G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00002477
Gene symbol
Mylc2b
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
Orthologue
G00001228 (Mus musculus)

Databases (6)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000068203 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000118680 (Ensembl human gene)
103910 (Entrez Gene)
184 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Literature
609211 (OMIM)
Protein Sequence
P19105 (UniProt)

Diseases (1)

Disease Nervous effect Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
D00000228: Myopia N Y (15723005) Polymorphism (P) N

References

  • Genomic structure and organization of the high grade Myopia-2 locus (MYP2) critical region: mutation screening of 9 positional candidate genes.

    Scavello GS, Paluru PC, Zhou J, White PS, Rappaport EF and Young TL

    Division of Ophthalmology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

    Purpose: Myopia is a common complex eye disorder, with implications for blindness due to increased risk of retinal detachment, chorioretinal degeneration, premature cataracts, and glaucoma. A genomic interval of 2.2 centiMorgans (cM) was defined on chromosome band 18p11.31 using 7 families diagnosed with autosomal dominant high myopia and was designated the MYP2 locus. To characterize this region, we analyzed 9 known candidate genes localized to within the 2.2 cM interval by direct sequencing.

    Methods: Using public databases, a physical map of the MYP2 interval was compiled. Gene expression studies in ocular tissues using complementary DNA library screens, microarray experiments, reverse transcription techniques, and expression data identified in external databases aided in prioritizing gene selection for screening. Coding regions, intron-exon boundaries and untranslated exons of all known genes [Clusterin-like 1 (CLUL1), elastin microfibril interfacer 2 (EMILIN2), lipin 2 (LPIN2), myomesin 1 (MYOM1), myosin regulatory light chain 3 (MRCL3), myosin regulatory light chain 2 (MRLC2), transforming growth beta-induced factor (TGIFbeta), large Drosophila homolog associated protein 1 (DLGAP1), and zinc finger protein 161 homolog (ZFP161)] were sequenced using genomic DNA samples from 9 affected and 6 unaffected MYP2 pedigree members, and from 5 external controls (4 unaffected and 1 affected). Gene sequence changes were compared to known variants from public single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) databases.

    Results: In total, 103 polymorphisms were found by direct sequencing; 10 were missense, 14 were silent, 26 were not translated, 49 were intronic, 1 insertion, and 3 were homozygous deletions. Twenty-seven polymorphisms were novel. Novel SNPs were submitted to the public database; observed frequencies were submitted for known SNPs. No sequence alterations segregated with the disease phenotype.

    Conclusions: Mutation analysis of 9 encoded positional candidate genes on MYP2 loci did not identify sequence alterations associated with the disease phenotype. Further studies of MYP2 candidate genes, including analysis of putative genes predicted in silico, are underway.

    Funded by: BHP HRSA HHS: 2PEY01583-26; NEI NIH HHS: EY00376

    Molecular vision 2005;11;97-110

Literature (10)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • Genomic structure and organization of the high grade Myopia-2 locus (MYP2) critical region: mutation screening of 9 positional candidate genes.

    Scavello GS, Paluru PC, Zhou J, White PS, Rappaport EF and Young TL

    Division of Ophthalmology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

    Purpose: Myopia is a common complex eye disorder, with implications for blindness due to increased risk of retinal detachment, chorioretinal degeneration, premature cataracts, and glaucoma. A genomic interval of 2.2 centiMorgans (cM) was defined on chromosome band 18p11.31 using 7 families diagnosed with autosomal dominant high myopia and was designated the MYP2 locus. To characterize this region, we analyzed 9 known candidate genes localized to within the 2.2 cM interval by direct sequencing.

    Methods: Using public databases, a physical map of the MYP2 interval was compiled. Gene expression studies in ocular tissues using complementary DNA library screens, microarray experiments, reverse transcription techniques, and expression data identified in external databases aided in prioritizing gene selection for screening. Coding regions, intron-exon boundaries and untranslated exons of all known genes [Clusterin-like 1 (CLUL1), elastin microfibril interfacer 2 (EMILIN2), lipin 2 (LPIN2), myomesin 1 (MYOM1), myosin regulatory light chain 3 (MRCL3), myosin regulatory light chain 2 (MRLC2), transforming growth beta-induced factor (TGIFbeta), large Drosophila homolog associated protein 1 (DLGAP1), and zinc finger protein 161 homolog (ZFP161)] were sequenced using genomic DNA samples from 9 affected and 6 unaffected MYP2 pedigree members, and from 5 external controls (4 unaffected and 1 affected). Gene sequence changes were compared to known variants from public single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) databases.

    Results: In total, 103 polymorphisms were found by direct sequencing; 10 were missense, 14 were silent, 26 were not translated, 49 were intronic, 1 insertion, and 3 were homozygous deletions. Twenty-seven polymorphisms were novel. Novel SNPs were submitted to the public database; observed frequencies were submitted for known SNPs. No sequence alterations segregated with the disease phenotype.

    Conclusions: Mutation analysis of 9 encoded positional candidate genes on MYP2 loci did not identify sequence alterations associated with the disease phenotype. Further studies of MYP2 candidate genes, including analysis of putative genes predicted in silico, are underway.

    Funded by: BHP HRSA HHS: 2PEY01583-26; NEI NIH HHS: EY00376

    Molecular vision 2005;11;97-110

Pubmed - other

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIDDK NIH HHS: K01 DK098285; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • Prefrontal cortex shotgun proteome analysis reveals altered calcium homeostasis and immune system imbalance in schizophrenia.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Rewerts C, Maccarrone G, Dias-Neto E and Turck CW

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua. Dr. Ovidio Pires de Campos, no 785, Consolação, São Paulo, SP 05403-010, Brazil.

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease, likely to be caused by a combination of serial alterations in a number of genes and environmental factors. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46) is involved in schizophrenia and executes high-level functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts and attitudes, correct social behavior and personality expression. Global proteomic analysis of post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples from schizophrenia patients and non-schizophrenic individuals was performed using stable isotope labeling and shotgun proteomics. The analysis resulted in the identification of 1,261 proteins, 84 of which showed statistically significant differential expression, reinforcing previous data supporting the involvement of the immune system, calcium homeostasis, cytoskeleton assembly, and energy metabolism in schizophrenia. In addition a number of new potential markers were found that may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

    European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience 2009;259;3;151-63

  • Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate disrupts stress fibers and the contractile ring by reducing myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation mediated through the target molecule 67 kDa laminin receptor.

    Umeda D, Tachibana H and Yamada K

    Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan.

    Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol of green tea, has been shown to inhibit the growth of various cancer cell lines. We show here that EGCG induced the disruption of stress fibers and decreased the phosphorylation of the myosin II regulatory light chain (MRLC) at Thr18/Ser19, which is necessary for both contractile ring formation and cell division. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis revealed that EGCG inhibited the concentration of both F-actin and the phosphorylated MRLC in the cleavage furrow at the equator of dividing cells. In addition, EGCG increased the percentages of cells in the G(2)/M phase and inhibited cell growth. Recently, we have demonstrated that the anticancer activity of EGCG is mediated by the metastasis-associated 67kDa laminin receptor (67LR). To explore whether the effect of EGCG is mediated by the 67LR, we transfected cells with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector to downregulate 67LR expression. When the 67LR was silenced, the suppressive effect of EGCG on the MRLC phosphorylation was significantly attenuated. These results suggest that EGCG inhibits the cell growth by reducing the MRLC phosphorylation and this effect is mediated by the 67LR.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;333;2;628-35

  • Characterization of MR-1, a novel myofibrillogenesis regulator in human muscle.

    Li TB, Liu XH, Feng S, Hu Y, Yang WX, Han Y, Wang YG and Gong LM

    Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, CAMS and PUMC, Beijing 100050, China.

    The actin-myosin contractile apparatus consists of several thick filament and thin filament proteins. Specific regulatory mechanisms are involved in this highly ordered process. In this paper, we reported the identification and characterization of a novel myofibrillogenesis regulator, MR-1. The MR-1 gene was cloned from human skeletal muscle cDNA library by using a strategy that involves EST data base searching, PCR and RACE. The MR-1 gene is located on human chromosome 2q35 and encodes a 142 aa protein. Northern blot revealed that the mRNA level of MR-1 was highest in the skeletal muscle and certain level of MR-1 expression was also observed in heart, liver and kidney. Immunohistochemical assay confirmed that the MR-1 protein existed in human myocardial myofibrils. It was found by yeast two-hybrid screening and confirmed by in vitro binding assay that MR-1 could interact with sarcomeric proteins, such as myosin regulatory light chain, myomesin 1 and beta-enolase. These studies suggested that MR-1 might play a regulatory role in the muscle cell and it was worth investigating further.

    Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica 2004;36;6;412-8

  • Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation.

    Brandenberger R, Wei H, Zhang S, Lei S, Murage J, Fisk GJ, Li Y, Xu C, Fang R, Guegler K, Rao MS, Mandalam R, Lebkowski J and Stanton LW

    Geron Corporation, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. rbrandenberger@geron.com

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells hold promise for generating an unlimited supply of cells for replacement therapies. To characterize hES cells at the molecular level, we obtained 148,453 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from undifferentiated hES cells and three differentiated derivative subpopulations. Over 32,000 different transcripts expressed in hES cells were identified, of which more than 16,000 do not match closely any gene in the UniGene public database. Queries to this EST database revealed 532 significantly upregulated and 140 significantly downregulated genes in undifferentiated hES cells. These data highlight changes in the transcriptional network that occur when hES cells differentiate. Among the differentially regulated genes are several components of signaling pathways and transcriptional regulators that likely play key roles in hES cell growth and differentiation. The genomic data presented here may facilitate the derivation of clinically useful cell types from hES cells.

    Nature biotechnology 2004;22;6;707-16

  • Smooth muscle contraction and relaxation.

    Webb RC

    Department of Physiology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA. cwebb@mcg.edu

    This brief review serves as a refresher on smooth muscle physiology for those educators who teach in medical and graduate courses of physiology. Additionally, those professionals who are in need of an update on smooth muscle physiology may find this review to be useful. Smooth muscle lacks the striations characteristic of cardiac and skeletal muscle. Layers of smooth muscle cells line the walls of various organs and tubes in the body, and the contractile function of smooth muscle is not under voluntary control. Contractile activity in smooth muscle is initiated by a Ca(2+)-calmodulin interaction to stimulate phosphorylation of the light chain of myosin. Ca(2+) sensitization of the contractile proteins is signaled by the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway to inhibit the dephosphorylation of the light chain by myosin phosphatase, thereby maintaining force generation. Removal of Ca(2+) from the cytosol and stimulation of myosin phosphatase initiate the process of smooth muscle relaxation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-18575, HL-71138

    Advances in physiology education 2003;27;1-4;201-6

  • Diphosphorylated MRLC is required for organization of stress fibers in interphase cells and the contractile ring in dividing cells.

    Iwasaki T, Murata-Hori M, Ishitobi S and Hosoya H

    Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan.

    Activity of nonmuscle myosin II is regulated by phosphorylation of its regulatory light chain (MRLC). Phosphoryration of MRLC at both Thr18 and Ser19 (diphosphorylation) results in higher MgATPase activity and in promotion of the assembly of myosin II filaments than does that of MRLC at Ser19 (monophosphorylation) in vitro. To determine the roles of the diphosphorylated MRLC in vivo, we transfected three kinds of MRLC mutants, unphosphorylated, monophosphorylated and diphosphorylated forms (MRLC2(T18AS19A), substitution of both Ser19 and Thr18 by Ala; MRLC2(T18AS19D), Ser19 by Asp and Thr18 by Ala; and MRLC2(T18DS19D), both Ser19 and Thr18 by Asp, respectively), into HeLa cells. Cells overexpressing the mutant MRLC2(T18DS19D) contained a larger number of actin filament bundles than did those overexpressing the mutant MRLC2(T18AS19D). Moreover, cells overexpressing the nonphosphorylatable mutant MRLC2(T18AS19A) showed a decrease in the number of actin filament bundles. Taken together, our data suggest that diphosphorylation of MRLC plays an important role in regulating actin filament assembly and reorganization in nonmuscle cells.

    Cell structure and function 2001;26;6;677-83

  • MIR is a novel ERM-like protein that interacts with myosin regulatory light chain and inhibits neurite outgrowth.

    Olsson PA, Korhonen L, Mercer EA and Lindholm D

    Department of Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Uppsala University, Box 587 Biomedical Center, S-75123 Uppsala, Sweden.

    The ERM protein family members ezrin, radixin, and moesin are cytoskeletal effector proteins linking actin to membrane-bound proteins at the cell surface. Here we report on the cloning of myosin regulatory light chain interacting protein (MIR), a protein with an ERM-homology domain and a carboxyl-terminal RING finger, that is expressed, among other tissues, in brain. MIR is distributed in cultured COS cells, in a punctuated manner as shown using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged MIR and by staining with a specific antibody for MIR. In the yeast two-hybrid system and in transfected COS cells, MIR interacts with myosin regulatory light chain B, which in turn regulates the activity of the actomyosin complex. Overexpression of MIR cDNA in PC12 cells abrogated neurite outgrowth induced by nerve growth factor (NGF) without affecting TrkA signaling. The results show that MIR, a novel ERM-like protein, affects cytoskeleton interactions regulating cell motility, such as neurite outgrowth.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;51;36288-92

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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