G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00002533
Gene symbol
GNA11 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 11 (Gq class)
Orthologue
G00001284 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000070879 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000088256 (Ensembl human gene)
2767 (Entrez Gene)
354 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
GNA11 (GeneCards)
Literature
139313 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:4379 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P29992 (UniProt)

Literature (47)

Pubmed - other

  • Protein kinase C-related kinase and ROCK are required for thrombin-induced endothelial cell permeability downstream from Galpha12/13 and Galpha11/q.

    Gavard J and Gutkind JS

    Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, NIDCR, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. julie.gavard@inserm.fr

    Increase in vascular permeability occurs under many physiological conditions such as wound repair, inflammation, and thrombotic reactions and is central in diverse human pathologies, including tumor-induced angiogenesis, ocular diseases, and septic shock. Thrombin is a pro-coagulant serine protease, which causes the local loss of endothelial barrier integrity thereby enabling the rapid extravasation of plasma proteins and the local formation of fibrin-containing clots. Available information suggests that thrombin induces endothelial permeability by promoting actomyosin contractility through the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway. Here we took advantage of pharmacological inhibitors, knockdown approaches, and the emerging knowledge on how permeability factors affect endothelial junctions to investigate in detail the mechanism underlying thrombin-induced endothelial permeability. We show that thrombin signals through PAR-1 and its coupled G proteins Galpha(12/13) and Galpha(11/q) to induce RhoA activation and intracellular calcium elevation, and that these events are interrelated. In turn, this leads to the stimulation of ROCK, which causes actin stress-fiber formation. However, this alone is not sufficient to account for thrombin-induced permeability. Instead, we found that protein kinase C-related kinase, a Rho-dependent serine/threonine kinase, is activated in endothelial cells upon thrombin stimulation and that its expression is required for endothelial permeability and the remodeling of cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell adhesions. Our results demonstrate that the signal initiated by thrombin bifurcates at the level of RhoA to promote changes in the cytoskeletal architecture through ROCK, and the remodeling of focal adhesion components through protein kinase C-related kinase. Ultimately, both pathways converge to cause cell-cell junction disruption and provoke vascular leakage.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;44;29888-96

  • Reviews in molecular biology and biotechnology: transmembrane signaling by G protein-coupled receptors.

    Luttrell LM

    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Medical Genetics, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, 816 CSB, P.O. Box 250624, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. luttrell@musc.edu

    As the most diverse type of cell surface receptor, the importance heptahelical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to clinical medicine cannot be overestimated. Visual, olfactory and gustatory sensation, intermediary metabolism, cell growth and differentiation are all influenced by GPCR signals. The basic receptor-G protein-effector mechanism of GPCR signaling is tuned by a complex interplay of positive and negative regulatory events that amplify the effect of a hormone binding the receptor or that dampen cellular responsiveness. The association of heptahelical receptors with a variety of intracellular partners other than G proteins has led to the discovery of potential mechanisms of GPCR signaling that extend beyond the classical paradigms. While the physiologic relevance of many of these novel mechanisms of GPCR signaling remains to be established, their existence suggests that the mechanisms of GPCR signaling are even more diverse than previously imagined.

    Molecular biotechnology 2008;39;3;239-64

  • The time-course of agonist-induced solubilization of trimeric G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha proteins resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    Durchánková D, Novotný J and Svoboda P

    Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic.

    Prolonged agonist stimulation results in specific transfer of activated Galpha subunits of G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha family from particulate membrane fraction to soluble (cytosol) cell fraction isolated as 250,000 x g supernatant. In this study, we have used 2D electrophoresis for more defined resolution of Galpha subunits of G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha family and followed the time course of solubilization effect. The small signal of soluble G proteins was already detected in control, hormone-unexposed cells. Hormone stimulation resulted in a slow but continuous increase of both intensity and number of immunoreactive signals/spots of these G proteins (10, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min). At longer times of agonist exposure (>2 hours), a marked increase of G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha proteins was detected. The maximal level of soluble G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha proteins was reached after 16 hours of continuous agonist exposure. At this time interval, eight individual immunoreactive signals of G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha proteins could be resolved. The relative proportion among these spots was 15:42:10:11:7:7:2:5. Solubilization of this class of Galpha proteins was thus observed after prolonged agonist stimulation only, induced by ultra high concentration of hormone and in cells expressing a large number of GPCRs. Our data therefore rather indicate tight/persisting binding of G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha proteins to the membrane.

    Physiological research 2008;57;2;195-203

  • Selective inhibition of Cav3.3 T-type calcium channels by Galphaq/11-coupled muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Hildebrand ME, David LS, Hamid J, Mulatz K, Garcia E, Zamponi GW and Snutch TP

    Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4.

    T-type calcium channels play critical roles in controlling neuronal excitability, including the generation of complex spiking patterns and the modulation of synaptic plasticity, although the mechanisms and extent to which T-type Ca(2+) channels are modulated by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) remain largely unexplored. To examine specific interactions between T-type Ca(2+) channel subtypes and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRS), the Cav3.1 (alpha(1G)), Cav3.2 (alpha(1H)), and Cav3.3 (alpha) T-type Ca(2+)(1I)channels were co-expressed with the M1 Galpha(q/11)-coupled mAChR. Perforated patch recordings demonstrate that activation of M1 receptors has a strong inhibitory effect on Cav3.3 T-type Ca(2+) currents but either no effect or a moderate stimulating effect on Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 peak current amplitudes. This differential modulation was observed for both rat and human T-type Ca(2+) channel variants. The inhibition of Cav3.3 channels by M1 receptors is reversible, use-independent, and associated with a concomitant increase in inactivation kinetics. Loss-of-function experiments with genetically encoded antagonists of Galpha and Gbetagamma proteins and gain-of-function experiments with genetically encoded Galpha subtypes indicate that M1 receptor-mediated inhibition of Cav3.3 occurs through Galpha(q/11). This is supported by experiments showing that activation of the M3 and M5 Galpha(q/11)-coupled mAChRs also causes inhibition of Cav3.3 currents, although Galpha(i)-coupled mAChRs (M2 and M4) have no effect. Examining Cav3.1-Cav3.3 chimeric channels demonstrates that two distinct regions of the Cav3.3 channel are necessary and sufficient for complete M1 receptor-mediated channel inhibition and represent novel sites not previously implicated in T-type channel modulation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;29;21043-55

  • Phosphorylation of Galpha11 protein contributes to agonist-induced desensitization of 5-HT2A receptor signaling.

    Shi J, Zemaitaitis B and Muma NA

    Department of Pharmacology Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, 2160 South First Avenue, Maywood, IL 60153, USA.

    Agonist treatment causes desensitization of many G protein-coupled receptor systems. Recent advances have delineated changes in receptors in the desensitization response; however, the role of G proteins remains unclear. We investigated the role of phosphorylation of Galpha q/11 proteins in agonist-induced desensitization of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors. In an embryonic rat cortical cell line (A1A1v), 24-h treatment with 100 nM (-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane HCl (DOI), a 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor agonist, decreased DOI-stimulated inositol phosphate accumulation and increased the phosphorylation of Galpha q/11 proteins, as demonstrated by immunoprecipitation of Galpha q/11 and both incorporation of 32P phosphate and labeling with a S/T/Y phosphorylation-dependent antibody. Treatment with DOI for 30 min induced desensitization but did not increase phosphorylation of Galpha q/11 proteins, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in desensitization after short- and long-term treatments. Mutation of S154A in a protein kinase C (PKC) and calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase (CaMK) consensus site in Galpha11 significantly reduced DOI-stimulated phosphorylation of Galpha11 and DOI-induced desensitization of 5-HT2A receptor signaling. Inhibition of PKC and CaMK attenuated phosphorylation of Galpha q/11 proteins and DOI-induced desensitization of 5-HT2A receptors. Expression of Galpha11 S154D, a phosphorylation mimic, reduced DOI-stimulated inositol phosphate accumulation. DOI treatment for 24 h also produced heterologous desensitization, as indicated by decreased bradykinin-stimulated inositol phosphate accumulation. These data suggest that phosphorylation of Galpha11 protein by PKC and CaMK contributes to agonist-induced homologous desensitization of 5-HT2A receptor signaling as well as heterologous desensitization. The phosphorylation of Galpha protein represents a novel mechanism involved in regulation of receptor signaling and agonist-induced desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH068612

    Molecular pharmacology 2007;71;1;303-13

  • Functional interactions between the alpha1b-adrenoceptor and Galpha11 are compromised by de-palmitoylation of the G protein but not of the receptor.

    Novotny J, Durchankova D, Ward RJ, Carrillo JJ, Svoboda P and Milligan G

    Molecular Pharmacology Group, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, UK.

    Both the alpha1b-adrenoceptor and Galpha11 are targets for post-translational thio-acylation that is regulated by agonist occupancy of the receptor [P.A. Stevens, J. Pediani, J.J. Carrillo, G. Milligan, J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 35883]. In co-expression studies mutation of the sites of thio-acylation in the G protein or treatment of cell membranes with hydroxylamine greatly reduced agonist stimulation of guanosine 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate ([35S]GTPgammaS) binding. In alpha1b-adrenoceptor-Galpha11 fusion proteins mutation of thio-acylation sites in receptor or G protein did not alter the binding affinity of the antagonist [3H]prazosin or the agonist phenylephrine. Although the potency of phenylephrine to stimulate binding of [35S]GTPgammaS to alpha1b-adrenoceptor-Galpha11 fusion proteins was unaffected by the thio-acylation potential of either element, the maximal effect was reduced by some 50% when the G protein but not the receptor was mutated to prevent thio-acylation. This reflected lack of thio-acylation of the G protein rather than mutation of Cys9 and Cys10 to Ser because treatment with hydroxylamine mimicked this in fusions containing the wild type G protein but was without effect in those mutated to prevent thio-acylation. Mutation to reduce binding of beta/gamma to Galpha11 markedly reduced phenylephrine stimulation of [35S]GTPgammaS binding. Combination of mutations to prevent thio-acylation and beta/gamma binding did not, however, have an additive effect on [35S]GTPgammaS binding. These results indicate that the thio-acylation status of the alpha1b-adrenoceptor does not regulate G protein activation whereas thio-acylation of Galpha11 plays a key role in activation by the receptor beyond providing membrane association and proximity.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Cellular signalling 2006;18;8;1244-51

  • Cooperative mitogenic signaling by G protein-coupled receptors and growth factors is dependent on G(q/11).

    Kong KC, Billington CK, Gandhi U, Panettieri RA and Penn RB

    Department of Internal Medicine and Center for Human Genomics, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Medical Center Blvd., Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA.

    Previously we reported that the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonist thrombin potentiated the mitogenic effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on human airway smooth muscle (ASM) by promoting sustained late-phase activation of PI3K and p70S6K via a pathway dependent on Gbetagamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. Here, we provide additional mechanistic insight and reveal the robustness of this phenomenon by demonstrating that H1 histamine and thromboxane receptors utilize the same mechanism to augment ASM growth via specific activation of the heterotrimeric G protein G(q/11). Thrombin, histamine, and U46619 all enhanced EGF-stimulated [3H]-thymidine incorporation as well as late-phase Akt and p70S6K phosphorylation in ASM cultures. Heterologous expression of Gbetagamma sequestrants (GRK2CT-GFP or Galpha(i)G203A), as well as GRK2NT-GFP (an RGS protein for G(q/11)) but neither p115RhoGEFRGS-GFP (an RGS for G(12/13)) nor pertussis toxin pretreatment (inactivating G(i/o)), attenuated the effects on both signaling and growth. Inhibition of Rho, Rho kinase, or Src, or modulation of arrestin expression did not significantly affect the cooperative signaling by EGF and any of the GPCR agonists. Thus, G(q/11)-coupled receptors are the principal GPCR subfamily mediating cooperative mitogenic signaling in ASM, acting through Gbetagamma-dependent, and Src/arrestin-independent activation of PI3K and p70S6K.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL58506, HL65338, HL67663

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2006;20;9;1558-60

  • Up-regulation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor by the MAS proto-oncogene is due to constitutive activation of Gq/G11 by MAS.

    Canals M, Jenkins L, Kellett E and Milligan G

    Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, United Kingdom.

    Coexpression of the MAS proto-oncogene with the angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor in CHO-K1 cells has been reported to increase the number of [(3)H]angiotensin II-binding sites, although MAS does not bind [(3)H]angiotensin II. In HEK293 cells stably expressing AT(1) receptor-cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), MAS-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) expression from an inducible locus caused strong up-regulation of AT(1) receptor-CFP amounts and [(3)H]angiotensin II binding levels. The time course of AT(1) receptor-CFP up-regulation was also markedly slower than that of induction of MAS expression. These effects were not mimicked by induced expression of I138D MAS-YFP, a mutant unable to cause constitutive loading of [(35)S]guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) onto the phospholipase Cbeta-linked G protein Galpha(11). Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors and the selective Galpha(q)/Galpha(11) inhibitor YM-254890 fully blocked MAS-induced up-regulation of AT(1) receptor-CFP amounts, whereas the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate produced strong up-regulation of AT(1) receptor-CFP without induction of MAS-YFP expression and in the presence of I138D MAS-YFP. The C-terminal tail of the AT(1) receptor is a known target for PKC-mediated phosphorylation. In cells stably expressing a C-terminally truncated version of the AT receptor, induction of MAS expression did not up-regulate the truncated construct levels. These data demonstrate that the ability of MAS to up-regulate AT(1) receptor levels reflects the constitutive capacity of MAS to activate Galpha(q)/Galpha(11) and hence stimulate PKC-dependent phosphorylation of the AT(1) receptor.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;24;16757-67

  • The cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2 increases intracellular calcium via CB1 receptor coupling to Gq/11 G proteins.

    Lauckner JE, Hille B and Mackie K

    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Neurobiology and Behavior Graduate Program, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

    Central nervous system responses to cannabis are primarily mediated by CB(1) receptors, which couple preferentially to G(i/o) G proteins. Here, we used calcium photometry to monitor the effect of CB(1) activation on intracellular calcium concentration. Perfusion with 5 microM CB(1) aminoalkylindole agonist, WIN55,212-2 (WIN), increased intracellular calcium by several hundred nanomolar in human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing CB(1) and in cultured hippocampal neurons. The increase was blocked by coincubation with the CB(1) antagonist, SR141716A, and was absent in nontransfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The calcium rise was WIN-specific, being essentially absent in cells treated with other classes of cannabinoid agonists, including Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, HU-210, CP55,940, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, methanandamide, and cannabidiol. The increase in calcium elicited by WIN was independent of G(i/o), because it was present in pertussis toxin-treated cells. Indeed, pertussis toxin pretreatment enhanced the potency and efficacy of WIN to increase intracellular calcium. The calcium increases appeared to be mediated by G(q) G proteins and phospholipase C, because they were markedly attenuated in cells expressing dominant-negative G(q) or treated with the phospholipase C inhibitors U73122 and ET-18-OCH(3) and were accompanied by an increase in inositol phosphates. The calcium increase was blocked by the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin, the inositol trisphosphate receptor inhibitor xestospongin D, and the ryanodine receptor inhibitors dantrolene and 1,1'-diheptyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dibromide, but not by removal of extracellular calcium, showing that WIN releases calcium from intracellular stores. In summary, these results suggest that WIN stabilizes CB(1) receptors in a conformation that enables G(q) signaling, thus shifting the G protein specificity of the receptor.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR17803, R01 AR017803; NIDA NIH HHS: DA00286, DA09150, DA11322, DA14486, K02 DA000286, R01 DA011322, R01 DA014486; NINDS NIH HHS: NS08174, R01 NS008174, R37 NS008174

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2005;102;52;19144-9

  • Direct involvement of G protein alpha(q/11) subunit in regulation of muscarinic receptor-mediated sAPPalpha release.

    Kim JH and Kim HJ

    Division of Pharmaceutical Bioscience, College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.

    The G(q/11) protein-coupled receptors, such as muscarinic (M1 & M3) receptors, have been shown to regulate the release of a soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPPalpha) produced from alpha-secretase processing. However, there is no direct evidence for the precise characteristics of G proteins, and the signaling mechanism for the regulation of G(q/11) protein-coupled receptor-mediated sAPPalpha release is not clearly understood. This study examined whether the muscarinic receptor-mediated release of sAPPalpha is directly regulated by Galpha(q/11) proteins. The HEK293 cells were transiently cotransfected with muscarinic M3 receptors and a dominant-negative minigene construct of the G protein alpha subunit. The sAPPalpha release in the media was measured using an antibody specific for sAPP. The sAPPalpha release enhancement induced by muscarinic receptor stimulation was decreased by a G(q/11) minigene construct, whereas it was not blocked by a control minigene construct (the Galpha carboxy peptide in random order, Galpha(q)R) or Galpha(i) constructs. This indicated a direct role of the Galpha(q/11) protein in the regulation of muscarinic M3 receptor-mediated sAPPalpha release. We also investigated whether the transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by a muscarinic agonist could regulate the sAPPalpha release in SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment of a specific EGFR kinase inhibitor, tyrophostin AG1478 (250 nM), blocked the EGF-stimulated sAPPalpha release, but did not block the oxoM-stimulated sAPPalpha release. This demonstrated that the transactivation of the EGFR by muscarinic receptor activation was not involved in the muscarinic receptor-mediated sAPPalpha release.

    Archives of pharmacal research 2005;28;11;1275-81

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Thrombopoietin complements G(i)- but not G(q)-dependent pathways for integrin {alpha}(IIb){beta}(3) activation and platelet aggregation.

    Campus F, Lova P, Bertoni A, Sinigaglia F, Balduini C and Torti M

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Pavia, via Bassi 21, 27100 Pavia.

    Binding of thrombopoietin (TPO) to the cMpl receptor on human platelets potentiates aggregation induced by a number of agonists, including ADP. In this work, we found that TPO was able to restore ADP-induced platelet aggregation upon blockade of the G(q)-coupled P2Y1 purinergic receptor but not upon inhibition of the G(i)-coupled P2Y12 receptor. Moreover, TPO triggered platelet aggregation upon co-stimulation of G(z) by epinephrine but not upon co-stimulation of G(q) by the thromboxane analogue U46619. Platelet aggregation induced by TPO and G(i) stimulation was biphasic, and cyclooxygenase inhibitors prevented the second but not the first phase. In contrast to ADP, TPO was unable to induce integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) activation, as evaluated by binding of both fibrinogen and PAC-1 monoclonal antibody. However, ADP-induced activation of integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) was blocked by antagonists of the G(q)-coupled P2Y1 receptor but was completely restored by the simultaneous co-stimulation of cMpl receptor by TPO. Inside-out activation of integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) induced by TPO and G(i) stimulation occurred independently of thromboxane A(2) production and was not mediated by protein kinase C, MAP kinases, or Rho-dependent kinase. Importantly, TPO and G(i) activation of integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) was suppressed by wortmannin and Ly294002, suggesting a critical regulation by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. We found that TPO did not activate phospholipase C in human platelets and was unable to restore ADP-induced phospholipase C activation upon blockade of the G(q)-coupled P2Y1 receptor. TPO induced a rapid and sustained activation of the small GTPase Rap1B through a pathway dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. In ADP-stimulated platelets, Rap1B activation was reduced, although not abolished, upon blockade of the P2Y1 receptor. However, accumulation of GTP-bound Rap1B in platelets activated by co-stimulation of cMpl and P2Y12 receptor was identical to that induced by the simultaneous ligation of P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptor by ADP. These results indicate that TPO can integrate G(i), but not G(q), stimulation and can efficiently support integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) activation platelet aggregation by an alternative signaling pathway independent of phospholipase C but involving the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the small GTPase Rap1B.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;26;24386-95

  • Increased expression of G11alpha in osteoblastic cells enhances parathyroid hormone activation of phospholipase C and AP-1 regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-13 mRNA.

    Cheung R, Erclik MS and Mitchell J

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    In osteoblasts parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates the PTH/PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) receptor (PTH1R) that couples via G(s) to adenylyl cyclase stimulation and via G(11) to phospholipase C (PLC) stimulation. We have investigated the effect of increasing G(11)alpha levels in UMR 106-01 osteoblastic cells by transient transfection with cDNA encoding G(11)alpha on PTH stimulation of PLC and protein kinase C (PKC) as well as PTH regulation of mRNA encoding matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13). Transfection with G(11)alpha cDNA resulted in a 5-fold increase in PTH-stimulated PLC activity with no change in PTH-stimulated adenylyl cyclase. PTH-induced translocation of PKC-betaI, -delta, and -zeta to the cell membrane and PKC-zeta to the nucleus was also increased. Increased G(11)alpha protein resulted in increased stimulation of MMP-13 mRNA levels at all doses of PTH. There was a 2.5 +/- 0.35 fold increase in maximal PTH-stimulation of c-jun mRNA and smaller but significant increases in c-fos accompanied by increased basal and PTH-stimulated AP-1 binding in cells expressing increased G(11)alpha. Runx-2 mRNA and protein levels were not significantly increased by increased G(11)alpha expression. The increase in PTH stimulation of c-jun, c-fos, and MMP-13 in G(11)alpha-transfected cells were all blocked by bisindolylmaleimide I, a selective inhibitor of PKC. These results demonstrate that regulation of the PLC pathway through the PTH1R is significantly increased by elevating expression of G(11)alpha in osteoblastic cells. This leads to increased PTH stimulation of MMP-13 expression by increased stimulation of AP-1 factors c-jun and c-fos.

    Journal of cellular physiology 2005;204;1;336-43

  • Apical localization of a functional TRPC3/TRPC6-Ca2+-signaling complex in polarized epithelial cells. Role in apical Ca2+ influx.

    Bandyopadhyay BC, Swaim WD, Liu X, Redman RS, Patterson RL and Ambudkar IS

    Secretory Physiology Section, Gene Therapy and Therapeutics Branch, NIDCR, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    Receptor-coupled [Ca2+]i increase is initiated in the apical region of epithelial cells and has been associated with apically localized Ca2+-signaling proteins. However, localization of Ca2+ channels that are regulated by such Ca2+-signaling events has not yet been established. This study examines the localization of TRPC channels in polarized epithelial cells and demonstrates a role for TRPC3 in apical Ca2+ uptake. Endogenously and exogenously expressed TRPC3 was localized apically in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) and salivary gland epithelial cells. In contrast, TRPC1 was localized basolaterally, whereas TRPC6 was detected in both locations. Localization of Galpha(q/11), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-3, and phospholipase Cbeta1 and -beta2 was also predominantly apical. TRPC3 co-immunoprecipitated with endogenous TRPC6, phospholipase Cbetas, Galpha(q/11), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-3, and syntaxin 3 but not with TRPC1. Furthermore, 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG)-stimulated apical 45Ca2+ uptake was higher in TRPC3-MDCK cells compared with control (MDCK) cells. Bradykinin-stimulated apical 45Ca2+ uptake and transepithelial 45Ca2+ flux were also higher in TRPC3-expressing cells. Consistent with this, OAG induced [Ca2+]i increase in the apical, but not basal, region of TRPC3-MDCK cells that was blocked by EGTA addition to the apical medium. Most importantly, (i) TRPC3 was detected in the apical region of rat submandibular gland ducts, whereas TRPC6 was present in apical as well as basolateral regions of ducts and acini; and (ii) OAG stimulated Ca2+ influx into dispersed ductal cells. These data demonstrate functional localization of TRPC3/TRPC6 channels in the apical region of polarized epithelial cells. In salivary gland ducts this could contribute to the regulation of salivary [Ca2+] and secretion.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;13;12908-16

  • The guanine nucleotide exchange factor p63RhoGEF, a specific link between Gq/11-coupled receptor signaling and RhoA.

    Lutz S, Freichel-Blomquist A, Yang Y, Rümenapp U, Jakobs KH, Schmidt M and Wieland T

    Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Fakultät für Klinische Medizin Mannheim, Universität Heidelberg, Maybachstrasse 14-16, D-68169 Mannheim, Germany.

    The monomeric GTPase RhoA, which is a key regulator of numerous cellular processes, is activated by a variety of G protein-coupled receptors, through either G12 or G(q) family proteins. Here we report that p63RhoGEF, a recently identified RhoA-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, enhances the Rho-dependent gene transcription induced by agonist-stimulated G(q/11)-coupled receptors (M3-cholinoceptor, histamine H1 receptor) or GTPase-deficient mutants of G alpha(q) and G alpha11. We further demonstrate that active G alpha(q) or G alpha11, but not G alpha12 or G alpha13, strongly enhances p63RhoGEF-induced RhoA activation by direct protein-protein interaction with p63RhoGEF at its C-terminal half. Moreover, the activation of p63RhoGEF by G alpha(q/11) occurs independently of and in competition to the activation of the canonical G alpha(q/11) effector phospholipase C beta. Therefore, our results elucidate a new signaling pathway by which G alpha(q/11)-coupled receptors specifically induce Rho signaling through a direct interaction of activated G alpha(q/11) subunits with p63RhoGEF.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;12;11134-9

  • Factor XIIIA transglutaminase crosslinks AT1 receptor dimers of monocytes at the onset of atherosclerosis.

    AbdAlla S, Lother H, Langer A, el Faramawy Y and Quitterer U

    Heinrich-Pette-Institut, Martinistrasse 52, D-20251 Hamburg, Germany.

    Many G protein-coupled receptors form dimers in cells. However, underlying mechanisms are barely understood. We report here that intracellular factor XIIIA transglutaminase crosslinks agonist-induced AT1 receptor homodimers via glutamine315 in the carboxyl-terminal tail of the AT1 receptor. The crosslinked dimers displayed enhanced signaling and desensitization in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of angiotensin II release or of factor XIIIA activity prevented formation of crosslinked AT1 receptor dimers. In agreement with this finding, factor XIIIA-deficient individuals lacked crosslinked AT1 dimers. Elevated levels of crosslinked AT1 dimers were present on monocytes of patients with the common atherogenic risk factor hypertension and correlated with an enhanced angiotensin II-dependent monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Elevated levels of crosslinked AT1 receptor dimers on monocytes could sustain the process of atherogenesis, because inhibition of angiotensin II generation or of intracellular factor XIIIA activity suppressed the appearance of crosslinked AT1 receptors and symptoms of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice.

    Cell 2004;119;3;343-54

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Effects of G-protein mutations on skin color.

    Van Raamsdonk CD, Fitch KR, Fuchs H, de Angelis MH and Barsh GS

    Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5323, USA.

    A new class of dominant dark skin (Dsk) mutations discovered in a screen of approximately 30,000 mice is caused by increased dermal melanin. We identified three of four such mutations as hypermorphic alleles of Gnaq and Gna11, which encode widely expressed Galphaq subunits, act in an additive and quantitative manner, and require Ednrb. Interactions between Gq and Kit receptor tyrosine kinase signaling can mediate coordinate or independent control of skin and hair color. Our results provide a mechanism that can explain several aspects of human pigmentary variation and show how polymorphism of essential proteins and signaling pathways can affect a single physiologic system.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;9;961-8

  • The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19.

    Grimwood J, Gordon LA, Olsen A, Terry A, Schmutz J, Lamerdin J, Hellsten U, Goodstein D, Couronne O, Tran-Gyamfi M, Aerts A, Altherr M, Ashworth L, Bajorek E, Black S, Branscomb E, Caenepeel S, Carrano A, Caoile C, Chan YM, Christensen M, Cleland CA, Copeland A, Dalin E, Dehal P, Denys M, Detter JC, Escobar J, Flowers D, Fotopulos D, Garcia C, Georgescu AM, Glavina T, Gomez M, Gonzales E, Groza M, Hammon N, Hawkins T, Haydu L, Ho I, Huang W, Israni S, Jett J, Kadner K, Kimball H, Kobayashi A, Larionov V, Leem SH, Lopez F, Lou Y, Lowry S, Malfatti S, Martinez D, McCready P, Medina C, Morgan J, Nelson K, Nolan M, Ovcharenko I, Pitluck S, Pollard M, Popkie AP, Predki P, Quan G, Ramirez L, Rash S, Retterer J, Rodriguez A, Rogers S, Salamov A, Salazar A, She X, Smith D, Slezak T, Solovyev V, Thayer N, Tice H, Tsai M, Ustaszewska A, Vo N, Wagner M, Wheeler J, Wu K, Xie G, Yang J, Dubchak I, Furey TS, DeJong P, Dickson M, Gordon D, Eichler EE, Pennacchio LA, Richardson P, Stubbs L, Rokhsar DS, Myers RM, Rubin EM and Lucas SM

    Stanford Human Genome Center, Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, 975 California Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA. jane@shgc.stanford.edu

    Chromosome 19 has the highest gene density of all human chromosomes, more than double the genome-wide average. The large clustered gene families, corresponding high G + C content, CpG islands and density of repetitive DNA indicate a chromosome rich in biological and evolutionary significance. Here we describe 55.8 million base pairs of highly accurate finished sequence representing 99.9% of the euchromatin portion of the chromosome. Manual curation of gene loci reveals 1,461 protein-coding genes and 321 pseudogenes. Among these are genes directly implicated in mendelian disorders, including familial hypercholesterolaemia and insulin-resistant diabetes. Nearly one-quarter of these genes belong to tandemly arranged families, encompassing more than 25% of the chromosome. Comparative analyses show a fascinating picture of conservation and divergence, revealing large blocks of gene orthology with rodents, scattered regions with more recent gene family expansions and deletions, and segments of coding and non-coding conservation with the distant fish species Takifugu.

    Nature 2004;428;6982;529-35

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Heterotrimeric G alpha q/G alpha 11 proteins function upstream of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 (KDR) phosphorylation in vascular permeability factor/VEGF signaling.

    Zeng H, Zhao D, Yang S, Datta K and Mukhopadhyay D

    Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

    Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF) functions by activating two receptor-tyrosine kinases, Flt-1 (VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1) and KDR (VEGFR-2), both of which are selectively expressed on primary vascular endothelium. KDR is responsible for VPF/VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell proliferation and migration, whereas Flt-1 down-modulates KDR-mediated endothelial cell proliferation. Our most recent works show that pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins and Gbetagamma subunits are required for Flt-1-mediated down-regulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and that Gq/11 proteins are required for KDR-mediated RhoA activation and HUVEC migration. In this study, we demonstrate that Gq/11 proteins are also required for VPF/VEGF-stimulated HUVEC proliferation. Our results further indicate that Gq/11 proteins specifically mediate KDR signaling such as intracellular Ca2+ mobilization rather than Flt-1-induced CDC42 activation and that a Gq/11 antisense oligonucleotide completely inhibits MAPK phosphorylation induced by KDR but has no effect on Flt-1-induced MAPK activation. More importantly, we demonstrate that Gq/11 proteins interact with KDR in vivo, and the interaction of Gq/11 proteins with KDR does not require KDR tyrosine phosphorylation. Surprisingly, the Gq/11 antisense oligonucleotide completely inhibits VPF/VEGF-stimulated KDR phosphorylation. Expression of a constitutively active mutant of G11 but not Gq can cause phosphorylation of KDR and MAPK. In addition, a Gbetagamma minigene, hbetaARK1(495), inhibits VPF/VEGF-stimulated HUVEC proliferation, MAPK phosphorylation, and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization but has no effect on KDR phosphorylation. Taken together, this study demonstrates that Gq/11 proteins mediate KDR tyrosine phosphorylation and KDR-mediated HUVEC proliferation through interaction with KDR.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA78383; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL072178, HL70567

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;23;20738-45

  • Reduced expression of GNA11 and silencing of MCT1 in human breast cancers.

    Asada K, Miyamoto K, Fukutomi T, Tsuda H, Yagi Y, Wakazono K, Oishi S, Fukui H, Sugimura T and Ushijima T

    Division of Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan.

    Alteration in the methylation status of a gene is often associated with its altered expression. Based on a genome scanning technique for differences in CpG methylations, methylation-sensitive representational difference analysis, DNA fragments hypermethylated in a human breast cancer were isolated. A DNA fragment was isolated from intron 1 of guanine-nucleotide-binding protein alpha-11 (GNA11). mRNA expression of GNA11 was shown to be decreased in 10 of 16 breast cancers by RT-PCR analysis, and the immunoreactivity of the GNA11 product, Galpha11 subunit of heterotrimeric G-protein, was observed to be reduced in 14 of the 16 cancers by immunohistochemistry. Methylation of a CpG island (CGI) in the 5' region of GNA11 or that of intron 1 did not show a clear correlation with its decreased expression. Another DNA fragment was isolated from a CGI in the 5' upstream region of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), and was methylated in 4 of 20 breast cancers. The CGI was also methylated in a human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, and quantitative RT-PCR showed that its expression was almost lost in the cell line. By treatment of the cells with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, the methylation was removed and the expression was restored. GNA11 is involved in signalling of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor, which negatively regulates cell growth. MCT1 is involved in cellular transportation of butyrate, which induces cellular differentiation. Downregulation of these two genes was suggested to be involved in human breast cancers.

    Oncology 2003;64;4;380-8

  • Tandem genomic arrangement of a G protein (Gna15) and G protein-coupled receptor (s1p(4)/lp(C1)/Edg6) gene.

    Contos JJ, Ye X, Sah VP and Chun J

    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0636, USA.

    A genomic analysis of the s1p(4)/lp(C1)/Edg6 mouse sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) G protein-coupled receptor gene revealed it to be located on central chromosome 10 and to consist of two exons with an intronless coding region. Surprisingly, we found the gene encoding the promiscuously coupling G(alpha15) protein (Gna15) located in tandem just upstream, an arrangement conserved in the human genome (on chromosome 19p13.3). Given that Northern blots demonstrated similar tissue distributions of the mouse s1p(4) and Gna15 transcripts, we propose that transcription of the two genes may be under control of the same enhancer elements and that their protein products may couple in vivo.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: K08MH01723

    FEBS letters 2002;531;1;99-102

  • Negative and positive regulatory epitopes in the C-terminal domains of the human B1 and B2 bradykinin receptor subtypes determine receptor coupling efficacy to G(q/11)-mediated [correction of G(9/11)-mediated] phospholipase Cbeta activity.

    Kang DS and Leeb-Lundberg LM

    Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229-3900, USA.

    The human B1 bradykinin (BK) receptor (B1R) is more efficacious than the human B2 BK receptor (B2R) in both ligand-independent and agonist-dependent coupling to G(q/11)-mediated phospholipase Cbeta activity. In fact, B1R is constitutively active, whereas B2R exhibits little if any constitutive activity. To evaluate the role of the C-terminal domain in receptor G(q/11) coupling, we constructed chimeric and C-terminally truncated receptors. The slopes of the increase in basal and agonist-dependent cellular phosphoinositide hydrolysis as a function of receptor density in transiently transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells provided parameters of receptor coupling. Exchanging the C-terminal domains between the two receptors revealed that these domains are largely responsible for the difference in coupling. B1R truncation showed that this receptor does not directly depend on the C-terminal domain for efficient coupling, although coupling is dramatically augmented by residues in the membrane-distal portion of the domain downstream from Tyr(327). On the other hand, coupling of B2R is absolutely dependent on a membrane-proximal epitope in the C-terminal domain upstream from Lys(315). This epitope is adjacent to a basic residue, Arg(311), which exerts an inhibitory effect on coupling. Arg(311) is not conserved in B1R, and complementary mutations in B2R and B1R showed that this residue, together with previously identified serines and threonines, acts to attenuate the coupling efficacy of B2R. Therefore, the C-terminal domain participates intimately in the efficacy of B1R and B2R G(q/11) coupling by contributing both positive and negative regulatory epitopes.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM41659

    Molecular pharmacology 2002;62;2;281-8

  • Stabilization of cortical actin induces internalization of transient receptor potential 3 (Trp3)-associated caveolar Ca2+ signaling complex and loss of Ca2+ influx without disruption of Trp3-inositol trisphosphate receptor association.

    Lockwich T, Singh BB, Liu X and Ambudkar IS

    Secretory Physiology Section, Gene Therapy and Therapeutics Branch, NIDCR, National Institutes of Health Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    Ca(2+) influx via plasma membrane Trp3 channels is proposed to be regulated by a reversible interaction with inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) in the endoplasmic reticulum. Condensation of the cortical actin layer has been suggested to physically disrupt this interaction and inhibit Trp3-mediated Ca(2+) influx. This study examines the effect of cytoskeletal reorganization on the localization and function of Trp3 and key Ca(2+) signaling proteins. Calyculin-A treatment resulted in formation of condensed actin layer at the plasma membrane; internalization of Trp3, Galpha(q/11), phospholipase Cbeta, and caveolin-1; and attenuation of 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol- and ATP-stimulated Sr(2+) influx. Importantly, Trp3 and IP(3)R-3 remained co-localized inside the cell and were co-immunoprecipitated. Jasplakinolide also induced internalization of Trp3 and caveolin-1. Pretreatment of cells with cytochalasin D or staurosporine did not affect Trp3 but prevented calyculin-A-induced effects. Based on these data, we suggest that Trp3 is assembled in a caveolar Ca(2+) signaling complex with IP(3)R, SERCA, Galpha(q/11), phospholipase Cbeta, caveolin-1, and ezrin. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that conditions which stabilize cortical actin induce loss of Trp3 activity due to internalization of the Trp3-signaling complex, not disruption of IP(3)R-Trp3 interaction. This suggests that localization of the Trp3-associated signaling complex, rather than Trp3-IP(3)R coupling, depends on the status of the actin cytoskeleton.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;45;42401-8

  • Multiplicity of mechanisms of serotonin receptor signal transduction.

    Raymond JR, Mukhin YV, Gelasco A, Turner J, Collinsworth G, Gettys TW, Grewal JS and Garnovskaya MN

    The Research Service of the Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, SC 29401, USA. raymondj@musc.edu

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptors have been divided into 7 subfamilies by convention, 6 of which include 13 different genes for G-protein-coupled receptors. Those subfamilies have been characterized by overlapping pharmacological properties, amino acid sequences, gene organization, and second messenger coupling pathways. Post-genomic modifications, such as alternative mRNA splicing or mRNA editing, creates at least 20 more G-protein-coupled 5-HT receptors, such that there are at least 30 distinct 5-HT receptors that signal through G-proteins. This review will focus on what is known about the signaling linkages of the G-protein-linked 5-HT receptors, and will highlight some fascinating new insights into 5-HT receptor signaling.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK02694, DK053981, DK52448, DK54720

    Pharmacology & therapeutics 2001;92;2-3;179-212

  • The angiotensin II AT2 receptor is an AT1 receptor antagonist.

    AbdAlla S, Lother H, Abdel-tawab AM and Quitterer U

    Medical Research Center, Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.

    The vasopressor angiotensin II activates AT(1) and AT(2) receptors. Most of the known in vivo effects of angiotensin II are mediated by AT(1) receptors while the biological functions of AT(2) receptors are less clear. We report here that the AT(2) receptor binds directly to the AT(1) receptor and thereby antagonizes the function of the AT(1) receptor. The AT(1)-specific antagonism of the AT(2) receptor was independent of AT(2) receptor activation and signaling, and it was effective on different cells and on human myometrial biopsies with AT(1)/AT(2) receptor expression. Thus, the AT(2) receptor is the first identified example of a G-protein-coupled receptor which acts as a receptor-specific antagonist.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;43;39721-6

  • Cloning and characterization of the human phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-beta 1 (PLC beta 1).

    Caricasole A, Sala C, Roncarati R, Formenti E and Terstappen GC

    Biology Department, GlaxoWellcome Medicines Research Centre, Verona, Italy.

    Phospholipase C-beta (PLC beta) catalyses the generation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) and diacylglycerol (DAG) from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (IP(2)), a key step in the intracellular transduction of a large number of extracellular signals, including neurotransmitters and hormones modulating diverse developmental and functional aspects of the mammalian central nervous system. Four mammalian isozymes are known (PLC beta 1-4), which differ in their function and expression patterns in vivo. We have characterized the human PLC beta 1 genomic locus (PLC beta 1), cloned two distinct PLC beta 1 cDNAs (PLC beta 1a and b) and analysed their respective expression patterns in a comprehensive panel of human tissues using quantitative TaqMan technology. The two cDNAs derive from transcripts generated through alternative splicing at their 3' end, and are predicted to encode for PLC beta 1 isoforms differing at their carboxy-terminus. The human PLC beta 1 isoforms are co-expressed in the same tissues with a distinctly CNS-specific profile of expression. Quantitative differences in PLC beta 1 isoform expression levels are observed in some tissues. Transient expression of epitope-tagged versions of the two isoforms followed by immunofluorescence revealed localization of the proteins to the cytoplasm and the inner side of the cell membrane. Finally, we characterized the structure of the PLC beta 1 locus and confirmed its mapping to human chromosome 20.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2000;1517;1;63-72

  • Functional coupling of G proteins to endothelin receptors is ligand and receptor subtype specific.

    Shraga-Levine Z and Sokolovsky M

    Department of Neurobiochemistry, Tel Aviv University, Israel.

    1. The aims of the present study were (a) to determine the identity of the G proteins with which the endothelin receptor interacts and whether this interaction is subtype specific and (b) to determine whether agonist exposure can result in specific coupling between the endothelin receptor and G proteins. 2. Coupling between endothelin A (ET(A)) or endothelin B (ET(B)) receptors and G proteins was assessed in two fibroblast cell lines, each expressing one receptor subtype. Four ligands, ET-1, ET-3, SRTXb, and SRTXc, were used for receptor stimulation. The G protein alpha-subunit coupled to the receptor was identified by immunoprecipitation with an antibody against the endothelin receptor and immunoblotting with specific antibodies against different G protein alpha-subunits. 3. Unstimulated ET(A) and ET(B) receptors (ET(A)R and ET(B)R, respectively) were barely coupled to Go(alpha). The unstimulated ET(A)R coimmunoprecipitated with Gi3alpha, whereas the unstimulated ETBR was much less strongly coupled to Gi3alpha. The coupling of ETBR to Gi1Gi2 alpha-subunits was much stronger than the coupling of ET(A)R to these alpha-subunits. Stimulation with the different ET agonists also resulted in differential coupling of G proteins to the receptor subtypes. All four ligands caused a strong increase in coupling of the ET(B)R to Gi3alpha, whereas coupling of the ET(A)R to this subunit was not affected by ET-1 and was even decreased by SRTXc. On the other hand, all four ligands caused a much greater increase in the coupling of ET(A)R to G(q)alpha/G11alpha than in the coupling of ET(B)R to these alpha-subunits. Ligand-induced coupling between the receptors and the Gi1 and Gi2 alpha-subunits is similar for the two receptor subtypes. The same was true for ligand-induced coupling of the receptors to Go(alpha), except that ET-3 increased the coupling of this alpha-subunit to ET(B)R and decreased the coupling to ET(A)R. Taken together, the results of this study show that coupling between ET receptors and G proteins is ligand and receptor subtype specific. 4. It remains to be established whether this diversity of receptor-G protein coupling is of relevance for the various endothelin signaling pathways and/or pathological states.

    Cellular and molecular neurobiology 2000;20;3;305-17

  • Calcium-sensing receptor expression and signalling in human parathyroid adenomas and primary hyperplasia.

    Corbetta S, Mantovani G, Lania A, Borgato S, Vicentini L, Beretta E, Faglia G, Di Blasio AM and Spada A

    Institute of Endocrine Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

    Objective: Both in vivo and in vitro evidence indicates that primary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by a reduced sensitivity to extracellular calcium ([Ca2+]o). The existence of alterations in the expression and signalling of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in parathyroid neoplasia is still uncertain. In order to clarify the role of CaSR in the reduced [Ca2+]o sensing of parathyroid neoplasia we investigated PTH secretion and intracellular effectors triggered by CaSR activation as well as the levels of expression of CaSR and CaSR coupled G proteins (Gq/G11) in parathyroid adenomas and primary hyperplasia.

    The study included 27 parathyroid adenomas, 4 cases of primary hyperplasia and pools of normal parathyroid biopsies. Tissues were either snap frozen in liquid nitrogen or placed in sterile medium for cell dispersion. The effects of increasing [Ca2+]o on in vitro PTH release, intracellular cAMP levels and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) in cells loaded with the Ca2 + indicator fura-2 were evaluated. CaSR mRNA levels were assessed by semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis, using GAPDH as internal standard, while CaSR protein was detected by western blot analysis using a specific polyclonal antibody. Purified antisera selective for G11alpha and Gqalpha were used to detect this class of proteins.

    Results: In basal conditions (at 0.5 mM [Ca2+]o) in vitro PTH released ranged from 29.4 to 1186 pg/well/60 minutes. Increasing [Ca2+]o from 0.5 to 1, 2.5 and 5 mM caused a variable effect. One group (n = 7) showed a significant but partial reduction of PTH release (of 17 to 60% of basal levels) that occurred at physiological [Ca2+]o concentrations (1 mM) while the remainder showed either inhibition detectable only at 2.5 mM (n = 15) or total (n = 9) resistance to [Ca2+]o. In the responsive cells, [Ca2+]o (1-5 mM) caused a pertussis toxin-insensitive [Ca2+]i rise (ranging from 10% to 260%), due to Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, and an inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels. By RT-PCR almost all tumours tested showed a substantial reduction in CaSR mRNA levels when compared to the normal tissue (CaSR/GAPDH ratio: 3.1 +/- 0.5 vs. 15.5 +/- 3.1; P < 0.001), which was confirmed by immunoblotting analysis demonstrating low levels of CaSR protein in tumour tissues. Moreover, low amounts of G11alpha and Gqalpha, the G proteins involved in CaSR coupling, were observed in the majority of pathological tissues.

    Conclusions: The study shows that the activation of the calcium sensing receptors expressed in adenomatous parathyroid glands modulates intracellular effectors in a similar way to those operating in the normal parathyroid. Although a reduction of calcium sensing receptor expression is probably involved in the poor inhibition of PTH release induced by [Ca2+]o, this is not the only factor altering [Ca2+]o sensing in parathyroid adenomas, since tumours characterized by different in vitro sensitivity to [Ca2+]o showed similar CaSR levels. The low content of G proteins of the Gq subfamily might represent an additional alteration leading to a defective [Ca2+]o sensing.

    Clinical endocrinology 2000;52;3;339-48

  • Dual signaling of human Mel1a melatonin receptors via G(i2), G(i3), and G(q/11) proteins.

    Brydon L, Roka F, Petit L, de Coppet P, Tissot M, Barrett P, Morgan PJ, Nanoff C, Strosberg AD and Jockers R

    CNRS-UPR 0415 and Université Paris VII, Institut Cochin de Génétique Moléculaire, Paris, France.

    Mel 1a melatonin receptors belong to the super-family of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G protein)-coupled receptors. So far, interest in Mel 1a receptor signaling has focused mainly on the modulation of the adenylyl cyclase pathway via pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G proteins. To further investigate signaling of the human Mel 1a receptor, we have developed an antibody directed against the C terminus of this receptor. This antibody detected the Mel 1a receptor as a protein with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 60 kDa in immunoblots after separation by SDS-PAGE. It also specifically precipitated the 2-[125I]iodomelatonin (125I-Mel)-labeled receptor from Mel 1a-transfected HEK 293 cells. Coprecipitation experiments showed that G(i2), G(i3), and G(q/11) proteins couple to the Mel 1a receptor in an agonist-dependent and guanine nucleotide-sensitive manner. Coupling was selective since other G proteins present in HEK 293 cells, (G(i1), G(o), G(s), G(z), and G12) were not detected in receptor complexes. Coupling of the Mel 1a receptor to G(i) and G(q) was confirmed by inhibition of high-affinity 125I-Mel binding to receptors with subtype-selective G protein alpha-subunit antibodies. G(i2) and/or G(i3) mediated adenylyl cyclase inhibition while G(q/11) induced a transient elevation in cytosolic calcium concentrations in HEK 293 cells stably expressing Mel 1a receptors. Melatonin-induced cytosolic calcium mobilization via PTX-insensitive G proteins was confirmed in primary cultures of ovine pars tuberalis cells endogenously expressing Mel 1a receptors. In conclusion, we report the development of the first antibody recognizing the cloned human Mel 1a melatonin receptor protein. We show that Mel 1a receptors functionally couple to both PTX-sensitive and PTX-insensitive G proteins. The previously unknown signaling of Mel 1a receptors through G(q/11) widens the spectrum of potential targets for melatonin.

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 1999;13;12;2025-38

  • The prostacyclin receptor is isoprenylated. Isoprenylation is required for efficient receptor-effector coupling.

    Hayes JS, Lawler OA, Walsh MT and Kinsella BT

    Department of Biochemistry, Merville House, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

    The prostacyclin receptor (IP), a G protein-coupled receptor, mediates the actions of the prostanoid prostacyclin and its mimetics. IPs from a number of species each contain identically conserved putative isoprenylation CAAX motifs, each with the sequence CSLC. Metabolic labeling of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably overexpressing the hemagluttinin epitope-tagged IP in the presence of [(3)H]mevalonolactone established that the mouse IP is isoprenylated. Studies involving in vitro assays confirmed that recombinant forms of the human and mouse IP are modified by carbon 15 farnesyl isoprenoids. Disruption of isoprenylation, by site-directed mutagenesis of Cys(414) to Ser(414), within the CAAX motif, abolished isoprenylation of IP(SSLC) both in vitro and in transfected cells. Scatchard analysis of the wild type (IP) and mutant (IP(SSLC)) receptor confirmed that each receptor exhibited high and low affinity binding sites for [(3)H]iloprost, which were not influenced by receptor isoprenylation. Whereas stable cell lines overexpressing IP generated significant agonist (iloprost and cicaprost)-mediated increases in cAMP relative to nontransfected cells, cAMP generation by IP(SSLC) cells was not significantly different from the control, nontransfected HEK 293 cells. Moreover, co-expression of the alpha (alpha) subunit of Gs generated significant augmentations in cAMP by IP but not by IP(SSLC) cells. Whereas IP also demonstrated significant, dose-dependent increases in [Ca(2+)](i) in response to iloprost or cicaprost compared with the nontransfected HEK 293 cells, mobilization of [Ca(2+)](i) by IP(SSLC) was significantly impaired. Co-transfection of cells with either Galpha(q) or Galpha(11) resulted in significant augmentation of agonist-mediated [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization by IP cells but not by IP(SSLC) cells or by the control, HEK 293 cells. In addition, inhibition of isoprenylation by lovastatin treatment significantly reduced agonist-mediated cAMP generation by IP in comparison to the nonisoprenylated beta(2) adrenergic receptor or nontreated cells. Hence, isoprenylation of IP does not influence ligand binding but is required for efficient coupling to the effectors adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;34;23707-18

  • RGS3 inhibits G protein-mediated signaling via translocation to the membrane and binding to Galpha11.

    Dulin NO, Sorokin A, Reed E, Elliott S, Kehrl JH and Dunn MJ

    Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA.

    In the present study, we investigated the function and the mechanism of action of RGS3, a member of a family of proteins called regulators of G protein signaling (RGS). Polyclonal antibodies against RGS3 were produced and characterized. An 80-kDa protein was identified as RGS3 by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting with anti-RGS3 antibodies in a human mesangial cell line (HMC) stably transfected with RGS3 cDNA. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments in RGS3-overexpressing cell lysates revealed that RGS3 bound to aluminum fluoride-activated Galpha11 and to a lesser extent to Galphai3 and that this binding was mediated by the RGS domain of RGS3. A role of RGS3 in postreceptor signaling was demonstrated by decreased calcium responses and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity induced by endothelin-1 in HMC stably overexpressing RGS3. Moreover, depletion of endogenous RGS3 by transfection of antisense RGS3 cDNA in NIH 3T3 cells resulted in enhanced MAP kinase activation induced by endothelin-1. The study of intracellular distribution of RGS3 indicated its unique cytosolic localization. Activation of G proteins by AlF4-, NaF, or endothelin-1 resulted in redistribution of RGS3 from cytosol to the plasma membrane as determined by Western blotting of the cytosolic and particulate fractions with RGS3 antiserum as well as by immunofluorescence microscopy. Agonist-induced translocation of RGS3 occurred by a dual mechanism involving both C-terminal (RGS domain) and N-terminal regions of RGS3. Thus, coexpression of RGS3 with a constitutively active mutant of Galpha11 (Galpha11-QL) resulted in the binding of RGS3, but not of its N-terminal fragment, to the membrane fraction and in its interaction with Galpha11-QL in vitro without any stimuli. However, both full-length RGS3 and its N-terminal domain translocated to the plasma membrane upon stimulation of intact cells with endothelin-1 as assayed by immunofluorescence microscopy. The effect of endothelin-1 was also mimicked by calcium ionophore A23187, suggesting the importance of Ca2+ in the mechanism of redistribution of RGS3. These data indicate that RGS3 inhibits G protein-coupled receptor signaling by a complex mechanism involving its translocation to the membrane in addition to its established function as a GTPase-activating protein.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 22563, R01 HL022563; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 41684, R01 DK041684

    Molecular and cellular biology 1999;19;1;714-23

  • Evidence for the involvement of several intracellular domains in the coupling of oxytocin receptor to G alpha(q/11).

    Qian A, Wang W and Sanborn BM

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Houston Medical School 77030, USA.

    In order to probe the nature of oxytocin receptor (OTR)/G alpha(q/11) protein coupling, we examined the effect of co-expression of OTR intracellular domains on oxytocin-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover in COSM6 cells overexpressing OTR and G alpha(q). Co-expression of G alpha(q) enhanced the oxytocin response maximally at a pOTR/pG alpha(q) plasmid transfection ratio of 1:0.16. In cells co-expressing OTR and G alpha(q/11), oxytocin stimulated phosphoinositide turnover with an EC50 of 48 nM. Co-transfection with plasmids expressing OTR intracellular domains inhibited oxytocin-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover by 23 +/- 6% (1i), 37 +/- 4% (2i), 55 +/- 6% (3i), and 40 +/- 6% (4i), respectively (P < 0.01). Expression of the 3i loop of the alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor, which also couples to G alpha(q/11), inhibited phosphoinositide turnover by 35 +/- 2% (P < 0.01), while expression of the 3i loop of the dopamine 1A receptor, which couples to G alpha(s), had no effect. While these data indicate a functional role for the OTR 3i loop, they also suggest that interactions with more than one intracellular domain probably mediate the coupling of OTR to the G alpha(q/11) class of GTP-binding proteins.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD09618, T32-HD07324

    Cellular signalling 1998;10;2;101-5

  • Activation of the prostaglandin FP receptor in human granulosa cells.

    Carrasco MP, Asbóth G, Phaneuf S and López Bernal A

    Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, UK.

    Prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) has regulatory (mainly luteolytic) effects in the ovary but the mechanism of action is not completely understood. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques were used to demonstrate the presence of mRNA encoding the PGF2 alpha receptor (FP receptor) in human granulosa-lutein cells. Specific primers for the amplification of cDNA were designed and yielded a single product of 696 bp corresponding to the FP receptor. The identity of this product was verified by sequencing. Fluprostenol, a selective FP receptor agonist, activated phospholipase C (PLC) and increased intracellular free calcium concentration, confirming the functional activation of the receptor. We have demonstrated by Western blotting that granulosa cells express PLC-beta and PLC-gamma isoforms. The cells responded to pervanadate with increased PLC activity and increased tyrosine phosphorylation, demonstrating a functional PLC-gamma tyrosine kinase pathway. However, fluprostenol did not provoke any detectable tyrosine phosphorylation. Moreover, the effect of fluprostenol was inhibited through protein kinase C stimulation by phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate, and was not affected when cells were treated with phenylarsine oxide, which blocks tyrosine phosphorylation. These results suggest that the FP receptor activates PLC-beta rather than PLC-gamma isoforms. Fluprostenol-induced activation was pertussis toxin resistant. Granulosa cells express G proteins of the Gq family (resistant to pertussis toxin) and mRNA for both G alpha q and G alpha 1 l has been identified by RT-PCR. In conclusion, human granulosa cells have a functional FP receptor the effects of which are mediated through PLC-beta activation probably via Gq/1 l.

    Journal of reproduction and fertility 1997;111;2;309-17

  • Interaction of the G-protein G11alpha with receptors and phosphoinositidase C: the contribution of G-protein palmitoylation and membrane association.

    Wise A, Parenti M and Milligan G

    Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

    Wild-type and palmitoylation defective mutants of the murine G protein G11alpha were transfected into HEK293 cells. Wild-type G11alpha was membrane associated, Cys9Ser Cys10Ser G11alpha was present in the soluble fraction whilst both Cys9Ser G11alpha and Cys10Ser G11alpha were distributed between the fractions. Expression of the rat TRH receptor resulted in agonist stimulation of inositol phosphate accumulation. The degree of stimulation produced by TRH following co-transfection of the palmitoylation-resistant forms of G11alpha compared to the wild-type protein correlated with the amount of membrane-associated G protein.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    FEBS letters 1997;407;3;257-60

  • The human thromboxane A2 receptor alpha isoform (TP alpha) functionally couples to the G proteins Gq and G11 in vivo and is activated by the isoprostane 8-epi prostaglandin F2 alpha.

    Kinsella BT, O'Mahony DJ and Fitzgerald GA

    Department of Biochemistry, University College Dublin, Ireland.

    To establish whether the thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor (TP) functionally couples to the Gq family of heterotrimeric G proteins in vivo, we have coexpressed the cDNAs coding for the human platelet/placental TP alpha isoform (TP alpha) and the alpha subunits of Gq or G11 in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. TP activation in response to ligand stimulation was monitored by analyzing mobilization of intracellular calcium (Ca++i) in FURA2/AM-loaded transfected HEK 293 and in platelets. Second, we wished to examine the possible interaction of the isoprostane 8-epi prostaglandin F2 alpha with the TP alpha, in transfected HEK 293 cells and with the TPs expressed in platelets. Thus both the prostaglandin endoperoxide/TXA2 analog (U46619) and the 8-epi PGF2 alpha were utilized as ligand probes of TP alpha activation. The results demonstrate that each ligand induced elevations of Ca++i levels in HEK 293 cells, cotransfected with either the TP alpha and G alpha q or the TP alpha and G alpha 11, and also in platelets. Initial stimulation of these cells with U46619 or 8-epi PGF 2 alpha desensitized a subsequent rise in [Ca++]i in response to U46619 or 8-epi PGF 2 alpha, respectively. Moreover, prestimulation with U46619 desensitized a subsequent rise in Ca++i concentration in response to 8-epi PGF 2 alpha, and vice versa. These responses were blocked by the TP antagonist SQ29,548 in both cell types. In contrast, prestimulation of the transfected HEK 293 cells or platelets with thrombin did not desensitize a subsequent rise in [Ca++]i in response to U46619 or 8-epi PGF 2 alpha. After stimulation with either U46619 or 8-epi PGF 2 alpha, no significant rise in Ca++i levels was observed in HEK 293 cells transfected with the TP alpha receptor only or in control cells transfected with the vector pCMV5. These results demonstrate that the TP alpha isoform functionally couples with either Gq or G11 in vivo, whether activated by a PG/TXA2 analog or by the F2 isoprostane 8-epi PGF2 alpha.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 1997;281;2;957-64

  • Specificity of G alpha q and G alpha 11 gene expression in platelets and erythrocytes. Expressions of cellular differentiation and species differences.

    Johnson GJ, Leis LA and Dunlop PC

    Department of Medicine, VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

    G alpha q and G alpha 11, members of the Gq family of G-proteins, transduce signals from receptors to the beta isoenzymes of phosphatidyl-inositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). The receptor specificity of these alpha subunits is unknown. G alpha q and G alpha 11 are ubiquitously expressed in tissues; however, there have been conflicting reports of the presence or absence of G alpha 11 protein in haematopoietic cells. Platelet thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TXA2/PGH2) receptors activate PI-PLC via G alpha q, but the role of G alpha 11 is uncertain. To define their roles in platelet activation we studied G alpha q and G alpha 11 gene expression by immunotransfer blotting and by reverse transcription of mRNA followed by PCR (RT-PCR) and direct sequencing. An antiserum specific for mouse G alpha 11 failed to identify G alpha 11 in dog or human platelets or in dog liver, a tissue known to contain G alpha 11. RT-PCR performed with gene-specific primers demonstrated G alpha q mRNA, but not G alpha 11 mRNA, in normal human and mouse platelets and in thromboxane-sensitive and thromboxane-insensitive dog platelets. Studies of mouse and dog liver and human retina confirmed that the cDNA, primers and probes used could amplify and recognize G alpha 11 in other tissues. However, species-specific oligonucleotide primers and probes were essential to demonstrate G alpha 11, but not G alpha q, mRNA. Compared with mouse cDNA, dog and human G alpha 11 cDNA had twice as many nucleotide substitutions (approx. 12% compared with approx. 6%) as G alpha q, G alpha q mRNA was also found in mature erythrocytes but G alpha 11 mRNA was not identified, whereas both G alpha q and G alpha 11 mRNAs were found in bone marrow stem cells. Therefore G alpha 11 gene expression in haematopoietic cells is linked with cellular differentiation. The lack of G alpha 11 indicates that signal transduction from platelet TXA2/PGH2 receptors to PI-PLC occurs via G alpha q, and that G alpha 11 deficiency is not responsible for defective activation of PI-PLC in thromboxane-insensitive dog platelets. Despite the high degree of similarity that exists between G alpha q and G alpha 11, significantly greater species-specific variation in nucleotide sequence is present in G alpha 11 than in G alpha q. Cellular specificity and species specificity are important characteristics of these Gq family G-proteins.

    The Biochemical journal 1996;318 ( Pt 3);1023-31

  • Ras involvement in signal transduction by the serotonin 5-HT2B receptor.

    Launay JM, Birraux G, Bondoux D, Callebert J, Choi DS, Loric S and Maroteaux L

    Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Université L. Pasteur de Strasbourg, CNRS, INSERM, BP 163-67404 Illkirch Cedex, France.

    The family of serotonin 5-HT2 receptors stimulates the phospholipase C second messenger pathway via the alpha subunit of the Gq GTP-binding protein. Here, we show that agonist stimulation of the 5-HT2B receptor subtype stably expressed in the mouse fibroblast LMTK- cell line causes a rapid and transient activation of the proto-oncogene product p21ras as measured by an increase in GTP-bound Ras in response to serotonin. Furthermore, 5-HT2B receptor stimulation activates p42mapk/p44mapk (ERK2/ERK1) mitogen-activated protein kinases as assayed by phosphorylation of myelin basic protein. Antibodies against p21ras, Galphaq, -beta, or -gamma2 subunits of the GTP-binding protein inhibit MAP kinase-dependent phosphorylation. The MAP kinase activation is correlated with a stimulation of cell division by serotonin. In addition to this mitogenic action, transforming activity of serotonin is mediated by the 5-HT2B receptor since its expression in LMTK- cells is absolutely required for foci formation and for these foci to form tumors in nude mice. Finally, we detected expression of the 5-HT2B receptor in spontaneous human and Mastomys natalensis carcinoid tumors and, similar to the 5-HT2B receptor transfected cells, the Mastomys tumor cells are also responsive to serotonin with similar coupling to p21ras activation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;6;3141-7

  • The human thyrotropin receptor: a heptahelical receptor capable of stimulating members of all four G protein families.

    Laugwitz KL, Allgeier A, Offermanns S, Spicher K, Van Sande J, Dumont JE and Schultz G

    Institut für Pharmakologie, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany.

    Thyrotropin is the primary hormone that, via one heptahelical receptor, regulates thyroid cell functions such as secretion, specific gene expression, and growth. In human thyroid, thyrotropin receptor activation leads to stimulation of the adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C cascades. However, the G proteins involved in thyrotropin receptor action have been only partially defined. In membranes of human thyroid gland, we immunologically identified alpha subunits of the G proteins Gs short, Gs long, Gi1, Gi2, Gi3, G(o) (Go2 and another form of Go, presumably Go1), Gq, G11, G12, and G13. Activation of the thyrotropin (TSH) receptor by bovine TSH led to increased incorporation of the photoreactive GTP analogue [alpha-32P]GTP azidoanilide into immunoprecipitated alpha subunits of all G proteins detected in thyroid membranes. This effect was receptor-dependent and not due to direct G protein stimulation because it was mimicked by TSH receptor-stimulating antibodies of patients suffering from Grave disease and was abolished by a receptor-blocking antiserum from a patient with autoimmune hypothyroidism. The TSH-induced activation of individual G proteins occurred with EC50 values of 5-50 milliunits/ml, indicating that the activated TSH receptor coupled with similar potency to different G proteins. When human thyroid slices were pretreated with pertussis toxin, the TSH receptor-mediated accumulation of cAMP increased by approximately 35% with TSH at 1 milliunits/ml, indicating that the TSH receptor coupled to Gs and G(i). Taken together, these findings show that, at least in human thyroid membranes, in which the protein is expressed at its physiological levels, the TSH receptor resembles a naturally occurring example of a general G protein-activating receptor.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1996;93;1;116-20

  • Interaction between G proteins and tyrosine kinases upon T cell receptor.CD3-mediated signaling.

    Stanners J, Kabouridis PS, McGuire KL and Tsoukas CD

    Department of Biology and Molecular Biology Institute, San Diego State University, California 92182, USA.

    Engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR).CD3 complex results in the induction of multiple intracellular events, with protein tyrosine kinases playing a pivotal role in their initiation. Biochemical studies also exist suggesting the involvement of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins); however, the functional consequence of this participation in TCR.CD3-mediated signaling is unresolved. Here, we report TCR.CD3-mediated guanine nucleotide exchange among the 42-kDa G protein alpha subunits of the G alpha q/11 family, their physical association with CD3 epsilon, and the G alpha 11-dependent activation of phospholipase C beta. Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, however, abrogate TCR.CD3-mediated G protein activation. Quite interesting is the observation that cells transfected with a function-deficient mutant of G alpha 11 display diminished tyrosine phosphorylation of TCR.CD3 zeta and epsilon chains, as well as ZAP-70, upon anti-CD3 antibody triggering. These data indicate the involvement of the G alpha q/11 family in TCR.CD3 signaling at a step proximal to the receptor and suggest a reciprocal regulation between tyrosine kinases and G proteins in T cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA53382; NCRR NIH HHS: RR00833; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM39518

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;51;30635-42

  • Ca2+ signalling in K562 human erythroleukaemia cells: effect of dimethyl sulphoxide and role of G-proteins in thrombin- and thromboxane A2-activated pathways.

    Thomas CP, Dunn MJ and Mattera R

    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA.

    The human leukaemic cell line K562 is a pluripotent stem cell with the potential to mature along a megakaryocytic or erythroid line. In these cells, thrombin and U46619 (9,11-dideoxy-9 alpha, 11 alpha-methanoepoxy prostaglandin F2 alpha), a thromboxane A2 analogue, increased intracellular Ca2+ in a rapid and concentration-dependent manner. The peak transient observed with both thrombin and U46619 was preserved upon stimulation in the absence of extracellular calcium and blunted with phorbol myristate acetate, suggestive of activation of phospholipase C. Short-term treatment with leupeptin abolished the calcium response to thrombin, but did not alter that to U46619. Both pertussis toxin (PT) and DMSO pretreatment inhibited thrombin- but not U46619-stimulated intracellular calcium elevation, indicating that these agonists signal through different G-proteins. Western blot analysis of crude membranes from K562 cells revealed the presence of G12 alpha and G13 alpha; the other known PT-substrates, Gi1 alpha and G0 alpha, were not detected. Consistent with this observation, ADP-ribosylation experiments revealed the presence of two PT substrates which co-migrated with human erythrocyte G12 alpha and G13 alpha. An antibody raised against Gq/11 alpha, a subfamily of G-protein alpha subunits unmodified by PT, specifically recognized 42 kDa protein(s) in K562 cells. PCR amplification of reverse-transcribed K562 RNA followed by DNA sequencing showed that these cells express messages for both Gq alpha and G11 alpha. Treatment of K562 cells with DMSO reduced the levels of thrombin receptor mRNA, without simultaneous changes in the expression of G12 alpha and G13 alpha. We have thus identified Ca(2+)-mobilizing agonists and related G-proteins in K562 cells, together with changes induced by DMSO in this signalling pathway.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-22563; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 46552

    The Biochemical journal 1995;312 ( Pt 1);151-8

  • G alpha 15 and G alpha 16 couple a wide variety of receptors to phospholipase C.

    Offermanns S and Simon MI

    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125, USA.

    The murine G-protein alpha-subunit G alpha 15 and its human counterpart G alpha 16 are expressed in a subset of hematopoietic cells, and they have been shown to regulate beta-isoforms of inositide-specific phospholipase C. We studied the ability of a variety of receptors to interact with G alpha 15 and G alpha 16 by cotransfecting receptors and G-protein alpha-subunits in COS-7 cells. Activation of beta 2 adrenergic and muscarinic M2 receptors in cells expressing the receptors alone or together with G alpha q, G alpha 11, or G alpha 14 led to a very small stimulation of endogenous phospholipase C. However, when the receptors were coexpressed with G alpha 15 and G alpha 16, addition of appropriate ligands caused a severalfold increase in inositol phosphate production which was time- and dose-dependent. A similar activation of phospholipase C was observed when several other receptors which were previously shown to couple to members of the Gi and Gs family were coexpressed with G alpha 15/16. In addition, stimulation of inositol phosphate formation via receptors naturally coupled to phospholipase C was enhanced by cotransfection of G alpha 15 and G alpha 16. These data demonstrate that G alpha 15 and G alpha 16 are unique in that they can be activated by a wide variety of G-protein-coupled receptors. The ability of G alpha 15 and G alpha 16 to bypass the selectivity of receptor G-protein interaction can be a useful tool to understand the mechanism of receptor-induced G-protein activation. In addition, the promiscuous behavior of G alpha 15 and G alpha 16 toward receptors may be helpful in finding ligands corresponding to orphan receptors whose signaling properties are unknown.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM34236

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;25;15175-80

  • Phospholipase C-beta 1 is a GTPase-activating protein for Gq/11, its physiologic regulator.

    Berstein G, Blank JL, Jhon DY, Exton JH, Rhee SG and Ross EM

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235-9041.

    Purified M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptor and Gq/11 were coreconstituted in lipid vesicles. Addition of purified phospholipase C-beta 1 (PLC-beta 1) further stimulated the receptor-promoted steady-state GTPase activity of Gq/11 up to 20-fold. Stimulation depended upon receptor-mediated GTP-GDP exchange. Addition of PLC-beta 1 caused a rapid burst of hydrolysis of Gq/11-bound GTP that was at least 50-fold faster than in its absence. Thus, PLC-beta 1 stimulates hydrolysis of Gq/11-bound GTP and acts as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for its physiologic regulator, Gq/11. GTPase-stimulating activity was specific both for PLC-beta 1 and Gq/11. Such GAP activity by an effector coupled to a trimeric G protein can reconcile slow GTP hydrolysis by pure G proteins in vitro with fast physiologic deactivation of G protein-mediated signaling.

    Funded by: FIC NIH HHS: TW04475; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM30355

    Cell 1992;70;3;411-8

  • Evolution of the mammalian G protein alpha subunit multigene family.

    Wilkie TM, Gilbert DJ, Olsen AS, Chen XN, Amatruda TT, Korenberg JR, Trask BJ, de Jong P, Reed RR, Simon MI et al.

    Biology Division, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125.

    Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) transduce extracellular signals received by transmembrane receptors to effector proteins. The multigene family of G protein alpha subunits, which interact with receptors and effectors, exhibit a high level of sequence diversity. In mammals, 15 G alpha subunit genes can be grouped by sequence and functional similarities into four classes. We have determined the murine chromosomal locations of all 15 G alpha subunit genes using an interspecific backcross derived from crosses of C57BL/6J and Mus spretus mice. These data, in combination with mapping studies in humans, have provided insight into the events responsible for generating the genetic diversity found in the mammalian alpha subunit genes and a framework for elucidating the role of the G alpha subunits in disease.

    Nature genetics 1992;1;2;85-91

  • Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Jiang M, Pandey S, Tran VT and Fong HK

    Department of Microbiology, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles 90033.

    The expression of GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells was analyzed by RNA blot hybridization and cDNA amplification. Both adult and fetal human RPE cells contain mRNA for multiple G protein alpha subunits (G alpha) including Gs alpha, Gi-1 alpha, Gi-2 alpha, Gi-3 alpha, and Gz alpha (or Gx alpha), where Gs and Gi are proteins that stimulate or inhibit adenylyl cyclase, respectively, and Gz is a protein that may mediate pertussis toxin-insensitive events. Other G alpha-related mRNA transcripts were detected in fetal RPE cells by low-stringency hybridization to Gi-2 alpha and Gs alpha protein-coding cDNA probes. The diversity of G proteins in RPE cells was further studied by cDNA amplification with reverse transcriptase and the polymerase chain reaction. This approach revealed that, besides the above mentioned members of the G alpha gene family, at least two other G alpha subunits are expressed in RPE cells. Human retinal cDNA clones that encode one of the additional G alpha subunits were isolated and characterized. The results indicate that this G alpha subunit belongs to a separate subfamily of G proteins that may be insensitive to inhibition by pertussis toxin.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY08364

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1991;88;9;3907-11

Gene lists (3)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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