G2Cdb::Human Disease report

Disease id
D00000027
Name
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Nervous system disease
no

Genes (3)

Gene Name/Description Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
G00001624 PIK3CA
phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide
Y (15608678) Unknown (?) Y
G00001636 PRDX1
peroxiredoxin 1
N (16254121) No mutation found (N) N
G00002235 CTNNB1
catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa
Y (11429783) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
G00002235 CTNNB1
catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa
Y (11429783) Deletion (D) Y

References

  • Rare allelic imbalances, but no mutations of the PRDX1 gene in human hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Gisin J, Perren A, Bawohl M and Jochum W

    Department of Pathology, University of Zürich, Schmelzbergstrasse 12, CH-8091 Zürich, Switzerland.

    Allelic losses on chromosome 1p are frequent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), suggesting the presence of a tumour suppressor gene in this region. The gene for peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1), an antioxidant enzyme, has been mapped to 1p34.1. Mice lacking PRDX1 develop HCC with high frequency. Because oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of HCC, this study was designed to determine whether the PRDX1 gene is mutated in human HCC using loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis, polymerase chain reaction/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and DNA sequencing. LOH of at least one of four microsatellite markers within 0.8 Mb of the PRDX1 gene was seen in three of 34 informative HCCs, but no mutations or polymorphisms in the translated exons 2-6 of the PRDX1 gene were found. These results suggest that genetic alterations of the PRDX1 locus are rare events in human HCC, indicating that other genes on chromosome 1p contribute to liver carcinogenesis.

    Journal of clinical pathology 2005;58;11;1229-31

  • PIK3CA gene is frequently mutated in breast carcinomas and hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Lee JW, Soung YH, Kim SY, Lee HW, Park WS, Nam SW, Kim SH, Lee JY, Yoo NJ and Lee SH

    Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Socho-gu, Seoul 137-701, Korea.

    A recent report revealed that phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha (PIK3CA) gene is somatically mutated in several types of human cancer, suggesting the mutated PIK3CA gene as an oncogene in human cancers. However, because the previous report focused the mutational search primarily on colon cancers, the data on PIK3CA mutations in other types of human cancers have been largely unknown. Here, we performed mutational analysis of the PIK3CA gene by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism assay in 668 cases of common human cancers, including hepatocellular carcinomas, acute leukemias, gastric carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and non-small-cell lung cancers. We detected PIK3CA somatic mutations in 26 of 73 hepatocellular carcinomas (35.6%), 25 of 93 breast carcinomas (26.9%), 12 of 185 gastric carcinomas (6.5%), one of 88 acute leukemias (1.1%), and three of 229 non-small-cell lung cancers (1.3%). Some of the PIK3CA mutations were detected in the early lesions of breast cancer carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and gastric carcinomas, suggesting that PIK3CA mutation may occur independent of stage of the tumors. The high incidence and wide distribution of PIK3CA gene mutation in the common human cancers suggest that alterations of lipid kinase pathway by PIK3CA mutations contribute to the development of human cancers.

    Oncogene 2005;24;8;1477-80

  • CTNNB1 mutations and beta-catenin protein accumulation in human hepatocellular carcinomas associated with high exposure to aflatoxin B1.

    Devereux TR, Stern MC, Flake GP, Yu MC, Zhang ZQ, London SJ and Taylor JA

    Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.

    beta-Catenin plays a key role in the Wnt signaling pathway, and mutations of CTNNB1, the gene that encodes beta-catenin, have been identified in about one-fourth of human hepatocellular carcinomas from regions of low aflatoxin B1 exposure. In this study 62 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) from people highly exposed to aflatoxin B1 in Guangxi, People's Republic of China, were laser-capture microdissected and examined for CTNNB1 mutations. In addition, 41 of the HCCs were evaluated for the presence of the beta-catenin protein by immunohistochemical methods. Twenty of the HCCs showed positive results for beta-catenin, with strong membrane staining, while adjacent non-neoplastic liver tissue lacked or showed only weak membrane staining. One HCC, in which a CTNNB1 mutation was not detected, showed nuclear staining for the beta-catenin protein. Mutations of CTNNB1 were identified in five HCCs. These consisted of four point mutations in the glycogen serine kinase-3beta phosphorylation region of codons 32-45 and one deletion of codons 32-38. These mutations were similar to those previously reported for human HCC, although at a lower frequency. A signature mutation profile associated with aflatoxin B1 exposure could not be identified. The immunohistochemical findings indicate a role for accumulation of beta-catenin and possibly increased Wnt signaling in aflatoxin B1-associated HCC. The low frequency of CTNNB1 mutations, however, suggests that mutation of another Wnt signaling component, such as the Wnt scaffolding protein axin or the adenomatous polyposis coli protein, both of which modulate beta-catenin stability, also may be involved in aflatoxin-associated HCC. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R35 CA 53890

    Molecular carcinogenesis 2001;31;2;68-73

Literature (3)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • Rare allelic imbalances, but no mutations of the PRDX1 gene in human hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Gisin J, Perren A, Bawohl M and Jochum W

    Department of Pathology, University of Zürich, Schmelzbergstrasse 12, CH-8091 Zürich, Switzerland.

    Allelic losses on chromosome 1p are frequent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), suggesting the presence of a tumour suppressor gene in this region. The gene for peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1), an antioxidant enzyme, has been mapped to 1p34.1. Mice lacking PRDX1 develop HCC with high frequency. Because oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of HCC, this study was designed to determine whether the PRDX1 gene is mutated in human HCC using loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis, polymerase chain reaction/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and DNA sequencing. LOH of at least one of four microsatellite markers within 0.8 Mb of the PRDX1 gene was seen in three of 34 informative HCCs, but no mutations or polymorphisms in the translated exons 2-6 of the PRDX1 gene were found. These results suggest that genetic alterations of the PRDX1 locus are rare events in human HCC, indicating that other genes on chromosome 1p contribute to liver carcinogenesis.

    Journal of clinical pathology 2005;58;11;1229-31

  • PIK3CA gene is frequently mutated in breast carcinomas and hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Lee JW, Soung YH, Kim SY, Lee HW, Park WS, Nam SW, Kim SH, Lee JY, Yoo NJ and Lee SH

    Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Socho-gu, Seoul 137-701, Korea.

    A recent report revealed that phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha (PIK3CA) gene is somatically mutated in several types of human cancer, suggesting the mutated PIK3CA gene as an oncogene in human cancers. However, because the previous report focused the mutational search primarily on colon cancers, the data on PIK3CA mutations in other types of human cancers have been largely unknown. Here, we performed mutational analysis of the PIK3CA gene by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism assay in 668 cases of common human cancers, including hepatocellular carcinomas, acute leukemias, gastric carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and non-small-cell lung cancers. We detected PIK3CA somatic mutations in 26 of 73 hepatocellular carcinomas (35.6%), 25 of 93 breast carcinomas (26.9%), 12 of 185 gastric carcinomas (6.5%), one of 88 acute leukemias (1.1%), and three of 229 non-small-cell lung cancers (1.3%). Some of the PIK3CA mutations were detected in the early lesions of breast cancer carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and gastric carcinomas, suggesting that PIK3CA mutation may occur independent of stage of the tumors. The high incidence and wide distribution of PIK3CA gene mutation in the common human cancers suggest that alterations of lipid kinase pathway by PIK3CA mutations contribute to the development of human cancers.

    Oncogene 2005;24;8;1477-80

  • CTNNB1 mutations and beta-catenin protein accumulation in human hepatocellular carcinomas associated with high exposure to aflatoxin B1.

    Devereux TR, Stern MC, Flake GP, Yu MC, Zhang ZQ, London SJ and Taylor JA

    Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.

    beta-Catenin plays a key role in the Wnt signaling pathway, and mutations of CTNNB1, the gene that encodes beta-catenin, have been identified in about one-fourth of human hepatocellular carcinomas from regions of low aflatoxin B1 exposure. In this study 62 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) from people highly exposed to aflatoxin B1 in Guangxi, People's Republic of China, were laser-capture microdissected and examined for CTNNB1 mutations. In addition, 41 of the HCCs were evaluated for the presence of the beta-catenin protein by immunohistochemical methods. Twenty of the HCCs showed positive results for beta-catenin, with strong membrane staining, while adjacent non-neoplastic liver tissue lacked or showed only weak membrane staining. One HCC, in which a CTNNB1 mutation was not detected, showed nuclear staining for the beta-catenin protein. Mutations of CTNNB1 were identified in five HCCs. These consisted of four point mutations in the glycogen serine kinase-3beta phosphorylation region of codons 32-45 and one deletion of codons 32-38. These mutations were similar to those previously reported for human HCC, although at a lower frequency. A signature mutation profile associated with aflatoxin B1 exposure could not be identified. The immunohistochemical findings indicate a role for accumulation of beta-catenin and possibly increased Wnt signaling in aflatoxin B1-associated HCC. The low frequency of CTNNB1 mutations, however, suggests that mutation of another Wnt signaling component, such as the Wnt scaffolding protein axin or the adenomatous polyposis coli protein, both of which modulate beta-catenin stability, also may be involved in aflatoxin-associated HCC. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R35 CA 53890

    Molecular carcinogenesis 2001;31;2;68-73

© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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