G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00002470
Gene symbol
PI4KA (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, catalytic, alpha
Orthologue
G00001221 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000030835 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000133511 (Ensembl human gene)
5297 (Entrez Gene)
779 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PIK4CA (GeneCards)
Literature
600286 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:8983 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P42356 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • PI4K-ALPHA
  • pi4K230

Literature (34)

Pubmed - other

  • Kinases required in hepatitis C virus entry and replication highlighted by small interference RNA screening.

    Trotard M, Lepère-Douard C, Régeard M, Piquet-Pellorce C, Lavillette D, Cosset FL, Gripon P and Le Seyec J

    Equipe Associée SERAIC no. 4427, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes, IFR 140, France.

    The entry pathway of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major human pathogen, into the cell is incompletely defined. To better characterize this viral life cycle stage, we screened a small interfering RNA library dedicated to the membrane trafficking and remodeling with the infection model of Huh-7.5.1 cells by HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp). Results showed that the down-regulation of different factors implied in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) inhibits HCVpp cell infection. In addition, knockdown of the phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type III-alpha (PI4KIIIalpha) prevented infection by HCVpp or by cell-culture grown JFH-1-based HCV. Moreover, the replication activity of an HCV replicon was also affected by the PI4KIIIalpha knockdown. Additional investigations on the different members of the PI4K family revealed that the presence of PI4KIIIbeta in the host cells influenced their susceptibility to HCVpp infection and their capacity to sustain the HCV replication. The PI4KIII involvement during the HCV life cycle seemed to occur by other ways than the control of the CME or of the membranous expression of HCV receptors. Finally, our library screening completed data on the CME-dependant entry route of HCV and identified 2 kinases, PI4KIIIalpha and beta, as relevant potential therapeutic targets.

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2009;23;11;3780-9

  • Class III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase alpha and beta are novel host factor regulators of hepatitis C virus replication.

    Borawski J, Troke P, Puyang X, Gibaja V, Zhao S, Mickanin C, Leighton-Davies J, Wilson CJ, Myer V, Cornellataracido I, Baryza J, Tallarico J, Joberty G, Bantscheff M, Schirle M, Bouwmeester T, Mathy JE, Lin K, Compton T, Labow M, Wiedmann B and Gaither LA

    Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, 250 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

    Host factor pathways are known to be essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and replication in human liver cells. To search for novel host factor proteins required for HCV replication, we screened a subgenomic genotype 1b replicon cell line (Luc-1b) with a kinome and druggable collection of 20,779 siRNAs. We identified and validated several enzymes required for HCV replication, including class III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4KA and PI4KB), carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase (CAD), and mevalonate (diphospho) decarboxylase. Knockdown of PI4KA could inhibit the replication and/or HCV RNA levels of the two subgenomic genotype 1b clones (SG-1b and Luc-1b), two subgenomic genotype 1a clones (SG-1a and Luc-1a), JFH-1 genotype 2a infectious virus (JFH1-2a), and the genomic genotype 1a (FL-1a) replicon. In contrast, PI4KB knockdown inhibited replication and/or HCV RNA levels of Luc-1b, SG-1b, and Luc-1a replicons. The small molecule inhibitor, PIK93, was found to block subgenomic genotype 1b (Luc-1b), subgenomic genotype 1a (Luc-1a), and genomic genotype 2a (JFH1-2a) infectious virus replication in the nanomolar range. PIK93 was characterized by using quantitative chemical proteomics and in vitro biochemical assays to demonstrate PIK93 is a bone fide PI4KA and PI4KB inhibitor. Our data demonstrate that genetic or pharmacological modulation of PI4KA and PI4KB inhibits multiple genotypes of HCV and represents a novel druggable class of therapeutic targets for HCV infection.

    Journal of virology 2009;83;19;10058-74

  • Identification of a lipid kinase as a host factor involved in hepatitis C virus RNA replication.

    Vaillancourt FH, Pilote L, Cartier M, Lippens J, Liuzzi M, Bethell RC, Cordingley MG and Kukolj G

    Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd, 2100 Cunard St., Laval, QC, Canada H7S 2G5. frederic.vaillancourt@boehringer-ingelheim.com

    A functional screen of an adenovirus-delivered shRNA library that targets approximately 4500 host genes was performed to identify cellular factors that regulate hepatitis C virus (HCV) sub-genomic RNA replication. Seventy-three hits were further examined by siRNA oligonucleotide-directed knockdown, and silencing of the PI4KA gene was demonstrated to have a significant effect on the replication of a HCV genotype 1b replicon. Using transient siRNA oligonucleotide transfections and stable shRNA knockdown clones in HuH-7 cells, the PI4KA gene was shown to be essential for the replication of all HCV genotypes tested (1a, 1b and 2a) but not required for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) RNA replication.

    Virology 2009;387;1;5-10

  • Association of the PIK4CA schizophrenia-susceptibility gene in adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Vorstman JA, Chow EW, Ophoff RA, van Engeland H, Beemer FA, Kahn RS, Sinke RJ and Bassett AS

    Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. j.a.s.vorstman@umcutrecht.nl

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with an increased prevalence (20-30%) of schizophrenia. Therefore, it is likely that one or more genes within the 22q11.2 region are causally related to schizophrenia. Recently, a significant association with schizophrenia in the general population was reported for three SNPs in phosphatidyl-inositol-4-kinase-catalytic-alpha (PIK4CA), a gene located in the 22q11.2 region. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the same PIK4CA risk-alleles would be associated with schizophrenia in individuals with 22q11DS. Our analysis of the PIK4CA genotypes in a sample of 79 adults with typical 22q11.2 deletions, comparing those with schizophrenia to those without, revealed a significant association. Our findings represent an independent replication of the previously reported PIK4CA association with schizophrenia in the general population. Second, the results of this study indicate that variation at PIK4CA may be a relevant factor influencing the risk of schizophrenia in individuals with 22q11DS.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: 79518

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2009;150B;3;430-3

  • Failure to confirm the association between the PIK4CA gene and schizophrenia in a Japanese population.

    Kanahara N, Iyo M and Hashimoto K

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2009;150B;3;450-2

  • Association study between the PIK4CA gene and methamphetamine use disorder in a Japanese population.

    Kanahara N, Miyatake R, Sekine Y, Inada T, Ozaki N, Iwata N, Harano M, Komiyama T, Yamada M, Sora I, Ujike H, Iyo M and Hashimoto K

    Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

    Accumulating evidence suggests that phosphatidylinositol (PI) pathways have been involved in the secretion of dopamine (DA) and the regulation of DA transporter, which is a target of methamphetamine (METH). A recent large-scale gene-association study in a Dutch population demonstrated that the PIK4CA gene was closely linked to schizophrenia [Jungerius et al. (2007); Mol Psychiatry]. Here, we conducted a case (N = 232)-control (N = 233) study of the PIK4CA gene on Japanese METH abusers, which can manifest severe psychosis similar to schizophrenia. The genotype and allelic distributions of all four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) did not differ significantly between the METH abusers and the controls. The comparisons based on the classification of the psychosis as transient or prolonged and on the presence or absence of spontaneous relapse revealed no significant distribution of the four SNPs compared to the controls. Furthermore, haplotype analyses showed almost the same frequencies between the METH abusers and the controls. The present study suggests that the PIK4CA gene does not play a significant role in the vulnerability to METH use disorder in the Japanese population.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2009;150B;2;233-8

  • An association screen of myelin-related genes implicates the chromosome 22q11 PIK4CA gene in schizophrenia.

    Jungerius BJ, Hoogendoorn ML, Bakker SC, Van't Slot R, Bardoel AF, Ophoff RA, Wijmenga C, Kahn RS and Sinke RJ

    Complex Genetics Section, DBG-Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    Several lines of evidence, including expression analyses, brain imaging and genetic studies suggest that the integrity of myelin is disturbed in schizophrenia patients. In this study, we first reconstructed a pathway of 138 myelin-related genes, all involved in myelin structure, composition, development or maintenance. Then we performed a two-stage association analysis on these 138 genes using 771 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Analysis of our data from 310 cases vs 880 controls demonstrated association of 10 SNPs from six genes. Specifically, we observed highly significant P-values for association in PIK4CA (observed P=6.1 x 10(-6)). These findings remained significant after Bonferroni correction for 771 tests. The PIK4CA gene is located in the chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome region, which is of particular interest because it has been implicated in schizophrenia. We also report weak association of SNPs in PIK3C2G, FGF1, FGFR1, ARHGEF10 and PSAP (observed P<or=0.01). Our approach--of screening genes involved in a particular pathway for association--resulted in identification of several, mostly novel, genes associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia in the Dutch population.

    Molecular psychiatry 2008;13;11;1060-8

  • Nuclear and nucleolar localization signals and their targeting function in phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase PI4K230.

    Kakuk A, Friedländer E, Vereb G, Lisboa D, Bagossi P, Tóth G, Gergely P and Vereb G

    Department of Medical Chemistry, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98, Hungary.

    PI4K230, an isoform of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, known primarily as a cytoplasmic membrane-bound enzyme, was detected recently also in the nucleolus of several cells. Here we provide mechanistic insight on the targeting function of its putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences using molecular modeling, digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells and binding to various importins. The synthetic sequence (916)NFNHIHKRIRRVADKYLSG(934) comprising a putative monopartite NLS (NLS1), targeted covalently bound fluorescent BSA to the nucleoplasm via classical importin alpha/beta mechanism employing importins alpha1 and alpha3 but not alpha5. This transport was inhibited by wheat germ agglutinin and GTPgammaS. The sequence (1414)SKKTNRGSQLHKYYMKRRTL(1433), a putative bipartite NLS (NLS2) proved ineffective in nuclear targeting if conjugated to fluorescently labeled BSA. Nonetheless, NLS2 or either of its basic clusters directed to the nucleolus soybean trypsin inhibitor that can pass the nuclear pore complex passively; moreover, an expressed 58 kDa fragment of PI4K230 (AA1166-1667) comprising NLS2 was also imported into the nucleus by import factors of reticulocyte lysate or by importin alpha1/beta or alpha3/beta complexes and localized to the nucleolus. We conclude that the putative bipartite NLS itself is a nucleolar targeting signal, and for nuclear import PI4K230 requires a larger sequence around it or, alternatively, the monopartite NLS.

    Experimental cell research 2008;314;13;2376-88

  • Maintenance of hormone-sensitive phosphoinositide pools in the plasma membrane requires phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIalpha.

    Balla A, Kim YJ, Varnai P, Szentpetery Z, Knight Z, Shokat KM and Balla T

    Section on Molecular Signal Transduction, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    Type III phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 4-kinases (PI4Ks) have been previously shown to support plasma membrane phosphoinositide synthesis during phospholipase C activation and Ca(2+) signaling. Here, we use biochemical and imaging tools to monitor phosphoinositide changes in the plasma membrane in combination with pharmacological and genetic approaches to determine which of the type III PI4Ks (alpha or beta) is responsible for supplying phosphoinositides during agonist-induced Ca(2+) signaling. Using inhibitors that discriminate between the alpha- and beta-isoforms of type III PI4Ks, PI4KIIIalpha was found indispensable for the production of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P(2)], and Ca(2+) signaling in angiotensin II (AngII)-stimulated cells. Down-regulation of either the type II or type III PI4K enzymes by small interfering RNA (siRNA) had small but significant effects on basal PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P(2) levels in (32)P-labeled cells, but only PI4KIIIalpha down-regulation caused a slight impairment of PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P(2) resynthesis in AngII-stimulated cells. None of the PI4K siRNA treatments had a measurable effect on AngII-induced Ca(2+) signaling. These results indicate that a small fraction of the cellular PI4K activity is sufficient to maintain plasma membrane phosphoinositide pools, and they demonstrate the value of the pharmacological approach in revealing the pivotal role of PI4KIIIalpha enzyme in maintaining plasma membrane phosphoinositides.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS

    Molecular biology of the cell 2008;19;2;711-21

  • Type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases promote Listeria monocytogenes entry into target cells.

    Pizarro-Cerdá J, Payrastre B, Wang YJ, Veiga E, Yin HL and Cossart P

    Institut Pasteur, Unité des Interactions Bactéries-Cellules, Paris F-75015, France. pizarroj@pasteur.fr

    Interaction of the Listeria surface protein InlB with the hepatocyte growth factor receptor Met activates signalling events that trigger bacterial internalization into mammalian epithelial cells. We show here that purified phagosomes containing InlB-coated beads display type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4K) activity. In human epithelial HeLa cells, both PI4KIIalpha and PI4KIIbeta isoforms are corecruited with Met around InlB-coated beads or wild-type Listeria during the early steps of internalization, and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] is detected at the entry site. We demonstrate that PI4KIIalpha or PI4KIIbeta knockdown, but not type III PI4Kbeta knockdown, inhibits Listeria internalization. Production of PI(4)P derivatives such as phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P(3)] upon InlB stimulation is not affected by PI4KIIalpha or beta knockdown, suggesting that these phosphoinositides are generated by a type III PI4K. Strikingly, knockdown of the PI(4)P ligand and clathrin adaptor AP-1 strongly inhibits bacterial entry. Together, our results reveal a yet non-described role for type II PI4Ks in phagocytosis.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM066110

    Cellular microbiology 2007;9;10;2381-90

  • Purification and identification of G protein-coupled receptor protein complexes under native conditions.

    Daulat AM, Maurice P, Froment C, Guillaume JL, Broussard C, Monsarrat B, Delagrange P and Jockers R

    Department of Cell Biology, Institut Cochin, INSERM U567, CNRS UMR 8104, Université Paris Descartes, France.

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of membrane receptors and are of major therapeutic importance. The identification of GPCR-associated proteins is an important step toward a better understanding of these receptors. However, current methods are not satisfying as only isolated receptor domains (intracellular loops or carboxyl-terminal tails) can be used as "bait." We report here a method based on tandem affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry that overcomes these limitations as the entire receptor is used to identify protein complexes formed in living mammalian cells. The human MT(1) and MT(2) melatonin receptors were chosen as model GPCRs. Both receptors were tagged with the tandem affinity purification tag at their carboxyl-terminal tails and expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Receptor solubilization and purification conditions were optimized. The method was validated by the co-purification of G(i) proteins, which are well known GPCR interaction partners but which are difficult to identify with current protein-protein interaction assays. Several new and functionally relevant MT(1)- and MT(2)-associated proteins were identified; some of them were common to both receptors, and others were specific for each subtype. Taken together, our protocol allowed for the first time the purification of GPCR-associated proteins under native conditions in quantities suitable for mass spectrometry analysis.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;5;835-44

  • Nucleolar localization of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase PI4K230 in various mammalian cells.

    Kakuk A, Friedländer E, Vereb G, Kása A, Balla A, Balla T, Heilmeyer LM, Gergely P and Vereb G

    Department of Medical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.

    Background: Previous immunohistochemical investigations could not detect PI4K230, an isoform of mammalian phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (also called type III alpha), in the nucleus and nucleolus of cells in spite of its predicted nuclear localization signals.

    Methods: Immunofluorescent detection of PI4K230 and other PI4K isoforms was performed on formaldehyde (PFA) or ethanol fixed cells and rat brain cryosections. Costaining with nucleolin and the effect of siRNA, Triton X-100, DNase, and RNase treatments were also tested to determine the localization of PI4K230.

    Results: PI4K230 gives a prominent signal in the nucleolus of ethanol fixed rat brain cryosections and of several cell types in addition to its presence in the nucleus and cytoplasm. The PI4K230 immunoreactivity of the nucleolus is masked in PFA fixed cells, but it can be restored by treatment of PFA fixed cells with hot wet citrate buffer or by washing the cryosections with PBS prior to PFA fixation. Nucleolar PI4K230 occurs in a Triton X-100 resistant complex. Treatment of COS-7 cells with siRNA targeting PI4K230 and permeabilized B50 cells with DNase or RNase results in the loss of PI4K230 signal from the nucleolus.

    Conclusion: These experiments suggest the participation of PI4K230 in a DNase and RNase sensitive complex with a unique localization and function in the nucleolus.

    Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology 2006;69;12;1174-83

  • Subcellular localization and structural function of endogenous phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4K92).

    Szivak I, Lamb N and Heilmeyer LM

    Institut für Physiologische Chemie, Ruhruniversität Bochum, Universitätstrasse 150, MA 2/141, 44801 Bochum, Germany.

    Anti-phosphopeptide antibodies were raised against phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4K92) phosphorylation sites (Suer, S., Sickmann, A., Meyer, H. E., Herberg, F. W., and Heilmeyer, L. M. Jr. (2001) Eur. J. Biochem. 268, 2099-2106). Characterization proved three of them (anti-pSer-294, anti-pSer-496, and anti-pThr-504 antibody) to be highly specific, recognizing solely PI4K92 phosphorylated at these sites, respectively. Indirect immunofluorescence reveals that PI4K92 phosphorylated on Ser-294 localizes exclusively at the Golgi. The enzyme phosphorylated on Ser-496 and Thr-504 is detected in nuclear speckles. Phosphorylation of Ser-294 on PI4K92 increases the lipid kinase activity and thus serves better in maintaining Golgi function and morphology (compare Hausser, A., Storz, P., Martens, S., Link, G., Toker, A., and Pfizenmaier, K. (2005) Nat. Cell Biol. 7, 880-886). Microinjection of anti-pSer-496, but not of anti-pSer-294 or anti-pThr-504 antibody, into the cytoplasm or into the nucleus of HS68 cells leads to development of hotspots, probably representing aggregated PI4K92, and in later stages, cells become apoptotic and finally die. The association of phosphorylated PI4K92 with nuclear speckles is dynamic and follows the morphological alteration of speckles upon inhibition of mRNA transcription with alpha-amanitin. Overexpressed PI4K92 phosphorylated on Ser-294 is not transported to the nucleus, and that phosphorylated on Ser-496 is found in the nucleus and mislocalized at the Golgi complex. We conclude that nuclear phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, and consequently, synthesis of polyphosphoinositides are required for a correct nuclear function.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;24;16740-9

  • Lipid and peptide control of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIalpha activity on Golgi-endosomal Rafts.

    Waugh MG, Minogue S, Chotai D, Berditchevski F and Hsuan JJ

    Centre for Molecular Cell Biology, Department of Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School, University College London, UK.

    The most abundant and widely expressed mammalian phosphoinositide kinase activity is contributed by phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIalpha (PI4KIIalpha). In this study we demonstrate that PI4KIIalpha is a novel GTP-independent target of the wasp venom tetradecapeptide mastoparan and that different mechanisms of activation occur in different subcellular membranes. Following cell membrane fractionation mastoparan specifically stimulated a high activity Golgi/endosomal pool of PI4KIIalpha independently of exogenous guanine nucleotides. Conversely, GTPgammaS stimulated a low activity pool of PI4KIIalpha in a separable dense membrane fraction and this response was further enhanced by mastoparan. Overexpression of PI4KIIalpha increased the basal phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity of each membrane pool, as well as the mastoparan-dependent activities, thereby demonstrating that mastoparan specifically activates this isozyme. Both mastoparan and M7, at concentrations known to invoke secretion, stimulated PI4KIIalpha with similar efficacies, resulting in an increase in the apparent V(max) and decrease in K(m) for exogenously added PI. Mastoparan also stimulated PI4KIIalpha immunoprecipitated from the raft fraction, indicating that PI4KIIalpha is a direct target of mastoparan. Finally we reveal a striking dependence of both basal and mastoparan-stimulated PI4KIIalpha activity on endogenous cholesterol concentration and therefore conclude that changes in membrane environment can regulate PI4KIIalpha activity.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;7;3757-63

  • Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase is required for endosomal trafficking and degradation of the EGF receptor.

    Minogue S, Waugh MG, De Matteis MA, Stephens DJ, Berditchevski F and Hsuan JJ

    Centre for Molecular Cell Biology, Department of Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School, University College London, Rowland Hill Street, London, NW3 2PF, UK. s.minogue@medsch.ucl.ac.uk

    The type II alpha isoform of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase has recently been shown to function in the recruitment of adaptor protein-1 complexes to the trans-Golgi network. Here we show that phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIalpha is also a component of highly dynamic membranes of the endosomal system where it colocalises with protein markers of the late endosome and with endocytosed epidermal growth factor. When phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIalpha activity was inhibited in vivo using the monoclonal antibody 4C5G or by depression of endogenous phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIalpha protein levels using RNA interference, ligand-bound epidermal growth factor receptor failed to traffic to late endosomes and instead accumulated in vesicles in a sub-plasma membrane compartment. Furthermore, lysosomal degradation of activated epidermal growth factor receptor was dramatically impaired in small inhibitory RNA-treated cells. We demonstrate that phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIalpha is necessary for the correct endocytic traffic and downregulation of activated epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G117/554, G117/554(71630)

    Journal of cell science 2006;119;Pt 3;571-81

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Distinct Golgi populations of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate regulated by phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases.

    Weixel KM, Blumental-Perry A, Watkins SC, Aridor M and Weisz OA

    Renal-Electrolyte Division, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA.

    Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) regulates biosynthetic membrane traffic at multiple steps and differentially affects the surface delivery of apically and basolaterally destined proteins in polarized cells. Two phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) have been localized to the Golgi complex in mammalian cells, type III PI4Kbeta (PI4KIIIbeta) and type II PI4Kalpha (PI4KIIalpha). Here we report that PI4KIIIbeta and PI4KIIalpha localize to discrete subcompartments of the Golgi complex in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. PI4KIIIbeta was enriched in early Golgi compartments, whereas PI4KIIalpha colocalized with markers of the trans-Golgi network (TGN). To understand the temporal and spatial control of PI4P generation across the Golgi complex, we quantitated the steady state distribution of a fluorescent PI4P-binding domain relative to cis/medial Golgi and TGN markers in transiently transfected MDCK cells. The density of the signal from this PI4P reporter was roughly 2-fold greater in the early Golgi compartments compared with that of the TGN. Furthermore, this ratio could be modulated in vivo by overexpression of catalytically inactive PI4KIIIbeta and PI4KIIalpha or in vitro by the PI4KIIIbeta inhibitor wortmannin. Our data suggest that both PI4KIIIbeta and PI4KIIalpha contribute to the compartmental regulation of PI4P synthesis within the Golgi complex. We discuss our results with respect to the kinetic effects of modulating PI4K activity on polarized biosynthetic traffic in MDCK cells.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK054407, R01 DK062318, R01 DK064613, T32-DK61296

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;11;10501-8

  • CD63 modulates spreading and tyrosine phosphorylation of platelets on immobilized fibrinogen.

    Israels SJ and McMillan-Ward EM

    Department of Pediatrics and the Manitoba Institute of Cell Biology, University of Manitoba, 675 McDermot Ave, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3E 0V9, Canada. israels@cc.umanitoba.ca

    CD63 is a member of the tetraspanin superfamily of integral membrane proteins. Present on a variety of cells, tetraspanins can form lateral associations with integrins and may act as 'organizers' of multimolecular networks that modulate integrinmediated signaling, cell morphology, motility and migration. In resting platelets, CD63 is present on the membranes of dense granules and lysosomes but relocates to the plasma membrane following platelet activation and exocytosis where it associates with the platelet integrin alphaIIBbeta3-CD9 complex and with the actin cytoskeleton in an alphaIIBbeta 3-dependent manner. D545, a monoclonal antibody directed at the second extracellular loop of CD63,was used to investigate the role of CD63 in platelet adhesion, spreading and tyrosine phosphorylation. Using immunofluorescence microscopy and confocal imaging, we have demonstrated that D545 does not alter adhesion of platelets to immobilized fibrinogen, but instead platelet spreading. In the presence of buffer or non-specific mouse IgG, activated platelets showed fully spread morphology, F-actin reorganization, redistribution of vinculin and extensive tyrosine phosphorylation, all of which were inhibited by D545. D545 also inhibited the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase in thrombin-activated adherent platelets. These results suggest that CD63 may modulate alphaIIBbeta3-dependent cytoskeletal reorganization. To identify signaling enzymes associated with CD63 that could affect this pathway, lipid kinase assays were performed on D545 immunoprecipitates. CD63 co-immunoprecipitated with a lipid kinase which, on the basis of enzymatic properties(stimulated by nonionic detergents, inhibited by adenosine), is consistent with PI 4-kinase type II. The CD63-PI 4-kinase complex was not activation-dependent as the constituents were co-purified from both resting and activated platelets. The linkage of CD63 with PI 4-kinase may result in the recruitment of this signaling enzyme to specific membrane locations in the platelet where it influences phosphoinositide-dependent signaling and platelet spreading.

    Thrombosis and haemostasis 2005;93;2;311-8

  • Systematic identification of hepatocellular proteins interacting with NS5A of the hepatitis C virus.

    Ahn J, Chung KS, Kim DU, Won M, Kim L, Kim KS, Nam M, Choi SJ, Kim HC, Yoon M, Chae SK and Hoe KL

    Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Yusong, Daejeon, Korea.

    The hepatitis C virus is associated with the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinomas. Among the 10 polyproteins produced by the virus, no function has been clearly assigned to the non-structural 5A (NS5A) protein. This study was designed to identify the hepatocellular proteins that interact with NS5A of the HCV. Yeast two-hybrid experiments were performed with a human liver cDNA prey-library, using five different NS5A derivatives as baits, the full-length NS5A (NS5A-F, amino acid (aa) 1 approximately 447) and its four different derivatives, denoted as NS5A-A (aa 1 approximately 150), -B (aa 1 approximately 300), -C (aa 300 approximately 447) and D (aa 150 approximately 447). NS5A-F, NS5A-B and NS5A-C gave two, two and 10 candidate clones, respectively, including an AHNAK-related protein, the secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4), the N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), the cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1 (CRABP-1), ferritin heavy chain (FTH1), translokin, tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TACSTD2), phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4K) and centaurindelta 2 (CENTdelta2). However, NS5A-A produced no candidates and NS5A-D was not suitable as bait due to transcriptional activity. Based on an in vitro binding assay, CRABP-1, PI4K, CENTdelta2 and two unknown fusion proteins with maltose binding protein (MBP), were confirmed to interact with the glutathione S-transferase (GST)/NS5A fusion protein. Furthermore, the interactions of CRABP-1, PI4K and CENTdelta2 were not related to the PXXP motif (class II), as judged by a domain analysis. While their biological relevance is under investigation, the results contribute to a better understanding of the possible role of NS5A in hepatocellular signaling pathways.

    Journal of biochemistry and molecular biology 2004;37;6;741-8

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Tetraspanin CD81 is linked to ERK/MAPKinase signaling by Shc in liver tumor cells.

    Carloni V, Mazzocca A and Ravichandran KS

    Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Università di Firenze, Viale Morgagni, 85, I-50134 Firenze, Italy. v.carloni@dfc.unifi.it

    Tetraspanins is a large family of membrane proteins that are implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation and tumor invasion. Specifically, the tetraspanin CD81 has been involved in cell proliferation but the mechanism is unknown. Here, we show that CD81 clustering stimulates ERK/MAPKinase activity and tyrosine phosphorylation of the adapter protein Shc in Huh7 cancer cells. In addition, overexpression of CD81 in HepG2 cells, NIH3T3 cells, and murine fibroblasts GD25 lacking the beta1 family of integrins induces cell proliferation and ERK/MAPKinase activation. Linked with this event, we observed an increase in CD81-associated type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity. A mutant in the PTB domain of Shc failed to interact with phosphoinositides and localize to the plasma membrane thus blocking CD81-induced ERK/MAPKinase activation. Therefore, we conclude that CD81 stimulates synthesis of phosphoinositides with the recruitment of Shc to the plasma membrane via PTB domain, and this sequence of events induces activation of ERK/MAPKinase. These findings define a novel mechanism of ERK/MAPKinase activation and tumor cell proliferation.

    Oncogene 2004;23;8;1566-74

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Polymorphism screening of PIK4CA: possible candidate gene for chromosome 22q11-linked psychiatric disorders.

    Saito T, Stopkova P, Diaz L, Papolos DF, Boussemart L and Lachman HM

    Department of Psychiatry, Division of Psychiatry Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.

    Lithium is potent non-competitive inhibitor of an enzyme involved in the metabolism of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5-P(2)), a critical phosphoinositide (PI) that regulates signal transduction and synaptic vesicle function. Interestingly, a number of genes involved in the regulation of PtdIns-4,5-P(2) synthesis and dephosphorylation are found in regions of the genome previously mapped in bipolar disorder (BPD) including 10p, 18q, 21q, and 22q. One is PIK4CA, a member of the phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase family that phosphorylates PtdIns at the D4 position of the inositol ring as part of the PtdIns-4,5-P(2) synthetic pathway. PIK4CA maps to 22q11 in a region believed to contain a susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders. Screening of two functional domains of PIK4CA and the promoter region resulted in the identification of 15 different polymorphisms. Rare variants at a consensus splice donor site and the promoter region were found in a total of three patients with BPD, three with schizophrenia (SZ) and only one control. Several common non-synonymous changes and a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position -31 in the putative promoter were identified and analyzed in patients with BPD, SZ, and controls. There was no difference in the allele distribution in mentally ill subjects and controls for two variants, R2259C and E2079Q, both located in the PIK4CA catalytic domain. There was, however, a trend toward significance in the distribution of the -31 promoter genotypes in bipolar subjects and controls. Although the results of this analysis were modest, considering the heterogeneity of BPD and SZ and the hypothesis that BPD may be caused by abnormalities in genes that regulate PI-mediated phenomena in the brain, the polymorphisms we detected in the PIK4CA gene should be analyzed in a larger data set to help determine their significance in 22q11-linked mental disorders.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: U01 MH46274, U01 MH46280, U01 MH46282

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2003;116B;1;77-83

  • Association of T cell antigen CD7 with type II phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase, a key component in pathways of inositol phosphate turnover.

    Subrahmanyam G, Rudd CE and Schneider H

    Department of Haematology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, GB.

    CD7 is a 40-kDa glycoprotein that is expressed on prothymocytes and persists during T cell differentiation. CD7 has been demonstrated to generate, like other costimulatory molecules, intracellular signals that modulate T cell function. However, although it binds to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), the signaling events mediated by CD7 are not completely understood. In this context, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI 4-kinase) is a key enzyme involved in a variety of events, from the modeling of the actin cytoskeleton to the activation of protein kinase C. In this study, we show for the first time that PI 4-kinase of 55 kDa can associate with CD7. The enzyme activity was insensitive to wortmannin, but was inhibited by adenosine, a characteristic for type II PI 4-kinase. Together, our findings demonstrate that type II PI 4-kinases are integral components of the CD7 signaling pathway and may play a role of CD7 in co-stimulation and thymic differentiation.

    European journal of immunology 2003;33;1;46-52

  • Parallel activation of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase and phospholipase C by the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor.

    Huang C, Handlogten ME and Miller RT

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Louis Stokes Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA. cxh87@po.cwru.edu

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that regulates physiological processes including Ca(2+) metabolism, Na(+), Cl(-), K(+), and H(2)0 balance, and the growth of some epithelial cells through diverse signaling pathways. Although many effects of CaR are mediated by the heterotrimeric G proteins Galpha(q) and Galpha(i), not all signaling pathways regulated by CaR have been identified. We used human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells that stably express human CaR to study the regulation of inositol lipid metabolism by CaR. The nonfunctional mutant CaR(R796W) was used as a negative control. We found that CaR regulates phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinase, the first step in inositol lipid biosynthesis. In cells pretreated with to inhibit phospholipase C activation and to block the degradation of PI 4,5-bisphosphate to form [(3)H]inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)), CaR stimulated the accumulation of [(3)H]PI monophosphate (PIP). Additionally, wortmannin, an inhibitor of both PI 3-kinase and type III PI 4-kinase, blocked CaR-stimulated accumulation of [(3)H]PIP and inhibited [(3)H]IP(3) production. CaR-stimulated inositol lipid synthesis was attributable to PI 4-kinase and not PI 3-kinase because CaR did not activate Akt, a downstream target of PI 3-kinase. CaR associates with PI 4-kinase based on the findings that CaR and the 110-kDa PI 4-kinase beta can be co-immunoprecipitated with antibodies against either CaR or PI 4-kinase. The PI-4 kinase in co-immunoprecipitates with anti-CaR antibody was activated in Ca(2+)-stimulated HEK-293 cells, which stably express the wild type CaR. Pertussis toxin did not affect the formation of [(3)H]IP(3) or the rise in intracellular Ca(2+) (Handlogten, M. E., Huang, C. F., Shiraishi, N., Awata, H., and Miller, R. T. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 13941-13948). RGS4, an accelerator of GTPase activity of members of the Galpha(i) and Galpha(q) families, attenuated the CaR-stimulated PLC activation and IP(3) accumulation, which is mediated by Galpha(q), but did not inhibit CaR-stimulated [(3)H]PIP formation. In HEK-293 cells, which express wild type CaR, Rho was enriched in immune complexes co-immunoprecipitated with the anti-CaR antibody. C(3) toxin, an inhibitor of Rho, also inhibited the CaR-stimulated [(3)H]IP(3) production but did not lead to CaR-stimulated [(3)H]PIP formation, reflecting inhibition of PI 4-kinase. Taken together, our data demonstrate that CaR stimulates PI 4-kinase, the first step in inositol lipid biosynthesis conversion of PI to PI 4-P by Rho-dependent and Galpha(q)- and Galpha(i)-independent pathways.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-41726

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;23;20293-300

  • Functional expression and characterisation of a new human phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase PI4K230.

    Gehrmann T, Gülkan H, Suer S, Herberg FW, Balla A, Vereb G, Mayr GW and Heilmeyer LM

    Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Institut für Physiologische Chemie, Abteilung für Biochemie Supramolekularer Systeme, D-44780, Bochum, Germany.

    By constructing DNA probes we have identified and cloned a human PtdIns 4-kinase, PI4K230, corresponding to a mRNA of 7.0 kb. The cDNA encodes a protein of 2044 amino acids. The C-terminal part of ca. 260 amino acids represents the catalytic domain which is highly conserved in all recently cloned PtdIns 4-kinases. N-terminal motifs indicate multiple heterologous protein interactions. Human PtdIns 4-kinase PI4K230 expressed in vitro exhibits a specific activity of 58 micromol mg-1min-1. The enzyme expressed in Sf9 cells is essentially not inhibited by adenosine, it shows a high Km for ATP of about 300 microM and it is half-maximally inactivated by approximately 200 nM wortmannin. These data classify this enzyme as type 3 PtdIns 4-kinase. Antibodies raised against the N-terminal part moderately activate and those raised against the C-terminal catalytic domain inhibit the enzymatic activity. The coexistence of two different type 3 PtdIns 4-kinases, PI4K92 and PI4K230, in several human tissues, including brain, suggests that these enzymes are involved in distinct basic cellular functions.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1999;1437;3;341-56

  • Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases.

    Gehrmann T and Heilmeyer LM

    Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Institut für Physiologische Chemie, Abteilung für Biochemie Supramolekularer Systeme, Germany.

    Polyphosphoinositides are involved in many signal transduction pathways in eukaryotic cells. The first committed step is catalysed by phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase leading to the formation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. In the last four years, ten cDNA molecules have been cloned which code isoforms of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase; some of which are highly related. Characteristically, they contain a C-terminal catalytic domain which is similar to that of (poly)phosphoinositide 3-kinases and to that of more distantly related lipid/protein kinases. Alignment has characterised cDNAs from Chaenorabditis, Dictyostelium and Schizostaphyloccus pombe as those of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases also. All these lipid kinases are related to the superfamily of protein kinases. Several amino acids are highly conserved in catalytic domains of lipid and protein kinases. Employing the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase as template, these residues can be assigned functionally. On the basis of the alignment, a phylogenetic tree of the superfamily of phosphatidylinositol kinases has been constructed. Three families, the phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases, phosphoinositide 3-kinases, and the phosphatidylinositol related lipid/protein kinases, can be recognised. Each family comprises two subfamilies. The involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases in signal transduction processes is summarised and a new hypothesis for the function of their isoforms in polyphosphoinositide signalling is presented. The involvement of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases in formation of lipid-protein interactions with cytoskeleton proteins and the metabolism of polyphosphoinositide in the nucleus is discussed.

    European journal of biochemistry 1998;253;2;357-70

  • Generation of monoclonal antibodies to integrin-associated proteins. Evidence that alpha3beta1 complexes with EMMPRIN/basigin/OX47/M6.

    Berditchevski F, Chang S, Bodorova J and Hemler ME

    Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    The alpha3beta1 integrin forms complexes with other cell-surface proteins, including transmembrane-4 superfamily (TM4SF) proteins (e. g. CD9, CD53, CD63, CD81, and CD82). To identify additional cell-surface proteins associated with alpha3beta1 integrin, a monoclonal antibody selection protocol was developed. Mice were immunized with integrin alpha3beta1-containing complexes isolated from HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, and then 712 hybridoma clones were produced, and 95 secreted antibodies that recognized the HT1080 cell surface. Among these, 12 antibodies directly recognizing integrin alpha3 or beta1 subunits were eliminated. Of the remaining 83, 16 co-immunoprecipitated proteins that resembled integrins under non-stringent detergent conditions. These 16 included 15 monoclonal antibodies recognizing EMMPRIN/basigin/OX-47/M6, a 45-55-kDa transmembrane protein with two immunoglobulin domains. The EMMPRIN protein associated with alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1, but not alpha2beta1 or alpha5beta1, as shown by reciprocal immunoprecipitation experiments. Also, association with alpha3beta1 was confirmed by cell-surface cross-linking and immunofluorescence co-localization experiments. Importantly, EMMPRIN-alpha3beta1 complexes appear not to contain TM4SF proteins, suggesting that they are distinct from TM4SF protein-alpha3beta1 complexes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA42368

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;46;29174-80

  • Cloning, expression, and localization of 230-kDa phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.

    Nakagawa T, Goto K and Kondo H

    Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

    A phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinase cDNA was cloned from a rat brain cDNA library. This cDNA encoded a protein of 2041 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 231,317. The deduced amino acid sequence shared the identity of 52.3 and 34.4% in the presumed catalytic domain with two yeast PI 4-kinases, STT4 and PIK1, respectively, and showed 31.7% identity to p110alpha subunit of rat PI 3-kinase in the same domain. In addition, a 3' half coding region of the present cDNA was 89.6% identical to and its deduced amino acid sequence was 98.2% identical to the sequence for P14Kalpha, a recently reported human PI 4-kinase of type II, suggesting that P14Kalpha is an alternative form of the present PI 4-kinase molecule. The present cDNA contained sequences encoding the ankyrin repeat domain, lipid kinase unique domain, pleckstrin homology domain, presumed lipid kinase/protein kinase homology domain, proline-rich region, and SH3 domain. By examining PI kinase activity in transfected COS-7 cells using the epitope tag immunoprecipitation as well as the conventional way, the product phosphatidylinositol phosphate was identified as phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate but not phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. This PI 4-kinase activity was markedly enhanced in the presence of Triton X-100 but relatively insensitive to inhibition by adenosine. By epitope tag immunohistochemistry, the immunoreactivity for this PI 4-kinase molecule was largely localized in close association with the membranes of the Golgi vesicles and vacuoles. By in situ hybridization analysis, the expression of mRNA for this PI 4-kinase was evident throughout the gray matter of entire brain with higher expression intensity in fetal brain. These data imply that this novel PI 4-kinase is involved in some processes essential to neuronal differentiation and maturation including the synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;20;12088-94

  • Requirement for phosphatidylinositol transfer protein in epidermal growth factor signaling.

    Kauffmann-Zeh A, Thomas GM, Ball A, Prosser S, Cunningham E, Cockcroft S and Hsuan JJ

    Protein Biochemistry Group, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University College London School of Medicine, UK.

    Stimulation of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) hydrolysis is a widespread mechanism for receptor-mediated signaling in eukaryotes. Cytosolic phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITP) is necessary for guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-dependent hydrolysis of PIP2 by phospholipase C-beta (PLC-beta), but the role of PITP is unclear. Stimulation of phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma) in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) required PITP. Stimulation of PI-4 kinase in cells treated with EGF also required PITP. Coprecipitation studies revealed an EGF-dependent association of PITP with the EGF receptor, with PI-4 kinase, and with PLC-gamma.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1995;268;5214;1188-90

  • Cloning and characterization of a human phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.

    Wong K and Cantley LC

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.

    Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 4-kinase catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Here we report the first mammalian cDNA clone of a PtdIns 4-kinase (named PI4K alpha). The 2.6-kb cDNA encodes a protein of 854 amino acids that is highly homologous to the recently cloned yeast PtdIns 4-kinase STT4 and is also homologous to a second yeast PtdIns 4-kinase, PIK1. PI4K alpha has more distant sequence homology to the catalytic domains of mammalian and yeast PtdIns 3-kinases and to the yeast Tor family of proteins. It also has a region of similarity to pleckstrin homology domains and a potential ankyrin repeat. Cross-hybridizing messages were detected in all human tissues investigated. The enzymatic properties of the protein expressed in insect cells are characteristic of type II PtdIns 4-kinases (activated by detergent and inhibited by adenosine), and PI4K alpha is recognized by an antibody specific for type II PtdIns 4-kinases.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 36624

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;46;28878-84

  • Phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and PI 4-kinase binding to the CD4-p56lck complex: the p56lck SH3 domain binds to PI 3-kinase but not PI 4-kinase.

    Prasad KV, Kapeller R, Janssen O, Repke H, Duke-Cohan JS, Cantley LC and Rudd CE

    Division of Tumor Immunology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.

    CD4 serves as a receptor for major histocompatibility complex class II antigens and as a receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral coat protein gp120. It is coupled to the protein-tyrosine kinase p56lck, an interaction necessary for an optimal response of certain T cells to antigen. In addition to the protein-tyrosine kinase domain, p56lck possesses Src homology 2 and 3 (SH2 and SH3) domains as well as a unique N-terminal region. The mechanism by which p56lck generates intracellular signals is unclear, although it has the potential to interact with various downstream molecules. One such downstream target is the lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), which has been found to bind to activated pp60src and receptor-tyrosine kinases. In this study, we verified that PI 3-kinase associates with the CD4:p56lck complex as judged by the presence of PI 3-phosphate generated from anti-CD4 immunoprecipitates and detected by high-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis. However, surprisingly, CD4-p56lck was also found to associate with another lipid kinase, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI 4-kinase). The level of associated PI 4-kinase was generally higher than PI 3-kinase activity. HIV-1 gp120 and antibody-mediated cross-linking induced a 5- to 10-fold increase in the level of CD4-associated PI 4- and PI 3-kinases. The use of glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins carrying Lck-SH2, Lck-SH3, and Lck-SH2/SH3 domains showed PI 3-kinase binding to the SH3 domain of p56lck, an interaction facilitated by the presence of an adjacent SH2 domain. PI 4-kinase bound to neither the SH2 nor the SH3 domain of p56lck. CD4-p56lck contributes PI 3- and PI 4-kinase to the activation process of T cells and may play a role in HIV-1-induced immune defects.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: NCI CA51887-02; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 36624, GM 41890, R01 GM041890

    Molecular and cellular biology 1993;13;12;7708-17

  • Purification and characterization of human erythrocyte phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase. Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-monophosphate 4-kinase are distinct enzymes.

    Graziani A, Ling LE, Endemann G, Carpenter CL and Cantley LC

    Department of Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111.

    PtdIns 4-kinase has been purified 83,000-fold from human erythrocyte membranes. The major protein detected by SDS/PAGE is of molecular mass 56 kDa, and enzymic activity can be renatured from this band of the gel. The characteristics of this enzyme are similar to other type II PtdIns kinases previously described: PtdIns presented in Triton X-100 micelles is preferred as a substrate over PtdIns vesicles, the enzyme possesses a relatively low Km for ATP (20 microM), and adenosine is an effective inhibitor. A monoclonal antibody raised against bovine brain type II PtdIns 4-kinase is an effective inhibitor of the purified enzyme. PtdIns(4,5)P2 inhibits by approx. 50% when added in equimolar amounts with PtdIns; PtdIns4P has little effect on activity. A PtdIns3P 4-kinase activity has also been detected in erythrocyte lysates. Approximately two-thirds of this activity is in the cytosolic fraction and one-third in the membrane fraction. No PtdIns3P 4-kinase activity could be detected in the purified type II PtdIns 4-kinase preparation, nor could this activity be detected in a bovine brain type III PtdIns 4-kinase preparation. The monoclonal antibody that inhibits the type II PtdIns 4-kinase does not affect the PtdIns3P 4-kinase activity in the membrane fraction. The cytosolic PtdIns3P 4-kinase can be efficiently recovered from a 60%-satd.-(NH4)2SO4 precipitate that is virtually free of PtdIns 4-kinase activity. We conclude that PtdIns3P 4-kinase is a new enzyme distinct from previously characterized PtdIns 4-kinases, and that this enzyme prefers PtdIns3P over PtdIns as a substrate.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 36624, GM 41890, R01 GM041890

    The Biochemical journal 1992;284 ( Pt 1);39-45

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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