G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
ADAM metallopeptidase domain 22
G00001236 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000023426 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000008277 (Ensembl human gene)
53616 (Entrez Gene)
117 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ADAM22 (GeneCards)
603709 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
Protein Sequence
Q9P0K1 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • MDC2

Literature (19)

Pubmed - other

  • Polymorphisms in genes involved in neurodevelopment may be associated with altered brain morphology in schizophrenia: preliminary evidence.

    Gregório SP, Sallet PC, Do KA, Lin E, Gattaz WF and Dias-Neto E

    Laboratório de Neurociências (LIM-27), Departmento e Instituto de Psiquiatria, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

    An abnormality in neurodevelopment is one of the most robust etiologic hypotheses in schizophrenia (SZ). There is also strong evidence that genetic factors may influence abnormal neurodevelopment in the disease. The present study evaluated in SZ patients, whose brain structural data had been obtained with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the possible association between structural brain measures, and 32 DNA polymorphisms, located in 30 genes related to neurogenesis and brain development. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood cells of 25 patients with schizophrenia, genotyping was performed using diverse procedures, and putative associations were evaluated by standard statistical methods (using the software Statistical Package for Social Sciences - SPSS) with a modified Bonferroni adjustment. For reelin (RELN), a protease that guides neurons in the developing brain and underlies neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in adults, an association was found for a non-synonymous polymorphism (Val997Leu) with left and right ventricular enlargement. A putative association was also found between protocadherin 12 (PCDH12), a cell adhesion molecule involved in axonal guidance and synaptic specificity, and cortical folding (asymmetry coefficient of gyrification index). Although our results are preliminary, due to the small number of individuals analyzed, such an approach could reveal new candidate genes implicated in anomalous neurodevelopment in schizophrenia.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA016672

    Psychiatry research 2009;165;1-2;1-9

  • Expression, purification and insights into structure and folding of the ADAM22 pro domain.

    Sørensen HP, Jacobsen J, Nielbo S, Poulsen FM and Wewer UM

    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Biotech Research & Innovation Centre (BRIC), University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaløes Vej 5, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.

    The ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteases) are an important class of enzymes in the regulation of human disease. The pro domains of ADAMs are responsible for the latency and secretion of mature enzymes. Unlike other metzincins, ADAM pro domains remain bound to the mature enzyme after secretion. To understand the functions of human ADAM pro domains and to determine three-dimensional structures, we have screened promising targets for expression and purification properties when using Escherichia coli as the host. The pro domain of ADAM22 (ADAM22-P) expressed in E. coli was folded, as determined by CD and NMR spectroscopy. An ADAM22-P fragment encoding residues 26-199 could be expressed in high amounts, remained soluble above 1 mM, and was suitable for structural studies by NMR spectroscopy. CD spectroscopy and predictions suggest that the secondary structure in ADAM22-P consists of beta-strands. Furthermore, our data indicate that the pro domains of ADAMs are expressed as two subdomains. The most N-terminal subdomain (ADAM22-P(N)) was found to be susceptible to proteolysis and was required for folding stability of the second subdomain (ADAM22-P(C)).

    Protein expression and purification 2008;61;2;175-83

  • Autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy: absence of mutations in ADAM22 and Kv1 channel genes encoding LGI1-associated proteins.

    Diani E, Di Bonaventura C, Mecarelli O, Gambardella A, Elia M, Bovo G, Bisulli F, Pinardi F, Binelli S, Egeo G, Castellotti B, Striano P, Striano S, Bianchi A, Ferlazzo E, Vianello V, Coppola G, Aguglia U, Tinuper P, Giallonardo AT, Michelucci R and Nobile C

    CNR-Institute of Neurosciences, Section of Padua, Padova, Italy.

    Mutations in the LGI1 gene are linked to autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADTLE) in about half of the families tested, suggesting that ADLTE is genetically heterogeneous. Recently, the Lgi1 protein has been found associated with different protein complexes and two distinct molecular mechanisms possibly underlying ADLTE have been hypothesized: the one recognizes Lgi1 as a novel subunit of the presynaptic Kv1 potassium channel implicated in the regulation of channel inactivation, the other suggests that Lgi1 acts as a ligand that selectively binds to the postsynaptic receptor ADAM22, thereby regulating the glutamate-AMPA neurotransmission. Both mechanisms imply that LGI1 mutations result in alteration of synaptic currents, though of different types. Since their protein products have been found associated with Lgi1, the Kv1 channel subunit genes KCNA1, KCNA4, and KCNAB1 and ADAM22 can be considered strong candidates for ADLTE. We sequenced their coding exons and flanking splice sites in the probands of 9 carefully ascertained ADLTE families negative for LGI1 mutations. We failed to detect any mutation segregating with the disease, but identified several previously unreported polymorphisms. An association study of four non-synonymous variants (three found in ADAM22, one in KCNA4) in a population of 104 non-familial lateral temporal epilepsy cases did not show any modification of susceptibility to this disorder. Altogether, our results suggest that neither ADAM22 nor any of the three Kv1 channel genes are major causative genes for ADLTE.

    Funded by: Telethon: GGP02339

    Epilepsy research 2008;80;1;1-8

  • Differential coding potential of ADAM22 mRNAs.

    Gödde NJ, D'Abaco GM, Paradiso L and Novak U

    Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3050, Australia. n.godde@pgrad.unimelb.edu.au

    ADAM22 is one of three catalytically inactive ADAM family members highly expressed in the brain. Preliminary functional studies suggest possible roles in epilepsy and myelination. We report an additional eight new splice variants of human ADAM22. Analysis of the altered splicing patterns of ADAM22 mRNAs in glioma allows us to suggest alternate splicing patterns in normal brain compared to glioma may represent differential use of exon 32. We also report diversity in the 5' leader sequences of ADAM22 mRNAs as a consequence of alternate transcriptional initiation sites. ADAM22 has an additional transcriptional initiation element producing transcripts lacking the exon 1 sequence including the signal peptide. Variable transcriptional initiation in exon 1 produces a range of ADAM22 5' leader sequence lengths, all of which are significantly longer than those described in NCBI reference sequences. Longer 5' leader sequences contain a second upstream AUG codon which acts to inhibit ADAM22 translation.

    Gene 2007;403;1-2;80-8

  • Absence of mutations in the LGI1 receptor ADAM22 gene in autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy.

    Chabrol E, Gourfinkel-An I, Scheffer IE, Picard F, Couarch P, Berkovic SF, McMahon JM, Bajaj N, Mota-Vieira L, Mota R, Trouillard O, Depienne C, Baulac M, LeGuern E and Baulac S

    INSERM U679, Neurology and Experimental Therapeutics, Hôpital de la Pitié-Salpêtrière, 47 boulevard de l'hôpital, 75013 Paris, France.

    Mutations in the LGI1 (leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1) gene are found in less than a half of the families with autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE), suggesting that ADLTE is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Recently, it was shown that LGI1 is released by neurons and becomes part of a protein complex at the neuronal postsynaptic density where it is implicated in the regulation of glutamate-AMPA neurotransmission. Within this complex, LGI1 binds selectively to a neuronal specific membrane protein, ADAM22 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease). Since ADAM22 serves as a neuronal receptor for LGI1, the ADAM22 gene was considered a good candidate gene for ADLTE. We have therefore sequenced all coding exons and exon-intron flanking sites in the ADAM22 gene in the probands of 18 ADLTE families negative for LGI1 mutations. Although, we identified several synonymous and non-synonymous polymorphisms, we failed to identify disease-causing mutations, indicating that ADAM22 gene is probably not a major gene for this epilepsy syndrome.

    Epilepsy research 2007;76;1;41-8

  • Epilepsy-related ligand/receptor complex LGI1 and ADAM22 regulate synaptic transmission.

    Fukata Y, Adesnik H, Iwanaga T, Bredt DS, Nicoll RA and Fukata M

    Laboratory of Genomics and Proteomics, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Aichi 474-8522, Japan.

    Abnormally synchronized synaptic transmission in the brain causes epilepsy. Most inherited forms of epilepsy result from mutations in ion channels. However, one form of epilepsy, autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF), is characterized by mutations in a secreted neuronal protein, LGI1. We show that ADAM22, a transmembrane protein that when mutated itself causes seizure, serves as a receptor for LGI1. LGI1 enhances AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices. The mutated form of LGI1 fails to bind to ADAM22. ADAM22 is anchored to the postsynaptic density by cytoskeletal scaffolds containing stargazin. These studies in rat brain indicate possible avenues for understanding human epilepsy.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2006;313;5794;1792-5

  • Efficient ADAM22 surface expression is mediated by phosphorylation-dependent interaction with 14-3-3 protein family members.

    Gödde NJ, D'Abaco GM, Paradiso L and Novak U

    Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3050, Australia.

    ADAM22 is one of three catalytically inactive ADAM family members highly expressed in the brain. ADAM22 has numerous splice variants, all with considerable cytoplasmic tails of up to 148 amino acids. ADAM22 can act to inhibit cell proliferation, however, it has been suggested that it also acts as an adhesion protein. We identified three 14-3-3 protein members by a yeast two-hybrid screen and show by co-immunoprecipitation that the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM22 can interact with all six 14-3-3 proteins expressed in the brain. In addition, we show that 14-3-3 proteins interact preferentially with the serine phosphorylated precursor form of ADAM22. ADAM22 has two 14-3-3 protein binding consensus motifs; the first binding site, spanning residues 831-834, was shown to be the most crucial for 14-3-3 binding to occur. The interaction between ADAM22 and 14-3-3 proteins is dependent on phosphorylation of ADAM22, but not of 14-3-3 proteins. ADAM22 point mutants lacking functional 14-3-3 protein binding motifs could no longer accumulate efficiently at the cell surface. Deletion of both 14-3-3 binding sites and newly identified ER retention motifs restored localization of ADAM22 at the cell surface. These results reveal a role for 14-3-3 proteins in targeting ADAM22 to the membrane by masking ER retention signals.

    Journal of cell science 2006;119;Pt 16;3296-305

  • ADAM22, expressed in normal brain but not in high-grade gliomas, inhibits cellular proliferation via the disintegrin domain.

    D'Abaco GM, Ng K, Paradiso L, Godde NJ, Kaye A and Novak U

    Department of Surgery, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Australia.

    Objective: To study the expression and function of the brain-specific proteinase deficient disintegrins, ADAM11 and ADAM22 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase).

    Methods: Specimens of low- and high-grade gliomas and normal brain were analyzed for ADAM11 and ADAM22 expression using Western blotting. The effects of overexpression of ADAM11 and ADAM22 in glioma cells on growth were analyzed using bromodeoxyuridine incorporation linked to immunocytochemistry. Similarly analyzed were the effects on cell proliferation of bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins with the disintegrin domain of ADAM11 and ADAM22.

    Results: ADAM22 is expressed in normal brain and some low-grade gliomas, but not in high-grade gliomas, whereas ADAM11 is expressed in all low- and high-grade gliomas. In vitro, ADAM22 inhibits cellular proliferation of glioma derived astrocytes. The growth inhibition appears to be mediated by interactions between the disintegrin domain of ADAM22 and specific integrins expressed on the cell surface. This growth inhibition can be avoided by over-expression of integrin linked kinase.

    Conclusion: ADAM22, a brain-specific cell surface protein, mediates growth inhibition using an integrin dependent pathway. It is expressed in normal brain but not in high-grade gliomas. A related protein, ADAM11, has only a minor effect on cell growth, and its expression is unchanged in low- and high-grade gliomas.

    Neurosurgery 2006;58;1;179-86; discussion 179-86

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • ADAM22 plays an important role in cell adhesion and spreading with the assistance of 14-3-3.

    Zhu P, Sang Y, Xu H, Zhao J, Xu R, Sun Y, Xu T, Wang X, Chen L, Feng H, Li C and Zhao S

    The State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China. pzhu@cbr.med.harvard.edu

    Cellular adhesion plays important roles in a variety of biological processes. The ADAM family contains disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase-like domains which potentially have cell adhesion and protease activities. Recent studies suggest that the interaction between 14-3-3zeta and ADAM22cyt can regulate cell adhesion and spreading, therefore it has a potential role in neural development and function. 14-3-3 family has seven highly conserved members that regulate various cellular functions. Using yeast two-hybrid method, we identified that ADAM22cyt bound some other 14-3-3 family members. The interaction was further confirmed by in vitro protein pull-down assay and co-immunoprecipitation. We also found that the overexpression of exogenous ADAM22 in HEK293 cells could significantly enhance cell adhesion and spreading, compared with the truncated ADAM22 lack of 14-3-3 binding motifs. These results strongly demonstrated a functional role for ADAM22/14-3-3 in cell adhesion and spreading.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR 26599

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;331;4;938-46

  • Ataxia and peripheral nerve hypomyelination in ADAM22-deficient mice.

    Sagane K, Hayakawa K, Kai J, Hirohashi T, Takahashi E, Miyamoto N, Ino M, Oki T, Yamazaki K and Nagasu T

    Tsukuba Research Laboratories, Eisai Co., Ltd., Tokodai 5-1-3, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 300-2635, Japan. k-sagane@hhc.eisai.co.jp

    Background: ADAM22 is a member of the ADAM gene family, but the fact that it is expressed only in the nervous systems makes it unique. ADAM22's sequence similarity to other ADAMs suggests it to be an integrin binder and thus to have a role in cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. To elucidate the physiological functions of ADAM22, we employed gene targeting to generate ADAM22 knockout mice.

    Results: ADAM22-deficient mice were produced in a good accordance with the Mendelian ratio and appeared normal at birth. After one week, severe ataxia was observed, and all homozygotes died before weaning, probably due to convulsions. No major histological abnormalities were detected in the cerebral cortex or cerebellum of the homozygous mutants; however, marked hypomyelination of the peripheral nerves was observed.

    Conclusion: The results of our study demonstrate that ADAM22 is closely involved in the correct functioning of the nervous system. Further analysis of ADAM22 will provide clues to understanding the mechanisms of human diseases such as epileptic seizures and peripheral neuropathy.

    BMC neuroscience 2005;6;33

  • An unappreciated role for RNA surveillance.

    Hillman RT, Green RE and Brenner SE

    Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3102, USA.

    Background: Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic mRNA surveillance mechanism that detects and degrades mRNAs with premature termination codons (PTC+ mRNAs). In mammals, a termination codon is recognized as premature if it lies more than about 50 nucleotides upstream of the final intron position. More than a third of reliably inferred alternative splicing events in humans have been shown to result in PTC+ mRNA isoforms. As the mechanistic details of NMD have only recently been elucidated, we hypothesized that many PTC+ isoforms may have been cloned, characterized and deposited in the public databases, even though they would be targeted for degradation in vivo.

    Results: We analyzed the human alternative protein isoforms described in the SWISS-PROT database and found that 144 (5.8% of 2,483) isoform sequences amenable to analysis, from 107 (7.9% of 1,363) SWISS-PROT entries, derive from PTC+ mRNA.

    Conclusions: For several of the PTC+ isoforms we identified, existing experimental evidence can be reinterpreted and is consistent with the action of NMD to degrade the transcripts. Several genes with mRNA isoforms that we identified as PTC+--calpain-10, the CDC-like kinases (CLKs) and LARD--show how previous experimental results may be understood in light of NMD.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: K22 HG000056, K22 HG00056, T32 HG000047, T32 HG00047

    Genome biology 2004;5;2;R8

  • The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7.

    Hillier LW, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Graves TA, Pepin KH, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Maas J, Jaeger S, Walker R, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, O'Laughlin MD, Schaller ME, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Cordes M, Du H, Sun H, Edwards J, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Andrews S, Isak A, Vanbrunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Lamar B, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Bielicki L, Scott K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Harris A, Strong CM, Hou S, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Leonard S, Rohlfing T, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Abbott A, Minx P, Maupin R, Strowmatt C, Latreille P, Miller N, Johnson D, Murray J, Woessner JP, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Schultz BR, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Nelson JO, Berkowicz N, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Bedell JA, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Chissoe SL, Marra MA, Raymond C, Haugen E, Gillett W, Zhou Y, James R, Phelps K, Iadanoto S, Bubb K, Simms E, Levy R, Clendenning J, Kaul R, Kent WJ, Furey TS, Baertsch RA, Brent MR, Keibler E, Flicek P, Bork P, Suyama M, Bailey JA, Portnoy ME, Torrents D, Chinwalla AT, Gish WR, Eddy SR, McPherson JD, Olson MV, Eichler EE, Green ED, Waterston RH and Wilson RK

    Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8501, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.

    Human chromosome 7 has historically received prominent attention in the human genetics community, primarily related to the search for the cystic fibrosis gene and the frequent cytogenetic changes associated with various forms of cancer. Here we present more than 153 million base pairs representing 99.4% of the euchromatic sequence of chromosome 7, the first metacentric chromosome completed so far. The sequence has excellent concordance with previously established physical and genetic maps, and it exhibits an unusual amount of segmentally duplicated sequence (8.2%), with marked differences between the two arms. Our initial analyses have identified 1,150 protein-coding genes, 605 of which have been confirmed by complementary DNA sequences, and an additional 941 pseudogenes. Of genes confirmed by transcript sequences, some are polymorphic for mutations that disrupt the reading frame.

    Nature 2003;424;6945;157-64

  • The interaction between ADAM 22 and 14-3-3zeta: regulation of cell adhesion and spreading.

    Zhu Pc, Sun Y, Xu R, Sang Y, Zhao J, Liu G, Cai L, Li C and Zhao S

    State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, Fudan University School of Life Science, 200433, Shanghai, PR China.

    The ADAM family consists of a number of transmembrane proteins that contain disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase-like domains. Therefore, ADAMs potentially have cell adhesion and protease activities. 14-3-3 proteins are a highly conserved family of cytoplasmic proteins that associate with several intracellular signaling molecules in the regulation of various cellular functions. Here we report the identification of a novel interaction between the ADAM 22 cytoplasmic tail and the 14-3-3zeta isoform by a yeast two-hybrid screen. The interaction between the ADAM 22 cytoplasmic tail and 14-3-3zeta was confirmed by an in vitro protein pull-down assay as well as by co-immunoprecipitation, and the binding sites were mapped to the 28 amino acid residues of the C-terminus of the ADAM 22 cytoplasmic tail. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of the ADAM 22 cytoplasmic tail in human SGH44 cells inhibited cell adhesion and spreading and that deletion or mutation of the binding site for 14-3-3zeta within the ADAM 22 cytoplasmic tail abolished the ability of the overexpressed cytoplasmic tail to alter cell adhesion and spreading. Taken together, these results for the first time demonstrate an association between ADAM 22 and a 14-3-3 protein and suggest a potential role for the 14-3-3zeta/ADAM 22 association in the regulation of cell adhesion and related signaling events.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR 26599

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;301;4;991-9

  • The interaction between ADAM22 and 14-3-3beta.

    Zhu P, Sang Y, Xu R, Zhao J, Li C and Zhao S

    Institute of Genetics, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

    ADAM family consists of a number of transmembrane proteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. ADAMs are involved in a highly diverse set of biological processes, including fertilization, neurogenesis, myogenesis and inflammatory response. The ADAM proteins have both cell adhesion and protease activities. Adam22 is highly expressed in human brain. The adam22-/- mice presented severe ataxia and died before weaning, but the function of ADAM22 is still unknown. 14-3-3 beta interacting with ADAM22 was detected by using yeast two-hybrid assay. The specificity of interaction between ADAM22 and 14-3-3beta was proved by in vitro binding assay and immunoprecipitation. The major 14-3-3beta binding site was located in the last 28 amino acid residues of ADAM22 cytoplasmic tail. Protein 14-3-3beta is abundant and plays an important role in mediating cell diffusion, migration and cell cycle control. The interaction of ADAM22 and 14-3-3beta suggests that the ADAM22 may play a crucial role in neural function and development.

    Science in China. Series C, Life sciences 2002;45;6;577-82

  • The specific expression of three novel splice variant forms of human metalloprotease-like disintegrin-like cysteine-rich protein 2 gene inBrain tissues and gliomas.

    Harada T, Nishie A, Torigoe K, Ikezaki K, Shono T, Maehara Y, Kuwano M and Wada M

    Department Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.

    We have previously identified 67 exons on a yeast artificial chromosome contig spanning 1.5 Mb around the multidrug resistance 1 gene region of human chromosome 7q21.1. In this study, we identified three novel cytoplasmic variants (MDC2-gamma, MDC2-delta, and MDC2-epsilon) of the human metalloprotease-like disintegrin-like cysteine-rich protein 2 (MDC2) among these exons by screening a human brain cDNA library and also by using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Genomic sequence analysis strongly supported the idea that the variations in the cytoplasmic domain were generated by alternative splicing. The expression of MDC2 variant forms in human brain tissue and gliomas was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and RNase protection assay. MDC2-epsilon was expressed only in the cortical and hippocampal regions in human brain, but not in gliomas. In contrast, MDC2-gamma was a major form expressed in human gliomas. Specific expression of these cytoplasmic variants of MDC2 in human brain and its malignancies is discussed.

    Japanese journal of cancer research : Gann 2000;91;10;1001-6

  • The identification of seven metalloproteinase-disintegrin (ADAM) genes from genomic libraries.

    Poindexter K, Nelson N, DuBose RF, Black RA and Cerretti DP

    Immunex Corporation, Seattle, WA 98101, USA.

    Metalloproteinase-disintegrins (ADAMs) are membrane-spanning multi-domain proteins containing a zinc metalloproteinase domain and a disintegrin domain which may serve as an integrin ligand. Based on a conserved sequence within the disintegrin domain, GE(E/Q)CDCG, seven genes were isolated from a human genomic library. Two of these genes lack introns and show testis-specific expression (ADAM20 and ADAM21), while the other two genes contain introns (ADAM22 and ADAM23) and are expressed predominantly in the brain. In addition, three pseudogenes were isolated; one of which evolved from ADAM21. Human chromosomal mapping indicated that ADAM22 and ADAM23 mapped to chromosome 7q21 and 2q33, respectively, while the three pseudogenes 1-2, 3-3, and 1-32 mapped to chromosome 14q24.1, 8p23, and 14q24.1, respectively. An ancestral analysis of all known ADAMs indicates that the zinc-binding motif in the catalytic domain arose once in a common ancestor and was lost by those members lacking this motif.

    Gene 1999;237;1;61-70

  • Metalloproteinase-like, disintegrin-like, cysteine-rich proteins MDC2 and MDC3: novel human cellular disintegrins highly expressed in the brain.

    Sagane K, Ohya Y, Hasegawa Y and Tanaka I

    Tsukuba Research Laboratories, Eisai Co., Ltd., Tokodai 5-1-3, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. k1-sagane@eisai.co.jp

    Cellular disintegrins are a family of membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, and are potential regulators of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The members of this protein family are also called ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) or MDC proteins (metalloproteinase-like disintegrin-like cysteine-rich), because they all contain disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase-like domains. In this paper, we report the cloning and sequence analysis of two novel additional members of this family, which we have termed MDC2 and MDC3. The deduced amino acid sequences reveal that the two proteins possess typical cellular disintegrin structures [that is, pro-, metalloproteinase-like, disintegrin-like, cysteine-rich, epidermal growth factor-like, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic domains] and exhibit high sequence similarity with human MDC/ADAM11 protein [Katagiri, Harada, Emi and Nakamura (1995) Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 68, 39-44]. A zinc-binding motif, which is critical for proteinase activity, is disrupted in the metalloproteinase-like domain of MDC2 and MDC3, as well as MDC/ADAM11. In the disintegrin-like domain of snake venom short disintegrins, the RDG-containing loops are critical for integrin binding. These three MDCs do not contain the RDG sequences, but the corresponding loops in these proteins are similar to each other. Northern blot analysis revealed that the mRNAs of MDC2, MDC3 and MDC/ADAM11 are highly expressed in the brain. These findings suggest that these proteins may function as integrin ligands in the brain.

    The Biochemical journal 1998;334 ( Pt 1);93-8

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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