation in the mouse.

    Friedrich GA, Hildebrand JD and Soriano P

    Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA.

    The sec8 gene, isolated in a gene trap screen in embryonic stem cells, is required for paraxial mesoderm formation in the mouse. Homozygous sec8 mutant embryos initiate gastrulation but are unable to progress beyond the primitive streak stage and die shortly afterward. The genomic locus and cDNA of the sec8 gene have been cloned. An open reading frame in the cDNA encodes a 971-amino-acid leucine-rich protein, similar to rat rSec8. A description of the mutant phenotype and the cloning of the gene is presented here and the results are considered in light of the possibility that the Sec8 protein is involved in secretion.

    Developmental biology 1997;192;2;364-74

  • Promoter traps in embryonic stem cells: a genetic screen to identify and mutate developmental genes in mice.

    Friedrich G and Soriano P

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030.

    A general strategy for selecting insertion mutations in mice has been devised. Constructs lacking a promoter and including a beta-galactosidase gene, or a reporter gene encoding a protein with both beta-galactosidase and neomycin phosphotransferase activity, were designed so that activation of the reporter gene depends on its insertion within an active transcription unit. Such insertion events create a mutation in the tagged gene and allow its expression to be followed by beta-galactosidase activity. Introduction of promoter trap constructs into embryonic stem (ES) cells by electroporation or retroviral infection has led to the derivation of transgenic lines that show a variety of beta-galactosidase expression patterns. Intercrossing of heterozygotes from 24 strains that express beta-galactosidase identified 9 strains in which homozygosity leads to an embryonic lethality. Because no overt phenotype was detected in the remaining strains, these results suggest that a substantial proportion of mammalian genes identified by this approach are not essential for development.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD24875

    Genes & development 1991;5;9;1513-23

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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