G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
kinectin 1 (kinesin receptor)
G00001263 (Mus musculus)

Databases (9)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000028842 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000126777 (Ensembl human gene)
3895 (Entrez Gene)
1105 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
KTN1 (GeneCards)
600381 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:6467 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
3178 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
Q86UP2 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • CG1
  • KIAA0004

Literature (31)

Pubmed - other

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIDDK NIH HHS: K01 DK098285; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • Candidate-gene testing for orphan limb-girdle muscular dystrophies.

    Aurino S, Piluso G, Saccone V, Cacciottolo M, D'Amico F, Dionisi M, Totaro A, Belsito A, Di Vicino U and Nigro V

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine (TIGEM), Naples, Italy.

    The term limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) identify about two dozens of distinct genetic disorders. Additional genes must play a role, since there are LGMD families excluded from any known locus. The aim of our work is to test a number of candidate genes in unclassified LGMD patient and control DNA samples. We selected the following 11 candidate genes: myozenin 1, 2 and 3, gamma-filamin, kinectin-1, enolase-3 beta, ZASP, TRIM 11 and TRIM 17, OZZ and zeta-sarcoglycan. These candidates were chosen for a combination of different reasons: chromosomal position, sequence homology, interaction properties or muscular dystrophy phenotypes in animal models. The exon and flanking intron sequences were subjected to molecular testing by comparative mutation scanning by HT-DHPLC of LGMD patients versus control. We identified a large number of variations in any of the genes in both patients and controls. Correlations with disease or possible modifying effects on the LGMD phenotype remain to be investigated.

    Acta myologica : myopathies and cardiomyopathies : official journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology 2008;27;90-7

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Kinectin-dependent assembly of translation elongation factor-1 complex on endoplasmic reticulum regulates protein synthesis.

    Ong LL, Lin PC, Zhang X, Chia SM and Yu H

    National University Medical Institutes, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597, Singapore.

    Kinectin is an integral membrane protein with many isoforms primarily found on the endoplasmic reticulum. It has been found to bind kinesin, Rho GTPase, and translation elongation factor-1delta. None of the existing models for the quaternary organization of the elongation factor-1 complex in higher eukaryotes involves kinectin. We have investigated here the assembly of the elongation factor-1 complex onto endoplasmic reticulum via kinectin using in vitro and in vivo assays. We established that the entire elongation factor-1 complex can be anchored to endoplasmic reticulum via kinectin, and the interacting partners are as follows. Kinectin binds EF-1delta, which in turn binds EF-1gamma but not EF-1beta; EF-1gamma binds EF-1delta and EF-1beta but not kinectin. In vivo splice blocking of the kinectin exons 36 and 37 produced kinectin lacking the EF-1delta binding domain, which disrupted the membrane localization of EF-1delta, EF-1gamma, and EF-1beta on endoplasmic reticulum, similar to the disruptions seen with the overexpression of kinectin fragments containing the EF-1delta binding domain. The disruptions of the EF-1delta/kinectin interaction inhibited expression of membrane proteins but enhanced synthesis of cytosolic proteins in vivo. These findings suggest that anchoring the elongation factor-1 complex onto endoplasmic reticulum via EF-1delta/kinectin interaction is important for regulating protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;44;33621-34

  • Kinectin participates in microtubule-dependent hormone secretion in pancreatic islet beta-cells.

    Bai JZ, Mon Y and Krissansen GW

    Department of Molecular Medicine & Pathology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

    Kinectin (KNT) is a candidate membrane receptor for kinesin in the movement of intracellular organelles along microtubules. Isoforms of KNT exist containing different combinations of six small (residues 23-33) variable domains (vd) vd1-6 within the C-terminus. Here we investigate a role for KNT and its isoform KNTvd4(-) in the transport of amylin and insulin-containing secretory vesicles in the pancreatic islet beta-cell line RINm5F. KNTvd4(-) lacks vd4 that forms the kinesin-binding domain, and hence its role in the cell is an enigma. We report that amylin-containing vesicles also contained insulin, and exhibited microtubule, and small G-protein-dependent secretion. Knockdown of KNT by small interference RNA (siRNA) inhibited amylin expression and secretion. In contrast, recombinant KNTvd4(-) overexpressed in RINm5F cells associated with amylin-containing vesicles and inhibited amylin secretion, but had no discernible affect on amylin expression. The data suggests that both KNT and KNTvd4(-) participate in microtubule-dependent secretion of amylin in islet beta-cells.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Cell biology international 2006;30;11;885-94

  • Single-molecule observations of neck linker conformational changes in the kinesin motor protein.

    Tomishige M, Stuurman N and Vale RD

    Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan. tomishige@ap.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    Kinesin-1 is a dimeric motor protein that moves cargo processively along microtubules. Kinesin motility has been proposed to be driven by the coordinated forward extension of the neck linker (a approximately 12-residue peptide) in one motor domain and the rearward positioning of the neck linker in the partner motor domain. To test this model, we have introduced fluorescent dyes selectively into one subunit of the kinesin dimer and performed 'half-molecule' fluorescence resonance energy transfer to measure conformational changes of the neck linker. We show that when kinesin binds with both heads to the microtubule, the neck linkers in the rear and forward heads extend forward and backward, respectively. During ATP-driven motility, the neck linkers switch between these conformational states. These results support the notion that neck linker movements accompany the 'hand-over-hand' motion of the two motor domains.

    Nature structural & molecular biology 2006;13;10;887-94

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Kinectin anchors the translation elongation factor-1 delta to the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Ong LL, Er CP, Ho A, Aung MT and Yu H

    National University Medical Institutes and Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597.

    Kinectin has been proposed to be a membrane anchor for kinesin on intracellular organelles. A kinectin isoform that lacks a major portion of the kinesin-binding domain does not bind kinesin but interacts with another resident of the endoplasmic reticulum, the translation elongation factor-1 delta (EF-1 delta). This was shown by yeast two-hybrid analysis and a number of in vitro and in vivo assays. EF-1 delta provides the guanine nucleotide exchange activities on EF-1 alpha during elongation step of protein synthesis. The minimal EF-1 delta-binding domain on kinectin resides within a conserved region present in all the kinectin isoforms. Overexpression of the kinectin fragments in vivo disrupted the intracellular localization of EF-1 delta proteins. This report provides evidence of an alternative kinectin function as the membrane anchor for EF-1 delta on the endoplasmic reticulum and provides clues to the EF-1 complex assembly and anchorage on the endoplasmic reticulum.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;34;32115-23

  • RhoE binds to ROCK I and inhibits downstream signaling.

    Riento K, Guasch RM, Garg R, Jin B and Ridley AJ

    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Royal Free and University College School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

    RhoE belongs to the Rho GTPase family, the members of which control actin cytoskeletal dynamics. RhoE induces stress fiber disassembly in a variety of cell types, whereas RhoA stimulates stress fiber assembly. The similarity of RhoE and RhoA sequences suggested that RhoE might compete with RhoA for interaction with its targets. Here, we show that RhoE binds ROCK I but none of the other RhoA targets tested. The interaction of RhoE with ROCK I was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation of the endogenous proteins, and the two proteins colocalized on the trans-Golgi network in COS-7 cells. Although RhoE and RhoA were not able to bind ROCK I simultaneously, RhoE bound to the amino-terminal region of ROCK I encompassing the kinase domain, at a site distant from the carboxy-terminal RhoA-binding site. Overexpression of RhoE inhibited ROCK I-induced stress fiber formation and phosphorylation of the ROCK I target myosin light chain phosphatase. These data suggest that RhoE induces stress fiber disassembly by directly binding ROCK I and inhibiting it from phosphorylating downstream targets.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2003;23;12;4219-29

  • The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 14.

    Heilig R, Eckenberg R, Petit JL, Fonknechten N, Da Silva C, Cattolico L, Levy M, Barbe V, de Berardinis V, Ureta-Vidal A, Pelletier E, Vico V, Anthouard V, Rowen L, Madan A, Qin S, Sun H, Du H, Pepin K, Artiguenave F, Robert C, Cruaud C, Brüls T, Jaillon O, Friedlander L, Samson G, Brottier P, Cure S, Ségurens B, Anière F, Samain S, Crespeau H, Abbasi N, Aiach N, Boscus D, Dickhoff R, Dors M, Dubois I, Friedman C, Gouyvenoux M, James R, Madan A, Mairey-Estrada B, Mangenot S, Martins N, Ménard M, Oztas S, Ratcliffe A, Shaffer T, Trask B, Vacherie B, Bellemere C, Belser C, Besnard-Gonnet M, Bartol-Mavel D, Boutard M, Briez-Silla S, Combette S, Dufossé-Laurent V, Ferron C, Lechaplais C, Louesse C, Muselet D, Magdelenat G, Pateau E, Petit E, Sirvain-Trukniewicz P, Trybou A, Vega-Czarny N, Bataille E, Bluet E, Bordelais I, Dubois M, Dumont C, Guérin T, Haffray S, Hammadi R, Muanga J, Pellouin V, Robert D, Wunderle E, Gauguet G, Roy A, Sainte-Marthe L, Verdier J, Verdier-Discala C, Hillier L, Fulton L, McPherson J, Matsuda F, Wilson R, Scarpelli C, Gyapay G, Wincker P, Saurin W, Quétier F, Waterston R, Hood L and Weissenbach J

    Genoscope-Centre National de Séquençage, 91000, Evry, France. heilig@genoscope.cns.fr

    Chromosome 14 is one of five acrocentric chromosomes in the human genome. These chromosomes are characterized by a heterochromatic short arm that contains essentially ribosomal RNA genes, and a euchromatic long arm in which most, if not all, of the protein-coding genes are located. The finished sequence of human chromosome 14 comprises 87,410,661 base pairs, representing 100% of its euchromatic portion, in a single continuous segment covering the entire long arm with no gaps. Two loci of crucial importance for the immune system, as well as more than 60 disease genes, have been localized so far on chromosome 14. We identified 1,050 genes and gene fragments, and 393 pseudogenes. On the basis of comparisons with other vertebrate genomes, we estimate that more than 96% of the chromosome 14 genes have been annotated. From an analysis of the CpG island occurrences, we estimate that 70% of these annotated genes are complete at their 5' end.

    Nature 2003;421;6923;601-7

  • Integrin clustering induces kinectin accumulation.

    Tran H, Pankov R, Tran SD, Hampton B, Burgess WH and Yamada KM

    Craniofacial Developmental Biology and Regeneration Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-4370, USA.

    Integrin receptors mediate the formation of adhesion complexes and play important roles in signal transduction from the extracellular matrix. Integrin-based adhesion complexes (IAC) contain proteins that link integrins to the cytoskeleton and recruit signaling molecules, including vinculin, paxillin, focal adhesion kinase, talin and alpha-actinin. In this study, we describe a approximately 160 kDa protein that is markedly enriched at IAC induced by clustering integrins with fibronectin-coated beads. Protein sequence analysis reveals that this approximately 160 kDa protein is kinectin. Kinectin is an integral membrane protein found in endoplasmic reticulum, and it serves as a receptor for the motor protein kinesin. Fibronectin-induced IAC sequestered over half of the total cellular content of kinectin within 20 minutes. In addition, two other ER-resident proteins, RAP [low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) receptor-associated protein] and calreticulin, were found to be clustered at IAC, whereas kinesin was not. Our results identify a novel class of constituents of IAC.

    Journal of cell science 2002;115;Pt 10;2031-40

  • Kinectin is a key effector of RhoG microtubule-dependent cellular activity.

    Vignal E, Blangy A, Martin M, Gauthier-Rouvière C and Fort P

    Centre de Recherche en Biochimie Macromoléculaire, CNRS-UPR1086, 34293 Montpellier cedex 5, France.

    RhoG is a member of the Rho family of GTPases that activates Rac1 and Cdc42 through a microtubule-dependent pathway. To gain understanding of RhoG downstream signaling, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen from which we identified kinectin, a 156-kDa protein that binds in vitro to conventional kinesin and enhances microtubule-dependent kinesin ATPase activity. We show that RhoG(GTP) specifically interacts with the central domain of kinectin, which also contains a RhoA binding domain in its C terminus. Interaction was confirmed by coprecipitation of kinectin with active RhoG(G12V) in COS-7 cells. RhoG, kinectin, and kinesin colocalize in REF-52 and COS-7 cells, mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum but also in lysosomes. Kinectin distribution in REF-52 cells is modulated according to endogenous RhoG activity. In addition, by using injection of anti-kinectin antibodies that challenge RhoG-kinectin interaction or by blocking anti-kinesin antibodies, we show that RhoG morphogenic activity relies on kinectin interaction and kinesin activity. Finally, kinectin overexpression elicits Rac1- and Cdc42-dependent cytoskeletal effects and switches cells to a RhoA phenotype when RhoG activity is inhibited or microtubules are disrupted. The functional links among RhoG, kinectin, and kinesin are further supported by time-lapse videomicroscopy of COS-7 cells, which showed that the microtubule-dependent lysosomal transport is facilitated by RhoG activation or kinectin overexpression and is severely stemmed upon RhoG inhibition. These data establish that kinectin is a key mediator of microtubule-dependent RhoG activity and suggest that kinectin also mediates RhoG- and RhoA-dependent antagonistic pathways.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2001;21;23;8022-34

  • Creation of genome-wide protein expression libraries using random activation of gene expression.

    Harrington JJ, Sherf B, Rundlett S, Jackson PD, Perry R, Cain S, Leventhal C, Thornton M, Ramachandran R, Whittington J, Lerner L, Costanzo D, McElligott K, Boozer S, Mays R, Smith E, Veloso N, Klika A, Hess J, Cothren K, Lo K, Offenbacher J, Danzig J and Ducar M

    Athersys, Inc., 3201 Carnegie Ave., Cleveland, OH 44115, USA. jharrington@athersys.com

    Here we report the use of random activation of gene expression (RAGE) to create genome-wide protein expression libraries. RAGE libraries containing only 5 x 10(6) individual clones were found to express every gene tested, including genes that are normally silent in the parent cell line. Furthermore, endogenous genes were activated at similar frequencies and expressed at similar levels within RAGE libraries created from multiple human cell lines, demonstrating that RAGE libraries are inherently normalized. Pools of RAGE clones were used to isolate 19,547 human gene clusters, approximately 53% of which were novel when tested against public databases of expressed sequence tag (EST) and complementary DNA (cDNA). Isolation of individual clones confirmed that the activated endogenous genes can be expressed at high levels to produce biologically active proteins. The properties of RAGE libraries and RAGE expression clones are well suited for a number of biotechnological applications including gene discovery, protein characterization, drug development, and protein manufacturing.

    Nature biotechnology 2001;19;5;440-5

  • PIST: a novel PDZ/coiled-coil domain binding partner for the rho-family GTPase TC10.

    Neudauer CL, Joberty G and Macara IG

    Center for Cell Signaling, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, 22908-0577, USA.

    TC10 is a member of the Rho family of GTPases, most closely related to Cdc42. This family of proteins mediates cytoskeletal rearrangements, activation of signal transduction cascades, and activation of gene transcription. A current focus is to identify and characterize the GTPase effectors that are involved in these cellular events. Many specific effectors for Cdc42 have been identified, most of which bind equally well to TC10, though a subset has only a low affinity for TC10. No protein that specifically interacts with TC10 has yet been described. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of PIST, a TC10-specific interacting protein. PIST possesses a PDZ domain and two, putative, coiled-coil domains, one of which contains a leucine zipper. It interacts directly and specifically with TC10:GTP, though with low affinity, and a mutation within the effector binding domain of TC10 disrupts the interaction. PIST also forms homodimers. The first coiled-coil and PDZ domains are not necessary for these interactions, but deletion of the N-terminal portion of the leucine zipper abolishes dimerization. PIST may function as a scaffolding protein to link TC10 to signaling pathways.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA40042

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2001;280;2;541-7

  • Kinectin-kinesin binding domains and their effects on organelle motility.

    Ong LL, Lim AP, Er CP, Kuznetsov SA and Yu H

    National University Medical Institutes, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597.

    Intracellular organelle motility involves motor proteins that move along microtubules or actin filaments. One of these motor proteins, kinesin, was proposed to bind to kinectin on membrane organelles during movement. Whether kinectin is the kinesin receptor on organelles with a role in organelle motility has been controversial. We have characterized the sites of interaction between human kinectin and conventional kinesin using in vivo and in vitro assays. The kinectin-binding domain on the kinesin tail partially overlaps its head-binding domain and the myosin-Va binding domain. The kinesin-binding domain on kinectin resides near the COOH terminus and enhances the microtubule-stimulated kinesin-ATPase activity, and the overexpression of the kinectin-kinesin binding domains inhibited kinesin-dependent organelle motility in vivo. These data, when combined with other studies, suggest a role for kinectin in organelle motility.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;42;32854-60

  • Translocation t(10;14)(q11.2:q22.1) fusing the kinetin to the RET gene creates a novel rearranged form (PTC8) of the RET proto-oncogene in radiation-induced childhood papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Salassidis K, Bruch J, Zitzelsberger H, Lengfelder E, Kellerer AM and Bauchinger M

    Institute of Radiation Biology, Ludwig Maximilians University, München, Germany.

    Evaluation of 20 cases of radiation-induced childhood papillary thyroid carcinoma using fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of clonal translocations affecting the RET locus. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR indicated overexpression of the RET tyrosine kinase (TK) domain in four cases. In two cases, the RET rearrangements PTC6 and PTC7 were identified and assigned to balanced translocations t(7;10)(q32;q11.2) and t(1;10)(p13;q11.2), respectively. In one case with a balanced translocation t(10;14)(q11.2;q22.1), 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends revealed a novel type of RET oncogenic activation (PTC8), arising from a fusion of the 5' part of the kinectin (KTN1) gene to the TK domain of the RET gene. The presence of coiled-coil domains in the resulting ktn1/ret fusion protein suggests ligand-independent dimerization and thus constitutive activation of the ret TK domain.

    Cancer research 2000;60;11;2786-9

  • Kinesin and kinectin can associate with the melanosomal surface and form a link with microtubules in normal human melanocytes.

    Vancoillie G, Lambert J, Mulder A, Koerten HK, Mommaas AM, Van Oostveldt P and Naeyaert JM

    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, Gent, Belgium.

    Microtubuli play an important role in the organization of organelles and membrane traffic. They are present in melanocytic dendrites through which melanosomes are transported towards keratinocytes. Besides the actin-based motility systems, microtubuli-associated motor proteins also play a critical role in melanosome movement, as has recently been confirmed in mouse melanocytes. We investigated the in vitro expression of two forms of human conventional kinesin and its receptor kinectin in normal human epidermal melanocytes, keratinocytes, and dermal fibroblasts by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and northern blot analysis. In an attempt to gain insight into the subcellular distribution of kinesin and kinectin in melanocytes, double immunofluorescent staining and immunogold electron microscopy were performed. In all studied skin cells ubiquitous and neuronal kinesin are expressed, as well as the kinectin receptor. Immunofluorescent staining shows distinct but partially overlapping distributions for kinesin heavy chain and melanosomes, suggesting that kinesin is associated with some but not all of the melanosomes. Similar observations for kinectin indicate that this receptor can colocalize with melanosomes, which was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. The latter technique allowed us to demonstrate a close association between kinesin heavy chain, microtubuli, and melanosomes. The combined data from reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, northern blot analysis, double immunofluorescent staining, and immunogold electron microscopy suggest that kinesins and kinectin have an important role in microtubuli-based melanosome transport in human melanocytes.

    The Journal of investigative dermatology 2000;114;3;421-9

  • Analysis of RhoA-binding proteins reveals an interaction domain conserved in heterotrimeric G protein beta subunits and the yeast response regulator protein Skn7.

    Alberts AS, Bouquin N, Johnston LH and Treisman R

    Transcription Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, United Kingdom. alberts@cc.ucsf.edu

    To identify potential RhoA effector proteins, we conducted a two-hybrid screen for cDNAs encoding proteins that interact with a Gal4-RhoA.V14 fusion protein. In addition to the RhoA effector ROCK-I we identified cDNAs encoding Kinectin, mDia2 (a p140 mDia-related protein), and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, mNET1. ROCK-I, Kinectin, and mDia2 can bind the wild type forms of both RhoA and Cdc42 in a GTP-dependent manner in vitro. Comparison of the ROCK-I and Kinectin sequences revealed a short region of sequence homology that is both required for interaction in the two-hybrid assay and sufficient for weak interaction in vitro. Sequences related to the ROCK-I/Kinectin sequence homology are present in heterotrimeric G protein beta subunits and in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Skn7 protein. We show that beta2 and Skn7 can interact with mammalian RhoA and Cdc42 and yeast Rho1, both in vivo and in vitro. Functional assays in yeast suggest that the Skn7 ROCK-I/Kinectin homology region is required for its function in vivo.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;15;8616-22

  • Assignment of the human kinectin gene (KTN1), encoding a kinesin-binding protein, to chromosome 14 band q22.1 by in situ hybridization.

    Rao PN, Yu H, Hodge R, Pettenati MJ and Sheetz MP

    Department of Pediatrics/Medical Genetics, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA. nrao@pathology.medsch.ucla.edu

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 23345

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1997;79;3-4;196-7

  • Interaction of the Rho family small G proteins with kinectin, an anchoring protein of kinesin motor.

    Hotta K, Tanaka K, Mino A, Kohno H and Takai Y

    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Japan.

    The Rho family small G proteins are implicated in various cell functions, such as cell morphological change, cell motility, and cytokinesis. However, their modes of action in regulating these cell functions remain to be clarified. In the present study, we have isolated a cDNA encoding a protein which interacts with the GTP-bound form, but not with the GDP-bound form, of the Rho family members, including RhoA, Racl, and Cdc42, by the yeast two-hybrid method. This protein is kinectin, known to be a vesicle membrane anchoring protein of kinesin, which is an ATPase motor transporting vesicles along microtubules.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1996;225;1;69-74

  • The CG-1 gene, a member of the kinectin and ES/130 family, maps to human chromosome band 14q22.

    Print CG, Morris CM, Spurr NK, Rooke L and Krissansen GW

    Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Immunogenetics 1996;43;4;227-9

  • Characterization of kinectin, a kinesin-binding protein: primary sequence and N-terminal topogenic signal analysis.

    Yu H, Nicchitta CV, Kumar J, Becker M, Toyoshima I and Sheetz MP

    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    Kinectin is a kinesin-binding protein (Toyoshima et al., 1992) that is required for kinesin-based motility (Kumar et al., 1995). A kinectin cDNA clone containing a 4.7-kilobase insert was isolated from an embryonic chick brain cDNA library by immunoscreening with a panel of monoclonal antibodies. The cDNA contained an open reading frame of 1364 amino acids encoding a protein of 156 kDa. A bacterially expressed product of the full length cDNA bound purified kinesin. Transient expression in CV-1 cells gave an endoplasmic reticulum distribution that depended upon the N-terminal domain. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence indicated a highly hydrophobic near N-terminal stretch of 28 amino acids and a large portion (326-1248) of predicted alpha helical coiled coils. The 30-kDa fragment containing the N-terminal hydrophobic region was produced by cell-free in vitro translation and found to assemble with canine pancreas rough microsomes. Cleavage of the N terminus was not observed confirming its role as a potential transmembrane domain. Thus, the kinectin cDNA encodes a cytoplasmic-oriented integral membrane protein that binds kinesin and is likely to be a coiled-coil dimer.

    Molecular biology of the cell 1995;6;2;171-83

  • Molecular cloning and characterization of human kinectin.

    Fütterer A, Kruppa G, Krämer B, Lemke H and Krönke M

    Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Technische Universität München, Germany.

    We have identified a human cDNA that is homologous to the chicken kinectin, a putative receptor for the organelle motor kinesin. The human cDNA clone hybridized to a single 4.6-kb mRNA species that codes for a protein of 156 kDa molecular mass. The predicted primary translation product contains an N-terminal transmembrane helix followed by a bipartite nuclear localization sequence and two further C-terminal leucine zipper motifs. In addition, the aminoacid sequence revealed a large region (327-1362) of predicted alpha-helical coiled coils. A monoclonal antibody CT-1 raised against a GST-kinectin fusion protein produced a perinuclear, endoplasmic reticulum-like staining pattern in diverse cell types from different species, indicating evolutionary conservation. Monoclonal antibody CT-1 and anti-chicken kinectin antibodies cross-reacted both in Western blotting and immunoprecipitation with a 160-kDa protein, confirming the antigenic identity of this 160-kDa protein with chicken kinectin. Epitope tagging studies revealed that the nuclear localization sequence motif of kinectin is not functional. Furthermore, a truncated kinesin cDNA lacking the N-terminal hydrophobic domain revealed a nonspecific cytoplasmic staining pattern. Together the data suggest that kinectin is an integral membrane protein anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum via a transmembrane domain.

    Molecular biology of the cell 1995;6;2;161-70

  • Cloning of a gene encoding a human leukocyte protein characterised by extensive heptad repeats.

    Print CG, Leung E, Harrison JE, Watson JD and Krissansen GW

    Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Auckland, New Zealand.

    Complementary DNA (cDNA) clones, encoding a fusion protein that was recognised by an antiserum raised against a purified polypeptide fragment of a 180-kDa human leukocyte protein, were isolated from a lambda gt11 expressed library. The clones encoded a unique amino acid (aa) sequence interspersed with heptad repeats that typify coiled-coil proteins, and hybridised to a 5-kb transcript universally expressed in a panel of eight human tissues. Comparatively high levels of RNA expression were seen in testis, ovary and mitogen-activated peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). The deduced 1300-aa sequence reveals a protein with a typical signal peptide, a hydrophilic domain containing an N-terminal globular head with a nuclear localization signal sequence, a C-terminal region of coiled-coil structure, a candidate transmembrane domain, and a short 10-aa C-terminal domain. Rabbit polyclonal antisera raised against a truncated lambda gt11 fusion protein recognized a 150-170-kDa protein (non-reduced) in mitogen-activated PBLs. The protein designated here as CG-1 may exist as a homodimer destined for translocation to the nucleus, with a role in leukocyte differentiation and/or effector function.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Gene 1994;144;2;221-8

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. I. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0001-KIAA0040) deduced by analysis of randomly sampled cDNA clones from human immature myeloid cell line KG-1.

    Nomura N, Miyajima N, Sazuka T, Tanaka A, Kawarabayasi Y, Sato S, Nagase T, Seki N, Ishikawa K and Tabata S

    Institute of Gerontology, Nippon Medical School, Kanagawa, Japan.

    We established a protocol for the prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes based on the double selection and sequence analysis of cDNA clones with inserts carrying unreported 5'-terminal sequences and with insert sizes corresponding to nearly full-length transcripts. By applying the protocol, cDNA clones with inserts longer than 2 kb were isolated from a cDNA library of human immature myeloid cell line KG-1, and the coding sequences of 40 new genes were predicted. A computer search of the sequences indicated that 20 genes contained sequences similar to known genes in the GenBank/EMBL databases. The sequences of the remaining 20 genes were entirely new, and characteristic protein motifs or domains were identified in 32 genes. Other sequence features noted were that the coding sequences of 23 genes were followed by relatively long stretches of 3'-untranslated sequences and that 5 genes contained repetitive sequences in their 3'-untranslated regions. The chromosomal location of these genes has been determined. By increasing the scale of the above analysis, the coding sequences of many unidentified genes can be predicted.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1994;1;1;27-35

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. I. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0001-KIAA0040) deduced by analysis of randomly sampled cDNA clones from human immature myeloid cell line KG-1 (supplement).

    Nomura N, Miyajima N, Sazuka T, Tanaka A, Kawarabayasi Y, Sato S, Nagase T, Seki N, Ishikawa K and Tabata S

    Institute of Gerontology, Nippon Medical School, Kanagawa, Japan.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1994;1;1;47-56

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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