G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00002481
Gene symbol
PRKCG (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
protein kinase C, gamma
Orthologue
G00001232 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000064846 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000126583 (Ensembl human gene)
5582 (Entrez Gene)
74 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PRKCG (GeneCards)
Literature
176980 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:9402 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P05129 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • MGC57564
  • PKCC

Diseases (8)

Disease Nervous effect Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
D00000190: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 Y Y (15313841) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
D00000190: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 Y Y (14676051) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000190: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 Y Y (16189624) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000186: Cerebellar ataxia (dominant non-episodic) Y Y (12644968) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000185: Cerebellar ataxia (autosomal dominant) Y Y (14694043) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
D00000185: Cerebellar ataxia (autosomal dominant) Y Y (16547918) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000300: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome N Y (12438709) No mutation found (N) N
D00000224: Retinitis pigmentosa N Y (10441600) No mutation found (N) N
D00000122: Pyruvate kinase deficiency N Y (15870493) Unknown (?) Y
D00000121: Chronic nonspherocytic haemolytic anaemia N Y (15870173) Null (Null) Y
D00000125: Haemolytic anaemia N Y (15642665) Microinsertion (MI) Y
D00000125: Haemolytic anaemia N Y (15642665) Deletion (D) Y

References

  • Novel PRKCG/SCA14 mutation in a Dutch spinocerebellar ataxia family: expanding the phenotype.

    Vlak MH, Sinke RJ, Rabelink GM, Kremer BP and van de Warrenburg BP

    Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    We report on a family with an autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia in which we identified a novel mutation in exon 5 of the PRKCG/SCA14 gene that results in a Val138Glu substitution in the encoded protein PKCgamma. While most affected subjects displayed a late-onset uncomplicated form of spinocerebellar ataxia with occasional mild extrapyramidal features (such as postural tremor), one patient presented with a very mild nonprogressive ataxia since the age of 3 years and predominant multifocal myoclonus.

    Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society 2006;21;7;1025-8

  • Life-threatening nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia in a patient with a null mutation in the PKLR gene and no compensatory PKM gene expression.

    Diez A, Gilsanz F, Martinez J, Pérez-Benavente S, Meza NW and Bautista JM

    Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular IV, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.

    Human erythrocyte R-type pyruvate kinase (RPK) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder produced by mutations in the PKLR gene, causing chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. Survival of patients with severe RPK deficiency has been associated with compensatory expression in red blood cells (RBCs) of M2PK, an isoenzyme showing wide tissue distribution. We describe a novel homozygous null mutation of the PKLR gene found in a girl with a prenatal diagnosis of PK deficiency. The mutant PK gene revealed an 11-nucleotide (nt) duplication at exon 8, causing frameshift of the PKLR transcript, predicting a truncated protein inferred to have no catalytic activity. Western blot analysis and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) detected no M2PK expression in the peripheral blood red cell fraction. The expression of mutant RPK mRNA in the RBCs was almost 6 times higher than that detected in a control patient with hereditary spherocytosis. This molecular phenotypic analysis of the null mutation in the PKLR gene provides evidence for a lack of M2PK in the mature RBCs of this patient and suggests that normal red cell functions and survival are achieved through a population of young erythroid cells released into the circulation in response to anemia.

    Blood 2005;106;5;1851-6

  • Severe hemolytic anemia in a Vietnamese family, associated with novel mutations in the gene encoding for pyruvate kinase.

    Costa C, Albuisson J, Le TH, Max-Audit I, Dinh KT, Tosi M, Goossens M and Pissard S

    Laboratoire de Biochimie Génétique, AP-HP, et INSERM U468, Hôpital Henri Mondor 94010 Créteil, France.

    Chronic hemolytic anemias are very frequent diseases in intertropical countries mainly caused by hemoglobin disorders. We studied a Vietnamese family in which a first child suffered from a severe transfusion-dependent anemia. The family requested an antenatal diagnosis during a second pregnancy. To characterize the molecular defect, we studied the family over three generations.

    Blood from family members was sampled for a full hematologic evaluation, including enzymatic dosage, and DNA analysis was performed for patients displaying pyruvate kinase deficiency (PK-R). Mutation research on the 11 exons of the PKLR gene was done using a scanning method and sequencing. Deletion was evidenced by a Sybergreen based quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mapped using quantitative multiplex PCR of short fluorescent fragments spread along the whole sequence of the PKLR gene.

    Results: Hematologic and molecular studies of this severe chronic anemia demonstrated the existence of two defects in the PKLR gene, a new mutation located on exon 7: c.948C->G (N316K) and a large deletion extending from exon 4 to exon 10.

    We describe a family in a south-east Asian country; the proband had severe transfusion-dependent chronic anemia caused by the association between two PKLR gene mutations, PK Saigon (N316K) and PK Viet del 4-10. Severe chronic anemia could be induced by various molecular defects mainly affecting the globin genes. However, even in populations in which hemoglobin diseases are frequent, enzymatic diseases should be considered.

    Haematologica 2005;90;1;25-30

  • A novel H101Q mutation causes PKCgamma loss in spinocerebellar ataxia type 14.

    Alonso I, Costa C, Gomes A, Ferro A, Seixas AI, Silva S, Cruz VT, Coutinho P, Sequeiros J and Silveira I

    UnIGENe, IBMC, University of Porto, 4150-180 Porto, Portugal.

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, first described in a Japanese family, showing linkage to chromosome 19q13.4-qter. Recently, mutations have been identified in the PRKCG gene in families with SCA14. The PRKCG gene encodes the protein kinase Cgamma (PKCgamma), a member of a serine/threonine kinase family involved in signal transduction important for several cellular processes, including cell proliferation and synaptic transmission. To identify the disease-causing mutation in a large group of ataxia patients, we searched for mutations in the PRKCG gene. We ascertained 366 unrelated patients with spinocerebellar ataxia, either pure or with associated features such as epilepsy, mental retardation, seizures, paraplegia, and tremor. A C-to-G transversion in exon 4, resulting in a histidine-to-glutamine change at codon 101 of the PKCgamma protein, was identified in patients from a family with slowly progressive pure cerebellar ataxia. Functional studies performed in HEK293 cells transfected with normal or mutant construct showed that this mutation affects PKCgamma stability or solubility, verified by time-dependent decreased protein levels in cell culture. In conclusion, the H101Q mutation causes slowly progressive uncomplicated ataxia by interfering with PKCgamma stability or solubility, which consequently may cause in either case a decrease in the overall PKCgamma-dependent phosphorylation.

    Journal of human genetics 2005;50;10;523-9

  • A novel homozygous mutation of PKLR gene in a pyruvate-kinase-deficient Korean family.

    Park-Hah JO, Kanno H, Kim WD and Fujii H

    Department of Pediatrics, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea. johah@med.yu.ac.kr

    Acta haematologica 2005;113;3;208-11

  • Mutation in the catalytic domain of protein kinase C gamma and extension of the phenotype associated with spinocerebellar ataxia type 14.

    Stevanin G, Hahn V, Lohmann E, Bouslam N, Gouttard M, Soumphonphakdy C, Welter ML, Ollagnon-Roman E, Lemainque A, Ruberg M, Brice A and Durr A

    INSERM U289, Institut Fédératif de Recherche en Neuroscience, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital de al Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

    Background: Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias comprise a clinically, neuropathologically, and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. The vast majority of cases are caused by trinucleotide or pentanucleotide repeat expansions in 9 different genes. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is a relatively pure form of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia mapped to chromosome 19q and caused by missense mutations in the gene encoding protein kinase C gamma (PRKCG), which are all located in the regulatory domain.

    Objectives: To identify new SCA14 families and to describe the associated phenotype.

    Methods: We describe a new SCA14 family of French ancestry with 14 patients and 4 probably affected individuals. Linkage to the SCA14 locus was evaluated according to standard procedures using 5 markers covering the SCA14 candidate interval. All 18 exons of the PRKCG gene and splice junctions were screened with direct sequencing in the index patient.

    Results: Linkage to the SCA14 locus was established with lod scores greater than 3 in the interval between DNA segments D19S571 and D19S926. Direct sequencing of the PRKCG gene revealed a T-to-C transition in exon 18 responsible for a novel missense mutation, F643L, which mapped to a highly conserved amino acid of the catalytic domain of protein kinase C gamma. The mutation showed complete segregation with the disease phenotype, was present in all affected and probably affected individuals, and was not observed on 410 control chromosomes from healthy white subjects. Age at onset, assessed in 14 affected individuals, was broader than in previous reports and ranged from childhood to age 60 years. All affected patients had slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia frequently associated with brisk reflexes. Cognitive impairment was also a striking feature in this family and has not been reported previously. Interestingly, there was no axial myoclonus as reported in a Japanese SCA14 family, but electrophysiological recordings in a single patient showed diffuse myoclonus in the arms and legs.

    Conclusions: We have identified a new SCA14 family with the first mutation (F643L) located in the catalytic domain of the enzyme. The wide range of ages at onset, the presence of myoclonus in the limbs, and the presence of cognitive impairment extend the phenotype associated with this genetic entity.

    Archives of neurology 2004;61;8;1242-8

  • Identification of a novel SCA14 mutation in a Dutch autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia family.

    van de Warrenburg BP, Verbeek DS, Piersma SJ, Hennekam FA, Pearson PL, Knoers NV, Kremer HP and Sinke RJ

    Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

    Objective: To report a Dutch family with autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA) based on a novel mutation in the PRKCG gene.

    Methods: The authors studied 13 affected members of the six-generation family. After excluding the known spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) genes, a combination of the shared haplotype approach, linkage analysis, and genealogic investigations was used. Exons 4 and 5 of the candidate gene, PRKCG, were sequenced.

    Results: Affected subjects displayed a relatively uncomplicated, slowly progressive cerebellar syndrome, with a mean age at onset of 40.8 years. A focal dystonia in two subjects with an onset of disease in their early 20s suggests extrapyramidal features in early onset disease. Significant linkage to a locus on chromosome 19q was found, overlapping the SCA-14 region. Based on the recent description of three missense mutations in the PRKCG gene, located within the boundaries of the SCA-14 locus, we sequenced exons 4 and 5 of this gene and detected a novel missense mutation in exon 4, which involves a G-->A transition in nucleotide 353 and results in a glycine-to-aspartic acid substitution at residue 118.

    Conclusion: A SCA-14-linked Dutch ADCA family with a novel missense mutation in the PRKCG gene was identified.

    Neurology 2003;61;12;1760-5

  • Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 caused by a mutation in protein kinase C gamma.

    Yabe I, Sasaki H, Chen DH, Raskind WH, Bird TD, Yamashita I, Tsuji S, Kikuchi S and Tashiro K

    Department of Neurology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

    Background: We previously discovered spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) in a single Japanese family with an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia and intermittent axial myoclonus. The latter manifestation is selectively observed in patients with early onset. We mapped the locus to chromosome 19q13.4-qter, but the etiologic gene was not known. Recently, a mutation in the protein kinase C gamma gene (PRKCG) was identified in a US family of English and Dutch ancestry with autosomal dominant SCA whose disease mapped to a region overlapping that of the SCA14 locus. Different PRKCG mutations were found in another family with SCA and in a sporadic case from the United States. Axial myoclonus was not observed in any of these US families.

    Objectives: To determine whether a mutation in the PRKCG gene is responsible for SCA14 and to investigate the prevalence of PRKCG mutations in Japanese patients with autosomal dominant SCA.

    Direct nucleotide sequencing analysis of the 18 coding exons of the PRKCG gene was performed in the 19 members of the original Japanese family with SCA14 and in 24 Japanese probands with SCA. After identifying a PRKCG mutation, DNA samples from 72 patients with multiple system atrophy and 50 healthy individuals were examined for the mutation as controls.

    Results: Sequence analysis revealed a novel missense mutation, Gln127Arg, in all affected members of the family with SCA14. This mutation was not found in 122 control individuals. No mutations in the PRKCG gene were detected in the group of 24 probands with SCA of unknown type.

    Conclusions: These findings document that SCA14 is caused by mutations in the PRKCG gene. The observation that all 4 PRKCG mutations identified in patients with SCA to date are located in exon 4 suggests a critical role for this region of the gene in cerebellar function. Mutations in the same region of the gene can result in myoclonus in some families but not in others.

    Archives of neurology 2003;60;12;1749-51

  • Missense mutations in the regulatory domain of PKC gamma: a new mechanism for dominant nonepisodic cerebellar ataxia.

    Chen DH, Brkanac Z, Verlinde CL, Tan XJ, Bylenok L, Nochlin D, Matsushita M, Lipe H, Wolff J, Fernandez M, Cimino PJ, Bird TD and Raskind WH

    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

    We report a nonepisodic autosomal dominant (AD) spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) not caused by a nucleotide repeat expansion that is, to our knowledge, the first such SCA. The AD SCAs currently comprise a group of > or =16 genetically distinct neurodegenerative conditions, all characterized by progressive incoordination of gait and limbs and by speech and eye-movement disturbances. Six of the nine SCAs for which the genes are known result from CAG expansions that encode polyglutamine tracts. Noncoding CAG, CTG, and ATTCT expansions are responsible for three other SCAs. Approximately 30% of families with SCA do not have linkage to the known loci. We recently mapped the locus for an AD SCA in a family (AT08) to chromosome 19q13.4-qter. A particularly compelling candidate gene, PRKCG, encodes protein kinase C gamma (PKC gamma), a member of a family of serine/threonine kinases. The entire coding region of PRKCG was sequenced in an affected member of family AT08 and in a group of 39 unrelated patients with ataxia not attributable to trinucleotide expansions. Three different nonconservative missense mutations in highly conserved residues in C1, the cysteine-rich region of the protein, were found in family AT08, another familial case, and a sporadic case. The mutations cosegregated with disease in both families. Structural modeling predicts that two of these amino acid substitutions would severely abrogate the zinc-binding or phorbol ester-binding capabilities of the protein. Immunohistochemical studies on cerebellar tissue from an affected member of family AT08 demonstrated reduced staining for both PKC gamma and ataxin 1 in Purkinje cells, whereas staining for calbindin was preserved. These results strongly support a new mechanism for neuronal cell dysfunction and death in hereditary ataxias and suggest that there may be a common pathway for PKC gamma-related and polyglutamine-related neurodegeneration.

    Funded by: NIEHS NIH HHS: P30 ES007033, P30ES07033

    American journal of human genetics 2003;72;4;839-49

  • Search for the second Peutz-Jeghers syndrome locus: exclusion of the STK13, PRKCG, KLK10, and PSCD2 genes on chromosome 19 and the STK11IP gene on chromosome 2.

    Buchet-Poyau K, Mehenni H, Radhakrishna U and Antonarakis SE

    Division of Medical Genetics, Geneva University Medical School, and University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

    Pathogenic mutations in the serine/threonine kinase STK11 (alias LKB1) cause Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) in most affected individuals. However, in a considerable number of PJS-patients mutations cannot be detected in STK11 suggesting genetic heterogeneity. One PJS family without STK11 mutations (PJS07) has previously been described with significant evidence for linkage to a second potential PJS locus on 19q13.3-->q13.4. In this study we investigated candidate genes within markers D19S180 and D19S254, since multipoint linkage analysis yielded significant LOD scores for this region in this family. Four genes in the region (cytohesin 2: PSCD2, kallikrein 10: KLK10, protein kinase C gamma: PRKCG, and serine/threonine kinase 13: STK13) potentially involved in growth inhibitory pathways or in the pathophysiology of can- cer, were considered as candidates. We first determined the genomic structure of the PSCD2 and PRKCG genes, and performed mutation analysis of all exons and exon-intron junctions of the four genes, in the PJS07 family. No pathogenic mutation was identified in these four genes in affected individuals. A very rare polymorphism resulting in a conserved amino acid change Lys to Arg was found in PSCD2. These data provide considerable evidence for exclusion of these four genes as candidates for the second locus on 19q13.3-->q13.4 in PJS. Finally, we also excluded the recently identified STK11-interacting protein gene (STK11IP, alias LIP1) mapped in 2q36 as candidate for PJS in the PJS07 family, although this could be a good candidate in other non-STK11/LKB1 families.

    Cytogenetic and genome research 2002;97;3-4;171-8

  • No mutations in the coding region of the PRKCG gene in three families with retinitis pigmentosa linked to the RP11 locus on chromosome 19q.

    Dryja TP, McEvoy J, McGee TL and Berson EL

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY00169, EY08683, EY11655

    American journal of human genetics 1999;65;3;926-8

Literature (128)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • Novel PRKCG/SCA14 mutation in a Dutch spinocerebellar ataxia family: expanding the phenotype.

    Vlak MH, Sinke RJ, Rabelink GM, Kremer BP and van de Warrenburg BP

    Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    We report on a family with an autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia in which we identified a novel mutation in exon 5 of the PRKCG/SCA14 gene that results in a Val138Glu substitution in the encoded protein PKCgamma. While most affected subjects displayed a late-onset uncomplicated form of spinocerebellar ataxia with occasional mild extrapyramidal features (such as postural tremor), one patient presented with a very mild nonprogressive ataxia since the age of 3 years and predominant multifocal myoclonus.

    Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society 2006;21;7;1025-8

  • Life-threatening nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia in a patient with a null mutation in the PKLR gene and no compensatory PKM gene expression.

    Diez A, Gilsanz F, Martinez J, Pérez-Benavente S, Meza NW and Bautista JM

    Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular IV, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.

    Human erythrocyte R-type pyruvate kinase (RPK) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder produced by mutations in the PKLR gene, causing chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. Survival of patients with severe RPK deficiency has been associated with compensatory expression in red blood cells (RBCs) of M2PK, an isoenzyme showing wide tissue distribution. We describe a novel homozygous null mutation of the PKLR gene found in a girl with a prenatal diagnosis of PK deficiency. The mutant PK gene revealed an 11-nucleotide (nt) duplication at exon 8, causing frameshift of the PKLR transcript, predicting a truncated protein inferred to have no catalytic activity. Western blot analysis and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) detected no M2PK expression in the peripheral blood red cell fraction. The expression of mutant RPK mRNA in the RBCs was almost 6 times higher than that detected in a control patient with hereditary spherocytosis. This molecular phenotypic analysis of the null mutation in the PKLR gene provides evidence for a lack of M2PK in the mature RBCs of this patient and suggests that normal red cell functions and survival are achieved through a population of young erythroid cells released into the circulation in response to anemia.

    Blood 2005;106;5;1851-6

  • Severe hemolytic anemia in a Vietnamese family, associated with novel mutations in the gene encoding for pyruvate kinase.

    Costa C, Albuisson J, Le TH, Max-Audit I, Dinh KT, Tosi M, Goossens M and Pissard S

    Laboratoire de Biochimie Génétique, AP-HP, et INSERM U468, Hôpital Henri Mondor 94010 Créteil, France.

    Chronic hemolytic anemias are very frequent diseases in intertropical countries mainly caused by hemoglobin disorders. We studied a Vietnamese family in which a first child suffered from a severe transfusion-dependent anemia. The family requested an antenatal diagnosis during a second pregnancy. To characterize the molecular defect, we studied the family over three generations.

    Blood from family members was sampled for a full hematologic evaluation, including enzymatic dosage, and DNA analysis was performed for patients displaying pyruvate kinase deficiency (PK-R). Mutation research on the 11 exons of the PKLR gene was done using a scanning method and sequencing. Deletion was evidenced by a Sybergreen based quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mapped using quantitative multiplex PCR of short fluorescent fragments spread along the whole sequence of the PKLR gene.

    Results: Hematologic and molecular studies of this severe chronic anemia demonstrated the existence of two defects in the PKLR gene, a new mutation located on exon 7: c.948C->G (N316K) and a large deletion extending from exon 4 to exon 10.

    We describe a family in a south-east Asian country; the proband had severe transfusion-dependent chronic anemia caused by the association between two PKLR gene mutations, PK Saigon (N316K) and PK Viet del 4-10. Severe chronic anemia could be induced by various molecular defects mainly affecting the globin genes. However, even in populations in which hemoglobin diseases are frequent, enzymatic diseases should be considered.

    Haematologica 2005;90;1;25-30

  • A novel H101Q mutation causes PKCgamma loss in spinocerebellar ataxia type 14.

    Alonso I, Costa C, Gomes A, Ferro A, Seixas AI, Silva S, Cruz VT, Coutinho P, Sequeiros J and Silveira I

    UnIGENe, IBMC, University of Porto, 4150-180 Porto, Portugal.

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, first described in a Japanese family, showing linkage to chromosome 19q13.4-qter. Recently, mutations have been identified in the PRKCG gene in families with SCA14. The PRKCG gene encodes the protein kinase Cgamma (PKCgamma), a member of a serine/threonine kinase family involved in signal transduction important for several cellular processes, including cell proliferation and synaptic transmission. To identify the disease-causing mutation in a large group of ataxia patients, we searched for mutations in the PRKCG gene. We ascertained 366 unrelated patients with spinocerebellar ataxia, either pure or with associated features such as epilepsy, mental retardation, seizures, paraplegia, and tremor. A C-to-G transversion in exon 4, resulting in a histidine-to-glutamine change at codon 101 of the PKCgamma protein, was identified in patients from a family with slowly progressive pure cerebellar ataxia. Functional studies performed in HEK293 cells transfected with normal or mutant construct showed that this mutation affects PKCgamma stability or solubility, verified by time-dependent decreased protein levels in cell culture. In conclusion, the H101Q mutation causes slowly progressive uncomplicated ataxia by interfering with PKCgamma stability or solubility, which consequently may cause in either case a decrease in the overall PKCgamma-dependent phosphorylation.

    Journal of human genetics 2005;50;10;523-9

  • A novel homozygous mutation of PKLR gene in a pyruvate-kinase-deficient Korean family.

    Park-Hah JO, Kanno H, Kim WD and Fujii H

    Department of Pediatrics, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea. johah@med.yu.ac.kr

    Acta haematologica 2005;113;3;208-11

  • Mutation in the catalytic domain of protein kinase C gamma and extension of the phenotype associated with spinocerebellar ataxia type 14.

    Stevanin G, Hahn V, Lohmann E, Bouslam N, Gouttard M, Soumphonphakdy C, Welter ML, Ollagnon-Roman E, Lemainque A, Ruberg M, Brice A and Durr A

    INSERM U289, Institut Fédératif de Recherche en Neuroscience, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital de al Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

    Background: Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias comprise a clinically, neuropathologically, and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. The vast majority of cases are caused by trinucleotide or pentanucleotide repeat expansions in 9 different genes. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is a relatively pure form of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia mapped to chromosome 19q and caused by missense mutations in the gene encoding protein kinase C gamma (PRKCG), which are all located in the regulatory domain.

    Objectives: To identify new SCA14 families and to describe the associated phenotype.

    Methods: We describe a new SCA14 family of French ancestry with 14 patients and 4 probably affected individuals. Linkage to the SCA14 locus was evaluated according to standard procedures using 5 markers covering the SCA14 candidate interval. All 18 exons of the PRKCG gene and splice junctions were screened with direct sequencing in the index patient.

    Results: Linkage to the SCA14 locus was established with lod scores greater than 3 in the interval between DNA segments D19S571 and D19S926. Direct sequencing of the PRKCG gene revealed a T-to-C transition in exon 18 responsible for a novel missense mutation, F643L, which mapped to a highly conserved amino acid of the catalytic domain of protein kinase C gamma. The mutation showed complete segregation with the disease phenotype, was present in all affected and probably affected individuals, and was not observed on 410 control chromosomes from healthy white subjects. Age at onset, assessed in 14 affected individuals, was broader than in previous reports and ranged from childhood to age 60 years. All affected patients had slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia frequently associated with brisk reflexes. Cognitive impairment was also a striking feature in this family and has not been reported previously. Interestingly, there was no axial myoclonus as reported in a Japanese SCA14 family, but electrophysiological recordings in a single patient showed diffuse myoclonus in the arms and legs.

    Conclusions: We have identified a new SCA14 family with the first mutation (F643L) located in the catalytic domain of the enzyme. The wide range of ages at onset, the presence of myoclonus in the limbs, and the presence of cognitive impairment extend the phenotype associated with this genetic entity.

    Archives of neurology 2004;61;8;1242-8

  • Search for the second Peutz-Jeghers syndrome locus: exclusion of the STK13, PRKCG, KLK10, and PSCD2 genes on chromosome 19 and the STK11IP gene on chromosome 2.

    Buchet-Poyau K, Mehenni H, Radhakrishna U and Antonarakis SE

    Division of Medical Genetics, Geneva University Medical School, and University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

    Pathogenic mutations in the serine/threonine kinase STK11 (alias LKB1) cause Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) in most affected individuals. However, in a considerable number of PJS-patients mutations cannot be detected in STK11 suggesting genetic heterogeneity. One PJS family without STK11 mutations (PJS07) has previously been described with significant evidence for linkage to a second potential PJS locus on 19q13.3-->q13.4. In this study we investigated candidate genes within markers D19S180 and D19S254, since multipoint linkage analysis yielded significant LOD scores for this region in this family. Four genes in the region (cytohesin 2: PSCD2, kallikrein 10: KLK10, protein kinase C gamma: PRKCG, and serine/threonine kinase 13: STK13) potentially involved in growth inhibitory pathways or in the pathophysiology of can- cer, were considered as candidates. We first determined the genomic structure of the PSCD2 and PRKCG genes, and performed mutation analysis of all exons and exon-intron junctions of the four genes, in the PJS07 family. No pathogenic mutation was identified in these four genes in affected individuals. A very rare polymorphism resulting in a conserved amino acid change Lys to Arg was found in PSCD2. These data provide considerable evidence for exclusion of these four genes as candidates for the second locus on 19q13.3-->q13.4 in PJS. Finally, we also excluded the recently identified STK11-interacting protein gene (STK11IP, alias LIP1) mapped in 2q36 as candidate for PJS in the PJS07 family, although this could be a good candidate in other non-STK11/LKB1 families.

    Cytogenetic and genome research 2002;97;3-4;171-8

Pubmed - other

  • Protein kinase C gamma, a protein causative for dominant ataxia, negatively regulates nuclear import of recessive-ataxia-related aprataxin.

    Asai H, Hirano M, Shimada K, Kiriyama T, Furiya Y, Ikeda M, Iwamoto T, Mori T, Nishinaka K, Konishi N, Udaka F and Ueno

    Department of Neurology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522, Japan.

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding protein kinase C gamma (PKC gamma). We report an SCA14 family with a novel deletion of a termination-codon-containing region, resulting in a missense change and a C-terminal 13-amino-acid extension with increased kinase activity. Notably, one patient with a severe phenotype is the first homozygote for the mutation causing SCA14. We show the novel molecular consequences of increased kinase activities of mutants: aprataxin (APTX), a DNA repair protein causative for autosomal recessive ataxia, was found to be a preferential substrate of mutant PKC gamma, and phosphorylation inhibited its nuclear entry. The phosphorylated residue was Thr111, located adjacent to the nuclear localization signal, and disturbed interactions with importin alpha, a nuclear import adaptor. Decreased nuclear APTX increased oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and cell death. Phosphorylation-resistant APTX, kinase inhibitors, and antioxidants may be therapeutic options for SCA14.

    Human molecular genetics 2009;18;19;3533-43

  • Prefrontal cortex shotgun proteome analysis reveals altered calcium homeostasis and immune system imbalance in schizophrenia.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Rewerts C, Maccarrone G, Dias-Neto E and Turck CW

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua. Dr. Ovidio Pires de Campos, no 785, Consolação, São Paulo, SP 05403-010, Brazil.

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease, likely to be caused by a combination of serial alterations in a number of genes and environmental factors. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46) is involved in schizophrenia and executes high-level functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts and attitudes, correct social behavior and personality expression. Global proteomic analysis of post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples from schizophrenia patients and non-schizophrenic individuals was performed using stable isotope labeling and shotgun proteomics. The analysis resulted in the identification of 1,261 proteins, 84 of which showed statistically significant differential expression, reinforcing previous data supporting the involvement of the immune system, calcium homeostasis, cytoskeleton assembly, and energy metabolism in schizophrenia. In addition a number of new potential markers were found that may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

    European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience 2009;259;3;151-63

  • The actin-cytoskeleton linker protein ezrin is regulated during osteosarcoma metastasis by PKC.

    Ren L, Hong SH, Cassavaugh J, Osborne T, Chou AJ, Kim SY, Gorlick R, Hewitt SM and Khanna C

    Tumor and Metastasis Biology Section, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    Ezrin is a member of the ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) protein family and links F-actin to the cell membrane following phosphorylation. Ezrin has been associated with tumor progression and metastasis in several cancers including the pediatric solid tumors, osteosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. In this study, we were surprised to find that ezrin was not constitutively phosphorylated but rather was dynamically regulated during metastatic progression in osteosarcoma. Metastatic osteosarcoma cells expressed phosphorylated ERM early after their arrival in the lung, and then late in progression, only at the invasive front of larger metastatic lesions. To pursue mechanisms for this regulation, we found that inhibitors of PKC (protein kinase C) blocked phosphorylation of ezrin, and that ezrin coimmunoprecipitated in cells with PKCalpha, PKCiota and PKCgamma. Furthermore, phosphorylated forms of ezrin and PKC had identical expression patterns at the invasive front of pulmonary metastatic lesions in murine and human patient samples. Finally, we showed that the promigratory effects of PKC were linked to ezrin phosphorylation. These data are the first to suggest a dynamic regulation of ezrin phosphorylation during metastasis and to connect the PKC family members with this regulation.

    Oncogene 2009;28;6;792-802

  • Mutant gammaPKC found in spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 induces aggregate-independent maldevelopment of dendrites in primary cultured Purkinje cells.

    Seki T, Shimahara T, Yamamoto K, Abe N, Amano T, Adachi N, Takahashi H, Kashiwagi K, Saito N and Sakai N

    Department of Molecular and Pharmacological Neuroscience, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan.

    Missense mutations in protein kinase Cgamma (gammaPKC) gene have been found in spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease. We previously demonstrated that mutant gammaPKC found in SCA14 is susceptible to aggregation and induces apoptosis in cultured cell lines. In the present study, we investigated whether mutant gammaPKC formed aggregates and how mutant gammaPKC affects the morphology and survival of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs), which are degenerated in SCA14 patients. Adenovirus-transfected primary cultured PCs expressing mutant gammaPKC-GFP also had aggregates and underwent apoptosis. Long-term time-lapse observation revealed that PCs have a potential to eliminate aggregates of mutant gammaPKC-GFP. Mutant gammaPKC-GFP disturbed the development of PC dendrites and reduced synapse formation, regardless of the presence or absence of its aggregates. In PCs without aggregates, mutant gammaPKC-GFP formed soluble oligomers, resulting in reduced mobility and attenuated translocation of mutant gammaPKC-GFP upon stimulation. These molecular properties of mutant gammaPKC might affect the dendritic morphology in PCs, and be involved in the pathogenesis of SCA14.

    Neurobiology of disease 2009;33;2;260-73

  • Zea mays annexins modulate cytosolic free Ca2+ and generate a Ca2+-permeable conductance.

    Laohavisit A, Mortimer JC, Demidchik V, Coxon KM, Stancombe MA, Macpherson N, Brownlee C, Hofmann A, Webb AA, Miedema H, Battey NH and Davies JM

    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EA, United Kingdom.

    Regulation of reactive oxygen species and cytosolic free calcium ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) is central to plant function. Annexins are small proteins capable of Ca(2+)-dependent membrane binding or membrane insertion. They possess structural motifs that could support both peroxidase activity and calcium transport. Here, a Zea mays annexin preparation caused increases in [Ca(2+)](cyt) when added to protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana roots expressing aequorin. The pharmacological profile was consistent with annexin activation (at the extracellular plasma membrane face) of Arabidopsis Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channels. Secreted annexins could therefore modulate Ca(2+) influx. As maize annexins occur in the cytosol and plasma membrane, they were incorporated at the intracellular face of lipid bilayers designed to mimic the plasma membrane. Here, they generated an instantaneously activating Ca(2+)-permeable conductance at mildly acidic pH that was sensitive to verapamil and Gd(3+) and had a Ca(2+)-to-K(+) permeability ratio of 0.36. These results suggest that cytosolic annexins create a Ca(2+) influx pathway directly, particularly during stress responses involving acidosis. A maize annexin preparation also demonstrated in vitro peroxidase activity that appeared independent of heme association. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that plant annexins create Ca(2+)-permeable transport pathways, regulate [Ca(2+)](cyt), and may function as peroxidases in vitro.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: BB/C505232/1, BB/D017904/1

    The Plant cell 2009;21;2;479-93

  • Rac regulates the interaction of fascin with protein kinase C in cell migration.

    Parsons M and Adams JC

    Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King's College London, Guy's Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK. maddy.parsons@kcl.ac.uk

    Fascin is an actin-bundling protein that is low or absent in normal epithelia; its upregulation correlates with poor prognosis in many human carcinomas. We have recently demonstrated in mouse xenograft models that fascin contributes to tumour development and metastasis through its dual actin-bundling and active PKC-binding activities. Rac was implicated as a regulator of fascin-dependent colon carcinoma cell migration in vitro. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Rac regulates the interaction of fascin with active PKC. The major conventional PKC in colon carcinoma cells is protein kinase Cgamma (PKCgamma). Endogenous PKCgamma, fascin and Rac1 colocalised at lamellipodial margins of migrating cells. Colocalisation of fascin and PKCgamma depended on Rac activity, and inhibition of Rac decreased PKCgamma activity in cell extracts but not in vitro. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer/fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy uncovered that fascin and PKCgamma interact in protrusions and filopodia of migrating cells. Mechanistically, the interaction depended on phosphorylated fascin, active PKCgamma and active Rac, but not on active Cdc42. The activity of Rac on the fascin/PKC complex was mediated in part by Pak. Elucidation of this novel pathway for regulation of the fascin/PKCgamma complex in migrating carcinoma cells suggests novel targets for therapeutic intervention in metastasis.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0100152; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM068073

    Journal of cell science 2008;121;Pt 17;2805-13

  • Activation of mutant protein kinase Cgamma leads to aberrant sequestration and impairment of its cellular function.

    Doran G, Davies KE and Talbot K

    MRC Functional Genetics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QX, UK.

    Mutations in protein kinase Cgamma (PKCgamma) cause the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14). In this study, expression of an extensive panel of known SCA14-associated PKCgamma mutations as fusion proteins in cell culture led to the consistent formation of cytoplasmic aggregates in response to purinoceptor stimulation. Aggregates co-stained with antibodies to phosphorylated PKCgamma and the early endosome marker EEA1 but failed to redistribute to the cell membrane under conditions of oxidative stress. These studies suggest that Purkinje cell damage in SCA14 may result from a reduction of PKCgamma activity due its aberrant sequestration in the early endosome compartment.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U137761449

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2008;372;3;447-53

  • PKC gamma mutations in spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 affect C1 domain accessibility and kinase activity leading to aberrant MAPK signaling.

    Verbeek DS, Goedhart J, Bruinsma L, Sinke RJ and Reits EA

    Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. D.S.verbeek@medgen.umcg.nl

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the neuronal-specific protein kinase C gamma (PKCgamma) gene. Since most mutations causing SCA14 are located in the PKCgamma C1B regulatory subdomain, we investigated the impact of three C1B mutations on the intracellular kinetics, protein conformation and kinase activity of PKCgamma in living cells. SCA14 mutant PKCgamma proteins showed enhanced phorbol-ester-induced kinetics when compared with wild-type PKCgamma. The mutations led to a decrease in intramolecular FRET of PKCgamma, suggesting that they ;open' PKCgamma protein conformation leading to unmasking of the phorbol ester binding site in the C1 domain. Surprisingly, SCA14 mutant PKCgamma showed reduced kinase activity as measured by phosphorylation of PKC reporter MyrPalm-CKAR, as well as downstream components of the MAPK signaling pathway. Together, these results show that SCA14 mutations located in the C1B subdomain ;open' PKCgamma protein conformation leading to increased C1 domain accessibility, but inefficient activation of downstream signaling pathways.

    Journal of cell science 2008;121;Pt 14;2339-49

  • Enzymological analysis of mutant protein kinase Cgamma causing spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 and dysfunction in Ca2+ homeostasis.

    Adachi N, Kobayashi T, Takahashi H, Kawasaki T, Shirai Y, Ueyama T, Matsuda T, Seki T, Sakai N and Saito N

    Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Biosignal Research Center, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in protein kinase Cgamma (PKCgamma). Interestingly, 18 of 22 mutations are concentrated in the C1 domain, which binds diacylglycerol and is necessary for translocation and regulation of PKCgamma kinase activity. To determine the effect of these mutations on PKCgamma function and the pathology of SCA14, we investigated the enzymological properties of the mutant PKCgammas. We found that wild-type PKCgamma, but not C1 domain mutants, inhibits Ca2+ influx in response to muscarinic receptor stimulation. The sustained Ca2+ influx induced by muscarinic receptor ligation caused prolonged membrane localization of mutant PKCgamma. Pharmacological experiments showed that canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels are responsible for the Ca2+ influx regulated by PKCgamma. Although in vitro kinase assays revealed that most C1 domain mutants are constitutively active, they could not phosphorylate TRPC3 channels in vivo. Single molecule observation by the total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed that the membrane residence time of mutant PKCgammas was significantly shorter than that of the wild-type. This fact indicated that, although membrane association of the C1 domain mutants was apparently prolonged, these mutants have a reduced ability to bind diacylglycerol and be retained on the plasma membrane. As a result, they fail to phosphorylate TRPC channels, resulting in sustained Ca2+ entry. Such an alteration in Ca2+ homeostasis and Ca2+-mediated signaling in Purkinje cells may contribute to the neurodegeneration characteristic of SCA14.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;28;19854-63

  • Benign SCA14 phenotype in a German patient associated with a missense mutation in exon 3 of the PRKCG gene.

    Wieczorek S, Arning L, Gizewski ER, Alheite I and Timmann D

    Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society 2007;22;14;2135-6

  • Codon 101 of PRKCG, a preferential mutation site in SCA14.

    Nolte D, Klebe S, Baron R, Deuschl G and Müller U

    Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society 2007;22;12;1831-2

  • The human protein kinase C gamma gene (PRKCG) as a susceptibility locus for behavioral disinhibition.

    Schlaepfer IR, Clegg HV, Corley RP, Crowley TJ, Hewitt JK, Hopfer CJ, Krauter K, Lessem J, Rhee SH, Stallings MC, Wehner JM, Young SE and Ehringer MA

    Institute for Behavioral Genetics, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA, and Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA. Isabel.Schlaepfer@colorado.edu

    This study explores the association between a highly heritable behavioral disinhibition phenotype and the protein kinase C gamma (PRKCG) gene in an ethnically diverse youth sample from Colorado, USA. The rationale for this study was based on the impulsive behavior and increased ethanol consumption observed in the protein kinase C gamma (PKC-gamma)-deficient mouse model. Two composite behavioral disinhibition phenotypes and their component behavioral scores [conduct disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance experimentation (SUB) and novelty-seeking] were examined for association with five independent PRKCG single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Association analysis for the five individual SNPs revealed modest genetic association of Exon 14 (rs2242244) and Upstream (rs307941) markers with the behavioral disinhibition composite variables in the combined, Hispanic and African-American samples. Additionally, haplotype-based association analysis for two SNPs located in Intron 3 (rs402691) and Exon 6 (rs3745406) indicated a significant overall association of the PRKCG locus with the ADHD-hyperactive subscale scores in the combined and Caucasian samples, supporting the relation between impulsive behaviors and the PRKCG gene. A significant haplotype association was also observed with SUB scores but only in the Hispanic ethnic group, highlighting the marker variability for each ethnic group. In conclusion, our results support the role of the PKC-gamma enzyme in behavioral impulsivity previously observed in mice. This study provides the first exploration of the PRKCG gene and its association with behavioral disinhibition and warrants further study in other larger population samples.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY012562; NIAAA NIH HHS: AA013018; NICHD NIH HHS: HD010333; NIDA NIH HHS: DA011015, DA012845, DA015522, DA03194, DA13956, P60 DA011015; NIMH NIH HHS: MH001865

    Addiction biology 2007;12;2;200-9

  • Another mutation in cysteine 131 in protein kinase C gamma as a cause of spinocerebellar ataxia type 14.

    Klebe S, Faivre L, Forlani S, Dussert C, Tourbah A, Brice A, Stevanin G and Durr A

    Archives of neurology 2007;64;6;913-4

  • PRKCG mutation (SCA-14) causing a Ramsay Hunt phenotype.

    Visser JE, Bloem BR and van de Warrenburg BP

    Department of Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. j.visser@neuro.umcn.nl

    Progressive myoclonic ataxia, also referred to as Ramsay Hunt syndrome, is characterized by a combination of myoclonus and cerebellar ataxia, infrequently accompanied by tonic-clonic seizures. Its differential diagnosis overlaps with progressive myoclonic epilepsy, a syndrome with myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures, progressive ataxia and dementia. In patients with progressive myoclo 16a6 nic epilepsy, specific diseases can frequently be recognized, but the diagnostic yield in progressive myoclonic ataxia is much lower. We describe a patient who presented with multifocal myoclonus in his thirties and who later developed cerebellar ataxia and focal dystonia. His father was similarly affected. Genetic studies revealed a mutation in the protein kinase C gamma (PRKCG) gene, known to cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA-14). This case illustrates that both myoclonus and dystonia are part of the clinical spectrum in SCA-14 and that myoclonus can even be the presenting symptom. We suggest that SCA-14 should be considered in the differential diagnosis of progressive myoclonic ataxia.

    Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society 2007;22;7;1024-6

  • PKC anchoring to GluR4 AMPA receptor subunit modulates PKC-driven receptor phosphorylation and surface expression.

    Gomes AR, Correia SS, Esteban JA, Duarte CB and Carvalho AL

    Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3004-517, Portugal.

    Changes in the synaptic content of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors lead to synaptic efficacy modifications, involved in synaptic plasticity mechanisms believed to underlie learning and memory formation. Early in development, GluR4 is highly expressed in the hippocampus, and GluR4-containing AMPA receptors are inserted into synapses. During synapse maturation, the number of AMPA receptors at the synapse is dynamically regulated, and both addition and removal of receptors from postsynaptic sites occur through regulated mechanisms. GluR4 delivery to synapses in rat hippocampal slices was shown to require protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of GluR4 at serine 842 (Ser842). Protein kinase C (PKC) can also phosphorylate Ser842, and we have shown that PKCgamma can associate with GluR4. Here we show that activation of PKC in retina neurons, or in human embryonic kidney 293 cells cotransfected with GluR4 and PKCgamma, increases GluR4 surface expression and Ser842 phosphorylation. Moreover, mutation of amino acids R821A, K825A and R826A at the GluR4 C-terminal, within the interacting region of GluR4 with PKCgamma, abolishes the interaction between PKCgamma and GluR4 and prevents the stimulatory effect of PKCgamma on GluR4 Ser842 phosphorylation and surface expression. These data argue for a role of anchored PKCgamma in Ser842 phosphorylation and targeting to the plasma membrane. The triple GluR4 mutant is, however, phosphorylated by PKA, and it is targeted to the synapse in CA1 hippocampal neurons in organotypic rat hippocampal slices. The present findings show that the interaction between PKCgamma and GluR4 is specifically required to assure PKC-driven phosphorylation and surface membrane expression of GluR4.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH070417

    Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 2007;8;3;259-69

  • aPKC-mediated phosphorylation regulates asymmetric membrane localization of the cell fate determinant Numb.

    Smith CA, Lau KM, Rahmani Z, Dho SE, Brothers G, She YM, Berry DM, Bonneil E, Thibault P, Schweisguth F, Le Borgne R and McGlade CJ

    Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    In Drosophila, the partition defective (Par) complex containing Par3, Par6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) directs the polarized distribution and unequal segregation of the cell fate determinant Numb during asymmetric cell divisions. Unequal segregation of mammalian Numb has also been observed, but the factors involved are unknown. Here, we identify in vivo phosphorylation sites of mammalian Numb and show that both mammalian and Drosophila Numb interact with, and are substrates for aPKC in vitro. A form of mammalian Numb lacking two protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation sites (Numb2A) accumulates at the cell membrane and is refractory to PKC activation. In epithelial cells, mammalian Numb localizes to the basolateral membrane and is excluded from the apical domain, which accumulates aPKC. In contrast, Numb2A is distributed uniformly around the cell cortex. Mutational analysis of conserved aPKC phosphorylation sites in Drosophila Numb suggests that phosphorylation contributes to asymmetric localization of Numb, opposite to aPKC in dividing sensory organ precursor cells. These results suggest a model in which phosphorylation of Numb by aPKC regulates its polarized distribution in epithelial cells as well as during asymmetric cell divisions.

    The EMBO journal 2007;26;2;468-80

  • R659S mutation of gammaPKC is susceptible to cell death: implication of this mutation/polymorphism in the pathogenesis of retinitis pigmentosa.

    Mochizuki H, Seki T, Adachi N, Saito N, Mishima HK and Sakai N

    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan.

    It has been reported that mutations of gammaPKC cause hereditary spinocerebellar atrophy type 14 (SCA14). Our recent study has revealed that the SCA14 mutant gammaPKC is susceptible to aggregation and causes cell death. Among mutations/polymorphisms of gammaPKC, the R659S mutation was firstly segregated from families with hereditary retinitis pigmentosa type 11 (RP11). Although more reliable etiological mutations of RP11 were subsequently discovered in a human homologue of yeast pre-mRNA splicing gene (PRP31), the role of this R659S missense change in the pathogenicity of RP11 is still controversial. In this study, we overexpressed R659S gammaPKC in CHO cells and characterized the properties of this mutant protein. We found that R659S gammaPKC more prominently induced cell death than did wild-type. This mutant gammaPKC had higher basal activity than wild-type, however, no difference was found in the extent of aggregation and insolubility to detergent between R659S mutant and wild-type. These results suggest that the R659S mutation is susceptible to neuronal death and is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including RP11.

    Neurochemistry international 2006;49;7;669-75

  • A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration.

    Lim J, Hao T, Shaw C, Patel AJ, Szabó G, Rual JF, Fisk CJ, Li N, Smolyar A, Hill DE, Barabási AL, Vidal M and Zoghbi HY

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Many human inherited neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by loss of balance due to cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration. Although the disease-causing mutations have been identified for a number of these disorders, the normal functions of the proteins involved remain, in many cases, unknown. To gain insight into the function of proteins involved in PC degeneration, we developed an interaction network for 54 proteins involved in 23 inherited ataxias and expanded the network by incorporating literature-curated and evolutionarily conserved interactions. We identified 770 mostly novel protein-protein interactions using a stringent yeast two-hybrid screen; of 75 pairs tested, 83% of the interactions were verified in mammalian cells. Many ataxia-causing proteins share interacting partners, a subset of which have been found to modify neurodegeneration in animal models. This interactome thus provides a tool for understanding pathogenic mechanisms common for this class of neurodegenerative disorders and for identifying candidate genes for inherited ataxias.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD24064; NINDS NIH HHS: NS27699

    Cell 2006;125;4;801-14

  • Protein kinase Cgamma regulates myosin IIB phosphorylation, cellular localization, and filament assembly.

    Rosenberg and Ravid S

    Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91120, Israel.

    Nonmuscle myosin II is an important component of the cytoskeleton, playing a major role in cell motility and chemotaxis. We have previously demonstrated that, on stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF), nonmuscle myosin heavy chain II-B (NMHC-IIB) undergoes a transient phosphorylation correlating with its cellular localization. We also showed that members of the PKC family are involved in this phosphorylation. Here we demonstrate that of the two conventional PKC isoforms expressed by prostate cancer cells, PKCbetaII and PKCgamma, PKCgamma directly phosphorylates NMHC-IIB. Overexpression of wild-type and kinase dead dominant negative PKCgamma result in both altered NMHC-IIB phosphorylation and subcellular localization. We have also mapped the phosphorylation sites of PKCgamma on NMHC-IIB. Conversion of the PKCgamma phosphorylation sites to alanine residues, reduces the EGF-dependent NMHC-IIB phosphorylation. Aspartate substitution of these sites reduces NMHC-IIB localization into cytoskeleton. These results indicate that PKCgamma regulates NMHC-IIB phosphorylation and cellular localization in response to EGF stimulation.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2006;17;3;1364-74

  • New mutations in protein kinase Cgamma associated with spinocerebellar ataxia type 14.

    Klebe S, Durr A, Rentschler A, Hahn-Barma V, Abele M, N, Schöls L, Jedynak P, Forlani S, Denis E, Dussert C, Agid Y, Bauer P, Globas C, Wüllner U, Brice A, Riess O and Stevanin G

    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Médicale U679 (formerly U289) and Institut Fédératif de Recherche en Neurosciences, Paris, France.

    Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA) are a heterogeneous group of neurological disorders. Point mutations in the gene encoding protein kinase Cgamma (PRKCG) are responsible for spinocerebellar ataxia 14 (SCA14). We screened for mutations in the PRKCG gene, in a large series of 284 ADCA index cases, mostly French (n=204) and German (n=48), in whom CAG repeat expansions in the known SCA genes were previously excluded. Six mutations were found that segregated with the disease and were not detected on 560 control chromosomes, including F643L (exon 18), already reported in another French kindred. Five new missense mutations were identified in exons 4 (C114Y/G123R/G123E), 10 (G360S) and 18 (V692G). All but one (V692G) were located in highly conserved regions of the regulatory or catalytic domains of the protein. All six SCA14 families were French and there was no evidence of reduced penetrance. The phenotype consisted in a very slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia with a mean age at onset of 33.5+/-14.2 years (range 15 to 60 years), occasionally associated with executive dysfunction, m 6d6 yoclonus, myorythmia, tremor or decreased vibration sense. SCA14 represented only 1.5% (7/454) of French ADCA families but none of the German families. It should, however, be considered in patients with slowly progressive ADCA, particularly when myoclonus and cognitive impairment are present.

    Annals of neurology 2005;58;5;720-9

  • Mutant protein kinase Cgamma found in spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 is susceptible to aggregation and causes cell death.

    Seki T, Adachi N, Ono Y, Mochizuki H, Hiramoto K, Amano T, Matsubayashi H, Matsumoto M, Kawakami H, Saito N and Sakai N

    Department of Molecular and Pharmacological Neuroscience, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan.

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by various symptoms including cerebellar ataxia. Recently, several missense mutations in the protein kinase Cgamma (gammaPKC) gene have been found in different SCA14 families. To elucidate how the mutant gammaPKC causes SCA14, we examined the molecular properties of seven mutant (H101Y, G118D, S119P, S119F, Q127R, G128D, and F643L) gammaPKCs fused with green fluorescent protein (gammaPKC-GFP). Wild-type gammaPKC-GFP was expressed ubiquitously in the cytoplasm of CHO cells, whereas mutant gammaPKC-GFP tended to aggregate in the cytoplasm. The insolubility of mutant gammaPKC-GFP to Triton X-100 was increased and correlated with the extent of aggregation. gammaPKC-GFP in the Triton-insoluble fraction was rarely phosphorylated at Thr(514), whereas gammaPKC-GFP in the Triton-soluble fraction was phosphorylated. Furthermore, the stimulation of the P2Y receptor triggered the rapid aggregation of mutant gammaPKC-GFP within 10 min after transient translocation to the plasma membrane. Overexpression of the mutant gammaPKC-GFP caused cell death that was more prominent than wild type. The cytotoxicity was exacerbated in parallel with the expression level of the mutant. These results indicate that SCA14 mutations make gammaPKC form cytoplasmic aggregates, suggesting the involvement of this property in the etiology of SCA14.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;32;29096-106

  • PICK1 interacts with ABP/GRIP to regulate AMPA receptor trafficking.

    Lu W and Ziff EB

    Program in Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.

    PICK1 and ABP/GRIP bind to the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluR2 subunit C terminus. Transfer of the receptor from ABP/GRIP to PICK1, facilitated by GluR2 S880 phosphorylation, may initiate receptor trafficking. Here we report protein interactions that regulate these steps. The PICK1 BAR domain interacts intermolecularly with the ABP/GRIP linker II region and intramolecularly with the PICK1 PDZ domain. Binding of PKCalpha or GluR2 to the PICK1 PDZ domain disrupts the intramolecular interaction and facilitates the PICK1 BAR domain association with ABP/GRIP. Interference with the PICK1-ABP/GRIP interaction impairs S880 phosphorylation of GluR2 by PKC and decreases the constitutive surface expression of GluR2, the NMDA-induced endocytosis of GluR2, and recycling of internalized GluR2. We suggest that the PICK1 interaction with ABP/GRIP is a critical step in controlling GluR2 trafficking.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH067229

    Neuron 2005;47;3;407-21

  • Protein kinase C phosphorylation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 on Serine 839 regulates Ca2+ oscillations.

    Kim CH, Braud S, Isaac JT and Roche KW

    NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    The activation of Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluR5 and mGluR1alpha, triggers intracellular calcium release; however, mGluR5 activation is unique in that it elicits Ca2+ oscillations. A short region of the mGluR5 C terminus is the critical determinant and differs from the analogous region of mGluR1alpha by a single amino acid residue, Thr-840, which is an aspartic acid (Asp-854) in mGluR1alpha. Previous studies show that mGluR5-elicited Ca2+ oscillations require protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation and identify Thr-840 as the phosphorylation site. However, direct phosphorylation of mGluR5 has not been studied in detail. We have used biochemical analyses to directly investigate the phosphorylation of the mGluR5 C terminus. We showed that Ser-839 on mGluR5 is directly phosphorylated by PKC, whereas Thr-840 plays a permissive role. Although Ser-839 is conserved in mGluR1alpha (Ser-853), it is not phosphorylated, as the adjacent residue (Asp-854) is not permissive; however, mutagenesis of Asp-854 to a permissive alanine residue allows phosphorylation of Ser-853 on mGluR1alpha. We investigated the physiological consequences of mGluR5 Ser-839 phosphorylation using Ca2+ imaging. Mutations that eliminate Ser-839 phosphorylation prevent the characteristic mGluR5-dependent Ca2+ oscillations. However, mutation of Thr-840 to alanine, which prevents potential Thr-840 phosphorylation but is still permissive for Ser-839 phosphorylation, has no effect on Ca2+ oscillations. Thus, we showed that it is phosphorylation of Ser-839, not Thr-840, that is absolutely required for the unique Ca2+ oscillations produced by mGluR5 activation. The Thr-840 residue is important only in that it is permissive for the PKC-dependent phosphorylation of Ser-839.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;27;25409-15

  • The C2 domain of PKCdelta is a phosphotyrosine binding domain.

    Benes CH, Wu N, Elia AE, Dharia T, Cantley LC and Soltoff SP

    Department of Medicine, Division of Signal Transduction, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

    In eukaryotic cells, the SH2 and PTB domains mediate protein-protein interactions by recognizing phosphotyrosine residues on target proteins. Here we make the unexpected finding that the C2 domain of PKCdelta directly binds to phosphotyrosine peptides in a sequence-specific manner. We provide evidence that this domain mediates PKCdelta interaction with a Src binding glycoprotein, CDCP1. The crystal structure of the PKCdelta C2 domain in complex with an optimal phosphopeptide reveals a new mode of phosphotyrosine binding in which the phosphotyrosine moiety forms a ring-stacking interaction with a histidine residue of the C2 domain. This is also the first example of a protein Ser/Thr kinase containing a domain that binds phosphotyrosine.

    Funded by: NIDCR NIH HHS: DE10877, DE14721; NIDDK NIH HHS: P30DK34854; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM56203, R01 GM056203

    Cell 2005;121;2;271-80

  • hMutS alpha is protected from ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent degradation by atypical protein kinase C zeta phosphorylation.

    Hernandez-Pigeon H, Quillet-Mary A, Louat T, Schambourg A, Humbert O, Selves J, Salles B, Laurent G and Lautier D

    INSERM U563, CPTP, Bat B, Pavillon Lefebvre, Place du Dr Baylac, CHU PURPAN, BP 3028, 31024 Toulouse cedex 3, France.

    The hMutS alpha (hMSH2-hMSH6) protein heterodimer plays a critical role in the detection of DNA mispairs in the mismatch repair (MMR) process. We recently reported that hMutS alpha proteins were degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in a cell-type-dependent manner, indicating that one or several regulator(s) may interfere with hMutS alpha protein ubiquitination and degradation. On the other hand, we and others have shown that protein kinase C (PKC) is involved as a positive regulator of MMR activity. Here, we provide evidence that the atypical PKC zeta regulates ubiquitination, degradation, and levels of hMutS alpha proteins. Using both PKC zeta-transfected U937 and PKC zeta siRNA-transfected MRC-5 cell lines, we found that PKC zeta protein expression was correlated with that of hMutS alpha as well as with MMR activity, but was inversely correlated with hMutS alpha protein ubiquitination and degradation. Interestingly, PKC zeta interacts with hMSH2 and hMSH6 proteins and phosphorylates both. Moreover, in an in vitro assay PKCzeta mediates phosphorylation events decreasing hMutS alpha protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Altogether, our results indicate that PKC zeta modulates hMutS alpha stability and protein levels, and suggest a role for PKC zeta in genome stability by regulating MMR activity.

    Journal of molecular biology 2005;348;1;63-74

  • Signalling crosstalk in FGF2-mediated protection of endothelial cells from HIV-gp120.

    Langford D, Hurford R, Hashimoto M, Digicaylioglu M and Masliah E

    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. tdlangford@ucsd.edu

    Background: The blood brain barrier (BBB) is the first line of defence of the central nervous system (CNS) against circulating pathogens, such as HIV. The cytotoxic HIV protein, gp120, damages endothelial cells of the BBB, thereby compromising its integrity, which may lead to migration of HIV-infected cells into the brain. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), produced primarily by astrocytes, promotes endothelial cell fitness and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with FGF2 would protect the cells from gp120-mediated toxicity via endothelial cell survival signalling.

    Results: Exposure of HUVEC to gp120 resulted in dose- and time-dependent cell death; whereas, pre-treatment of endothelial cells with FGF2 protected cells from gp120 angiotoxicity. Treatment of HUVEC with FGF2 resulted in dose- and time-dependent activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), with moderate effects on phosphoinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB), also known as AKT, but no effects on glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3beta) activity. Using pharmacological approaches, gene transfer and kinase activity assays, we show that FGF2-mediated angioprotection against gp120 toxicity is regulated by crosstalk among the ERK, PI3K-AKT and PKC signalling pathways.

    Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that FGF2 may play a significant role in maintaining the integrity of the BBB during the progress of HIV associated cerebral endothelial cell damage.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA12065, P01 DA012065; NIMH NIH HHS: K01 MH071206, MH071206, MH58164, MH59745, MH62962, P50 MH045294, R01 MH062962, R24 MH059745

    BMC neuroscience 2005;6;8

  • Inhibition of gap junction activity through the release of the C1B domain of protein kinase Cgamma (PKCgamma) from 14-3-3: identification of PKCgamma-binding sites.

    Nguyen TA, Takemoto LJ and Takemoto DJ

    Department of Biochemistry and Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA.

    We have shown previously that insulin-like growth factor-I or lens epithelium-derived growth factor increases the translocation of protein kinase Cgamma (PKCgamma)to the membrane and the phosphorylation of Cx43 by PKCgamma and causes a subsequent decrease of gap junction activity (Nguyen, T. A., Boyle, D. L., Wagner, L. M., Shinohara, T., and Takemoto, D. J. (2003) Exp. Eye Res. 76, 565-572; Lin, D., Boyle, D. L., and Takemoto, D. J. (2003) Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 1160-1168). Gap junction activity in lens epithelial cells is regulated by PKCgamma-mediated phosphorylation of Cx43. PKCgamma activity is stimulated by growth factor-regulated increases in the synthesis of diacylglycerol but is inhibited by cytosolic docking proteins such as 14-3-3. Here we have identified two sites on the PKCgamma-C1B domain that are responsible for its interaction with 14-3-3epsilon. Two sites, C1B1 (residues 101-112) and C1B5 (residues 141-151), are located within the C1 domain of PKCgamma. C1B1 and/or C1B5 synthetic peptides can directly compete for the binding of 14-3-3epsilon, resulting in the release of endogenous cellular PKCgamma from 14-3-3epsilon, in vivo or in vitro, in activation of PKCgamma enzyme activity, phosphorylation of PKCgamma, in the subsequent translocation of PKCgamma to the membrane, and in inhibition of gap junction activity. Gap junction activity was decreased by at least 5-fold in cells treated with C1B1 or C1B5 peptides when compared with a control. 100 microM of C1B1 or C1B5 peptides also caused a 10- or 4-fold decrease of Cx43 plaque formation compared with control cells. The uptake of these synthetic peptides into cells was verified by using high pressure liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. We have demonstrated that the activity and localization of PKCgamma are regulated by its binding to 14-3-3epsilon at the C1B domain of PKCgamma. Synthetic peptides corresponding to these regions of PKCgamma successfully competed for the binding of 14-3-3epsilon to endogenous PKCgamma, resulting in inhibition of gap junction activity. This demonstrates that synthetic peptides can be used to exogenously regulate gap junctions.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY02932, EY13421

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;50;52714-25

  • Protein kinase C isoforms differentially phosphorylate human choline acetyltransferase regulating its catalytic activity.

    Dobransky T, Doherty-Kirby A, Kim AR, Brewer D, Lajoie G and Rylett RJ

    Department of Physiology, University of Western Ontario and Cell Biology Research Group, and Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5C1, Canada.

    Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) synthesizes acetylcholine in cholinergic neurons; regulation of its activity or response to physiological stimuli is poorly understood. We show that ChAT is differentially phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms on four serines (Ser-440, Ser-346, Ser-347, and Ser-476) and one threonine (Thr-255). This phosphorylation is hierarchical, with phosphorylation at Ser-476 required for phosphorylation at other serines. Phosphorylation at some, but not all, sites regulates basal catalysis and activation. Ser-476 with Ser-440 and Ser-346/347 maintains basal ChAT activity. Ser-440 is targeted by Arg-442 for phosphorylation by PKC. Arg-442 is mutated spontaneously (R442H) in congenital myasthenic syndrome, rendering ChAT inactive and causing neuromuscular failure. This mutation eliminates phosphorylation of Ser-440, and Arg-442, not phosphorylation of Ser-440, appears primarily responsible for ChAT activity, with Ser-440 phosphorylation modulating catalysis. Finally, basal ChAT phosphorylation in neurons is mediated predominantly by PKC at Ser-476, with PKC activation increasing phosphorylation at Ser-440 and enhancing ChAT activity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;50;52059-68

  • Protein kinase C Theta inhibits insulin signaling by phosphorylating IRS1 at Ser(1101).

    Li Y, Soos TJ, Li X, Wu J, Degennaro M, Sun X, Littman DR, Birnbaum MJ and Polakiewicz RD

    Cell Signaling Technology, Inc., Beverly, Massachusetts 01915, USA.

    Obesity and stress inhibit insulin action by activating protein kinases that enhance serine phosphorylation of IRS1 and have been thus associated to insulin resistance and the development of type II diabetes. The protein kinase C (PKC) is activated by free-fatty acids, and its activity is higher in muscle from obese diabetic patients. However, a molecular link between PKC and insulin resistance has not been defined yet. Here we show that PKC phosphorylates IRS1 at serine 1101 blocking IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation and downstream activation of the Akt pathway. Mutation of Ser(1101) to alanine makes IRS1 insensitive to the effect of PKC and restores insulin signaling in culture cells. These results provide a novel mechanism linking the activation of PKC to the inhibition of insulin signaling.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;44;45304-7

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Differential phosphorylation of connexin46 and connexin50 by H2O2 activation of protein kinase Cgamma.

    Lin D, Lobell S, Jewell A and Takemoto DJ

    Department of Biochemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan 66506, USA.

    Purpose: Fiber cell gap junction proteins connexin 46 (Cx46) and connexin 50 (Cx50) play distinct roles in the avascular lens. The purpose of this study was to determine how protein kinase Cgamma (PKCgamma) differentially regulates phosphorylation of Cx46 and Cx50 in oxidatively stressed lenses.

    Methods: Sprague Dawley rats (six week old) were used in the experiments. PKCgamma enzyme activity was analyzed by use of the PepTag assay kit. Phosphorylation of caveolin-1, Cx46, and Cx50 was determined by immunoblotting. Lipid rafts were isolated by continuous sucrose gradient centrifugation. Lipid raft-localization of PKCgamma, Cx46, or Cx50 was demonstrated by immunoblotting. Association of caveolin-1 with PKCgamma, Cx46, or Cx50 was revealed by co-immunoprecipitation.

    Results: H2O2 (100 microM) stimulated PKCgammaactivation in rat whole lens. Activated PKCgamma was recruited into caveolin-1 (Cav-1) containing lipid rafts and this activation enhanced the coimmunoprecipitation of Cav-1, Cx46, and Cx50 with PKCgamma. Both Cx50 and Cx46 were associated with Cav-1 in lipid rafts. H2O2 significantly induced threonine (Thr) phosphorylation of Cx46 and Cx50, and serine (Ser) phosphorylation of Cx50. However, There was only a small stimulation of Cx46 phosphorylation at Ser by H2O2, as Cx46 was already phosphorylated.

    Conclusions: Activation of PKCgamma by H2O2 stimulated differential Ser phosphorylation of Cx50 versus Cx46, within lipid rafts. This suggests that Cx50 and Cx46 may have different functions in lens.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY13421

    Molecular vision 2004;10;688-95

  • Molecular genetics of hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia: mutation analysis of spinocerebellar ataxia genes and CAG/CTG repeat expansion detection in 225 Italian families.

    A, Gellera C, Cagnoli C, Saluto A, Castucci A, Michielotto, Fetoni V, Mariotti C, Migone N, Di Donato S and Taroni F

    Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia e Biochimica, Università di Torino and Unitá Operativa Genetica Medica, Ospedale San Giovanni Battista di Torino, Torino, Italy. alfredo.brusco@unito.it

    Background: Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias are a clinical and genetically heterogeneous group of progressive neurodegenerative diseases, at present associated with 22 loci (spinocerebellar ataxia [SCA] 1-SCA8, SCA10-SCA19, SCA21, SCA22, fibroblast growth factor 14 [FGF14]-SCA, and dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy [DRPLA]). The relevant gene has been identified in 12 cases (SCA1-3, SCA6-8, SCA10, SCA12, FGF14, and DRPLA), and in all but the recently identified SCA14, SCA17, PRKCG and FGF14 genes, the defect consists of the expansion of a short nucleoti 8a9 de repeat.

    Objectives: To investigate the relative prevalence of SCA1-3, SCA6-8, SCA10, SCA12, and SCA17 gene expansions in Italian families with hereditary ataxia, specifically to verify the occurrence of SCA10, SCA12, and SCA17 in Italy; and to analyze samples from probands with negative test results at the initial screening by means of the repeat expansion detection technique to identify CAG/CTG expansions in novel loci.Patients Two hundred twenty-five unrelated Italian index cases with hereditary ataxia, most (n = 183) of whom presented with a clear dominantly transmitted trait.

    Results: We found that SCA1 and SCA2 gene mutations accounted for most cases (21% and 24%, respectively). We found SCA3, SCA6, SCA7, SCA8, and SCA17 to be very rare (approximately 1% each), and no case of SCA10 or SCA12 was identified. Half of the index cases (113/225) were negative for expansions in the known SCA genes. Repeat expansion detection analysis performed on 111 of these cases showed a CAG/CTG repeat expansion of at least 50 triplets in 22 (20%). Twenty-one of 22 expansions could be attributed to length variation at 2 polymorphic loci (expanded repeat domain CAG/CTG 1 [ERDA1] or CTG repeat on chromosome 18q21.1 [CTG18.1]). In 1 patient, the expansion was assigned to the DRPLA gene.

    Conclusions: The distribution of SCA1-3 and SCA6-7 gene mutations is peculiar in Italy. We found a relatively high frequency of SCA1 and SCA2 gene expansions; SCA3, SCA6, and SCA7 mutations were rare, compared with other European countries. No SCA10 or SCA12 and only a few SCA8 (2/225) and SCA17 (2/225) families were detected. In patients negative for defects in known SCA genes, repeat expansion detection data strongly suggest that, at least in our population, CAG/CTG expansions in novel genes should be considered an unlikely cause of the SCA phenotype.

    Archives of neurology 2004;61;5;727-33

  • Activation of phospholipase C-gamma1 in human keratinocytes by hyperosmolar shock without enzyme phosphorylation.

    Rodriguez I, Holloschi A, Kaszkin M, Cheng H, Kabsch K, Hafner M and Alonso A

    Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld-242, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

    Human keratinocytes are exposed to strong physical changes, and have the potentiality to react to external stimuli by switching on adaptation mechanisms. In hyperosmotically shocked keratinocytes a rapid and strong increase in calcium has been observed. We sho 1f40 wed that this increase could not be prevented by growing the cells in medium devoid of calcium and in the presence of EGTA, indicating that the intracellular calcium increase was due to delivery from internal stores. Further, we observed an increased synthesis of dyacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphates after shock, suggesting that phospholipase C mediates both events. Our experiments demonstrated that osmotic shock in human keratinocytes leads to activation of phospholipase C-gamma1, as measured using an in vitro assay system. This activation is independent of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and corresponded to a relocation of the enzyme to perinuclear membranes as shown by immunofluorescence.

    Archives of dermatological research 2004;295;11;490-7

  • Association of CPI-17 with protein kinase C and casein kinase I.

    Zemlickova E, Johannes FJ, Aitken A and Dubois T

    University of Edinburgh, Division of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK.

    The protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor protein of 17kDa, called CPI-17, specifically inhibits myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). Phosphorylation of Thr-38 in vivo highly potentiates the ability of CPI-17 to inhibit MLCP. Thr-38 has been shown to be phosphorylated in vitro by a number of protein kinases including protein kinase C (PKC), Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK), and protein kinase N (PKN). In this study we have focused on the association of protein kinases with CPI-17. Using affinity chromatography and Western blot analysis, we found interaction with all PKC isotypes and casein kinase I isoforms, CKIalpha and CKI. By contrast, ROCK and PKN did not associate with CPI-17, suggesting that PKC may be the relevant kinase that phosphorylates Thr-38 in vivo. CPI-17 interacted with the cysteine-rich domain of PKC and was phosphorylated by all PKC isotypes. We previously found that CPI-17 co-purified with casein kinase I in brain suggesting they are part of a complex and we now show that CPI-17 associates with the kinase domain of CKI isoforms.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;316;1;39-47

  • Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human Par protein complexes reveals an interconnected protein network.

    Brajenovic M, Joberty G, Küster B, Bouwmeester T and Drewes G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.

    The polarization of eukaryotic cells is controlled by the concerted activities of asymmetrically localized proteins. The PAR proteins, first identified in Caenorhabditis elegans, are common regulators of cell polarity conserved from nematode and flies to man. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which these proteins and protein complexes establish cell polarity in mammals. We have mapped multiprotein complexes formed around the putative human Par orthologs MARK4 (microtubule-associated protein/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4) (Par-1), Par-3, LKB1 (Par-4), 14-3-3zeta and eta (Par-5), Par-6a, -b, -c, and PKClambda (PKC3). We employed a proteomic approach comprising tandem affinity purification (TAP) of protein complexes from cultured cells and protein sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry. From these data we constructed a highly interconnected protein network consisting of three core complex "modules" formed around MARK4 (Par-1), Par-3.Par-6, and LKB1 (Par-4). The network confirms most previously reported interactions. In addition we identified more than 50 novel interactors, some of which, like the 14-3-3 phospho-protein scaffolds, occur in more than one distinct complex. We demonstrate that the complex formation between LKB1.Par-4, PAPK, and Mo25 results in the translocation of LKB1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and to tight junctions and show that the LKB1 complex may activate MARKs, which are known to introduce 14-3-3 binding sites into several substrates. Our findings suggest co-regulation and/or signaling events between the distinct Par complexes and provide a basis for further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that govern cell polarity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;13;12804-11

  • Ki-1/57 interacts with RACK1 and is a substrate for the phosphorylation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-activated protein kinase C.

    Nery FC, Passos DO, Garcia VS and Kobarg J

    Centro de Biologia Molecular Estrutural, Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro 10.000, C.P. 6192, 13084-971 Campinas, SP, Brasil.

    Ki-1/57, the 57-kDa human protein antigen recognized by the CD30 antibody Ki-1, is a cytoplasmic and nuclear protein that is phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues. When isolated from the Hodgkin's lymphoma analogous cell line L540 Ki-1/57 co-immunoprecipitated with a Thr/Ser protein kinase activity. It has been also found to interact with hyaluronic acid and has therefore been termed intracellular IHABP4 (hyaluronan-binding protein 4). Recent studies demonstrated, however, that Ki-1/57 engages in specific interaction with the chromo-helicase-DNA-binding domain protein 3, a nuclear protein involved in chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation. We used the yeast two-hybrid system to find proteins interacting with Ki-1/57 and identified the adaptor protein RACK1 (receptor of activated kinase 1). Next, we confirmed this interaction in vitro and in vivo, performed detailed mapping studies of the interaction sites of Ki-1/57 and RACK-1, and demonstrated that Ki-1/57 also co-precipitates with protein kinase C (PKC) when isolated from phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-activated L540 tumor cells and is a substrate for PKC phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, the interaction of Ki-1/57 with RACK1 is abolished upon activation of L540 cells with PMA, which results in the phosphorylation of Ki-1/57 and its exit from the nucleus. Taken together, our data suggest that Ki-1/57 forms a stable complex with RACK-1 in unstimulated cells and upon PMA stimulation gets phosphorylated on threonine residues located at its extreme C terminus. These events associate Ki-1/57 with the RACK1/PKC pathway and may be important for the regulation of its cellular functions.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;12;11444-55

  • Isoform-specific phosphorylation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 by protein kinase C (PKC) blocks Ca2+ oscillation and oscillatory translocation of Ca2+-dependent PKC.

    Uchino M, Sakai N, Kashiwagi K, Shirai Y, Shinohara Y, Hirose K, Iino M, Yamamura T and Saito N

    Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Biosignal Research Center, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.

    Prolonged activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5a (mGluR5a) causes synchronized oscillations in intracellular calcium, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production, and protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Additionally, mGluR5 stimulation elicited cyclical translocations of myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate, which were opposite to that of gammaPKC (i.e. from plasma membrane to cytosol) and dependent on PKC activity, indicating that myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate is repetitively phosphorylated by oscillating gammaPKC on the plasma membrane. Mutation of mGluR5 Thr(840) to aspartate abolished the oscillation of gammaPKC, but the mutation to alanine (T840A) did not. Cotransfection of gammaPKC with betaIIPKC, another Ca2+-dependent PKC, resulted in synchronous oscillatory translocation of both classical PKCs. In contrast, cotransfection of deltaPKC, a Ca2+-independent PKC, abolished the oscillations of both gammaPKC and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Regulation of the oscillations was dependent on deltaPKC kinase activity but not on gammaPKC. Furthermore, the T840A-mGluR5-mediated oscillations were not blocked by the deltaPKC overexpression. These results revealed that activation of mGluR5 causes translocation of both gammaPKC and deltaPKC to the plasma membrane. deltaPKC, but not gammaPKC, phosphorylates mGluR5 Thr(840), leading to the blockade of both Ca2+ oscillations and gammaPKC cycling. This subtype-specific targeting proposes the molecular basis of the multiple functions of PKC.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;3;2254-61

  • Identification of a novel SCA14 mutation in a Dutch autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia family.

    van de Warrenburg BP, Verbeek DS, Piersma SJ, Hennekam FA, Pearson PL, Knoers NV, Kremer HP and Sinke RJ

    Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

    Objective: To report a Dutch family with autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA) based on a novel mutation in the PRKCG gene.

    Methods: The authors studied 13 affected members of the six-generation family. After excluding the known spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) genes, a combination of the shared haplotype approach, linkage analysis, and genealogic investigations was used. Exons 4 and 5 of the candidate gene, PRKCG, were sequenced.

    Results: Affected subjects displayed a relatively uncomplicated, slowly progressive cerebellar syndrome, with a mean age at onset of 40.8 years. A focal dystonia in two subjects with an onset of disease in their early 20s suggests extrapyramidal features in early onset disease. Significant linkage to a locus on chromosome 19q was found, overlapping the SCA-14 region. Based on the recent description of three missense mutations in the PRKCG gene, located within the boundaries of the SCA-14 locus, we sequenced exons 4 and 5 of this gene and detected a novel missense mutation in exon 4, which involves a G-->A transition in nucleotide 353 and results in a glycine-to-aspartic acid substitution at residue 118.

    Conclusion: A SCA-14-linked Dutch ADCA family with a novel missense mutation in the PRKCG gene was identified.

    Neurology 2003;61;12;1760-5

  • Protein kinase C switches the Raf kinase inhibitor from Raf-1 to GRK-2.

    Lorenz K, Lohse MJ and Quitterer U

    Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Versbacher Strasse 9, D-97078 Würzburg, Germany.

    Feedback inhibition is a fundamental principle in signal transduction allowing rapid adaptation to different stimuli. In mammalian cells, the major feedback inhibitor for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) is G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK-2), which phosphorylates activated receptors, uncouples them from G prot 1f40 eins and initiates their internalization. The functions of GRK-2 are indispensable and need to be tightly controlled. Dysregulation promotes disorders such as hypertension or heart failure. In our search for a control mechanism for this vital kinase, here we show that the Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) is a physiological inhibitor of GRK-2. After stimulation of GPCR, RKIP dissociates from its known target, Raf-1 (refs 6-8), to associate with GRK-2 and block its activity. This switch is triggered by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the RKIP on serine 153. The data delineate a new principle in signal transduction: by activating PKC, the incoming receptor signal is enhanced both by removing an inhibitor from Raf-1 and by blocking receptor internalization. A physiological role for this mechanism is shown in cardiomyocytes in which the downregulation of RKIP restrains beta-adrenergic signalling and contractile activity.

    Nature 2003;426;6966;574-9

  • Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 caused by a mutation in protein kinase C gamma.

    Yabe I, Sasaki H, Chen DH, Raskind WH, Bird TD, Yamashita I, Tsuji S, Kikuchi S and Tashiro K

    Department of Neurology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

    Background: We previously discovered spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) in a single Japanese family with an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia and intermittent axial myoclonus. The latter manifestation is selectively observed in patients with early onset. We mapped the locus to chromosome 19q13.4-qter, but the etiologic gene was not known. Recently, a mutation in the protein kinase C gamma gene (PRKCG) was identified in a US family of English and Dutch ancestry with autosomal dominant SCA whose disease mapped to a region overlapping that of the SCA14 locus. Different PRKCG mutations were found in another family with SCA and in a sporadic case from the United States. Axial myoclonus was not observed in any of these US families.

    Objectives: To determine whether a mutation in the PRKCG gene is responsible for SCA14 and to investigate the prevalence of PRKCG mutations in Japanese patients with autosomal dominant SCA.

    Direct nucleotide sequencing analysis of the 18 coding exons of the PRKCG gene was performed in the 19 members of the original Japanese family with SCA14 and in 24 Japanese probands with SCA. After identifying a PRKCG mutation, DNA samples from 72 patients with multiple system atrophy and 50 healthy individuals were examined for the mutation as controls.

    Results: Sequence analysis revealed a novel missense mutation, Gln127Arg, in all affected members of the family with SCA14. This mutation was not found in 122 control individuals. No mutations in the PRKCG gene were detected in the group of 24 probands with SCA of unknown type.

    Conclusions: These findings document that SCA14 is caused by mutations in the PRKCG gene. The observation that all 4 PRKCG mutations identified in patients with SCA to date are located in exon 4 suggests a critical role for this region of the gene in cerebellar function. Mutations in the same region of the gene can result in myoclonus in some families but not in others.

    Archives of neurology 2003;60;12;1749-51

  • Activation mechanisms of conventional protein kinase C isoforms are determined by the ligand affinity and conformational flexibility of their C1 domains.

    Ananthanarayanan B, Stahelin RV, Digman MA and Cho W

    Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 W. Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60607, USA.

    The regulatory domains of conventional and novel protein kinases C (PKC) have two C1 domains (C1A and C1B) that have been identified as the interaction site for diacylglycerol (DAG) and phorbol ester. It has been reported that C1A and C1B domains of individual PKC isoforms play different roles in their membrane binding and activation; however, DAG affinity of individual C1 domains has not been quantitatively determined. In this study, we measured the affinity of isolated C1A and C1B domains of two conventional PKCs, PKCalpha and PKCgamma, for soluble and membrane-incorporated DAG and phorbol ester by isothermal calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance. The C1A and C1B domains of PKCalpha have opposite affinities for DAG and phorbol ester; i.e. the C1A domain with high affinity for DAG and the C1B domain with high affinity for phorbol ester. In contrast, the C1A and C1b domains of PKCgamma have comparably high affinities for both DAG and phorbol ester. Consistent with these 1f40 results, mutational studies of full-length proteins showed that the C1A domain is critical for the DAG-induced activation of PKCalpha, whereas both C1A and C1B domains are involved in the DAG-induced activation of PKCgamma. Further mutational studies in conjunction with in vitro activity assay and monolayer penetration analysis indicated that, unlike the C1A domain of PKCalpha, neither the C1A nor the C1B domain of PKCgamma is conformationally restricted. Cell studies with enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged PKCs showed that PKCalpha did not translocate to the plasma membrane in response to DAG at a basal intracellular calcium concentration due to the inaccessibility of its C1A domain, whereas PKCgamma rapidly translocated to the plasma membrane under the same conditions. These data suggest that differential activation mechanisms of PKC isoforms are determined by the DAG affinity and conformational flexibility of their C1 domains.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 52598, GM 53987

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;47;46886-94

  • Dishevelled 2 recruits beta-arrestin 2 to mediate Wnt5A-stimulated endocytosis of Frizzled 4.

    Chen W, ten Berge D, Brown J, Ahn S, Hu LA, Miller WE, Caron MG, Barak LS, Nusse R and Lefkowitz RJ

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Departments of Medicine and Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

    Wnt proteins, regulators of development in many organisms, bind to seven transmembrane-spanning (7TMS) receptors called frizzleds, thereby recruiting the cytoplasmic molecule dishevelled (Dvl) to the plasma membrane.Frizzled-mediated endocytosis of Wg (a Drosophila Wnt protein) and lysosomal degradation may regulate the formation of morphogen gradients. Endocytosis of Frizzled 4 (Fz4) in human embryonic kidney 293 cells was dependent on added Wnt5A protein and was accomplished by the multifunctional adaptor protein beta-arrestin 2 (betaarr2), which was recruited to Fz4 by binding to phosphorylated Dvl2. These findings provide a previously unrecognized mechanism for receptor recruitment of beta-arrestin and demonstrate that Dvl plays an important role in the endocytosis of frizzled, as well as in promoting signaling.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 16037, HL 61365; NINDS NIH HHS: NS 19576

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2003;301;5638;1391-4

  • Physiological regulation of Munc18/nSec1 phosphorylation on serine-313.

    Craig TJ, Evans GJ and Morgan A

    Department of Physiology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

    Increased protein phosphorylation enhances exocytosis in most secretory cell types, including neurones. However, the molecular mechanisms by which this occurs and the specific protein targets remain unclear. Munc18-1/nSec1 is essential for exocytosis in neurones, and is known to be phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) in vitro at Ser-313. This phosphorylation has been shown to decrease its affinity for syntaxin, and to alter the kinetics of exocytosis in chromaffin cells. However, there are no data on the physiological regulation of Ser-313 phosphorylation. Using phospho-Ser-313-specific antisera, we demonstrate here that Ser-313 is phosphorylated in intact and permeabilized chromaffin cells in response to histamine and Ca2+ respectively. Furthermore, Ser-313 is rapidly and transiently phosphorylated in intact synaptosomes in response to depolarization by KCl treatment or by 4-aminopyridine, and by the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist dihydroxyphenylglycine. PKC was identified as the kinase, and PP1 and PP2B as the phosphatases responsible for regulating Ser-313 phosphorylation. As phosphorylation of nSec1 on Ser-313 affects the rate of transmitter release in chromaffin cells, the demonstration here that this phosphorylation event occurs in neurones suggests that synaptic neurotransmitter release may be similarly regulated by nSec1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, such changes in release kinetics are associated with long-term potentiation and depression, thus implicating nSec1 phosphorylation as a potential regulatory mechanism underlying presynaptic plasticity.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2003;86;6;1450-7

  • Activation of Raf-1 signaling by protein kinase C through a mechanism involving Raf kinase inhibitory protein.

    Corbit KC, Trakul N, Eves EM, Diaz B, Marshall M and Rosner MR

    Department of Neurobiology, Pharmacology and Physiology, and Ben May Institute for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

    Protein kinase C (PKC) regulates activation of the Raf-1 signaling cascade by growth factors, but the mechanism by which this occurs has not been elucidated. Here we report that one mechanism involves dissociation of Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) from Raf-1. Classic and atypical but not novel PKC isoforms phosphorylate RKIP at serine 153 (Ser-153). RKIP Ser-153 phosphorylation by PKC either in vitro or in response to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or epidermal growth factor causes release of RKIP from Raf-1, whereas mutant RKIP (S153V or S153E) remains bound. Increased expression of PKC can rescue inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascade by wild-type but not mutant S153V RKIP. Taken together, these results constitute the first model showing how phosphorylation by PKC relieves a key inhibitor of the Raf/MAP kinase signaling cascade and may represent a general mechanism for the regulation of MAP kinase pathways.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 5T32CA09594; NIGMS NIH HHS: T32GM07151; NINDS NIH HHS: NS38846

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;15;13061-8

  • Phosphorylation of serine 1106 in the catalytic domain of topoisomerase II alpha regulates enzymatic activity and drug sensitivity.

    Chikamori K, Grabowski DR, Kinter M, Willard BB, Yadav S, Aebersold RH, Bukowski RM, Hickson ID, Andersen AH, Ganapathi R and Ganapathi MK

    Experimental Therapeutics Program, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.

    Topoisomerases alter DNA topology and are vital for the maintenance of genomic integrity. Topoisomerases I and II are also targets for widely used antitumor agents. We demonstrated previously that in the human leukemia cell line, HL-60, resistance to topoisomerase (topo) II-targeting drugs such as etoposide is associated with site-specific hypophosphorylation of topo II alpha. This effect can be mimicked in sensitive cells treated with the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA-AM). Here we identify Ser-1106 as a major phosphorylation site in the catalytic domain of topo II alpha. This site lies within the consensus sequence for the acidotrophic kinases, casein kinase I and casein kinase II. Mutation of serine 1106 to alanine (S1106A) abrogates phosphorylation of phosphopeptides that were found to be hypophosphorylated in resistant HL-60 cells or sensitive cells treated with BAPTA-AM. Purified topo II alpha containing a S1106A substitution is 4-fold less active than wild type topo II alpha in decatenating kinetoplast DNA and also exhibits a 2-4-fold decrease in the level of etoposide-stabilized DNA cleavable complex formation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (JN394t2-4) cells expressing S1106A mutant topo II alpha protein are more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of etoposide or amsacrine. These results demonstrate that Ca(2+)-regulated phosphorylation of Ser-1106 in the catalytic domain of topo II alpha modulates the enzymatic activity of this protein and sensitivity to topo II-targeting drugs.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA74939; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK56917

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;15;12696-702

  • Missense mutations in the regulatory domain of PKC gamma: a new mechanism for dominant nonepisodic cerebellar ataxia.

    Chen DH, Brkanac Z, Verlinde CL, Tan XJ, Bylenok L, Nochlin D, Matsushita M, Lipe H, Wolff J, Fernandez M, Cimino PJ, Bird TD and Raskind WH

    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

    We report a nonepisodic autosomal dominant (AD) spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) not caused by a nucleotide repeat expansion that is, to our knowledge, the first such SCA. The AD SCAs currently comprise a group of > or =16 genetically distinct neurodegenerative conditions, all characterized by progressive incoordination of gait and limbs and by speech and eye-movement disturbances. Six of the nine SCAs for which the genes are known result from CAG expansions that encode polyglutamine tracts. Noncoding CAG, CTG, and ATTCT expansions are responsible for three other SCAs. Approximately 30% of families with SCA do not have linkage to the known loci. We recently mapped the locus for an AD SCA in a family (AT08) to chromosome 19q13.4-qter. A particularly compelling candidate gene, PRKCG, encodes protein kinase C gamma (PKC gamma), a member of a family of serine/threonine kinases. The entire coding region of PRKCG was sequenced in an affected member of family AT08 and in a group of 39 unrelated patients with ataxia not attributable to trinucleotide expansions. Three different nonconservative missense mutations in highly conserved residues in C1, the cysteine-rich region of the protein, were found in family AT08, another familial case, and a sporadic case. The mutations cosegregated with disease in both families. Structural modeling predicts that two of these amino acid substitutions would severely abrogate the zinc-binding or phorbol ester-binding capabilities of the protein. Immunohistochemical studies on cerebellar tissue from an affected member of family AT08 demonstrated reduced staining for both PKC gamma and ataxin 1 in Purkinje cells, whereas staining for calbindin was preserved. These results strongly support a new mechanism for neuronal cell dysfunction and death in hereditary ataxias and suggest that there may be a common pathway for PKC gamma-related and polyglutamine-related neurodegeneration.

    Funded by: NIEHS NIH HHS: P30 ES007033, P30ES07033

    American journal of human genetics 2003;72;4;839-49

  • Phosphorylation of Munc18 by protein kinase C regulates the kinetics of exocytosis.

    Barclay JW, Craig TJ, Fisher RJ, Ciufo LF, Evans GJ, Morgan A and Burgoyne RD

    Physiological Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, United Kingdom.

    Protein phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in the control of neurotransmitter release and various forms of synaptic plasticity. The PKC substrates responsible for phosphorylation-dependent changes in regulated exocytosis in vivo have not been identified. Munc18a is essential for neurotransmitter release by exocytosis and can be phosphorylated by PKC in vitro on Ser-306 and Ser-313. We demonstrate that it is phosphorylated on Ser-313 in response to phorbol ester treatment in adrenal chromaffin cells. Mutation of both phosphorylation sites to glutamate reduces its affinity for syntaxin and so acts as a phosphomimetic mutation. Unlike phorbol ester treatment, expression of Munc18 with this phosphomimetic mutation in PKC phosphorylation sites did not affect the number of exocytotic events. The mutant did, however, produce changes in single vesicle release kinetics, assayed by amperometry, which were identical to those caused by phorbol ester treatment. Furthermore, the effects of phorbol ester treatment on release kinetics were occluded in cells expressing phosphomimetic Munc18. These results suggest that the dynamics of vesicle release events during exocytosis are controlled by PKC directly through phosphorylation of Munc18 on Ser-313. Phosphorylation of Munc18 by PKC may provide a mechanism for the control of exocytosis and thereby synaptic plasticity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;12;10538-45

  • Protein kinase C gamma associates directly with the GluR4 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor subunit. Effect on receptor phosphorylation.

    Correia SS, Duarte CB, Faro CJ, Pires EV and Carvalho AL

    Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology and Department of Biochemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra, Portugal.

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate the majority of excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain and are thought to be involved in learning and memory formation. The activity of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors can be regulated by direct phosphorylation of their subunits, which affects the electrophysiological properties of the receptor, and the receptor association with numerous proteins that modulate membrane traffic and synaptic targeting of the receptor. In the present study we investigated the association of protein kinase C (PKC) gamma isoform with the GluR4 AMPA receptor subunit. PKC gamma was co-immunoprecipitated with GluR4 AMPA receptor subunit in rat cerebellum and in cultured chick retina cell extracts, and immunocytochemistry experiments showed co-localization of GluR4 and PKC gamma in cultured chick retinal neurons. Pull-down assays showed that native PKC gamma binds the GluR4 C-terminal membrane-proximal region, and recombinant PKC gamma was retained by GST-GluR4 C-terminal fusion protein, suggesting that the kinase binds directly to GluR4. Furthermore, GST-GluR4 C-terminal protein was phosphorylated on GluR4 Ser-482 by bound kinases, retained by the fusion protein, including PKC gamma. The GluR4 C-terminal segment that interacts with PKC gamma, which lacks the PKC phosphorylation sites, inhibited histone H1 phosphorylation by PKC, to the same extent as the PKC pseudosubstrate peptide 19-31, indicating that PKC gamma bound to GluR4 preferentially phosphorylates GluR4 to the detriment of other substrates. Additionally, PKC gamma expression in GluR4 transfected human embryonic kidney 293T cells increased the amount of plasma membrane-associated GluR4. Our results suggest that PKC gamma binds directly to GluR4, thereby modulating the function of GluR4-containing AMPA receptors.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;8;6307-13

  • Signaling pathways triggered by HIV-1 Tat in human monocytes to induce TNF-alpha.

    Bennasser Y, Badou A, Tkaczuk J and Bahraoui E

    Laboratoire d'Immuno-Virologie, EA 3038, Université Paul Sabatier 118, route de Narbonne, 31062, Toulouse Cedex, France.

    In this study we investigated the signaling pathways triggered by Tat in human monocyte to induce TNF-alpha. In monocytes, the calcium, the PKA, and the PKC pathways are highly implicated in the expression of cytokine genes. Thus, these three major signaling pathways were investigated. Our data show that (i) PKC and calcium pathways are required for TNF-alpha production, whereas the PKA pathway seems to be not involved; (ii) downstream from PKC, activation of NFkappaB is essential while ERK1/2 MAP kinases, even though activated by Tat, are not directly involved in the pathway signaling leading to TNF-alpha production.

    Virology 2002;303;1;174-80

  • Protein kinase C gamma (PKC gamma): function of neuron specific isotype.

    Saito N and Shirai Y

    Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Biosignal Research Center, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501. naosaito@kobe-u.ac.jp

    The gamma isotype of protein kinase C (PKC gamma) is a member of the classical PKC (cPKC) subfamily which is activated by Ca(2+) and diacylglycerol in the presence of phosphatidylserine. Physiologically, PKC gamma is activated by a mechanism coupled with receptor-mediated breakdown of inositol phospholipid as other cPKC isotypes such as PKC alpha and PKC beta. PKC gamma is expressed solely in the brain and spinal cord and its localization is restricted to neurons, while PKC alpha and PKC beta are expressed in many tissues in addition to the brain. Within the brain, PKC gamma is the most abundant in the cerebellum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex, where the existence of neuronal plasticity has been demonstrated. Pharmacological and electrophysiological studies have shown that several neuronal functions, including long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), specifically require PKC gamma. Generation of mice deficient in PKC gamma provided more information regarding the physiological functions of this isotype. PKC gamma deficient mice (i) have modified long term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampus, (ii) exhibit mild deficits in spatial and contextual learning (iii) exhibit impaired motor coordination due to persistent multiple innervations of climbing fibers on Purkinje cells, (iv) show attenuation of opioid receptor activation, and (v) show decreased effects of ethanol on type A of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor. Furthermore, a point mutation in the PKC gamma gene may contribute to retinitis pigmentosa and Parkinsonian syndrome. This article reviews the specific functions of this neuron-specific isotype of PKC in neuronal signal transduction.

    Journal of biochemistry 2002;132;5;683-7

  • A new dominant spinocerebellar ataxia linked to chromosome 19q13.4-qter.

    Brkanac Z, Bylenok L, Fernandez M, Matsushita M, Lipe H, Wolff J, Nochlin D, Raskind WH and Bird TD

    Department of Psychiatry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7720, USA.

    Background: The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. Although molecular genetic studies have so far implicated 16 loci in the etiology of these diseases, approximately 30% of families with SCAs remain unlinked.

    Objectives: To report the location of a gene causing a "pure" autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia in one family and to describe the clinical phenotype.

    Patients: We have identified a 4-generation American family of English and Dutch ethnicity with a pure cerebellar ataxia displaying an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. The disease typically has its onset in the third and fourth decades of life, shows no evidence of anticipation, progresses slowly, and does not appear to decrease life expectancy. Clinical DNA testing excluded SCA1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8.

    Methods: A genome-wide linkage analysis at a 10 centimorgan (cM) level was performed with samples from 26 family members (11 affected, 10 clinically unaffected at risk, and 5 spouses).

    Results: Assuming 90% penetrance, we found suggestive evidence of linkage to chromosome 19, with a lod score of 2.49 for D19S571. More detailed mapping in this region provided a maximum 2-point lod score of 2.57 at theta = 0 for D19S254 and a maximum multipoint lod score of 4.72 at D19S926. By haplotype construction a 22-cM critical region from D19S601 to the q telomere was defined.

    Conclusions: We have mapped a gene for an autosomal dominant SCA to chromosome 19q13.4-qter in one family. The critical region overlaps with the locus for SCA14, a disease described in a single Japanese family and characterized by axial myoclonus. Myoclonus was not seen in the family we studied, but it remains possible that the 2 disorders are allelic variants.

    Archives of neurology 2002;59;8;1291-5

  • Sequence determinants on the NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptor responsible for specificity of phosphorylation by CaMKII.

    Mayadevi M, Praseeda M, Kumar KS and Omkumar RV

    Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Jagathy, Thiruvananthapuam, Kerala-695014, India.

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (CaMKII) and NMDA-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) are neuronal proteins involved in learning and memory. CaMKII binds to the NR2B subunit of NMDAR in more than one mode, a stable association involving a noncatalytic site on CaMKII and an enzyme-substrate mode of interaction by its catalytic site. The latter binding results in phosphorylation of serine-1303 on NR2B. We have investigated this binding by studying the kinetics of phosphorylation of synthetic peptides harboring nested sequences of the phosphorylation site motif. We find that residues 1292-1297 of NR2B enhance the affinity of the catalytic site-mediated binding of CaMKII to the minimal phosphorylation site motif, 1298-1308 of NR2B, as evident from measurements of K(m) values for phosphorylation. However, CaMKII shows decreased affinity towards the closely related NR2A subunit due to an -Ile-Asn- motif present as a natural insertion in the analogous sequence on NR2A.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2002;1598;1-2;40-5

  • Association of protein kinase C with GABA(A) receptors containing alpha1 and alpha4 subunits in the cerebral cortex: selective effects of chronic ethanol consumption.

    Kumar S, Sieghart W and Morrow AL

    Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7178, USA.

    Previous studies have suggested that protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms differentially influence the sensitivity of gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A) ) receptor responses in brain. Both PKCgamma and PKCepsilon knock-out mice exhibit altered ethanol potentiation of GABA(A) receptor mediated Cl(-) flux. Furthermore, chronic ethanol consumption alters GABA(A) receptor function and receptor subunit peptide expression by mechanisms that are not yet understood. The present study explored the possibility that PKC isoforms are directly associated with GABA(A) receptors, and this association is influenced by chronic ethanol exposure. GABA(A) receptors containing alpha1 or alpha4 subunits were immunoprecipitated from solubilized protein derived from the membrane fraction of rat cerebral cortex using selective antibodies. Immunoprecipitated receptors were screened by western blot analysis for the presence of PKCdelta, gamma and epsilon isoforms. We found pronounced labeling of PKCgamma but not PKCdelta or PKCepsilon in the alpha1 and alpha4 subunit immunoprecipitates. Immunoprecipitation with PKCgamma, but not with IgG antibody also yielded GABA(A) receptor alpha1 and alpha4 subunits in the immunoprecipitate. The association of PKCgamma with alpha1-containing receptors was decreased 44 +/- 11% after chronic ethanol consumption. In contrast, PKCgamma associated with alpha4-containing receptors was increased 32 +/- 7% after chronic ethanol consumption. These results suggest that PKCgamma may be involved in GABA(A) receptor adaptations following chronic ethanol consumption.

    Funded by: NIAAA NIH HHS: AA 09013, AA 11605

    Journal of neurochemistry 2002;82;1;110-7

  • PC phosphorylation increases the ability of AFAP-110 to cross-link actin filaments.

    Qian Y, Baisden JM, Cherezova L, Summy JM, Guappone-Koay A, Shi X, Mast T, Pustula J, Zot HG, Mazloum N, Lee MY and Flynn DC

    The Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center and the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-9300, USA.

    The actin filament-associated protein and Src-binding partner, AFAP-110, is an adaptor protein that links signaling molecules to actin filaments. AFAP-110 binds actin filaments directly and multimerizes through a leucine zipper motif. Cellular signals downstream of Src(527F) can regulate multimerization. Here, we determined recombinant AFAP-110 (rAFAP-110)-bound actin filaments cooperatively, through a lateral association. We demonstrate rAFAP-110 has the capability to cross-link actin filaments, and this ability is dependent on the integrity of the carboxy terminal actin binding domain. Deletion of the leucine zipper motif or PKC phosphorylation affected AFAP-110's conformation, which correlated with changes in multimerization and increased the capability of rAFAP-110 to cross-link actin filaments. AFAP-110 is both a substrate and binding partner of PKC. On PKC activation, stress filament organization is lost, motility structures form, and AFAP-110 colocalizes strongly with motility structures. Expression of a deletion mutant of AFAP-110 that is unable to bind PKC blocked the effect of PMA on actin filaments. We hypothesize that upon PKC activation, AFAP-110 can be cooperatively recruited to newly forming actin filaments, like those that exist in cell motility structures, and that PKC phosphorylation effects a conformational change that may enable AFAP-110 to promote actin filament cross-linking at the cell membrane.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA60731, R01 CA060731

    Molecular biology of the cell 2002;13;7;2311-22

  • The use of fluorescent phorbol esters in studies of protein kinase C-membrane interactions.

    Slater SJ, Ho C and Stubbs CD

    Department of Anatomy, Pathology and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Room 271 JAH, 1020 Locust St., Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

    The family of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes belongs to a growing class of proteins that become active by associating with membranes containing anionic phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine. Depending on the particular PKC isoform, this process is mediated by Ca(2+)-binding to a C2 domain and interaction of activators such as 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol or phorbol esters with tandem C1 domains. This cooperation between the C1 and C2 domains in inducing the association of PKC with lipid membranes provides the energy for a conformational change that consists of the release of a pseudosubstrate sequence from the active site, culminating in activation. Thus, the properties of the interactions of the C1 and C2 domains with membranes, both as isolated domains, and as modules in the full length PKC isoforms, have been the subject of intense scrutiny. Here, we review the findings of studies in which fluorescent phorbol esters have been utilized to probe the properties of the C1 domains of PKC with respect to the interaction with activators, the subsequent interaction with membranes, and the role of the activating conformational change that leads to activation.

    Funded by: NIAAA NIH HHS: AA07186, AA07215, AA07465, AA08022

    Chemistry and physics of lipids 2002;116;1-2;75-91

  • Human serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase-like kinase (SGKL) phosphorylates glycogen syntheses kinase 3 beta (GSK-3beta) at serine-9 through direct interaction.

    Dai F, Yu L, He H, Chen Y, Yu J, Yang Y, Xu Y, Ling W and Zhao S

    State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433, People's Republic of China.

    Serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase-like kinase (SGKL) has been identified as a new integrator that decodes lipid signals produced by the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). SGKL is activated via its lipid-binding domain (phox homology domain) in response to PI3K signaling. However, downstream targets of SGKL as well as the role of SGKL as a mediator in PI3K signaling in human tissues remain to be established. In this study, we identified human glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3beta) as a specific interacting partner with SGKL in a yeast two-hybrid screening of human brain cDNA library. The association between these two proteins is confirmed independently in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells by co-immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, the kinase activity of wild-type SGKL was required for the in vitro phosphorylation of a GSK-3 crosstide fusion protein at serine-21/9 as demonstrated with a Phospho-GSK-3alpha/beta (Ser21/9) specific antibody. The present results provide strong evidences that SGKL could utilize GSK-3beta as a direct downstream target by phosphorylating GSK-3beta at serine-9.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2002;293;4;1191-6

  • Convergence of multiple signaling cascades at glycogen synthase kinase 3: Edg receptor-mediated phosphorylation and inactivation by lysophosphatidic acid through a protein kinase C-dependent intracellular pathway.

    Fang X, Yu S, Tanyi JL, Lu Y, Woodgett JR and Mills GB

    Department of Molecular Therapeutics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a natural phospholipid with multiple biological functions. We show here that LPA induces phosphorylation and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase. The effect of LPA can be reconstituted by expression of Edg-4 or Edg-7 in cells lacking LPA responses. Compared to insulin, LPA stimulates only modest phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) that does not correlate with the magnitude of GSK-3 phosphorylation induced by LPA. PI3K inhibitors block insulin- but not LPA-induced GSK-3 phosphorylation. In contrast, the effect of LPA, but not that of insulin or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), is sensitive to protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors. Downregulation of endogenous PKC activity selectively reduces LPA-mediated GSK-3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, several PKC isotypes phosphorylate GSK-3 in vitro and in vivo. To confirm a specific role for PKC in regulation of GSK-3, we further studied signaling properties of PDGF receptor beta subunit (PDGFRbeta) in HEK293 cells lacking endogenous PDGF receptors. In clones expressing a PDGFRbeta mutant wherein the residues that couple to PI3K and other signaling functions are mutated with the link to phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma) left intact, PDGF is fully capable of stimulating GSK-3 phosphorylation. The process is sensitive to PKC inhibitors in contrast to the response through the wild-type PDGFRbeta. Therefore, growth factors, such as PDGF, which control GSK-3 mainly through the PI3K-PKB/Akt module, possess the ability to regulate GSK-3 through an alternative, redundant PLCgamma-PKC pathway. LPA and potentially other natural ligands primarily utilize a PKC-dependent pathway to modulate GSK-3.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA64602, CA82716, P01 CA064602, R01 CA082716

    Molecular and cellular biology 2002;22;7;2099-110

  • HIV-1 Tat protein induces interleukin-10 in human peripheral blood monocytes: involvement of protein kinase C-betaII and -delta.

    Bennasser Y and Bahraoui E

    Laboratoire d'Immuno-Virologie, EA 3038, Université Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse, France.

    In HIV-infected patients, production of interleukin-10 (IL-10), a highly immunosuppressive cytokine, is associated with the disease progression toward AIDS. We have previously shown that HIV-1 Tat induces IL-10 production by human monocytes via a protein kinase C (PKC) -dependent pathway. Here we show that PKC activation by Tat is essential for IL-10 induction. Among the eight PKC isoforms present in human monocytes, we investigated which isoform(s) plays this crucial role in Tat-mediated IL-10 production and show that 1) Tat can activate PKC-alpha, PKC-betaII, PKC-delta, and PKC-epsilon, 2) of these four potential candidates, only PKC-betaII, PKC-delta, and PKC-epsilon are activated by the active domain Tat 1-45, which is responsible for IL-10 production and depleted by long-term exposure to PMA, which abolishes Tat-mediated IL-10 production, 3) whereas selective inhibition of PKC-alpha and PKC-epsilon by specific antisense oligonucleotides has no effect on Tat-mediated IL-10 induction, inhibition of either PKC-betaII or PKC-delta partially inhibits IL-10 production; and 4) the simultaneous inhibition of PKC-betaII and PKC-delta totally inhibits Tat-mediated IL-10. Altogether, these results suggest that the induction of IL-10 by Tat is strictly dependent on the PKC-delta and -betaII isoforms.

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2002;16;6;546-54

  • Protein kinase C regulates the phosphorylation and cellular localization of occludin.

    Andreeva AY, Krause E, Müller EC, Blasig IE and Utepbergenov DI

    Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, 13125 Berlin-Buch and Charité, Humboldt Universität Berlin, 13092 Berlin, Germany.

    Occludin is an integral membrane phosphoprotein specifically associated with tight junctions, contributing to the structure and function of this intercellular seal. Occludin function is thought to be regulated by phosphorylation, but no information is available on the molecular pathways involved. In the present study, the involvement of the protein kinase C pathway in the regulation of the phosphorylation and cellular distribution of occludin has been investigated. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol induced the rapid phosphorylation of occludin in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells cultured in low extracellular calcium medium with a concomitant translocation of occludin to the regions of cell-cell contact. The extent of occludin phosphorylation as well as its incorporation into tight junctions induced by protein kinase C activators or calcium switch were markedly decreased by the protein kinase C inhibitor GF-109203X. In addition, in vitro experiments showed that the recombinant COOH-terminal domain of murine occludin could be phosphorylated by purified protein kinase C. Ser(338) of occludin was identified as an in vitro protein kinase C phosphorylation site using peptide mass fingerprint analysis and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectroscopy. These findings indicate that protein kinase C is involved in the regulation of occludin function at tight junctions.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;42;38480-6

  • HIV envelope gp120 activates human arterial smooth muscle cells.

    Schecter AD, Berman AB, Yi L, Mosoian A, McManus CM, Berman JW, Klotman ME and Taubman MB

    Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute and Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA. alison.schecter@.mssm.edu

    There have been increasing reports of acute coronary thrombotic events in patients with HIV. Although these clinical events have been attributed primarily to dyslipidemia associated with protease inhibitor therapy, autopsy studies in children with HIV suggest the presence of an underlying arteriopathy. This study demonstrates that the HIV envelope protein, gp120, activates human arterial smooth muscle cells to express tissue factor, the initiator of the coagulation cascade. The induction of tissue factor by gp120 is mediated by two biologically relevant coreceptors for HIV infection, CXCR4 and CCR5, and is also dependent on the presence of functional CD4. Induction of tissue factor by gp120 requires activation of mitogen-activating protein kinases, activation of protein kinase C, and generation of reactive oxygen species, signaling pathways that have protean effects on smooth muscle cell physiology. The activation of smooth muscle cells by gp120 may play an important role in the vascular, thrombotic, and inflammatory responses to HIV infection.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL03801, HL29019, P01 HL029019; NIDDK NIH HHS: P01DKJ6492; NIMH NIH HHS: MH52974

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001;98;18;10142-7

  • Glycogen synthase kinase-3: properties, functions, and regulation.

    Ali A, Hoeflich KP and Woodgett JR

    Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Ontario Cancer Institute, 610-University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 2M9. aali@uwindsor.ca

    Chemical reviews 2001;101;8;2527-40

  • Evidence for direct protein kinase-C mediated modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor current.

    Liao GY, Wagner DA, Hsu MH and Leonard JP

    Laboratory of Integrative Neuroscience, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

    Protein kinase-C (PKC) activation differentially affects currents from N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptors depending upon their subunit composition. Experiments using chimeras initially indicated that the cytoplasmic C-terminal tails of NR2B (responsive to PKC) and NR2C (unresponsive to PKC) subunits contain the amino acid residues responsible for the observed disparity of PKC effects. However, truncation and point mutation experiments have suggested that PKC action on NMDA receptors may be entirely indirect, working via the phosphorylation of associated proteins. Here we suggest that PKC does, in fact, affect NR2B/NR1-011 NMDA currents by direct phosphorylation of the NR2B tail at residues S1303 and S1323. Replacement of either of these residues with Ala severely reduces PKC potentiation. To verify that S1303 and S1323 are sites of direct phosphorylation by PKC, synthetic peptides from the regions surrounding these sites were used as substrates for in vitro assays with purified rat brain PKC. These results indicate that PKC can directly phosphorylate S1303 and S1323 in the NR2B C terminus, leading to enhanced currents through NMDA receptor channels. The direct action of PKC on certain NMDA receptor subtypes may be important in any physiological or pathological process where PKC and NR2B/NR1 receptors interact.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS31962-02

    Molecular pharmacology 2001;59;5;960-4

  • Regulation of the ErbB3 binding protein Ebp1 by protein kinase C.

    Lessor TJ and Hamburger AW

    Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

    Ebp1, a 47 kDa ubiquituously expressed protein, binds the ErbB3 receptor in human serum starved breast cancer cell lines and dissociates from ErbB3 on treatment with the ErbB3 ligand, Heregulin (HRG). However, the mechanism of Ebp1-ErbB3 association/dissociation is not understood. Since Ebp1 contains six putative Protein Kinase C serine/threonine phosphorylation sites, we examined the ability of PKC to phosphorylate Ebp1 and to regulate Ebp1-ErbB3 binding. We found that Ebp1 was basally phosphorylated in AU565 breast cancer cells on serine/threonine residues and that this phosphorylation was enhanced by heregulin treatment. Both serine and threonine residues of a GST-Ebp1 fusion protein were phosphorylated by PKC in vitro. In vivo, we demonstrated that basal Ebp1 phosphorylation was dependent upon PKC. However, HRG-induced phosphorylation of Ebp1 occurred predominantly in a PKC-independent manner. The ability of Ebp1 to associate with ErbB3 in serum-starved NIH3T3 cells overexpresssing ErbB3 was abrogated by treating cells with a PKC inhibitor. These findings suggest that PKC plays a role in regulating phosphorylation and function of Ebp1 in vivo.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA76047

    Molecular and cellular endocrinology 2001;175;1-2;185-91

  • Activation of annexin 7 by protein kinase C in vitro and in vivo.

    Caohuy H and Pollard HB

    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Uniformed Services University School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland 20814, USA.

    Annexin 7, a Ca(2+)/GTP-activated membrane fusion protein, is preferentially phosphorylated in intact chromaffin cells, and the levels of annexin 7 phosphorylation increase quantitatively in proportion to the extent of catecholamine secretion. Consistently, various protein kinase C inhibitors proportionately reduce both secretion and phosphorylation of annexin 7 in these cells. In vitro, annexin 7 is quantitatively phosphorylated by protein kinase C to a mole ratio of 2.0, and phosphorylation is extraordinarily sensitive to variables such as pH, calcium, phospholipid, phorbol ester, and annexin 7 concentration. Phosphorylation of annexin 7 by protein kinase C significantly potentiates the ability of the protein to fuse phospholipid vesicles and lowers the half-maximal concentration of calcium needed for this fusion process. Furthermore, other protein kinases, including cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase, and protein-tyrosine kinase pp60(c-)(src), also label annexin 7 with high efficiency but do not have this effect on membrane fusion. In the case of pp60(c-)(src), we note that this kinase, if anything, modestly suppresses the membrane fusion activity of annexin 7. These results thus lead us to hypothesize that annexin 7 may be a positive mediator for protein kinase C action in the exocytotic membrane fusion reaction in chromaffin cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;16;12813-21

  • Protein kinase C phosphorylates RGS2 and modulates its capacity for negative regulation of Galpha 11 signaling.

    Cunningham ML, Waldo GL, Hollinger S, Hepler JR and Harden TK

    Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7365 and the Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322-3090.

    RGS proteins (regulators of G protein signaling) attenuate heterotrimeric G protein signaling by functioning as both GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) and inhibitors of G protein/effector interaction. RGS2 has been shown to regulate Galpha(q)-mediated inositol lipid signaling. Although purified RGS2 blocks PLC-beta activation by the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog guanosine 5'-O-thiophosphate (GTPgammaS), its capacity to regulate inositol lipid signaling under conditions where GTPase-promoted hydrolysis of GTP is operative has not been fully explored. Utilizing the turkey erythrocyte membrane model of inositol lipid signaling, we investigated regulation by RGS2 of both GTP and GTPgammaS-stimulated Galpha(11) signaling. Different inhibitory potencies of RGS2 were observed under conditions assessing its activity as a GAP versus as an effector antagonist; i.e. RGS2 was a 10-20-fold more potent inhibitor of aluminum fluoride and GTP-stimulated PLC-betat activity than of GTPgammaS-promoted PLC-betat activity. We also examined whether RGS2 was regulated by downstream components of the inositol lipid signaling pathway. RGS2 was phosphorylated by PKC in vitro to a stoichiometry of approximately unity by both a mixture of PKC isozymes and individual calcium and phospholipid-dependent PKC isoforms. Moreover, RGS2 was phosphorylated in intact COS7 cells in response to PKC activation by 4beta-phorbol 12beta-myristate 13alpha-acetate and, to a lesser extent, by the P2Y(2) receptor agonist UTP. In vitro phosphorylation of RGS2 by PKC decreased its capacity to attenuate both GTP and GTPgammaS-stimulated PLC-betat activation, with the extent of attenuation correlating with the level of RGS2 phosphorylation. A phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of RGS2 GAP activity was also obs af6 erved in proteoliposomes reconstituted with purified P2Y(1) receptor and Galpha(q)betagamma. These results identify for the first time a phosphorylation-induced change in the activity of an RGS protein and suggest a mechanism for potentiation of inositol lipid signaling by PKC.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM29536, GM38213

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;8;5438-44

  • Phosphorylation of GRK2 by protein kinase C abolishes its inhibition by calmodulin.

    Krasel C, Dammeier S, Winstel R, Brockmann J, Mischak H and Lohse MJ

    Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Versbacher Str. 9, D-97078 Würzburg, Germany. krasel@wpxx02.toxi.uni-weirzburg.de

    G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are important regulators of G-protein-coupled receptor function. Two members of this family L, GRK2 and GRK5 L, have been shown to be substrates for protein kinase C (PKC). Whereas PKC-mediated phosphorylation results in inhibition of GRK5, it increases the activity of GRK2 toward its substrates probably through increased affinity for receptor-containing membranes. We show here that this increase in activity may be caused by relieving a tonic inhibition of GRK2 by calmodulin. In vitro, GRK2 was preferentially phosphorylated by PKC isoforms alpha, gamma, and delta. Two-dimensional peptide mapping of PKCalpha-phosphorylated GRK2 showed a single site of phosphorylation, which was identified as serine 29 by HPLC-MS. A S29A mutant of GRK2 was not phosphorylated by PKC in vitro and showed no phorbol ester-stimulated phosphorylation when transfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells. Serine 29 is located in the calmodulin-binding region of GRK2, and binding of calmodulin to GRK2 results in inhibition of kinase activity. This inhibition was almost completely abolished in vitro when GRK2 was phosphorylated by PKC. These data suggest that calmodulin may be an inhibitor of GRK2 whose effects can be abolished with PKC-mediated phosphorylation of GRK2.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;3;1911-5

  • HIV-1 Tat promotes monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 secretion followed by transmigration of monocytes.

    Park IW, Wang JF and Groopman JE

    Division of Experimental Medicine and Hematology/Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Institutes of Medicine, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    The mechanism whereby HIV-infected cells transit from the bloodstream into tissues is not well defined. This phenomenon was addressed by studying the effects of HIV-1 Tat, a protein secreted by infected cells, on human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-Ls). It was found that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was released from HMVEC-Ls in a dose- and time-dependent manner after Tat treatment. MCP-1 is a potent beta-chemokine that recruits monocytes and T cells and promotes cell adhesion and transmigration across an endothelial monolayer. It was also observed that MCP-1 and the culture medium from Tat-treated HMVEC-Ls were chemotactic for CD14(+) monocytes from human peripheral blood and for THP-1, a promonocytic cell line used as a model system. To characterize the signaling pathways underlying the observed induction of MCP-1, HMVEC-Ls were treated with 2 different protein kinase inhibitors: PD98059, a MAP kinase inhibitor, and GF109203X, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. MCP-1 release was significantly reduced when PKC was inhibited, and slightly decreased when PI3 kinase was blocked; no effect on MCP-1 release was observed on MAP kinase inhibition. Similarly, transmigration of THP-1 cells was significantly impaired by the PKC inhibitor, but not by the other tested inhibitors. These data indicate that the HIV-1 Tat protein may act as a protocytokine by causing the release of MCP-1 from the endothelial monolayer, and thereby facilitating monocyte transmigration into tissues via a PKC signaling pathway.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL53745, HL61940

    Blood 2001;97;2;352-8

  • Role of two conserved cytoplasmic threonine residues (T410 and T412) in CD5 signaling.

    Vilà JM, Calvo J, Places L, Padilla O, Arman M, Gimferrer I, Aussel C, Vives J and Lozano F

    Servei d'Immunologia, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain.

    CD5 is a transmembrane coreceptor that modulates activation and differentiation signals mediated by the Ag-specific receptor present on both T and B1a lymphocytes. CD5 lacks intrinsic catalytic activity, and its immunomodulatory properties result from intracellular interactions mediated by the CD5 cytoplasmic tail. The nature of these interactions is currently a matter of investigation. Here, we present a selective mutagenesis analysis of two conserved threonine residues (T410 and T412) located at the membrane-proximal cytoplasmic region of CD5. These residues are contained within consensus phosphorylation motifs for protein kinase C and are shown here to be critical for in vivo protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of CD5. Functional studies revealed that the integrity of T410 and T412 is also critical for CD5-mediated phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) activation and phorbol ester-mediated inhibition of Ab-induced internalization of CD5. These results strongly argue in favor of a role for T410 and T412 in the signaling mediated by CD5.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2001;166;1;396-402

  • [HIV-1 Tat protein induces IL-10 production by human monocytes: implications of the PKC and calcium pathway].

    Bennasser Y, Yamina B, Contreras X, Xavier C, Moreau M, Marc M, Le Clerc C, Catherine L, Badou A, Abdallah B and Bahraoui E

    Laboratoire d'Immuno-Virologie, Université Paul Sabatier 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse.

    In asymptomatic patients infected by HIV-1, the level of IL-10, a cytokine with immunosuppressive activity, is associated with the course of HIV infection towards AIDS. We show that HIV-1 Tat, a viral protein secreted by infected cells, induces IL-10 production by human peripheral blood monocytes. The analysis of the signal transduction pathways strongly suggests that the protein kinase C may play an essential role in this induction. Stimulation by Tat induces nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFkB the activation of which seems to be necessary for IL-10 production. Using microspectrofluorimetry and confocal microscopy, we also show that Tat induces a calcium influx.

    Journal de la Societe de biologie 2001;195;3;319-26

  • Involvement of protein kinase C in HIV-1 gp120-induced apoptosis in primary endothelium.

    Huang MB and Bond VC

    Department of Biochemistry, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30310-1495, USA.

    We previously showed that HIV-1 gp120-induced apoptosis in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cell cultures (HUVEC), through CCR5 and CXCR4. Here, we have found that agonists of protein kinase C (PKC), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and short exposure to low concentrations of phorbol esters were found to block gp120-induced apoptosis in HUVEC cultures. PKC antagonists, sphingosine, H7, and extended exposure of cultures to high concentrations of phorbol esters were also found to block gp120-induced apoptosis in HUVEC cultures. A significant increase in the total amount of cellular PKC enzymatic activity was observed on exposure of HUVEC to gp120. No increase in total PKC activity was observed on exposure of HUVECs to the natural ligands SDF-1alpha, or regulated-on-activation normal T-expressed and secreted (RANTES) cells, and gp120-induced PKC induction was found to be totally blocked by CXCR4 antibodies and partially blocked by the caspase 3 inhibitor, DEVD-CHO. Alternatively, CXCR4 antibodies and DEVD-CHO totally blocked apoptosis. Finally, gp120-induced effects were found to be insensitive to pertussis toxin. Accumulated evidence suggests PKC involvement at multiple points in the gp120-induced apoptotic pathway; also suggests involvement of the CXCR4 receptor internalization pathway, and potentially suggests different downstream effects of gp120-receptor interactions and natural ligand-receptor interactions.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: G12-RR03034

    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) 2000;25;5;375-89

  • Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 induces interleukin-10 in human peripheral blood monocytes: implication of protein kinase C-dependent pathway.

    Badou A, Bennasser Y, Moreau M, Leclerc C, Benkirane M and Bahraoui E

    Laboratoire d'Immuno-Virologie EA3038, Université Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse Cedex, France.

    The clinical manifestations observed in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients are primarily due to the capacity of the virus and its components to inactivate the immune system. HIV-1 Tat protein could participate in this immune system disorder. This protein is secreted by infected cells of HIV-infected patients and is free in the plasma, where it can interact and be taken up by both infected and noninfected cells. In asymptomatic patients infected by HIV-1, production of interleukin-10 (IL-10), a highly immunosuppressive cytokine, is associated with disease progression to AIDS. In the present work, we tested the capacity of Tat to induce IL-10 production by peripheral blood monocytes of healthy donors. The results show that Tat causes the production of IL-10 in a dose- and stimulation time-dependent manner. Investigations of the mechanisms involved in signal transduction show that (i) the calcium pathway is not or only slightly involved in Tat-induced IL-10 production, (ii) the protein kinase C pathway plays an essential role, and (iii) monocyte stimulation by Tat results in the intranuclear translocation of transcription factor NF-kappaB and in the induction of phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1 and ERK2; activation of these two potential substrates of protein kinase C is required for the production of IL-10. Finally, our results suggest that the effect of Tat is exerted at the membrane level and that the active domain is located within N-terminal residues 1 to 45. This production of IL-10 induced by Tat could participate in the progression of HIV infection to AIDS.

    Journal of virology 2000;74;22;10551-62

  • Phosphorylation and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 by protein kinase A.

    Fang X, Yu SX, Lu Y, Bast RC, Woodgett JR and Mills GB

    Department of Molecular Therapeutics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is implicated in multiple biological processes including metabolism, gene expression, cell fate determination, proliferation, and survival. GSK-3 activity is inhibited through phosphorylation of serine 21 in GSK-3 alpha and serine 9 in GSK-3 beta. These serine residues of GSK-3 have been previously identified as targets of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), a serine/threonine kinase located downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Here, we show that serine 21 in GSK-3 alpha and serine 9 in GSK-3 beta are also physiological substrates of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. Protein kinase A physically associates with, phosphorylates, and inactivates both isoforms of GSK-3. The results indicate that depending on the stimulatory context, the activity of GSK-3 can be modulated either by growth factors that work through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B cascade or by hormonal stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors that link to changes in intracellular cAMP levels.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA64602, CA82716, P01 CA064602, R01 CA082716

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;22;11960-5

  • Protein kinase C phosphorylation of syntaxin 4 in thrombin-activated human platelets.

    Chung SH, Polgar J and Reed GL

    Cardiovascular Biology Laboratory, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    We postulated that the syntaxins, because of their key role in SNARE complex formation and exocytosis, could be important targets for signaling by intracellular kinases involved in secretion. We found that syntaxin 4 was phosphorylated in human platelets treated with a physiologic agent that induces secretion (thrombin) but not when they were treated with an agent that prevents secretion (prostacyclin). Syntaxin 4 phosphorylation was blocked by inhibitors of activated protein kinase C (PKC), and, in parallel assays, PKC inhibitors also blocked secretion from thrombin-activated platelets. In platelets, cellular activation by thrombin or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate decreased the binding of syntaxin 4 with SNAP-23, another platelet t-SNARE. Phosphatase inhibitors increased syntaxin 4 phosphorylation and further decreased syntaxin 4-SNAP-23 binding induced by cell activation. Conversely, a PKC inhibitor blocked syntaxin 4 phosphorylation and returned binding of syntaxin 4-SNAP-23 to that seen in nonstimulated platelets. In vitro, PKC directly phosphorylated platelet syntaxin 4 and recombinant syntaxin 4. PKC phosphorylation in vitro inhibited (71 +/- 8%) the binding of syntaxin 4 to SNAP-23. These results provide evidence that extracellular activation can be coupled through intracellular PKC signaling so as to modulate SNARE protein interactions involved in platelet exocytosis.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-64057

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;33;25286-91

  • A novel locus for dominant cerebellar ataxia (SCA14) maps to a 10.2-cM interval flanked by D19S206 and D19S605 on chromosome 19q13.4-qter.

    Yamashita I, Sasaki H, Yabe I, Fukazawa T, Nogoshi S, Komeichi K, Takada A, Shiraishi K, Takiyama Y, Nishizawa M, Kaneko J, Tanaka H, Tsuji S and Tashiro K

    Department of Neurology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

    Dominantly inherited, late-onset pure cerebellar ataxia is a group of genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders. Approximately half of these disorders in the Japanese population are caused by moderate expansion of a CAG repeat in the coding region of the CACNA1A gene on chromosome 19p13 (SCA6). However, neither the loci nor the specific mutations for the remaining disorders have been determined. We performed systematic linkage analysis in a three-generation Japanese family with a locus or mutation that differed from those of known spinocerebellar ataxias. The family members with a late onset (> or =39 years old) exhibited pure cerebellar ataxia, whereas those with an early onset (< or =27 years old) first showed intermittent axial myoclonus followed by ataxia. Other neurological signs were sparse, and neuroimaging studies revealed that atrophy was confined to the cerebellum. Multipoint analysis and haplotype reconstruction ultimately traced this novel spinocerebellar ataxia locus (SCA14) to a 10.2-cM interval flanked by D19S206 and D19S605 on chromosome 19q13.4-qter (Zmax = 4.08, corrected for age-dependent penetrance).

    Annals of neurology 2000;48;2;156-63

  • Proteomic analysis of NMDA receptor-adhesion protein signaling complexes.

    Husi H, Ward MA, Choudhary JS, Blackstock WP and Grant SG

    Centre for Genome Research, Centre for Neuroscience, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JQ, UK.

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) mediate long-lasting changes in synapse strength via downstream signaling pathways. We report proteomic characterization with mass spectrometry and immunoblotting of NMDAR multiprotein complexes (NRC) isolated from mouse brain. The NRC comprised 77 proteins organized into receptor, adaptor, signaling, cytoskeletal and novel proteins, of which 30 are implicated from binding studies and another 19 participate in NMDAR signaling. NMDAR and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes were linked to cadherins and L1 cell-adhesion molecules in complexes lacking AMPA receptors. These neurotransmitter-adhesion receptor complexes were bound to kinases, phosphatases, GTPase-activating proteins and Ras with effectors including MAPK pathway components. Several proteins were encoded by activity-dependent genes. Genetic or pharmacological interference with 15 NRC proteins impairs learning and with 22 proteins alters synaptic plasticity in rodents. Mutations in three human genes (NF1, Rsk-2, L1) are associated with learning impairments, indicating the NRC also participates in human cognition.

    Nature neuroscience 2000;3;7;661-9

  • Phosphorylation of connexin43 on serine368 by protein kinase C regulates gap junctional communication.

    Lampe PD, TenBroek EM, Burt JM, Kurata WE, Johnson RG and Lau AF

    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. plampe@fhcrc.org

    Phorbol esters (e.g., TPA) activate protein kinase C (PKC), increase connexin43 (Cx43) phosphorylation, and decrease cell-cell communication via gap junctions in many cell types. We asked whether PKC directly phosphorylates and regulates Cx43. Rat epithelial T51B cells metabolically labeled with (32)P(i) yielded two-dimensional phosphotryptic maps of Cx43 with several phosphopeptides that increased in intensity upon TPA treatment. One of these peptides comigrated with the major phosphopeptide observed after PKC phosphorylation of immunoaffinity-purified Cx43. Purification of this comigrating peptide and subsequent sequencing indicated that the phosphorylated serine was residue 368. To pursue the functional importance of phosphorylation at this site, fibroblasts from Cx43(-/-) mice were transfected with either wild-type (Cx43wt) or mutant Cx43 (Cx43-S368A). Intercellular dye transfer studies revealed different responses to TPA and were followed by single channel analyses. TPA stimulation of T51B cells or Cx43wt-transfected fibroblasts caused a large increase in the relative frequency of approximately 50-pS channel events and a conc 457 omitant loss of approximately 100-pS channel events. This change to approximately 50-pS events was absent when cells transfected with Cx43-S368A were treated with TPA. These data strongly suggest that PKC directly phosphorylates Cx43 on S368 in vivo, which results in a change in single channel behavior that contributes to a decrease in intercellular communication.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA052098; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL58732, R01 HL058732; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM46277, GM55632, R01 GM046277, R01 GM055632

    The Journal of cell biology 2000;149;7;1503-12

  • Release of calcium from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-regulated stores by HIV-1 Tat regulates TNF-alpha production in human macrophages.

    Mayne M, Holden CP, Nath A and Geiger JD

    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

    HIV-1 protein Tat is neurotoxic and increases macrophage and microglia production of TNF-alpha, a cytopathic cytokine linked to the neuropathogenesis of HIV dementia. Others have shown that intracellular calcium regulates TNF-alpha production in macrophages, and we have shown that Tat releases calcium from inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor-regulated stores in neurons and astrocytes. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that Tat-induced TNF-alpha production was dependent on the release of intracellular calcium from IP3-regulated calcium stores in primary macrophages. We found that Tat transiently and dose-dependently increased levels of intracellular calcium and that this increase was blocked by xestospongin C, pertussis toxin, and by phospholipase C and type 1 protein kinase C inhibitors but not by protein kinase A or phospholipase A2 inhibitors. Xestospongin C, BAPTA-AM, U73122, and bisindolylmalemide significantly inhibited Tat-induced TNF-alpha production. These results demonstrate that in macrophages, Tat-induced release of calcium from IP3-sensitive intracellular stores and activation of nonconventional PKC isoforms play an important role in Tat-induced TNF-alpha production.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2000;164;12;6538-42

  • HIV-1 reverse transcriptase is phosphorylated in vitro and in a cellular system.

    Idriss H, Kawa S, Damuni Z, Thompson EB and Wilson SH

    Sealy Center for Molecular Science, The University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, TX 77555-0851, USA. hi@st-and.ac.uk

    Phosphorylation modulates the activity of many proteins that interact with nucleic acids including DNA and RNA polymerases. The HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is essential during the replicative cycle of the HIV-1 virus. HIV-1 RT has several potential sites for phosphorylation that could regulate its activities. In this work, the phosphorylation of HIV-1 RT is examined in vitro and in vivo, to evaluate any role for this modification in regulating RT metabolism. Recombinant unphosphorylated HIV-1 RT heterodimer expressed in bacteria can be phosphorylated in vitro by several purified mammalian protein kinases. Seven kinases were tested, and five of these enzymes phosphorylated HIV-1 RT. Using an insect baculovirus expression system, the 66 kDa HIV-1 RT was also phosphorylated in vivo. However, HIV-1 RT immunoprecipitated from H9-lymphoma cells infected with HIV-1 showed negligible phosphorylation. Our results indicate that purified HIV-1 RT can be phosphorylated by several mammalian protein kinases in vitro and during expression in baculovirus infected insect cells.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK41058

    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 1999;31;12;1443-52

  • The role of DOC-2/DAB2 protein phosphorylation in the inhibition of AP-1 activity. An underlying mechanism of its tumor-suppressive function in prostate cancer.

    Tseng CP, Ely BD, Pong RC, Wang Z, Zhou J and Hsieh JT

    Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235-9110, USA.

    DOC-2/DAB2, a novel phosphoprotein with signal-transducing capability, inhibits human prostatic cancer cells (Tseng, C.-P., Ely, B. D., Li, Y., Pong, R.-C., and Hsieh, J.-T. (1998) Endocrinology 139, 3542-3553). However, its mechanism of action is not understood completely. This study delineates the functional significance of DOC-2/DAB2 protein phosphorylation and demonstrates that in vivo activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induces DOC-2/DAB2 phosphorylation, including a serine residue at position 24. Mutation of Ser(24) to Ala reduced DOC-2/DAB2 phosphorylation by PKC. Using a synthetic Ser(24) peptide (APS(24)KKEKKKGSEKTD) or recombinant DOC-2/DAB2 as substrates, PKCbetaII, PKCgamma, and PKCdelta (but not casein kinase II) directly phosphorylated Ser(24) in vitro. This indicates that DOC-2/DAB2 is a PKC-specific substrate. Since expression of wild-type DOC-2/DAB2, but not the S24A mutant, inhibited TPA-induced AP-1 activity in prostatic epithelial cells, phosphorylation of Ser(24) appears to play a critical role in modulating TPA-induced AP-1 activity. Taken together, these data suggest that PKC-regulated phosphorylation of DOC-2/DAB2 protein may help its growth inhibitory function.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA59939

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;45;31981-6

  • Regulation of ARNO nucleotide exchange by a PH domain electrostatic switch.

    Santy LC, Frank SR, Hatfield JC and Casanova JE

    Combined Program in Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Massachusetts General Hospital East, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA.

    ARNO is a member of a family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors that activate small GTPases called ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) [1] [2] [3], which regulate vesicular trafficking and, in one case (ARF6), also regulate cortical actin structure [4]. ARNO is located at the plasma membrane, and in the presence of activated protein kinase C (PKC) can induce cortical actin rearrangements reminiscent of those produced by active ARF6 [5] [6] [7] [8]. High-affinity binding of ARNO to membranes, which is required for exchange activity, is mediated cooperatively by a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and an adjacent carboxy-terminal polybasic domain [3] [9]. ARNO is phosphorylated in vivo by PKC on a single serine residue, S392, located within the carboxy-terminal polybasic domain. Mutation of S392 to alanine does not prevent ARNO-mediated actin rearrangements, suggesting that phosphorylation does not lead to ARNO activation [6]. Here, we report that phosphorylation negatively regulates ARNO exchange activity through a 'PH domain electrostatic switch'. Introduction of a negatively charged phosphate into the polybasic domain reduced interaction of ARNO with membranes both in vitro and in vivo, and inhibited exchange in vitro. This regulated membrane association is similar to the myristoyl electrostatic switch that controls membrane binding of the myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) [10], but to our knowledge is the first demonstration of an electrostatic switch regulating the membrane interaction of a protein containing a PH domain. This mechanism allows regulation of ARNO lipid binding and exchange activity at two levels, phosphoinositide-dependent recruitment and PKC-dependent displacement from the membrane.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI-32991; NIDDK NIH HHS: F32-DK-09924

    Current biology : CB 1999;9;20;1173-6

  • Effect of serine and tyrosine phosphorylation on retroviral proteinase substrates.

    Tözsér J, Bagossi P, Boross P, Louis JM, Majerova E, Oroszlan S and Copeland TD

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University Medical School of Debrecen, Hungary. tozser@indi.biochem.dote.hu

    Vimentin, a cellular substrate of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) proteinase, contains a protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation site at one of its cleavage sites. Peptides representing this site were synthesized in P2 Ser-phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated forms. While the nonphosphorylated peptide was a fairly good substrate of the enzyme, phosphorylation prevented hydrolysis. Phosphorylation of human recombinant vimentin by PKC prevented its processing within the head domain, where the phosphorylation occurred. Oligopeptides representing naturally occurring cleavage sites at the C-terminus of the Rous sarcoma virus integrase were assayed as substrates of the avian proteinase. Unlike the nonphosphorylated peptides, a Ser-phosphorylated peptide was not hydrolyzed by the enzyme at the Ser-Pro bond, suggesting the role of previously established phosphorylation in processing at this site. Ser-phosphorylated and Tyr-phosphorylated forms of model substrates were also tested as substrates of the HIV-1 and the avian retroviral proteinases. In contrast to the moderate effect of P4 Ser phosphorylation, phosphorylation of P1 Tyr prevented substrate hydrolysis by HIV-1 proteinase. Substrate phosphorylation had substantially smaller effects on the hydrolysis by the avian retroviral proteinase. As the active retroviral proteinase as well as various protein kinases are incorporated into mature virions, substrate phosphorylation resulting in attenuation or prevention of proteolytic processing may have important consequences in the regulation of the retroviral life cycle as well as in virus-host cell interactions.

    European journal of biochemistry 1999;265;1;423-9

  • No mutations in the coding region of the PRKCG gene in three families with retinitis pigmentosa linked to the RP11 locus on chromosome 19q.

    Dryja TP, McEvoy J, McGee TL and Berson EL

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY00169, EY08683, EY11655

    American journal of human genetics 1999;65;3;926-8

  • 14-3-3Gamma interacts with and is phosphorylated by multiple protein kinase C isoforms in PDGF-stimulated human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Autieri MV and Carbone CJ

    Department of Cardiology and Physiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA. mautieri@unix.temple.edu

    It has recently been demonstrated that some members of the 14-3-3 protein family play an important role in signal transduction leading to cellular proliferation. We have previously shown that expression of 14-3-3gamma is induced by growth factors in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In this study, we cloned the human homolog of 14-3-3gamma and observed many potential phosphorylation sites, suggesting the potential for post-translational modification. In VSMC treated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), 14-3-3gamma protein was expressed and phosphorylated in an activation-dependent manner. Platelet-derived growth factor-induced phosphorylation could be inhibited by phosphokinase C (PKC) inhibitory compounds, and 14-3-3gamma could be phosphorylated in the absence of PDGF by compounds that activate PKC. We also demonstrated interaction between 14-3-3gamma and several PKC isoforms (alpha, beta, gamma, theta, and delta), implicating these PKC family isoforms as the kinases responsible for PDGF-induced 14-3-3gamma phosphorylation. We found that 14-3-3gamma interacted with the signal transduction protein Raf-1, suggesting that 14-3-3gamma provides a link between this protein and PKC. Thus, 14-3-3gamma may represent a signal transduction protein that is regulated transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally by growth factors.

    DNA and cell biology 1999;18;7;555-64

  • Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulates Tiam1 by reversible protein phosphorylation.

    Fleming IN, Elliott CM, Buchanan FG, Downes CP and Exton JH

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-0295, USA.

    A number of guanine nucleotide exchange factors have been identified that activate Rho family GTPases, by promoting the binding of GTP to these proteins. We have recently demonstrated that lysophosphatidic acid and several other agonists stimulate phosphorylation of the Rac1-specific exchange factor Tiam1 in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, and that protein kinase C is involved in Tiam1 phosphorylation (Fleming, I. N., Elliott, C. M., Collard, J. G., and Exton, J. H. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 33105-33110). We now show, through manipulation of intracellular [Ca2+] and the use of protein kinase inhibitors, that both protein kinase Calpha and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II are involved in the phosphorylation of Tiam1 in vivo. Furthermore, we show that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylates Tiam1 in vitro, producing an electrophoretic retardation on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Significantly, phosphorylation of Tiam1 by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, but not by protein kinase C, enhanced its nucleotide exchange activity toward Rac1, by approximately 2-fold. Furthermore, Tiam1 was preferentially dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 1 in vitro, and treatment with this phosphatase abolished the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activation of Tiam1. These data demonstrate that protein kinase Calpha and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylate Tiam1 in vivo, and that the latter kinase plays a key role in regulating the activity of this exchange factor in vitro.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;18;12753-8

  • Human platelets contain SNARE proteins and a Sec1p homologue that interacts with syntaxin 4 and is phosphorylated after thrombin activation: implications for platelet secretion.

    Reed GL, Houng AK and Fitzgerald ML

    Cardiovascular Biology Laboratory, Harvard School of Public Health, Cardiac Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. reed@cvlab.harvard.edu

    In response to thrombin and other extracellular activators, platelets secrete molecules from large intracellular vesicles (granules) to initiate thrombosis. Little is known about the molecular machinery responsible for vesicle docking and secretion in platelets and the linkage of that machinery to cell activation. We found that platelet membranes contain a full complement of interacting proteins-VAMP, SNAP-25, and syntaxin 4-that are necessary for vesicle docking and fusion with the plasma membrane. Platelets also contain an uncharacterized homologue of the Sec1p family that appears to regulate vesicle docking through its binding with a cognate syntaxin. This platelet Sec1 protein (PSP) bound to syntaxin 4 and thereby excluded the binding of SNAP-25 with syntaxin 4, an interaction critical to vesicle docking. As predicted by its sequence, PSP was detected predominantly in the platelet cytosol and was phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase C (PKC), a secretion-linked kinase, incorporating 0.87 +/- 0.11 mol of PO4 per mole of protein. PSP was also specifically phosphorylated in permeabilized platelets after cellular stimulation by phorbol esters or thrombin and this phosphorylation was blocked by the PKC inhibitor Ro-31-8220. Phosphorylation by PKC in vitro inhibited PSP from binding to syntaxin 4. Taken together, these studies indicate that platelets, like neurons and other cells capable of regulated secretion, contain a unique complement of interacting vesicle docking proteins and PSP, a putative regulator of vesicle docking. The PKC-dependent phosphorylation of PSP in activated platelets and its inhibitory effects on syntaxin 4 binding provide a novel functional link that may be important in coupling the processes of cell activation, intracellular signaling, and secretion.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL57314-01

    Blood 1999;93;8;2617-26

  • The ultraviolet studies on protein-lipid interaction of a protein kinase C-gamma phorbol-binding domain.

    Kowara R, Gryckiewicz E, Matecki A and Pawelczyk T

    Department of Molecular Medicine, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdańsk and Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland.

    Family of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes play a key role in transducing a vast number of signals into the cells. The members of classical PKC family are activated by binding of various lipid ligands to one of the several cysteine-rich domains of the enzyme. Second cysteine-rich (Cys2) domain of PKC-gamma was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase (GST) using the cDNA sequence from rat brain. The Cys2 protein after cleavage from GST was purified to homogeneity using glutathione-agarose and Mono-S cation exchanger column. In order to investigate the interaction of lipids and calcium with Cys2 protein we used UW spectroscopy. The UV spectrum of Cys2 protein exhibited a maximum at 205 nm. Exposition of Cys2 protein to phosphatidylserine (PS) vesicles resulted in significant decrease in the absorbance in the 210 nm region. Changes in UW spectrum of Cys2 protein induced by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB) were smaller than those induced by PS, and addition of PDB with PS had no effect on the PS induced changes in UV spectrum of Cys2. Neither phosphatidylcholine (PC) nor phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) affected UV spectrum of Cys2 but in the presence of phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP2) or phosphatidyliinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) vesicles some changes were observed. Calcium ions alone or in the presence of PS had no effect on the UV spectrum of Cys2 protein. These data indicate that PS comparing to PDB, interacts with a larger area of Cys2 protein, and that the binding sites for these two molecules are at least overlapping. The site of PIP and PIP2 interaction with PKC-gamma is distinct from that of phorbol ester binding site.

    Acta biochimica Polonica 1999;46;2;405-17

  • Protein kinase C as a molecular machine for decoding calcium and diacylglycerol signals.

    Oancea E and Meyer T

    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    The specificity of many signal transduction pathways relies on the temporal coordination of different second messenger signals. Here we found a molecular mechanism which guarantees that conventional protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms are sequentially activated by calcium and diacylglycerol signals. Receptor stimuli that triggered repetitive calcium spikes induced a parallel repetitive translocation of GFP-tagged PKCgamma to the plasma membrane. While calcium acted rapidly, diacylglycerol binding to PKCgamma was initially prevented by a pseudosubstrate clamp, which kept the diacylglycerol-binding site inaccessible and delayed calcium- and diacylglycerol-mediated kinase activation. After termination of calcium signals, bound diacylglycerol prolonged kinase activity. The properties of this molecular decoding machine make PKCgamma responsive to persistent diacylglycerol increases combined with high- but not low-frequency calcium spikes.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-51457

    Cell 1998;95;3;307-18

  • Distinct effects of fatty acids on translocation of gamma- and epsilon-subspecies of protein kinase C.

    Shirai Y, Kashiwagi K, Yagi K, Sakai N and Saito N

    Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Biosignal Research Center, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.

    Effects of fatty acids on translocation of the gamma- and epsilon-subspecies of protein kinase C (PKC) in living cells were investigated using their proteins fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP). gamma-PKC-GFP and epsilon-PKC-GFP predominated in the cytoplasm, but only a small amount of gamma-PKC-GFP was found in the nucleus. Except at a high concentration of linoleic acid, all the fatty acids examined induced the translocation of gamma-PKC-GFP from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane within 30 s with a return to the cytoplasm in 3 min, but they had no effect on gamma-PKC-GFP in the nucleus. Arachidonic and linoleic acids induced slow translocation of epsilon-PKC-GFP from the cytoplasm to the perinuclear region, whereas the other fatty acids (except for palmitic acid) induced rapid translocation to the plasma membrane. The target site of the slower translocation of epsilon-PKC-GFP by arachidonic acid was identified as the Golgi network. The critical concentration of fatty acid that induced translocation varied among the 11 fatty acids tested. In general, a higher concentration was required to induce the translocation of epsilon-PKC-GFP than that of gamma-PKC-GFP, the exceptions being tridecanoic acid, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid. Furthermore, arachidonic acid and the diacylglycerol analogue (DiC8) had synergistic effects on the translocation of gamma-PKC-GFP. Simultaneous application of arachidonic acid (25 MicroM) and DiC8 (10 microM) elicited a slow, irreversible translocation of gamma-PKC- GFP from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane after rapid, reversible translocation, but a single application of arachidonic acid or DiC8 at the same concentration induced no translocation. These findings confirm the involvement of fatty acids in the translocation of gamma- and epsilon-PKC, and they also indicate that each subspecies has a specific targeting mechanism that depends on the extracellular signals and that a combination of intracellular activators alters the target site of PKCs.

    The Journal of cell biology 1998;143;2;511-21

  • Protein kinase C phosphorylation of threonine at position 888 in Ca2+o-sensing receptor (CaR) inhibits coupling to Ca2+ store release.

    Bai M, Trivedi S, Lane CR, Yang Y, Quinn SJ and Brown EM

    Endocrine-Hypertension Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Previous studies in parathyroid cells, which express the G protein-coupled, extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaR), showed that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) blunts high extracellular calcium (Ca2+o)-evoked stimulation of phospholipase C and the associated increases in cytosolic calcium (Ca2+i), suggesting that PKC may directly modulate the coupling of the CaR to intracellular signaling systems. In this study, we examined the role of PKC in regulating the coupling of the CaR to Ca2+i dynamics in fura-2-loaded human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293 cells) transiently transfected with the human parathyroid CaR. We demonstrate that several PKC activators exert inhibitory effects on CaR-mediated increases in Ca2+i due to release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Consistent with the effect being mediated by activation of PKC, the inhibitory effect of PKC activators on Ca2+ release can be blocked by a PKC inhibitor. The use of site-directed mutagenesis reveals that threonine at amino acid position 888 is the major PKC site that mediates the inhibitory effect of PKC activators on Ca2+ mobilization. The effect of PKC activation can be maximally blocked by mutating three PKC sites (Thr888, Ser895, and Ser915) or all five PKC sites. In vitro phosphorylation shows that Thr888 is readily phosphorylated by PKC. Our results suggest that phosphorylation of the CaR is the molecular basis for the previously described effect of PKC activation on Ca2+o-evoked changes in Ca2+i dynamics in parathyroid cells.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK09436, DK41415, DK48330; ...

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;33

  • Human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein induces interleukin 6 mRNA expression in human brain endothelial cells via protein kinase C- and cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathways.

    Zidovetzki R, Wang JL, Chen P, Jeyaseelan R and Hofman F

    Department of Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside 92521, USA.

    The intracellular signal transduction pathways utilized by the HIV-1-derived protein, Tat, in the activation of human central nervous system-derived endothelial cells (CNS-ECs) were examined using specific enzymatic assays. Tat induced an increase in interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA within 1 hr of treatment. This biological effect of Tat involved activation of both protein kinase C (PK-C) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PK-A) in CNS-ECs. Tat at 10 ng/ml induced a sharp, transient increase in membrane PK-C activity within 30 sec of incubation, and reached maximum levels at 2 min, declining to control values within 10 min. Tat also induced a sharp increase in intracellular cAMP levels and PK-A activity in these cells, with the PK-A activity reaching a maximum at 10 min and slowly declining to control values in 4 hr of incubation. Activation of PK-A was dependent on a Tat-induced increase in membrane PK-C activity as demonstrated by calphostin C (a PK-C inhibitor) abolishing this effect. Incubation of cells with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin did not affect Tat-induced activation of PK-A, indicating that prostacyclins are not involved in this process. Tat-induced increase in IL-6 mRNA was abolished in the presence on PK-A inhibitor H-89, demonstrating that activation of PK-A is necessary and sufficient for the increase in IL-6 production by these cells. Both the Tat-induced increase in intracellular cAMP and IL-6 mRNA levels in CNS-ECs may play a role in altering the blood-brain barrier and thereby inducing pathology often observed in AIDS dementia.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS33805

    AIDS research and human retroviruses 1998;14;10;825-33

  • Alzheimer's-specific effects of soluble beta-amyloid on protein kinase C-alpha and -gamma degradation in human fibroblasts.

    Favit A, Grimaldi M, Nelson TJ and Alkon DL

    Laboratory of Adaptive Systems, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disease in which beta-amyloid peptide (betaAP) plays a critical role. We report here that the soluble fraction 1-40 of betaAP differentially degrades protein kinase C-alpha and -gamma (PKCalpha and PKCgamma) isoenzymes in normal (age-matched controls, AC) and AD fibroblasts most likely through proteolytic cascades. Treatment with nanomolar concentrations of betaAP(1-40) induced a 75% decrease in PKCalpha, but not PKCgamma, immunoreactivity in AC fibroblasts. In the AD fibroblasts, a 70% reduction of the PKCgamma, but not PKCalpha, immunoreactivity was observed after betaAP treatment. Preincubation of AC or AD fibroblasts with 50 microM lactacystine, a selective proteasome inhibitor, prevented beta-AP(1-40)-mediated degradation of PKCalpha in the AC cells, and PKCgamma in the AD fibroblasts. The effects of betaAP(1-40) on PKCalpha in AC fibroblasts were prevented by inhibition of protein synthesis and reversed by PKC activation. A 3-hr treatment with 100 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate restored the PKCalpha signal in treated AC cells but it did not reverse the effects of betaAP(1-40) on PKCgamma in the AD fibroblasts. Pretreatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHX, 100 microM), inhibited the effects of betaAP(1-40) on PKCalpha and blocked the rescue effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in AC fibroblasts but did not modify PKCgamma immunoreactivity in AD cells. These results suggest that betaAP(1-40) differentially affects PKC regulation in AC and AD cells via proteolytic degradation and that PKC activation exerts a protective role via de novo protein synthesis in normal but not AD cells.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1998;95;10;5562-7

  • Segregation of a PRKCG mutation in two RP11 families.

    Al-Maghtheh M, Vithana EN, Inglehearn CF, Moore T, Bird AC and Bhattacharya SS

    American journal of human genetics 1998;62;5;1248-52

  • Extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein induces a rapid and selective activation of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, and -epsilon and -zeta isoforms in PC12 cells.

    Borgatti P, Zauli G, Cantley LC and Capitani S

    Division of Signal Transduction, Harvard Institute of Medicine, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, Massachusettes 02115, USA.

    The addition in culture of extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein (0.1-1 nM) to PC12 cells induced a rapid increase of the bulk protein kinase C (PKC) catalytic activity. Among various PKC isoforms (alpha, beta I, beta II, delta, epsilon, eta, theta, and zeta) expressed in PC12 cells, Tat selectively stimulated alpha, epsilon, and zeta, as judged by activities in immunoprecipitates. Activation of these isoforms was suppressed by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. Moreover, PKC-zeta showed the fastest kinetics of activation in response to Tat, but PKC-alpha and PKC-epsilon showed the highest levels of activation. PKC-alpha activation was accompanied by a rise of intracellular IP3, while the PI 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 suppressed PKC-epsilon activation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that extracellular Tat shows a cytokine-like activity in PC12 cells, being able to trigger an intracellular signalling cascade which involves PKC-alpha, -epsilon, and -zeta.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1998;242;2;332-7

  • Evidence that the penetrance of mutations at the RP11 locus causing dominant retinitis pigmentosa is influenced by a gene linked to the homologous RP11 allele.

    McGee TL, Devoto M, Ott J, Berson EL and Dryja TP

    Ocular Molecular Genetics Institute, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA, USA.

    A subset of families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP) display reduced penetrance with some asymptomatic gene carriers showing no retinal abnormalities by ophthalmic examination or by electroretinography. Here we describe a study of three families with reduced-penetrance RP. In all three families the disease gene appears to be linked to chromosome 19q13.4, the region containing the RP11 locus, as defined by previously reported linkage studies based on five other reduced-penetrance families. Meiotic recombinants in one of the newly identified RP11 families and in two of the previously reported families serve to restrict the disease locus to a 6-cM region bounded by markers D19S572 and D19S926. We also compared the disease status of RP11 carriers with the segregation of microsatellite alleles within 19q13.4 from the noncarrier parents in the newly reported and the previously reported families. The results support the hypothesis that wild-type alleles at the RP11 locus or at a closely linked locus inherited from the noncarrier parents are a major factor influencing the penetrance of pathogenic alleles at this locus.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY00169, EY08683, EY11655

    American journal of human genetics 1997;61;5;1059-66

  • Serine phosphorylation of syndecan-2 proteoglycan cytoplasmic domain.

    Oh ES, Couchman JR and Woods A

    Department of Cell Biology, and Cell Adhesion and Matrix Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA.

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion, and the cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-2 contains two serines (residues 197 and 198) which lie in a consensus sequence for phosphorylation by PKC. Other serine and threonine residues are present but not in a consensus sequence. We investigated phosphorylation of syndecan-2 cytoplasmic domain by PKC, using purified GST-syndecan-2 fusion proteins and synthetic peptides corresponding to regions of the cytoplasmic domain. A synthetic peptide encompassing the entire cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-2 was phosphorylated by PKC with high affinity. Peptide mapping and substitution studies showed that both serines were phosphoacceptors, but each had slightly different affinity, with that of serine-197 being higher than serine-198. The efficiency of phosphorylation was concentration-dependent. At low concentrations, the cytoplasmic domain peptides were monomeric, with 2 mol/mol serine phosphorylation. At higher concentrations, however, the peptides formed dimers, with only 0.5 mol/mol phosphorylation. Concentration-dependent dimerization was not altered by phosphorylation. Phosphorylation is, therefore, dependent on the conformation of syndecan-2 cytoplasmic domain, but does not affect its oligomeric status.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: P60 AR20614; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM50194

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 1997;344;1;67-74

  • Phosphorylation of vitronectin on Ser362 by protein kinase C attenuates its cleavage by plasmin.

    Gechtman Z and Shaltiel S

    Department of Biological Regulation, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

    Vitronectin, found in the extracellular matrix and in circulating blood, has an important role in the control of plasminogen activation. It was shown to be the major protein substrate in human blood fluid for a protein kinase A (PKA) released from platelets upon their physiological stimulation with thrombin. Since vitronectin was shown to have only one PKA phosphorylation site, but to contain 2-3 mol covalently bound phosphate, it was reasonable to assume that other protein kinases might phosphorylate vitronectin at other sites in the protein. We have reported earlier that human serum contains at least three protein kinases, one of which was found to be cAMP independent and to phosphorylate a repertoire of plasma proteins that was very similar to that obtained upon phosphorylation of human plasma with protein kinase C (PKC). Since there are now several examples of proteins with extracellular functions that are phosphorylated by PKC, we undertook to study the phosphorylation of vitronectin by PKC. Here, we show that vitronectin is a substrate for PKC, and characterize the kinetic parameters of this phosphorylation (Km approximately tenfold lower than the concentration of vitronectin in blood), indicating that, from the biochemical point of view, this phosphorylation can occur at the locus of a hemostatic event. We also identify Ser362 as the major PKC phosphorylation site in vitronectin, and confirm this localization by means of synthetic peptides derived from the cluster of basic amino acids in vitronectin surrounding Ser362. We show that the PKC phosphorylation at Ser362 alters the functional properties of vitronectin, attenuating its cleavage by plasmin at Arg361-Ser362. This phosphorylation has the potential to regulate plasmin production from plasminogen by a feedback mechanism involving the above-mentioned plasmin cleavage, a loosening of the vitronectin grip on inhibitor 1 of plasminogen activators, and a subsequent latency of this regulatory inhibitor.

    European journal of biochemistry 1997;243;1-2;493-501

  • Identification of a phosphorylation site for calcium/calmodulindependent protein kinase II in the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor.

    Omkumar RV, Kiely MJ, Rosenstein AJ, Min KT and Kennedy MB

    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA.

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of excitatory glutamate receptors plays critical roles in embryonic and adult synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. The receptor is a heteromultimer of core subunits, NR1, and one or more regulatory subunits, NR2A-D. Protein phosphorylation can regulate NMDA receptor function (Lieberman, D. N., and Mody, I. (1994) Nature 369, 235-239; Wang, Y. T., and Salter, M. W. (1994) Nature 369, 233-235; Wang, L. -Y., Orser, B. A., Brautigan, D. L., and MacDonald, J. F. (1994) Nature 369, 230-232). Here we identify a major phosphorylation site on subunit NR2B that is phosphorylated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II), an abundant protein kinase located at postsynaptic sites in glutamatergic synapses. For the initial identification of the site, we constructed a recombinant fusion protein containing 334 amino acids of the C terminus of the NR2B subunit and phosphorylated it with CaM kinase II in vitro. By peptide mapping, automated sequencing, and mass spectrometry, we identified the major site of phosphorylation on the fusion protein as Ser-383, corresponding to Ser-1303 of full-length NR2B. The Km for phosphorylation of this site in the fusion protein was approximately 50 nM, much lower than that of other known substrates for CaM kinase II, suggesting that the receptor is a high affinity substrate. We show that serine 1303 in the full-length NR2B and/or the cognate site in NR2A is a major site of phosphorylation of the receptor both in the postsynaptic density fraction and in living hippocampal neurons.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH49176; NINDS NIH HHS: NS17660, NS28710

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;49;31670-8

  • Protein-protein interaction of zinc finger LIM domains with protein kinase C.

    Kuroda S, Tokunaga C, Kiyohara Y, Higuchi O, Konishi H, Mizuno K, Gill GN and Kikkawa U

    Biosignal Research Center, Kobe University, Kobe 657, Japan. skuroda@inherit.biosig.kobe-u.ac.jp

    The LIM domain comprising two zinc-finger motifs is found in a variety of proteins and has been proposed to direct protein-protein interactions. During the identification of protein kinase C (PKC)-interacting proteins by a yeast two-hybrid assay, a novel protein containing three LIM domains, designated ENH, was shown to associate with PKC in an isoform-specific manner. Deletion analysis demonstrated that any single LIM domain of ENH associates with the NH2-terminal region of PKC. ENH associated with PKC in COS-7 cells and was phosphorylated by PKC in vitro. Upon treatment of the cells with phorbol ester, ENH in the membrane fraction was translocated to the cytosol fraction in vivo. Other LIM domain-containing proteins, such as Enigma and LIM-kinase 1, also interacted with PKC through their LIM domains. These results suggest that the LIM domain is one of the targets of PKC and that the LIM-PKC interaction may shed light on undefined roles of LIM domain-containing proteins.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;49;31029-32

  • In vitro phosphorylation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein by protein kinase C: evidence for the phosphorylation of amino acid residue serine-46.

    Holmes AM

    Biochemistry Department, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland 20814, USA.

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Tat protein is phosphorylated by protein kinase C in a calcium-, diacylglycerol-, and phosphatidylserine-dependent manner. Maximum phosphorylation is reached at a stoichiometry of between 0.45 and 0.5 mol of phosphate per mol of Tat. Several Tat peptides, containing serine at position 46, are the only ones which are phosphorylated at significant rates. Several other Tat peptides containing potential protein kinase C phosphorylation sites are not phosphorylated.

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 1996;335;1;8-12

  • Phosphorylation of eIF-4E on serine 209 by protein kinase C is inhibited by the translational repressors, 4E-binding proteins.

    Whalen SG, Gingras AC, Amankwa L, Mader S, Branton PE, Aebersold R and Sonenberg N

    Department of Biochemistry and McGill Cancer Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    Translation initiation in eukaryotes is facilitated by the mRNA 5' cap structure (m7GpppX, where X is any nucleotide) that binds the multisubunit initiation factor eIF4F through one of its subunits, eIF4E. eIF4E is a phosphoprotein whose phosphorylation state positively correlates with cell growth. Protein kinase C phosphorylates eIF4E in vitro, and possibly in vivo. Using recombinant eIF4E incubated in vitro with purified protein kinase C and analyzed by solid-phase phosphopeptide sequencing in combination with high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that the third amino acid of the peptide SGSTTK (Ser209) is the major site of phosphorylation. This finding is consistent with the newly assigned in vivo phosphorylation site of eIF4E (Joshi, B., Cai, A. L., Keiper, B. D., Minich, W. B., Mendez, R., Beach, C. M., Stepinski, J., Stolarski, R., Darzynkiewicz, E., and Rhoads, R. E. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 14597-14603). A S209A mutation resulted in dramatically reduced phosphorylation, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the mutant protein was phosphorylated on threonine (most probably threonine 210) in vivo. Here we show that in the presence of the recently characterized translational repressors 4E-BP1 or 4E-BP2, phosphorylation of eIF4E by protein kinase C is strongly reduced. This suggests a two-step model for the phosphorylation (and activation) of eIF4E by growth factors and hormones: first, dissociation of eIF4E from 4E-BPs, followed by eIF4E phosphorylation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;20;11831-7

  • Phosphorylation of Munc-18/n-Sec1/rbSec1 by protein kinase C: its implication in regulating the interaction of Munc-18/n-Sec1/rbSec1 with syntaxin.

    Fujita Y, Sasaki T, Fukui K, Kotani H, Kimura T, Hata Y, Südhof TC, Scheller RH and Takai Y

    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Japan.

    Munc-18/n-Sec1/rbSec1 interacts with syntaxin and this interaction inhibits the association of vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)/synaptobrevin and synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) with syntaxin. Syntaxin, VAMP, and SNAP-25 serve as soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein (SNAP) receptors essential for docking and/or fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic plasma membrane. Genetic analyses in yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila suggest that Munc-18 is essential for vesicle transport. On the other hand, protein kinase C (PKC) stimulates Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in various types of secretory cells. However, the modes of action of Munc-18 and PKC in vesicle transport have not been clarified. Here, we show that recombinant Munc-18 is phosphorylated by conventional PKC in a Ca2+- and phospholipid-dependent manner in a cell-free system. About 1 mol of phosphate is maximally incorporated into 1 mol of Munc-18. The major phosphorylation sites are Ser306 and Ser313. The Munc-18 complexed with syntaxin is not phosphorylated. The PKC-catalyzed phosphorylation of Munc-18 inhibits its interaction with syntaxin. These results suggest that the PKC-catalyzed phosphorylation of Munc-18 plays an important role in regulating the interaction of Munc-18 with syntaxin and thereby the docking and/or the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic plasma membrane.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;13;7265-8

  • Extracellular human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein is associated with an increase in both NF-kappa B binding and protein kinase C activity in primary human astrocytes.

    Conant K, Ma M, Nath A and Major EO

    Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Neuroscience, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection has been associated with an increase in the binding of the transcription factor NF-kappa B to its consensus sequence in the viral promoter. Using cultures of primary human fetal astrocytes, we show that exogenous HIV-1 Tat protein, which has been demonstrated to be released from infected cells, is associated with an increase in the binding of this transcription factor to an HIV-1 long terminal repeat kappa B sequence. This effect occurs rapidly and is independent of new protein synthesis. We also demonstrate that extracellular Tat protein is associated with an increase in protein kinase C activity. If Tat functions similarly in other cell types, such findings could relate to some of this protein's previously described physiological effects. These effects include Tat's ability to upregulate the synthesis of specific cytokines and to act as a growth factor.

    Journal of virology 1996;70;3;1384-9

  • IL-16- and other CD4 ligand-induced migration is dependent upon protein kinase C.

    Parada NA, Cruikshank WW, Danis HL, Ryan TC and Center DM

    Department of Medicine, Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, MA 02118, USA.

    Human interleukin-16, previously known as lymphocyte chemoattractant factor, is a CD4+ T cell competence growth factor initially described as a chemotactic factor for CD4+ cells. The interaction between IL-16 and its receptor CD4 leads to an increase in intracytoplasmic calcium and inositol triphosphate. Because of the association of intracellular shifts in protein kinase C (PKC) enzyme activity with production of these secondary messengers and the participation of PKC in transducing certain receptor-mediated migratory signals, we investigated the role of PKC in the CD4-mediated migratory response by IL-16. Recombinant IL-16 induces rapid translocation of PKC from the cytosol to the membrane in three separate CD4+ cell types: normal blood T cells, SUPT1 cells, and THP1 cells. PKC inhibitors H7, calphostin C, chelerythrine, and bisindolylmaleimide completely block IL-16-induced lymphocyte migration as well as the motile response induced by HIV-1 gp120 and anti-CD4 antibodies. Taken together, these data suggest a role for PKC in CD4-mediated migratory responses.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P50 HL46563, R01 HL32802

    Cellular immunology 1996;168;1;100-6

  • Cell cycle phase-specific phosphorylation of human topoisomerase II alpha. Evidence of a role for protein kinase C.

    Wells NJ, Fry AM, Guano F, Norbury C and Hickson ID

    Imperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories, Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, United Kingdom.

    Type II topoisomerases are essential for faithful cell division in all organisms. In human cells, the alpha isozyme of topoisomerase II has been implicated in catalyzing mitotic chromosome segregation via its action as a DNA unlinking enzyme. Here, we have shown that the enzymatic activity of topoisomerase II alpha protein purified from HeLa cell nuclei was strongly enhanced following phosphorylation by protein kinase C. We have investigated the possibility that this kinase is involved in cell cycle phase-specific phosphorylation of topoisomerase II alpha in HeLa cells. Two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide mapping revealed that topoisomerase II alpha protein immunoprecipitated from metabolically labeled HeLa cells was differentially phosphorylated during the G2 1f40 /M phases of the cell cycle. To identify sites of phosphorylation, and the kinase(s) responsible for this modification, oligohistidine-tagged recombinant domains of topoisomerase II alpha protein were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. Phosphorylation of a short fragment of the N-terminal ATPase domain of topoisomerase II alpha by protein kinase C in vitro generated two phosphopeptides that co-migrated with prominent G2/M phase-specific phosphopeptides from the HeLa cell-derived topoisomerase II alpha protein. Site-directed mutagenesis studies indicated that phosphorylation of serine 29 generated both of these phosphopeptides. Our results implicate protein kinase C in the cell cycle phase-dependent modulation of topoisomerase II alpha enzymatic activity in human cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;47;28357-63

  • HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins induce activation of activated protein-1 in CD4+ T cells.

    Chirmule N, Goonewardena H, Pahwa S, Pasieka R, Kalyanaraman VS and Pahwa S

    Department of Pediatrics, North Shore University Hospital, Cornell University Medical College, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA.

    Activation of CD4 positive T cells is a primary requirement for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry, efficient HIV replication, and progression to AIDS, Utilizing CD4 positive T cell lines and purified T cells from normal individuals, we have demonstrated that native envelope glycoproteins of HIV, gp 160, can induce activation of transcription factor, activated protein-1 (AP-1). The stimulatory effects of gp160 are mediated through the CD4 molecule, since treatment of gp160 with soluble CD4-IgG abrogates its activity, and CD4 negative T cell lines fail to be stimulated with gp160. Immunoprecipitation of the gp 160-induced nuclear extracts with polyclonal antibodies to Fos and Jun proteins indicates that AP-1 complex is comprised of members of these family of proteins. The gp160-induced AP-1 complex is dependent upon protein tyrosine phosphorylation and is protein synthesis-independent. This stimulation can also be abolished by inhibitors of protein kinase C, but it is unaffected by calcium channel blocker or cyclosporine A. This gp160 treatment adversely affects the functional capabilities of T cells: pre-treatment of CD4+ T cells with gp160 for 4 h at 37 degrees C inhibited anti-CD3-induced interleukin-2 secretion. Effects similar to gp160 were seen with anti-CD4 mAb. The aberrant activation of AP-1 by gp160 in CD4 positive T cells could result in up-regulation of cytokines containing AP-1 sites, e.g. interleukin-3 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and concurrently lead to T cell unresponsiveness by inhibiting interleukin-2 secretion.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: MO1 RR 0047; NIAID NIH HHS: AI 28281, AI 35414

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;33;19364-9

  • Distribution of the extended family of protein kinase C isoenzymes in fetal organs of mice: an immunohistochemical study.

    Bareggi R, Grill V, Zweyer M, Narducci P and Martelli AM

    Dipartimento di Morfologia Umana Normale, Università degli Studi di Trieste, Italy.

    Using isoenzyme-specific antisera, we have studied the distribution of protein kinase C isoforms in fetal mouse organs at the developmental age of 17 days. Two different sets of antibodies, produced by different manufacturers, were employed in this study. The specificity of the antisera was tested by immunoblotting experiments using whole fetal mouse extracts. Immunohistochemistry was carried out by means of an alkaline phosphatase-conjugated secondary antibody. Analysis of fetal mouse longitudinal cryostat sections stained with the antibodies demonstrated a distinct distribution of protein kinase C isoforms in the tissues. Protein kinase C-alpha and C-beta I were present in all tissues examined, whereas the C-beta II isoform was absent in the lung and the liver. Protein kinase C-gamma was identified in brain, spinal ganglia, and adrenal gland. The C-epsilon isoenzyme was abundantly expressed in spinal ganglia and in the smooth muscle cells of the bronchial wall. Antisera to C-zeta and C-eta isoforms heavily stained liver, kidney, and spinal ganglia, whereas the C-theta isozyme was mainly detected in brain, stomach and kidney. Thus, protein kinase C-alpha, C-beta I, C-beta II, C-zeta, C-eta and C-theta were the isoforms present in many of the organs investigated. The two sets of antibodies gave slightly different results that might be ascribed to the different epitopes recognized by the antisera. One set of antisera was employed to investigate the distribution of the isoforms in selected organs from an earlier developmental age (15 days) and from adult animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Cell and tissue research 1995;280;3;617-25

  • Inhibition of protein kinase C by a synthetic peptide corresponding to cytoplasmic domain residues 828-848 of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein.

    Ward NE, Gravitt KR and O'Brian CA

    Department of Cell Biology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030.

    This report describes the inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) by a synthetic peptide corresponding to a viral sequence expressed in mammalian cells. The peptide corresponds to cytoplasmic domain residues 828-848 of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (gp41), and it inhibits Ca(2+)- and phosphatidylserine (PS)-dependent phosphorylation of synthetic peptide substrates and histone by purified PKC with IC50 values ranging from 9 to 32 microM. Although previously described pKC-inhibitory synthetic peptides corresponding to sequences expressed in mammalian cells are also effective against the phosphorylation of synthetic peptide substrates, they fail to affect PKC-catalysed phosphorylation of potent protein substrates such as histone. This may limit their usefulness as inhibitors of PKC-catalysed protein phosphorylation in cellular systems. PKC activation is a major contributing factor in multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer. Our observation that the synthetic peptide gp41(828-848) inhibits pKC-catalysed phosphorylation of a protein substrate suggests the potential value of expressing the viral sequence gp41(828-848) in cancer cells as a novel in vitro model system of MDR reversal.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-52460

    Cancer letters 1995;88;1;37-40

  • Human immunodeficiency virus-1 recombinant gp120 induces changes in protein kinase C isozymes--a preliminary report.

    Gupta S, Aggarwal S, Kim C and Gollapudi S

    Division of Basic and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Irvine 92717.

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and its purified proteins activate target cell functions. Because protein kinase C (PKC) plays a crucial role in signal transduction and there is a molecular heterogeneity of PKC, we compared the effect of recombinant HIV-1 gp120 and phorbol ester (PMA) on PKC isozymes in monocytic U937 cells, with isozyme-specific antibodies using flow cytometry. All PKC isozymes except PKC-gamma were present in U937 cells. Both PMA and HIV-1 gp120 increased levels of calcium-dependent and -independent PKC isozymes. The most striking change was observed in PKC-zeta isozymes levels. This study for the first time demonstrates that HIV-1 gp120 affects calcium-independent PKC isozymes in U937 cells.

    International journal of immunopharmacology 1994;16;3;197-204

  • Activation and substrate specificity of the human protein kinase C alpha and zeta isoenzymes.

    Kochs G, Hummel R, Meyer D, Hug H, Marmé D and Sarre TF

    University of Freiburg, Institute of Molecular Cell Biology, Germany.

    Protein kinase C (PKC), a class of serine/threonine kinases activated by Ca2+ and/or phospholipids, is involved in a variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and secretion. Nine members of the PKC gene family are known; these are differentially expressed in eukaryotic cells and can be divided into two sub-groups: the Ca(2+)-dependent (classical) PKC isoenzymes alpha, beta I, beta II and gamma, and the Ca(2+)-independent neoPKC isoenzymes delta, epsilon, zeta, eta and theta. A detailed biochemical characterisation of these PKC isoenzymes is one prerequisite for the elucidation of their distinct roles within cellular signal transduction. In this study, we report the cloning of a human PKC-zeta cDNA, its expression in recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells and the partial purification of the PKC-zeta isoenzyme. In comparison to highly purified human PKC alpha, a representative of the classical PKC subgroup, purified PKC zeta was characterised with respect to activator requirement, substrate specificity, proteolytic activation and sensitivity towards PKC inhibitors. In contrast to PKC alpha, PKC zeta exhibits a constitutive kinase activity which is independent of Ca2+, phosphatidylserine and diacylglycerol. Arachidonic acid alone or a combination of gamma-linolenic acid and phosphatidylserine slightly enhance PKC zeta activity. In the presence of the classical PKC activators phosphatidylserine/diacylglycerol, PKC alpha phosphorylates a PKC-alpha pseudosubstrate-derived peptide, an epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-derived peptide, histone III-S and myelin basic protein to an equal extent, whilst PKC zeta phosphorylates only the PKC-alpha-derived peptide. However, arachidonic acid greatly diminishes PKC-alpha activity towards the epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-derived peptide, histone III-S and myelin basic protein, but enhances PKC-zeta activity towards the PKC-alpha-derived peptide. These results indicate a possible modulation of substrate specificity of these two PKC isoenzymes by (the binding of) different activators (to their regulatory domains). In the case of PKC zeta, this finding is strengthened by the fact that the epidermal growth factor receptor-derived peptide, which is not a substrate for the holoenzyme, is significantly phosphorylated by a protein fragment generated by limited proteolysis and comprising only the kinase domain. Furthermore, PKC zeta, in contrast to PKC alpha, is insensitive to PKC inhibitors known to interfere either with the regulatory or the catalytic domain and cannot be activated by phorbol ester treatment of NIH 3T3 cells or insect cells, overexpressing the respective PKC isoenzyme. The potential implications of these findings on the mechanism(s) of activation and the substrate specificity of PKC zeta are discussed.

    European journal of biochemistry 1993;216;2;597-606

  • Characterization of a 7.5-kDa protein kinase C substrate (RC3 protein, neurogranin) from rat brain.

    Huang KP, Huang FL and Chen HC

    Endocrinology and Reproduction Research Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

    A 7.5-kDa heat- and acid-stable rat brain protein kinase C (PKC) substrate was purified to near homogeneity by a two-step procedure using DEAE-cellulose and hydroxylapatite column chromatography. This 78-amino-acid protein has a sequence identical to that deduced from rat brain RC3 cDNA identified with a cortex-minus-cerebellum subtracted cDNA probe (J. B. Watson et al., J. Neurosci. Res. 26, 397-408, 1990) and exhibits extensive sequence identity to bovine brain neurogranin (J. Baudier et al., J. Biol. Chem. 266, 229-237, 1991). On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis this protein, RC3, migrated as a M(r) 15-18K species in the presence of reducing agent and as heterogeneous species of M(r) 13-28K in the absence of reducing agent. Phosphorylation of RC3 by PKC alpha, beta, or gamma was stimulated by Ca2+, phospholipid, and diacylglycerol. A single site, Ser36, which is adjacent to the predicted calmodulin (CaM)-binding domain, was phosphorylated by these enzymes. Phosphorylation of RC3 by PKC or PKM, a protease-degraded PKC, was inhibited by CaM. The effect of CaM apparently targets at RC3, as phosphorylation of protamine sulfate by PKM was not inhibited by CaM. In the absence of Ca2+, RC3 formed a stoichiometric complex with CaM as evidenced by an increase in the M(r) determined by gel filtration chromatography. In the presence of Ca2+, the affinity of RC3 toward CaM is greatly reduced and Ca2+/CaM becomes less inhibitory of the PKM-catalyzed phosphorylation of RC3. Phosphorylation of RC3 by PKM prevented the interaction of this protein with CaM even in the absence of Ca2+. A 20-amino-acid synthetic peptide (AS-20F-W) containing the PKC phosphorylation site and CaM-binding domain of RC3 (Ala29-Ser48) with a substitution of Phe37 with tryptophan was used to monitor the interaction of this peptide with CaM by spectrofluorometry. In the absence of Ca2+, CaM caused negligible change in tryptophan fluorescence of the peptide; however, an enhancement and blue-shift of the emission fluorescence was observed in the presence of Ca2+. It seems that this synthetic peptide, as well as RC3 holoprotein, interacts with CaM through electrostatic interaction in the absence of Ca2+ but through hydrophobic interaction in the presence of Ca2+. In rat brain homogenate, RC3 formed a stable complex with CaM in the presence of Ca2+, as demonstrated by immunoblot analysis following gel filtration chromatography.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 1993;305;2;570-80

  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of human chromosome 19: cytogenetic band location of 540 cosmids and 70 genes or DNA markers.

    Trask B, Fertitta A, Christensen M, Youngblom J, Bergmann A, Copeland A, de Jong P, Mohrenweiser H, Olsen A, Carrano A et al.

    Human Genome Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550.

    We report here the band location of 540 cosmids mapped to chromosome 19. The cosmids were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) relative to chromosomal bands produced by DAPI/actinomycin staining. The cosmids are distributed throughout the chromosome, with a sampling bias for the q-arm. A detailed analysis of the distribution of three different subtelomeric and 22 pericentromeric chromosome 19 cosmids on other chromosomes is also reported. Colony hybridization identified 142 cosmids that contain sequences representing genes or DNA markers that map to chromosome 19. FISH mapping of these cosmids sublocalizes a total of 70 genes and DNA markers on chromosome 19, revises the previously published map assignments of 2 genes, and narrows the location of over 20 markers.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG-00256

    Genomics 1993;15;1;133-45

  • A synthetic peptide with sequence identity to the transmembrane protein GP41 of HIV-1 inhibits distinct lymphocyte activation pathways dependent on protein kinase C and intracellular calcium influx.

    Ruegg CL and Strand M

    Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205.

    A synthetic peptide containing env amino acid (aa) sequence 581 to 597 of the transmembrane protein gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was tested for its effect on protein kinase C (PKC) and cytoplasmic free Ca2+ [( Ca2+]i) influx-dependent immune functions. We have previously shown that this peptide inhibits PKC-mediated phosphorylation and T-cell receptor-mediated [Ca2+]i influx as well as lymphoproliferation. In this study we demonstrate that the HIV-1 gp41 peptide aa581-597 inhibits lymphoproliferation stimulated via the distinct T-cell-activation molecules CD3, CD2, and CD28, as well as direct stimulation mediated by phorbol ester combined with ionomycin. Further, aa581-597 inhibits both PKC-dependent interleukin 2 (IL 2) production and the [Ca2+]i influx-dependent but PKC-independent induction of IL 2 receptor expression. The HIV-1 gp41 peptide also induces dramatic morphologic changes in lymphocytes, characterized by cytoplasmic ballooning and the acquisition of adherence to plastic, and these changes are dependent on both the length and the temperature of exposure. The results of this study suggest that the HIV-1 gp41 sequence aa581-597 acts at multiple sites to inhibit both PKC activity and [Ca2+]i influx, resulting in the abrogation of several distinct immune functions that are critical for an intact immune response and are defective in HIV-1-infected individuals.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-09243; NIAID NIH HHS: AI-28206

    Cellular immunology 1991;137;1;1-13

  • Phorbol diester-induced alterations in the expression of protein kinase C isozymes and their mRNAs. Analysis in wild-type and phorbol diester-resistant HL-60 cell clones.

    McSwine-Kennick RL, McKeegan EM, Johnson MD and Morin MJ

    Department of Pharmacology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois 60611.

    In an HL-60 cell subline (PR-17) which was greater than 100-fold resistant to the differentiating and cytostatic activities of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), the protein kinase C phenotype was found to be nearly identical to that of wild-type HL-60 cells. A measurable decrease (30%) in the specific activities of crude preparations of PR-17 cell protein kinase C was observed when the enzyme was measured with histone as the phosphate acceptor substrate, but other aspects of the protein kinase C phenotype (intracellular concentrations and binding affinities of phorbol diester receptors, translocation of activated enzyme from cytosolic to particulate subcellular fractions, relative expression of the alpha and beta isozyme proteins) were equivalent in both PMA-resistant PR-17 cells and in wild-type HL-60 cells. Direct analysis of the behavior of the alpha and beta isozymes after the exposure of each cell type to 100 nM PMA for 12 h revealed that the activities and intracellular concentrations of both isozymes were downregulated to an equivalent extent in both wild-type and PMA-resistant cells. These results suggest that the cellular basis for the resistance to the effects of PMA was present "down-stream" from the activation and down-regulation of protein kinase C and was perhaps a nuclear component. Among the genes which were likely to be differentially regulated when each of the two cell lines were treated with PMA were those for the protein kinase C isozymes themselves. In wild-type HL-60 cells, the intracellular concentrations of type HL-60 cells, the intracellular concentrations of mRNA for each of the beta isozymes were increased (up to 5-fold) 48 h after the initiation of PMA treatment; further studies indicate that an activator of protein kinase C could influence the expression of HL-60 cell protein kinase C genes in an isozyme-specific manner. Comparable PMA-induced alterations in mRNA levels were not observed in PMA-resistant cells, even under conditions of significant activation and subsequent down-regulation of protein kinase C protein. Taken together, these data suggest that activation and down-regulation of the isozymes of protein kinase C may not represent absolute determinants of the PMA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells, but that specific alterations in the levels of the mRNA for the beta isozymes of protein kinase C, or of other genes which may be regulated by the activated kinase isozymes, are important to the induction of leukemia cell differentiation by PMA.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-44589, T32 CA-09560

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1991;266;23;15135-43

  • Inhibition of protein kinase C and anti-CD3-induced Ca2+ influx in Jurkat T cells by a synthetic peptide with sequence identity to HIV-1 gp41.

    Ruegg CL and Strand M

    Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205.

    We have previously shown that a synthetic peptide containing env residues 581-597 from HIV-1 inhibits lymphoproliferation of human PBMC. We have investigated the molecular mechanism(s) by which this HIV-1-derived peptide inhibits CD3-mediated signal transduction. We show that the peptide containing residues 581-597 from the HIV-1 transmembrane protein gp41 specifically inhibited the intracellular Ca2+ influx in Jurkat cells stimulated by the mAb OKT3 whereas it had no effect on the production of inositol triphosphate. In addition, the peptide inhibited protein kinase C (pkC)-mediated phosphorylation of the CD3 gamma-chain in intact cells and directly inhibited partially purified pkC. The inhibition was noncompetitive with respect to the substrates histone and ATP and independent of the regulatory domain of the enzyme. Furthermore, the peptide required internalization for inhibitory activity because no inhibition of lymphoproliferation was observed when cells were treated with peptide at 4 degrees C. Based on these results obtained with the peptide aa581-597, we postulate that the transmembrane protein gp41 of HIV-1 may inhibit pkC activity and thus block pkC-dependent immune function contributing to the immunosuppression of HIV-1-infected individuals.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-09243; NIAID NIH HHS: AI-28206

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1990;144;10;3928-35

  • The phorbol ester TPA strongly inhibits HIV-1-induced syncytia formation but enhances virus production: possible involvement of protein kinase C pathway.

    Chowdhury IH, Koyanagi Y, Kobayashi S, Hamamoto Y, Yoshiyama H, Yoshida T and Yamamoto N

    Department of Virology and Parasitology, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, Japan.

    Cocultivation of MOLT-4 and MOLT-4/HIVHTLV-IIIB cells with more than 0.01 ng/ml of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for 20 hr strikingly inhibited HIV-induced syncytia formation resulting from cell to cell infection. Interestingly, the production of HIV-specific p24 antigen in the culture fluid was significantly enhanced by TPA. TPA down-modulated the expression of CD4. CD4 is essential for syncytia formation through interaction with viral envelope protein gp120 on the surface of MOLT-4 cells. The effects of TPA on syncytia formation and on CD4 expression were specifically interfered with by nontoxic doses of blockers of protein kinase C (PKC) such as staurosporine and H7. These data suggest that (1) TPA inhibits HIV-induced syncytia formation through down-modulation of CD4 molecules on the surface of MOLT-4 cells and (2) PKC may play an important role in cell to cell as well as in cell-free infection of HIV.

    Virology 1990;176;1;126-32

  • Trans-activation of HIV-1 LTR-directed gene expression by tat requires protein kinase C.

    Jakobovits A, Rosenthal A and Capon DJ

    Department of Molecular Biology, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080.

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spends a significant part of the viral life cycle as a latent provirus integrated into the host genome. Activation of latent HIV-1 requires mitogenic stimulation of the cell, which increases basal viral transcription, and the HIV-1 tat protein. As tat itself dramatically increases HIV-1 gene expression, it too is presumably regulated in the latent state, and may also be activated by mitogenic stimulation. We show here that depletion of protein kinase C (PKC), which is essential to the stimulation of T cells by several mitogens, dramatically reduces HIV-1 transactivation without affecting synthesis of tat protein. Transactivation in PKC-depleted cells can be restored by transfection with a PKC expression vector. The requirement for PKC in trans-activation does not involve the PMA-responsive enhancer elements responsible for the effect of mitogens on basal transcription. Our results indicate that PKC regulates the process of HIV-1 transactivation, suggesting a key role for the mitogenic induction of trans-activation in the transition of HIV from latency to productive growth.

    The EMBO journal 1990;9;4;1165-70

  • The syntenic relationship of proximal mouse chromosome 7 and the myotonic dystrophy gene region on human chromosome 19q.

    Saunders AM and Seldin MF

    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.

    The syntenic relationship of the myotonic dystrophy (DM) gene region on human chromosome 19q and proximal mouse chromosome 7 was examined using an interspecific backcross between C3H/HeJ-gld/gld mice and Mus spretus. Segregation analyses were used to order homologs of nine human loci linked with the DM gene. Their order from the centromere was Prkcg, [Apoe, Atpa-2, Ckmm, D19S19h, Ercc-2], Cyp2b, Mag, Lhb. Two other murine loci, D7Rp2 and Ngfg, were also positioned within this interval. Homologs for five human chromosome 11 and 15 loci (Calc, Fes, Hras-1, Igflr, Tyr) were localized within an 18-cM span telomeric to Lhb. Comparison of the gene orders indicates an inversion extending from Prkcg through the interval between Mag and Lhb. This study establishes a detailed map of proximal mouse chromosome 7 that will be useful in identifying and determining whether new human chromosome 19 probes are linked to the DM region.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS19999

    Genomics 1990;6;2;324-32

  • Human immunodeficiency virus induces phosphorylation of its cell surface receptor.

    Fields AP, Bednarik DP, Hess A and May WS

    Johns Hopkins Oncology Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21231.

    AIDS is an immunoregulatory disorder characterized by depletion of the CD4+, helper/inducer lymphocyte population. The causative agent of this disease is the human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, which infects CD4+ cells and leads to cytopathic effects characterized by syncytia formation and cell death. Recent studies have demonstrated that binding of HIV to its cellular receptor CD4 is necessary for viral entry. We find that binding of HIV to CD4 induces rapid and sustained phosphorylation of CD4 which could involve protein kinase C. HIV-induced CD4 phosphorylation can be blocked by antibody against CD4 and monoclonal antibody against the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120, indicating that a specific interaction between CD4 and gp120 is required for phosphorylation. Electron microscopy shows that a protein kinase C inhibitor does not impair binding of HIV to CD4+ cells, but causes an apparent accumulation of virus particles at the cell surface, at the same time inhibiting viral infectivity. These results indicate a possible role for HIV-induced CD4 phosphorylation in viral entry and identify a potential target for antiviral therapy.

    Nature 1988;333;6170;278-80

  • Linkage relationships of the protein kinase C gamma gene which exclude it as a candidate for myotonic dystrophy.

    Johnson KJ, Jones PJ, Spurr N, Nimmo E, Davies J, Creed H, Weiss M and Williamson R

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, University of London, UK.

    Using a cDNA probe for the gamma gene of protein kinase C (PKCG), an informative RFLP with a PIC value of 0.62 has been identified with the enzyme MspI. The polymorphic bands have been assigned to chromosome 19. Analysis of the segregation of alleles for this probe in myotonic dystrophy families show several recombinants between PKCG and myotonic dystrophy (DM) and exclude this gene as a candidate for DM. Linkage relationships between PKCG and other loci on chromosome 19 are presented which exclude PKCG from the proximal region of chromosome 19 and which are consistent with the localization being at 19q13.2----qter.

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1988;48;1;13-5

  • Multiple, distinct forms of bovine and human protein kinase C suggest diversity in cellular signaling pathways.

    Coussens L, Parker PJ, Rhee L, Yang-Feng TL, Chen E, Waterfield MD, Francke U and Ullrich A

    A new family of protein kinase C-related genes has been identified in bovine, human, and rat genomes. The alpha-, beta-, and gamma-type protein kinase sequences are highly homologous, include a kinase domain, and potential calcium-binding sites, and they contain interspersed variable regions. The corresponding genes are located on distinct human chromosomes; the possibility of even greater genetic complexity of this gene family is suggested by Northern and Southern hybridization analyses.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1986;233;4766;859-66

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000040 G2C Homo sapiens Pocklington H9 Human orthologues of cluster 9 (mouse) from Pocklington et al (2006) 6
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
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EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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