G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
phospholipase C, beta 4
G00001267 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000031853 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000101333 (Ensembl human gene)
5332 (Entrez Gene)
308 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PLCB4 (GeneCards)
600810 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:9059 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q15147 (UniProt)

Literature (23)

Pubmed - other

  • Common variations in PSMD3-CSF3 and PLCB4 are associated with neutrophil count.

    Okada Y, Kamatani Y, Takahashi A, Matsuda K, Hosono N, Ohmiya H, Daigo Y, Yamamoto K, Kubo M, Nakamura Y and Kamatani N

    Laboratory for Statistical Analysis, Center for Genomic Medicine, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Kanagawa, Japan.

    Neutrophils are the most abundant subtype of white blood cells (WBCs). Although the regulation of the numbers of neutrophils would have substantial clinical impacts, the studies on the variations associated with neutrophil count had not been performed further. To investigate genetic variations that regulate neutrophil count, we performed a genome-wide association study in 5771 Japanese subjects and a replication study using independent 1894 Japanese subjects. We identified two genetic loci significantly associated with neutrophil count (rs4794822 in PSMD3-CSF3 at 17q21.1, P = 6.3 x 10(-10); rs2072910 in PLCB4 at 20p12, P = 3.1 x 10(-10)). As these loci did not indicate significant associations with the counts of the other subtypes of WBCs (lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils), their specific associations with neutrophils were suggested. The combination of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these two loci explained 1.0% of the total variance of the log-transformed values of the neutrophil count in our study populations. The subjects who were homozygous for 'neutrophil-increasing alleles' in both of the SNPs (T alleles for rs4794822 and rs2072910) had 1.17-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.24) higher neutrophil count when compared with the subjects homozygous for 'neutrophil-decreasing alleles' (C alleles for rs4794822 and rs2072910). In conclusion, our study would demonstrate the significant contribution of PSMD3-CSF3 and PLCB4 loci to the regulation of neutrophil count.

    Human molecular genetics 2010;19;10;2079-85

  • Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment.

    Gratacòs M, Costas J, de Cid R, Bayés M, González JR, Baca-García E, de Diego Y, Fernández-Aranda F, Fernández-Piqueras J, Guitart M, Martín-Santos R, Martorell L, Menchón JM, Roca M, Sáiz-Ruiz J, Sanjuán J, Torrens M, Urretavizcaya M, Valero J, Vilella E, Estivill X, Carracedo A and Psychiatric Genetics Network Group

    CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

    A fundamental difficulty in human genetics research is the identification of the spectrum of genetic variants that contribute to the susceptibility to common/complex disorders. We tested here the hypothesis that functional genetic variants may confer susceptibility to several related common disorders. We analyzed five main psychiatric diagnostic categories (substance-abuse, anxiety, eating, psychotic, and mood disorders) and two different control groups, representing a total of 3,214 samples, for 748 promoter and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and/or neurodevelopment. We identified strong associations to individual disorders, such as growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) with anxiety disorders, prolactin regulatory element (PREB) with eating disorders, ionotropic kainate glutamate receptor 5 (GRIK5) with bipolar disorder and several SNPs associated to several disorders, that may represent individual and related disease susceptibility factors. Remarkably, a functional SNP, rs945032, located in the promoter region of the bradykinin receptor B2 gene (BDKRB2) was associated to three disorders (panic disorder, substance abuse, and bipolar disorder), and two additional BDKRB2 SNPs to obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depression, providing evidence for common variants of susceptibility to several related psychiatric disorders. The association of BDKRB2 (odd ratios between 1.65 and 3.06) to several psychiatric disorders supports the view that a common genetic variant could confer susceptibility to clinically related phenotypes, and defines a new functional hint in the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2009;150B;6;808-16

  • NPAS2 and PER2 are linked to risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

    Englund A, Kovanen L, Saarikoski ST, Haukka J, Reunanen A, Aromaa A, Lönnqvist J and Partonen T

    Department of Mental Health and Alcohol Research, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, FI-00300 Helsinki, Finland. ani.englund@thl.fi.

    Background: Mammalian circadian clocks control multiple physiological events. The principal circadian clock generates seasonal variations in behavior as well. Seasonality elevates the risk for metabolic syndrome, and evidence suggests that disruption of the clockwork can lead to alterations in metabolism. Our aim was to analyze whether circadian clock polymorphisms contribute to seasonal variations in behavior and to the metabolic syndrome.

    Methods: We genotyped 39 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 19 genes which were either canonical circadian clock genes or genes related to the circadian clockwork from 517 individuals drawn from a nationwide population-based sample. Associations between these SNPs and seasonality, metabolic syndrome and its risk factors were analyzed using regression analysis. The p-values were corrected for multiple testing.

    Results: Our findings link circadian gene variants to the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome, since Npas2 was associated with hypertension (P-value corrected for multiple testing = 0.0024) and Per2 was associated with high fasting blood glucose (P-value corrected for multiple testing = 0.049).

    Conclusion: Our findings support the view that relevant relationships between circadian clocks and the metabolic syndrome in humans exist.

    Journal of circadian rhythms 2009;7;5

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Altered neuregulin 1-erbB4 signaling contributes to NMDA receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia.

    Hahn CG, Wang HY, Cho DS, Talbot K, Gur RE, Berrettini WH, Bakshi K, Kamins J, Borgmann-Winter KE, Siegel SJ, Gallop RJ and Arnold SE

    Cellular and Molecular Neuropathology Program, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. hahnc@mail.med.upenn.edu

    Recent molecular genetics studies implicate neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its receptor erbB in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Among NRG1 receptors, erbB4 is of particular interest because of its crucial roles in neurodevelopment and in the modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling. Here, using a new postmortem tissue-stimulation approach, we show a marked increase in NRG1-induced activation of erbB4 in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Levels of NRG1 and erbB4, however, did not differ between schizophrenia and control groups. To evaluate possible causes for this hyperactivation of erbB4 signaling, we examined the association of erbB4 with PSD-95 (postsynaptic density protein of 95 kDa), as this association has been shown to facilitate activation of erbB4. Schizophrenia subjects showed substantial increases in erbB4-PSD-95 interactions. We found that NRG1 stimulation suppresses NMDA receptor activation in the human prefrontal cortex, as previously reported in the rodent cortex. NRG1-induced suppression of NMDA receptor activation was more pronounced in schizophrenia subjects than in controls, consistent with enhanced NRG1-erbB4 signaling seen in this illness. Therefore, these findings suggest that enhanced NRG1 signaling may contribute to NMDA hypofunction in schizophrenia.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH63946, MH64045

    Nature medicine 2006;12;7;824-8

  • Decoding the fine-scale structure of a breast cancer genome and transcriptome.

    Volik S, Raphael BJ, Huang G, Stratton MR, Bignel G, Murnane J, Brebner JH, Bajsarowicz K, Paris PL, Tao Q, Kowbel D, Lapuk A, Shagin DA, Shagina IA, Gray JW, Cheng JF, de Jong PJ, Pevzner P and Collins C

    Department of Urology, and Cancer Research Institute, University of California San Francisco Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California 94115, USA.

    A comprehensive understanding of cancer is predicated upon knowledge of the structure of malignant genomes underlying its many variant forms and the molecular mechanisms giving rise to them. It is well established that solid tumor genomes accumulate a large number of genome rearrangements during tumorigenesis. End Sequence Profiling (ESP) maps and clones genome breakpoints associated with all types of genome rearrangements elucidating the structural organization of tumor genomes. Here we extend the ESP methodology in several directions using the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. First, targeted ESP is applied to multiple amplified loci, revealing a complex process of rearrangement and co-amplification in these regions reminiscent of breakage/fusion/bridge cycles. Second, genome breakpoints identified by ESP are confirmed using a combination of DNA sequencing and PCR. Third, in vitro functional studies assign biological function to a rearranged tumor BAC clone, demonstrating that it encodes anti-apoptotic activity. Finally, ESP is extended to the transcriptome identifying four novel fusion transcripts and providing evidence that expression of fusion genes may be common in tumors. These results demonstrate the distinct advantages of ESP including: (1) the ability to detect all types of rearrangements and copy number changes; (2) straightforward integration of ESP data with the annotated genome sequence; (3) immortalization of the genome; (4) ability to generate tumor-specific reagents for in vitro and in vivo functional studies. Given these properties, ESP could play an important role in a tumor genome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA069044, R01 CA69044, R33 CA103068; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL66728; NIEHS NIH HHS: R01 ES008427

    Genome research 2006;16;3;394-404

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Signaling pathways triggered by HIV-1 Tat in human monocytes to induce TNF-alpha.

    Bennasser Y, Badou A, Tkaczuk J and Bahraoui E

    Laboratoire d'Immuno-Virologie, EA 3038, Université Paul Sabatier 118, route de Narbonne, 31062, Toulouse Cedex, France.

    In this study we investigated the signaling pathways triggered by Tat in human monocyte to induce TNF-alpha. In monocytes, the calcium, the PKA, and the PKC pathways are highly implicated in the expression of cytokine genes. Thus, these three major signaling pathways were investigated. Our data show that (i) PKC and calcium pathways are required for TNF-alpha production, whereas the PKA pathway seems to be not involved; (ii) downstream from PKC, activation of NFkappaB is essential while ERK1/2 MAP kinases, even though activated by Tat, are not directly involved in the pathway signaling leading to TNF-alpha production.

    Virology 2002;303;1;174-80

  • The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20.

    Deloukas P, Matthews LH, Ashurst J, Burton J, Gilbert JG, Jones M, Stavrides G, Almeida JP, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Barlow KF, Bates KN, Beard LM, Beare DM, Beasley OP, Bird CP, Blakey SE, Bridgeman AM, Brown AJ, Buck D, Burrill W, Butler AP, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clamp M, Clark G, Clark LN, Clark SY, Clee CM, Clegg S, Cobley VE, Collier RE, Connor R, Corby NR, Coulson A, Coville GJ, Deadman R, Dhami P, Dunn M, Ellington AG, Frankland JA, Fraser A, French L, Garner P, Grafham DV, Griffiths C, Griffiths MN, Gwilliam R, Hall RE, Hammond S, Harley JL, Heath PD, Ho S, Holden JL, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hunt AR, Hunt SE, Jekosch K, Johnson CM, Johnson D, Kay MP, Kimberley AM, King A, Knights A, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lehvaslaiho MH, Leversha M, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Lovell JD, Marsh VL, Martin SL, McConnachie LJ, McLay K, McMurray AA, Milne S, Mistry D, Moore MJ, Mullikin JC, Nickerson T, Oliver K, Parker A, Patel R, Pearce TA, Peck AI, Phillimore BJ, Prathalingam SR, Plumb RW, Ramsay H, Rice CM, Ross MT, Scott CE, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Sims S, Skuce CD, Smith ML, Soderlund C, Steward CA, Sulston JE, Swann M, Sycamore N, Taylor R, Tee L, Thomas DW, Thorpe A, Tracey A, Tromans AC, Vaudin M, Wall M, Wallis JM, Whitehead SL, Whittaker P, Willey DL, Williams L, Williams SA, Wilming L, Wray PW, Hubbard T, Durbin RM, Bentley DR, Beck S and Rogers J

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. panos@sanger.ac.uk

    The finished sequence of human chromosome 20 comprises 59,187,298 base pairs (bp) and represents 99.4% of the euchromatic DNA. A single contig of 26 megabases (Mb) spans the entire short arm, and five contigs separated by gaps totalling 320 kb span the long arm of this metacentric chromosome. An additional 234,339 bp of sequence has been determined within the pericentromeric region of the long arm. We annotated 727 genes and 168 pseudogenes in the sequence. About 64% of these genes have a 5' and a 3' untranslated region and a complete open reading frame. Comparative analysis of the sequence of chromosome 20 to whole-genome shotgun-sequence data of two other vertebrates, the mouse Mus musculus and the puffer fish Tetraodon nigroviridis, provides an independent measure of the efficiency of gene annotation, and indicates that this analysis may account for more than 95% of all coding exons and almost all genes.

    Nature 2001;414;6866;865-71

  • Creation of genome-wide protein expression libraries using random activation of gene expression.

    Harrington JJ, Sherf B, Rundlett S, Jackson PD, Perry R, Cain S, Leventhal C, Thornton M, Ramachandran R, Whittington J, Lerner L, Costanzo D, McElligott K, Boozer S, Mays R, Smith E, Veloso N, Klika A, Hess J, Cothren K, Lo K, Offenbacher J, Danzig J and Ducar M

    Athersys, Inc., 3201 Carnegie Ave., Cleveland, OH 44115, USA. jharrington@athersys.com

    Here we report the use of random activation of gene expression (RAGE) to create genome-wide protein expression libraries. RAGE libraries containing only 5 x 10(6) individual clones were found to express every gene tested, including genes that are normally silent in the parent cell line. Furthermore, endogenous genes were activated at similar frequencies and expressed at similar levels within RAGE libraries created from multiple human cell lines, demonstrating that RAGE libraries are inherently normalized. Pools of RAGE clones were used to isolate 19,547 human gene clusters, approximately 53% of which were novel when tested against public databases of expressed sequence tag (EST) and complementary DNA (cDNA). Isolation of individual clones confirmed that the activated endogenous genes can be expressed at high levels to produce biologically active proteins. The properties of RAGE libraries and RAGE expression clones are well suited for a number of biotechnological applications including gene discovery, protein characterization, drug development, and protein manufacturing.

    Nature biotechnology 2001;19;5;440-5

  • Cloning and characterization of the human phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-beta 1 (PLC beta 1).

    Caricasole A, Sala C, Roncarati R, Formenti E and Terstappen GC

    Biology Department, GlaxoWellcome Medicines Research Centre, Verona, Italy.

    Phospholipase C-beta (PLC beta) catalyses the generation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) and diacylglycerol (DAG) from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (IP(2)), a key step in the intracellular transduction of a large number of extracellular signals, including neurotransmitters and hormones modulating diverse developmental and functional aspects of the mammalian central nervous system. Four mammalian isozymes are known (PLC beta 1-4), which differ in their function and expression patterns in vivo. We have characterized the human PLC beta 1 genomic locus (PLC beta 1), cloned two distinct PLC beta 1 cDNAs (PLC beta 1a and b) and analysed their respective expression patterns in a comprehensive panel of human tissues using quantitative TaqMan technology. The two cDNAs derive from transcripts generated through alternative splicing at their 3' end, and are predicted to encode for PLC beta 1 isoforms differing at their carboxy-terminus. The human PLC beta 1 isoforms are co-expressed in the same tissues with a distinctly CNS-specific profile of expression. Quantitative differences in PLC beta 1 isoform expression levels are observed in some tissues. Transient expression of epitope-tagged versions of the two isoforms followed by immunofluorescence revealed localization of the proteins to the cytoplasm and the inner side of the cell membrane. Finally, we characterized the structure of the PLC beta 1 locus and confirmed its mapping to human chromosome 20.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2000;1517;1;63-72

  • Release of calcium from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-regulated stores by HIV-1 Tat regulates TNF-alpha production in human macrophages.

    Mayne M, Holden CP, Nath A and Geiger JD

    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

    HIV-1 protein Tat is neurotoxic and increases macrophage and microglia production of TNF-alpha, a cytopathic cytokine linked to the neuropathogenesis of HIV dementia. Others have shown that intracellular calcium regulates TNF-alpha production in macrophages, and we have shown that Tat releases calcium from inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor-regulated stores in neurons and astrocytes. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that Tat-induced TNF-alpha production was dependent on the release of intracellular calcium from IP3-regulated calcium stores in primary macrophages. We found that Tat transiently and dose-dependently increased levels of intracellular calcium and that this increase was blocked by xestospongin C, pertussis toxin, and by phospholipase C and type 1 protein kinase C inhibitors but not by protein kinase A or phospholipase A2 inhibitors. Xestospongin C, BAPTA-AM, U73122, and bisindolylmalemide significantly inhibited Tat-induced TNF-alpha production. These results demonstrate that in macrophages, Tat-induced release of calcium from IP3-sensitive intracellular stores and activation of nonconventional PKC isoforms play an important role in Tat-induced TNF-alpha production.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2000;164;12;6538-42

  • Involvement of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-regulated stores of intracellular calcium in calcium dysregulation and neuron cell death caused by HIV-1 protein tat.

    Haughey NJ, Holden CP, Nath A and Geiger JD

    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Manitoba Faculty of Medicine, Winnipeg, Canada.

    HIV-1 infection commonly leads to neuronal cell death and a debilitating syndrome known as AIDS-related dementia complex. The HIV-1 protein Tat is neurotoxic, and because cell survival is affected by the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), we determined mechanisms by which Tat increased [Ca2+]i and the involvement of these mechanisms in Tat-induced neurotoxicity. Tat increased [Ca2+]i dose-dependently in cultured human fetal neurons and astrocytes. In neurons, but not astrocytes, we observed biphasic increases of [Ca2+]i. Initial transient increases were larger in astrocytes than in neurons and in both cell types were significantly attenuated by antagonists of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated intracellular calcium release [8-(diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate HCI (TMB-8) and xestospongin], an inhibitor of receptor-Gi protein coupling (pertussis toxin), and a phospholipase C inhibitor (neomycin). Tat significantly increased levels of IP3 threefold. Secondary increases of neuronal [Ca2+]i in neurons were delayed and progressive as a result of excessive calcium influx and were inhibited by the glutamate receptor antagonists ketamine, MK-801, (+/-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, and 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione. Secondary increases of [Ca2+]i did not occur when initial increases of [Ca2+]i were prevented with TMB-8, xestospongin, pertussis toxin, or neomycin, and these inhibitors as well as thapsigargin inhibited Tat-induced neurotoxicity. These results suggest that Tat, via pertussis toxin-sensitive phospholipase C activity, induces calcium release from IP3-sensitive intracellular stores, which leads to glutamate receptor-mediated calcium influx, dysregulation of [Ca2+]i, and Tat-induced neurotoxicity.

    Journal of neurochemistry 1999;73;4;1363-74

  • HIV-1 tat molecular diversity and induction of TNF-alpha: implications for HIV-induced neurological disease.

    Mayne M, Bratanich AC, Chen P, Rana F, Nath A and Power C

    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

    Activation and infection by HIV-1 of glial cells and infiltrating macrophages are cardinal features of AIDS-related neurological disease. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is released by these cell types, and increased TNF-alpha mRNA and protein levels are associated with the development and severity of HIV-induced neurological disease. HIV-1 proteins have been implicated in HIV neuropathogenesis including Tat which has been shown to be a potent inducer of TNF-alpha. We review our data showing the induction of TNF-alpha by Tat in primary human fetal astrocytes, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, macrophages, and astrocytic and macrophage cell lines. TNF-alpha induction was NF-kappaB dependent and was eliminated by inhibiting protein kinase A, phospholipase C and protein tyrosine kinase activity. In addition, we examined the molecular diversity of the tat genome in the brains of HIV-infected patients from different HIV-1 clades. Comparison of matched brain- and spleen-derived tat sequences indicated that homology among brain-derived clones was greater than that between the brain- and spleen-derived clones. The brain-derived tat sequences were markedly heterogeneous in regions which influence viral replication and intracellular transport. Future studies using Tat, encoded by different sequences, will be necessary to determine the functional significance of tat molecular diversity. Nonetheless, these studies suggest that Tat is an important inducer of TNF-alpha production and thus may play a key role in the pathogenesis of HIV-related neurological disease.

    Neuroimmunomodulation 1998;5;3-4;184-92

  • The Tat protein of HIV-1 induces tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Implications for HIV-1-associated neurological diseases.

    Chen P, Mayne M, Power C and Nath A

    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3E 0W3.

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may cause a dementing illness. HIV-mediated dementia is clinically and pathologically correlated with the infiltration of activated macrophages and elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, both of which occur in an environment of small numbers of infected cells. We examined the possibility that HIV protein Tat, which is released extracellularly from infected cells, may induce the production of TNF-alpha. Tat induced TNF-alpha mRNA and protein production dose-dependently, primarily in macrophages but also in astrocytic cells. The TNF-alpha induction was NF-kappaB-dependent and could be eliminated by inhibiting protein kinase A or protein tyrosine kinase activity. In addition, Tat-induced TNF-alpha release was also linked to phospholipase C activation. However, Tat effects were independent of protein kinase C. These observations suggest that Tat may provide an important link between HIV and macrophage/glial cell activation and suggest new therapeutic approaches for HIV dementia.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;36;22385-8

  • Genetic mapping of the human and mouse phospholipase C genes.

    Lyu MS, Park DJ, Rhee SG and Kozak CA

    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    To determine chromosome positions for 10 mouse phospholipase C (PLC) genes, we typed the progeny of two sets of genetic crosses for inheritance of restriction enzyme polymorphisms of each PLC. Four mouse chromosomes, Chr 1, 11, 12, and 19, contained single PLC genes. Four PLC loci, Plcb1, Plcb2, Plcb4, and Plcg1, mapped to three sites on distal mouse Chr 2. Two PLC genes, Plcd1 and Plcg2, mapped to distinct sites on Chr 8. We mapped the human homologs of eight of these genes to six chromosomes by analysis of human x rodent somatic cell hybrids. The map locations of seven of these genes were consistent with previously defined regions of conserved synteny; Plcd1 defines a new region of homology between human Chr 3 and mouse Chr 8.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1996;7;7;501-4

  • cDNA sequence and gene locus of the human retinal phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase-C beta 4 (PLCB4).

    Alvarez RA, Ghalayini AJ, Xu P, Hardcastle A, Bhattacharya S, Rao PN, Pettenati MJ, Anderson RE and Baehr W

    Department of Ophthalmology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    Defects in the Drosophila norpA (no receptor potential A) gene encoding a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) block invertebrate phototransduction and lead to retinal degeneration. The mammalian homolog, PLCB4, is expressed in rat brain, bovine cerebellum, and the bovine retina in several splice variants. To determine a possible role of PLCB4 gene defects in human disease, we isolated several overlapping cDNA clones from a human retina library. The composite cDNA sequence predicts a human PLC beta 4 polypeptide of 1022 amino acid residues (MW 117,000). This PLC beta 4 variant lacks a 165-amino-acid N-terminal domain characteristic for the rat brain isoforms, but has a distinct putative exon 1 unique for human and bovine retina isoforms. A PLC beta 4 monospecific antibody detected a major (130 kDa) and a minor (160 kDa) isoform in retina homogenates. Somatic cell hybrids and deletion panels were used to localize the PCLB4 gene to the short arm of chromosome 20. The gene was further sublocalized to 20p12 by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY00871, EY04149, EY08123; ...

    Genomics 1995;29;1;53-61

  • Exogenous human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Tat protein selectively stimulates a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C nuclear pathway in the Jurkat T cell line.

    Zauli G, Previati M, Caramelli E, Bassini A, Falcieri E, Gibellini D, Bertolaso L, Bosco D, Robuffo I and Capitani S

    Institute of Human Anatomy, University of Ferrara, Italy.

    We investigated the effect of extracellular Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) on the phosphatidylinositol (PI) cycle, which represents a major signal transduction pathway in lymphoid cells. Recombinant Tat, recombinant HIV-1 p24 and cross-linked anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) were added in culture for 1-60 min to Jurkat lymphoblastoid CD4+ T cells. The stimulation of T cell receptor by cross-linked anti-CD3 mAb resulted in a rapid increase of the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) activity in whole cell lysates. On the other hand, Tat protein, either alone or in combination with anti-CD3 mAb, showed little effect on the PI turnover of whole cell extracts. Tat, however, selectively stimulated a nuclear-specific PI-PLC with a peak of activity after 30 min from the addition in culture to Jurkat cells. Interestingly, this time corresponded to that required for the uptake and nuclear localization of recombinant Tat protein, as demonstrated by electron microscope immunocytochemistry experiments with anti-Tat mAb. Moreover, exogenous Tat reached the nucleus of Jurkat cells in a bioactive form, as shown in a HIV-1 long terminal repeat-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase transactivation assay. The specific increase of a nuclear PI-PLC activity was further demonstrated by the ability of Tat to stimulate PI turnover also when added directly to isolated nuclei. As a whole, these data demonstrate that Tat selectively stimulates a nuclear polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis, which appears to be independent of the cellular PI turnover. The relevance of these findings for a better understanding of the biological functions of extracellular Tat is discussed.

    European journal of immunology 1995;25;9;2695-700

  • Phospholipase C-beta 1 is a GTPase-activating protein for Gq/11, its physiologic regulator.

    Berstein G, Blank JL, Jhon DY, Exton JH, Rhee SG and Ross EM

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235-9041.

    Purified M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptor and Gq/11 were coreconstituted in lipid vesicles. Addition of purified phospholipase C-beta 1 (PLC-beta 1) further stimulated the receptor-promoted steady-state GTPase activity of Gq/11 up to 20-fold. Stimulation depended upon receptor-mediated GTP-GDP exchange. Addition of PLC-beta 1 caused a rapid burst of hydrolysis of Gq/11-bound GTP that was at least 50-fold faster than in its absence. Thus, PLC-beta 1 stimulates hydrolysis of Gq/11-bound GTP and acts as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for its physiologic regulator, Gq/11. GTPase-stimulating activity was specific both for PLC-beta 1 and Gq/11. Such GAP activity by an effector coupled to a trimeric G protein can reconcile slow GTP hydrolysis by pure G proteins in vitro with fast physiologic deactivation of G protein-mediated signaling.

    Funded by: FIC NIH HHS: TW04475; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM30355

    Cell 1992;70;3;411-8

  • Human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoproteins gp120 and gp160 specifically inhibit the CD3/T cell-antigen receptor phosphoinositide transduction pathway.

    Cefai D, Debre P, Kaczorek M, Idziorek T, Autran B and Bismuth G

    Laboratoire d'Immunologie Cellulaire et Tissulaire, Group Hospitalier (GH) Pitié-Salpétrière, Paris, France.

    The interference of the recombinant HIV-1 glycoproteins gp160 and gp120 with the CD3/T cell antigen receptor (TcR)-mediated activation process has been investigated in the CD4+ diphtheria toxoid-specific human P28D T cell clone. Both glycoproteins clearly inhibit the T cell proliferation induced in an antigen-presenting cell (APC)-free system by various cross-linked monoclonal antibodies specific for the CD3 molecule or the TcR alpha chain (up to 80% inhibition). Biochemical studies further demonstrate that exposure of the T cell clone to both glycoproteins (gps) specifically inhibits the CD3/TcR phospholipase C (PLC) transduction pathway, without affecting the CD3/TcR cell surface expression. Thus, inositol phosphate production, phosphatidic acid turnover, intracellular free calcium, and intracellular pH increase induced by CD3/TcR-specific MAbs are specifically impaired in gps-treated P28D T cells. Addition of purified soluble CD4 prevents binding of gps to T cells and overcomes all observed inhibitions. Maximal inhibitions are obtained for long-term exposure of the T cell clone to gps (16 h). No early effect of gps is observed. By contrast, gp160 and gp120 fail to suppress the CD2-triggered functional and biochemical P28D T cell responses. These results demonstrate that, in addition to their postulated role in the alteration of the interaction between CD4 on T lymphocytes and MHC class II molecules on APC, soluble HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins may directly and specifically impair the CD3/TcR-mediated activation of PLC in uninfected T cells via the CD4 molecule.

    The Journal of clinical investigation 1990;86;6;2117-24

  • Purification and characterization of membrane-bound phospholipase C specific for phosphoinositides from human platelets.

    Banno Y, Yada Y and Nozawa Y

    Department of Biochemistry, Gifu University School of Medicine, Japan.

    Two peaks (mPLC-I and mPLC-II) of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-hydrolyzing activity were resolved when 1% sodium cholate extract from particulate fractions of human platelet was chromatographed on a heparin-Sepharose column. The major peak of enzyme activity (mPLC-II) was purified to homogeneity by a combination of Fast Q-Sepharose, heparin-Sepharose, Ultrogel AcA-44, Mono Q, Superose 6-12 combination column, and Superose 12 column chromatographies. The specific activity increased 2,700-fold as compared with that of the starting particulate fraction. The purified mPLC-II had an estimated molecular weight of 61,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The minor peak of enzyme activity (mPLC-I) was partially purified to 430-fold. Both enzymes hydrolyzed PIP2 at low Ca2+ concentration (0.1-10 microM) and exhibited higher Vmax for PIP2 than for phosphatidylinositol. PIP2-hydrolyzing activities of both enzymes were enhanced by various detergents and lipids, such as deoxycholate, cholate, phosphatidylethanolamine, and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine. The mPLC-I and mPLC-II activities were increased by Ca2+, but not by Mg2+, while Hg2+, Fe2+, Cu2+, and La3+ were inhibitory. GTP-binding proteins (Gi, Go, and Ki-ras protein) had no significant effects on the mPLC-II activity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1988;263;23;11459-65

Gene lists (3)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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