G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Bai1 (MGI)
Mus musculus
brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1
G00001348 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (7)

ENSMUSG00000034730 (Ensembl mouse gene)
107831 (Entrez Gene)
435 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
NM_174991 (Allen Brain Atlas)
602682 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:1933736 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
Q3UHD1 (UniProt)

Literature (6)

Pubmed - other

  • Brain angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) is a pattern recognition receptor that mediates macrophage binding and engulfment of Gram-negative bacteria.

    Das S, Owen KA, Ly KT, Park D, Black SG, Wilson JM, Sifri CD, Ravichandran KS, Ernst PB and Casanova JE

    Departments of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.

    Bacterial recognition by host cells is essential for initiation of infection and the host response. Bacteria interact with host cells via multiple pattern recognition receptors that recognize microbial products or pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In response to this interaction, host cell signaling cascades are activated that lead to inflammatory responses and/or phagocytic clearance of attached bacteria. Brain angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) is a receptor that recognizes apoptotic cells through its conserved type I thrombospondin repeats and triggers their engulfment through an ELMO1/Dock/Rac1 signaling module. Because thrombospondin repeats in other proteins have been shown to bind bacterial surface components, we hypothesized that BAI1 may also mediate the recognition and clearance of pathogenic bacteria. We found that preincubation of bacteria with recombinant soluble BAI1 ectodomain or knockdown of endogenous BAI1 in primary macrophages significantly reduced binding and internalization of the Gram-negative pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Conversely, overexpression of BAI1 enhanced attachment and engulfment of Salmonella in macrophages and in heterologous nonphagocytic cells. Bacterial uptake is triggered by the BAI1-mediated activation of Rac through an ELMO/Dock-dependent mechanism, and inhibition of the BAI1/ELMO1 interaction prevents both Rac activation and bacterial uptake. Moreover, inhibition of ELMO1 or Rac function significantly impairs the proinflammatory response to infection. Finally, we show that BAI1 interacts with a variety of Gram-negative, but not Gram-positive, bacteria through recognition of their surface lipopolysaccharide. Together these findings identify BAI1 as a pattern recognition receptor that mediates nonopsonic phagocytosis of Gram-negative bacteria by macrophages and directly affects the host response to infection.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI070491, AI08600, T32 AI007046, U01 AI070491; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK058536, DK84063, P30 DK067629, R01 DK058536, R01 DK084063; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM64709, R01 GM064709, T32 GM007267

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2011;108;5;2136-41

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • O-fucosylation of thrombospondin type 1 repeats restricts epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and maintains epiblast pluripotency during mouse gastrulation.

    Du J, Takeuchi H, Leonhard-Melief C, Shroyer KR, Dlugosz M, Haltiwanger RS and Holdener BC

    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Developmental Biology, Center for Developmental Genetics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5215, USA.

    Thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR) superfamily members regulate diverse biological activities ranging from cell motility to inhibition of angiogenesis. In this study, we verified that mouse protein O-fucosyltransferase-2 (POFUT2) specifically adds O-fucose to TSRs. Using two Pofut2 gene-trap lines, we demonstrated that O-fucosylation of TSRs was essential for restricting epithelial to mesenchymal transition in the primitive streak, correct patterning of mesoderm, and localization of the definitive endoderm. Although Pofut2 mutant embryos established anterior/posterior polarity, they underwent extensive mesoderm differentiation at the expense of maintaining epiblast pluripotency. Moreover, mesoderm differentiation was biased towards the vascular endothelial cell lineage. Localization of Foxa2 and Cer1 expressing cells within the interior of Pofut2 mutant embryos suggested that POFUT2 activity was also required for the displacement of the primitive endoderm by definitive endoderm. Notably, Nodal, BMP4, Fgf8, and Wnt3 expression were markedly elevated and expanded in Pofut2 mutants, providing evidence that O-fucose modification of TSRs was essential for modulation of growth factor signaling during gastrulation. The ability of Pofut2 mutant embryos to form teratomas comprised of tissues from all three germ layer origins suggested that defects in Pofut2 mutant embryos resulted from abnormalities in the extracellular environment. This prediction is consistent with the observation that POFUT2 targets are constitutive components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) or associate with the ECM. For this reason, the Pofut2 mutants represent a valuable tool for studying the role of O-fucosylation in ECM synthesis and remodeling, and will be a valuable model to study how post-translational modification of ECM components regulates the formation of tissue boundaries, cell movements, and signaling.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA123071; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM053964

    Developmental biology 2010;346;1;25-38

  • BAI1 is an engulfment receptor for apoptotic cells upstream of the ELMO/Dock180/Rac module.

    Park D, Tosello-Trampont AC, Elliott MR, Lu M, Haney LB, Ma Z, Klibanov AL, Mandell JW and Ravichandran KS

    Department of Cell Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.

    Engulfment and subsequent degradation of apoptotic cells is an essential step that occurs throughout life in all multicellular organisms. ELMO/Dock180/Rac proteins are a conserved signalling module for promoting the internalization of apoptotic cell corpses; ELMO and Dock180 function together as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the small GTPase Rac, and thereby regulate the phagocyte actin cytoskeleton during engulfment. However, the receptor(s) upstream of the ELMO/Dock180/Rac module are still unknown. Here we identify brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) as a receptor upstream of ELMO and as a receptor that can bind phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells. BAI1 is a seven-transmembrane protein belonging to the adhesion-type G-protein-coupled receptor family, with an extended extracellular region and no known ligands. We show that BAI1 functions as an engulfment receptor in both the recognition and subsequent internalization of apoptotic cells. Through multiple lines of investigation, we identify phosphatidylserine, a key 'eat-me' signal exposed on apoptotic cells, as a ligand for BAI1. The thrombospondin type 1 repeats within the extracellular region of BAI1 mediate direct binding to phosphatidylserine. As with intracellular signalling, BAI1 forms a trimeric complex with ELMO and Dock180, and functional studies suggest that BAI1 cooperates with ELMO/Dock180/Rac to promote maximal engulfment of apoptotic cells. Last, decreased BAI1 expression or interference with BAI1 function inhibits the engulfment of apoptotic targets ex vivo and in vivo. Thus, BAI1 is a phosphatidylserine recognition receptor that can directly recruit a Rac-GEF complex to mediate the uptake of apoptotic cells.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: T32 AI055432

    Nature 2007;450;7168;430-4

  • Expression of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 3 (BAI3) in normal brain and implications for BAI3 in ischemia-induced brain angiogenesis and malignant glioma.

    Kee HJ, Ahn KY, Choi KC, Won Song J, Heo T, Jung S, Kim JK, Bae CS and Kim KK

    Research Institute of Medical Sciences and Medical Research Center for Gene Regulation, Chonnam National University Medical School, Kwangju 501-190, Republic of Korea.

    Murine brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 and 2 (mBAI1, mBAI2) are involved in angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia. In this study, mBAI3 was cloned and characterized. Northern and Western blot analyses demonstrated a unique developmental expression pattern in the brain. The level of mBAI3 in brain peaked 1 day after birth, unlike mBAI1 and mBAI2, which peaked 10 days after birth. In situ hybridization analyses of the brain showed the same localization of BAI3 as BAI1 and BAI2, which includes most neurons of cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In the in vivo focal cerebral ischemia model, BAI3 expression decreased from 0.5 h after hypoxia until 8 h, but returned to control level after 24 h. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor following ischemia showed an inverse pattern. The decreased expressions of BAIs in high-grade gliomas were observed, but BAI3 expression was generally lower in malignant gliomas than in normal brain. Our results indicate that the expression and distribution of BAI3 in normal brain, but not its developmental expression, are very similar to those of BAI1 and BAI2, and that BAI3 may participate in the early phases of ischemia-induced brain angiogenesis and in brain tumor progression.

    FEBS letters 2004;569;1-3;307-16

  • Characterization of mouse brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) and phytanoyl-CoA alpha-hydroxylase-associated protein 1, a novel BAI1-binding protein.

    Koh JT, Lee ZH, Ahn KY, Kim JK, Bae CS, Kim HH, Kee HJ and Kim KK

    Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Chonnam University Medical School, Kwangju 501-190, South Korea.

    Previously, PAHX-AP1 (PAHX-associated protein 1) was isolated as a novel protein to interact with Refsum disease gene product (phytanoyl-CoA alpha-hydroxylase, PAHX) and specifically expressed in mouse brain. PAHX-AP1 is also suggested to be involved in the development of the central neurologic deficits of Refsum disease. To clarify its function, we have searched for proteins that associate with PAHX-AP1 via yeast two-hybrid system. We found that PAHX-AP1 interacts with the cytoplasmic region of human brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (hBAI1), and isolated murine homolog of hBAI1. Structural analysis of the PAHX-AP1 with three reported hBAI-associated proteins (BAP) revealed no homology among them, and we designated PAHX-AP1 as BAP4. The ability of BAP4 to interact with BAI1 was confirmed by pulling-down BAI1 with GST-BAP4 protein and immunoprecipitation study using brain lysate. Northern and Western blot analyses demonstrated a unique pattern of BAI1 expression in the brain. The peak level of BAI1 was observed 10 days after birth. In situ hybridization analyses of the brain showed the same localization of BAI1 as BAP4, such as most neurons of cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and V, VI, VII, VIII, and XII nuclei. Because BAI1 possessed thrombospondin-type 1 repeats in its extracellular region, changes of BAI1 expression were examined in the focal cerebral ischemia model. The BAI1 expression decreased on the ischemic side after 24 h but BAP4 was not changed after the time-course of ischemia. Our results indicate that expression and localization of BAI1 in the brain is correlated with BAP4, and that BAI1 is involved in inhibition of angiogenesis and neuronal differentiation.

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 2001;87;2;223-37

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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