G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 14
G00001210 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000020058 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000156049 (Ensembl human gene)
9630 (Entrez Gene)
357 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
GNA14 (GeneCards)
604397 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:4382 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O95837 (UniProt)

Literature (19)

Pubmed - other

  • CCR1-mediated activation of Nuclear Factor-kappaB in THP-1 monocytic cells involves Pertussis Toxin-insensitive Galpha(14) and Galpha(16) signaling cascades.

    Lee MM and Wong YH

    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Neuroscience Center, Biotechnology Research Institute, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China.

    Agonists of CC chemokine receptor CCR1 contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune and other inflammatory diseases, possibly via the regulation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. CCR1 and CCR2b have been demonstrated to use PTX-insensitive Galpha(14) and Galpha(16) to stimulate PLCbeta in cotransfected cells, and Galpha(14) and Galpha(16) are capable of activating NF-kappaB. The coexpression of Galpha(14), Galpha(16), and CCR1 in human monocytic THP-1 cells suggests that CCR1 may use Galpha(14) or Galpha(16) to induce NF-kappaB activation. Here, we demonstrated that a CCR1 agonist, Lkn-1, stimulated NF-kappaB phosphorylation via PTX-insensitive G proteins in THP-1 cells. Lkn-1 also mediated IKK/NF-kappaB phosphorylations in HEK293 cells overexpressing CCR1 and Galpha(14/16). Using various kinase inhibitors, Raf-1, MEK1/2, PLCbeta, PKC, CaM, CaMKII, and c-Src were found to participate in Lkn-1-stimulated IKK/NF-kappaB phosphorylations in THP-1 and transfected HEK293 cells. Although c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK were activated by Lkn-1, they were not required in Lkn-1-induced IKK phosphorylation. The ability of CCR1 to signal through Galpha(14/16) thus provides a linkage for chemokines to regulate NF-kappaB-dependent responses.

    Journal of leukocyte biology 2009;86;6;1319-29

  • Reviews in molecular biology and biotechnology: transmembrane signaling by G protein-coupled receptors.

    Luttrell LM

    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Medical Genetics, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, 816 CSB, P.O. Box 250624, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. luttrell@musc.edu

    As the most diverse type of cell surface receptor, the importance heptahelical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to clinical medicine cannot be overestimated. Visual, olfactory and gustatory sensation, intermediary metabolism, cell growth and differentiation are all influenced by GPCR signals. The basic receptor-G protein-effector mechanism of GPCR signaling is tuned by a complex interplay of positive and negative regulatory events that amplify the effect of a hormone binding the receptor or that dampen cellular responsiveness. The association of heptahelical receptors with a variety of intracellular partners other than G proteins has led to the discovery of potential mechanisms of GPCR signaling that extend beyond the classical paradigms. While the physiologic relevance of many of these novel mechanisms of GPCR signaling remains to be established, their existence suggests that the mechanisms of GPCR signaling are even more diverse than previously imagined.

    Molecular biotechnology 2008;39;3;239-64

  • Identification of hypertension-susceptibility genes and pathways by a systemic multiple candidate gene approach: the millennium genome project for hypertension.

    Kohara K, Tabara Y, Nakura J, Imai Y, Ohkubo T, Hata A, Soma M, Nakayama T, Umemura S, Hirawa N, Ueshima H, Kita Y, Ogihara T, Katsuya T, Takahashi N, Tokunaga K and Miki T

    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon, Japan. koharak@m.ehime-u.ac.jp

    A multiple candidate-gene approach was used to investigate not only candidate genes, but also candidate pathways involved in the regulation of blood pressure. We evaluated 307 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 307 genes and performed an association study between 758 cases and 726 controls. Genes were selected from among those encoding components of signal transduction pathways, including receptors, soluble carrier proteins, binding proteins, channels, enzymes, and G-proteins, that are potentially related to blood pressure regulation. In total, 38 SNPs were positively (p<0.05) associated with hypertension. Replication of the findings and possible polygenic interaction was evaluated in five G-protein-related positive genes (GNI2, GNA14, RGS2, RGS19, RGS20) in a large cohort population (total n=9,700, 3,305 hypertensives and 3,827 normotensive controls). In RGS20 and GNA14, dominant models for the minor allele were significantly associated with hypertension. Multiple dimension reduction (MDR) analysis revealed the presence of gene-gene interaction between GNA14 and RGS20. The MDR-proved combination of two genotypes showed a significant association with hypertension (chi2=9.93, p=0.0016) with an odds ratio of the high-risk genotype of 1.168 (95% confidence interval [CI] [1.061-1.287]). After correction for all possible confounding parameters, the MDR-proved high-risk genotype was still a risk for hypertension (p=0.0052). Furthermore, the high-risk genotype was associated with a significantly higher systolic blood pressure (133.08+/-19.46 vs. 132.25+/-19.19 mmHg, p=0.04) and diastolic blood pressure (79.65+/-11.49 vs. 79.01+/-11.32 mmHg, p=0.019) in the total population. In conclusion, a systemic multiple candidate gene approach can be used to identify not only hypertension-susceptibility genes but also hypertension-susceptibility pathways in which related genes may synergistically collaborate through gene-gene interactions to predispose to hypertension.

    Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension 2008;31;2;203-12

  • The importance of N-terminal polycysteine and polybasic sequences for G14alpha and G16alpha palmitoylation, plasma membrane localization, and signaling function.

    Pedone KH and Hepler JR

    Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.

    Plasma membrane targeting of G protein alpha (Galpha) subunits is essential for competent receptor-to-G protein signaling. Many Galpha are tethered to the plasma membrane by covalent lipid modifications at their N terminus. Additionally, it is hypothesized that Gq family members (Gqalpha,G11alpha,G14alpha, and G16alpha) in particular utilize a polybasic sequence of amino acids in their N terminus to promote membrane attachment and protein palmitoylation. However, this hypothesis has not been tested, and nothing is known about other mechanisms that control subcellular localization and signaling properties of G14alpha and G16alpha. Here we report critical biochemical factors that mediate membrane attachment and signaling function of G14alpha and G16alpha. We find that G14alpha and G16alpha are palmitoylated at distinct polycysteine sequences in their N termini and that the polycysteine sequence along with the adjacent polybasic region are both important for G16alpha-mediated signaling at the plasma membrane. Surprisingly, the isolated N termini of G14alpha and G16alpha expressed as peptides fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein each exhibit differential requirements for palmitoylation and membrane targeting; individual cysteine residues, but not the polybasic regions, determine lipid modification and subcellular localization. However, full-length G16alpha, more so than G14alpha, displays a functional dependence on single cysteines for membrane localization and activity, and its full signaling potential depends on the integrity of the polybasic sequence. Together, these findings indicate that G14alpha and G16alpha are palmitoylated at distinct polycysteine sequences, and that the adjacent polybasic domain is not required for Galpha palmitoylation but is important for localization and functional activity of heterotrimeric G proteins.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01GM61847; NINDS NIH HHS: R01NS037112, R01NS049195

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;35;25199-212

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Activation of nuclear factor {kappa}B by somatostatin type 2 receptor in pancreatic acinar AR42J cells involves G{alpha}14 and multiple signaling components: a mechanism requiring protein kinase C, calmodulin-dependent kinase II, ERK, and c-Src.

    Liu AM and Wong YH

    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Neuroscience Center, and Biotechnology Research Institute, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

    Medications targeting the somatostatin type 2 receptor (SSTR2) have been employed for pancreatic inflammations and cancers, possibly via the regulation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB). Here we demonstrate that in tumoral pancreatic acinar AR42J cells, activation of SSTR2 leads to stimulation of the inhibitor kappaB kinase (IKK)/NFkappaB signaling cascade via pertussis toxin-insensitive G proteins in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The inability of G(q/11) and G(12/13) proteins to activate IKK/NFkappaB by SSTR2 in transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells and the lack of Galpha(16) in AR42J cells suggested a possible role of Galpha(14) in mediating SSTR2-induced responses. This regulatory role of Galpha(14) was further confirmed by the activation of IKK and NFkappaB in human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing SSTR2 and Galpha(14) upon induction. The stimulatory effect of Gbeta(1)gamma(2) and the abrogation by overexpressing transducin confirmed the participation of Gbetagamma in SSTR2-mediated IKK/NFkappaB activation. By the application of specific inhibitors and dominant negative mutants, phospholipase Cbeta, protein kinase C, and calmodulin-dependent kinase II were shown to be involved in SSTR2-induced responses. Inhibition of c-Src and numerous intermediates, including Ras, Raf-1 kinase, MEK1/2, along with the extracellular signal-regulated kinase cascade attenuated somatostatin-mediated IKK/NFkappaB activation. Although c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were also stimulated by SSTR2, suppression of these two MAPKs was ineffective in altering the somatostatin-mediated responses. Similar results were also obtained using AR42J cells. These data suggest that activation of the IKK/NFkappaB signaling cascade by SSTR2 requires a complicated network consisting of Galpha(14) and multiple intermediates.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;41;34617-25

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Galpha(14) links a variety of G(i)- and G(s)-coupled receptors to the stimulation of phospholipase C.

    Ho MK, Yung LY, Chan JS, Chan JH, Wong CS and Wong YH

    Department of Biochemistry and the Biotechnology Research Institute, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

    1. The bovine Galpha(14) is a member of the G(q) subfamily of G proteins that can regulate phospholipase Cbeta isoforms but the extent to which Galpha(14) recognizes different receptor classes is not known. 2. Galpha(14) was cotransfected with a variety of receptors in COS-7 cells, and agonist-induced stimulation of phospholipase C was then measured. 3. Activation of the type 2 but not type 1 somatostatin receptor in cells coexpressing Galpha(14) stimulated the accumulation of inositol phosphates; functional expression of both subtypes of somatostatin receptors was determined by the ability of somatostatin to inhibit cyclic AMP accumulation. 4. Among the three opioid receptors (mu, delta, and kappa), only the delta receptor was capable of stimulating IP formation when coexpressed with Galpha(14) in COS-7 cells. 5. A panel of G(i)- and G(s)-linked receptors was screened for their ability to stimulate IP accumulation via Galpha(14). The adenosine A(1), complement C5a, dopamine D(1), D(2) and D(5), formyl peptide, luteinizing hormone, secretin, and the three subtypes of melatonin (mt1, MT2, and Xenopus) receptors were all incapable of activating Galpha(14), while the alpha(2)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptors were able to do so. 6. Galpha(14)-mediated stimulation of phospholipase Cbeta was agonist dose-dependent. These data demonstrate that although Galpha(14) can interact with different classes of receptors, it is much less promiscuous than Galpha(15) or Galpha(16).

    British journal of pharmacology 2001;132;7;1431-40

  • Cloning and characterization of the human phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-beta 1 (PLC beta 1).

    Caricasole A, Sala C, Roncarati R, Formenti E and Terstappen GC

    Biology Department, GlaxoWellcome Medicines Research Centre, Verona, Italy.

    Phospholipase C-beta (PLC beta) catalyses the generation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) and diacylglycerol (DAG) from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (IP(2)), a key step in the intracellular transduction of a large number of extracellular signals, including neurotransmitters and hormones modulating diverse developmental and functional aspects of the mammalian central nervous system. Four mammalian isozymes are known (PLC beta 1-4), which differ in their function and expression patterns in vivo. We have characterized the human PLC beta 1 genomic locus (PLC beta 1), cloned two distinct PLC beta 1 cDNAs (PLC beta 1a and b) and analysed their respective expression patterns in a comprehensive panel of human tissues using quantitative TaqMan technology. The two cDNAs derive from transcripts generated through alternative splicing at their 3' end, and are predicted to encode for PLC beta 1 isoforms differing at their carboxy-terminus. The human PLC beta 1 isoforms are co-expressed in the same tissues with a distinctly CNS-specific profile of expression. Quantitative differences in PLC beta 1 isoform expression levels are observed in some tissues. Transient expression of epitope-tagged versions of the two isoforms followed by immunofluorescence revealed localization of the proteins to the cytoplasm and the inner side of the cell membrane. Finally, we characterized the structure of the PLC beta 1 locus and confirmed its mapping to human chromosome 20.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2000;1517;1;63-72

  • Interaction with Gbetagamma is required for membrane targeting and palmitoylation of Galpha(s) and Galpha(q).

    Evanko DS, Thiyagarajan MM and Wedegaertner PB

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Kimmel Cancer Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.

    Peripheral membrane proteins utilize a variety of mechanisms to attach tightly, and often reversibly, to cellular membranes. The covalent lipid modifications, myristoylation and palmitoylation, are critical for plasma membrane localization of heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits. For alpha(s) and alpha(q), two subunits that are palmitoylated but not myristoylated, we examined the importance of interacting with the G protein betagamma dimer for their proper plasma membrane localization and palmitoylation. Conserved alpha subunit N-terminal amino acids predicted to mediate binding to betagamma were mutated to create a series of betagamma binding region mutants expressed in HEK293 cells. These alpha(s) and alpha(q) mutants were found in soluble rather than particulate fractions, and they no longer localized to plasma membranes as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. The mutations also inhibited incorporation of radiolabeled palmitate into the proteins and abrogated their signaling ability. Additional alpha(q) mutants, which contain these mutations but are modified by both myristate and palmitate, retained their localization to plasma membranes and ability to undergo palmitoylation. These findings identify binding to betagamma as a critical membrane attachment signal for alpha(s) and alpha(q) and as a prerequisite for their palmitoylation, while myristoylation can restore membrane localization and palmitoylation of betagamma binding-deficient alpha(q) subunits.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM56444

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;2;1327-36

  • The G protein subunit gene families.

    Downes GB and Gautam N

    Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    Genomics 1999;62;3;544-52

  • Genomic organization of the human galpha14 and Galphaq genes and mutation analysis in chorea-acanthocytosis (CHAC).

    Rubio JP, Levy ER, Dobson-Stone C and Monaco AP

    The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Windmill Road, Headington, OX3 7BN, England.

    Chorea-acanthocytosis (CHAC) (OMIM 200150) is a rare neurological syndrome characterized by neurodegeneration in combination with morphologically abnormal red cells (acanthocytosis). A partial yeast artificial chromosome contig of the CHAC critical region on chromosome 9q21 has been constructed, and 21 expressed sequence tags have been mapped. We have subsequently cloned Galpha14, a member of the G-protein alpha-subunit multigene family, and have identified Galphaq in the contig. The genomic structure of both genes has been established after construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome contig that showed Galphaq and Galpha14 to be in a head-to-tail arrangement (Cen-Galphaq-Galpha14-qter). Northern analysis found Galphaq to be ubiquitously expressed and Galpha14 to display a more restricted pattern of expression. Mutation analysis of the coding regions and splice sites for Galphaq and Galpha14 in 10 affected individuals from different families identified no changes likely to cause disease; however, two distinct single nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding region of Galpha14 have been identified. This study has excluded two plausible candidate genes from involvement in CHAC and has provided a solid platform for a positional cloning initiative.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Genomics 1999;57;1;84-93

  • GalphaL1 (Galpha14) couples the opioid receptor-like1 receptor to stimulation of phospholipase C.

    Yung LY, Joshi SA, Chan RY, Chan JS, Pei G and Wong YH

    Department of Biology and the Biotechnology Research Institute, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

    In most tissues and cells the opioid receptor-like (ORL1) receptor regulates effectors primarily through the pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) Gi/Go. Many Gi-coupled receptors possess additional capability to interact with one or more PTX-insensitive G proteins. Using the betagamma-induced stimulation of type 2 adenylyl cyclase as a readout, we screened the ability of ORL1 receptor to interact with a panel of PTX-insensitive G proteins. In the presence of PTX, activation of the ORL1 receptor resulted in the stimulation of type 2 adenylyl cyclase only in HEK 293 cells coexpressing the alpha subunit of Gz, G12, G14, or G16, but not in cells coexpressing G11, G13, or Gq. Coupling to both Gz and G16 was expected because close relatives of the ORL1 receptor, the opioid receptors, are known to couple productively to these G proteins. ORL1 receptor coupling to either G12 or G14 has not been demonstrated. As predicted by the type 2 adenylyl cyclase assays, activation of the ORL1 receptor resulted in the formation of inositol phosphates in COS-7 cells transiently cotransfected with Galpha14. The ORL1 receptor-mediated stimulation of phospholipase C was found to be Galpha14 dependent, agonist dose dependent, ligand selective, and PTX insensitive. We conclude that G14 can link the ORL1 receptor to regulation of phopholipase C.

    The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 1999;288;1;232-8

  • Selective G protein coupling by C-C chemokine receptors.

    Kuang Y, Wu Y, Jiang H and Wu D

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.

    The C-C chemokines are major mediators of chemotaxis of monocytes and some T cells in inflammatory reactions. The pathways by which the C-C chemokine receptors activate phospholipase C (PLC) were investigated in cotransfected COS-7 cells. The C-C chemokine receptor-1 (CKR-1), the MCP-1 receptor-A (MCP-1Ra), and MCP-1Rb can reconstitute ligand-induced accumulation of inositol phosphates with PLC beta2 in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, presumably through G beta gamma released from the Gi proteins. However, these three receptors demonstrated different specificity in coupling to the alpha subunits of the Gq class. While none of the receptors can couple to Galphaq/11, MCP-1Rb can couple to both Galpha14 and Galpha16, but its splicing variant, MCP-1Rb, cannot. Since MCP-1Ra and -b differ only in their C-terminal intracellular domains, the C-terminal ends of MCP-1Rs determine G protein coupling specificity. CKR-1 can couple to Galpha14 but not to Galpha16, suggesting some of the C-C chemokine receptors, unlike the C-X-C chemokine receptors, discriminate against Galpha16, a hematopoietic-specific Galpha subunit. The intriguing specificity in coupling of the Gq class of G proteins implies that the chemokines may be involved in some distinct functions in vivo. The commonality of the chemokine receptors in coupling to the Gi-Gbetagamma-PLC beta2 pathway provides a potential target for developing broad spectrum anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM53162429

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;8;3975-8

  • G alpha 15 and G alpha 16 couple a wide variety of receptors to phospholipase C.

    Offermanns S and Simon MI

    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125, USA.

    The murine G-protein alpha-subunit G alpha 15 and its human counterpart G alpha 16 are expressed in a subset of hematopoietic cells, and they have been shown to regulate beta-isoforms of inositide-specific phospholipase C. We studied the ability of a variety of receptors to interact with G alpha 15 and G alpha 16 by cotransfecting receptors and G-protein alpha-subunits in COS-7 cells. Activation of beta 2 adrenergic and muscarinic M2 receptors in cells expressing the receptors alone or together with G alpha q, G alpha 11, or G alpha 14 led to a very small stimulation of endogenous phospholipase C. However, when the receptors were coexpressed with G alpha 15 and G alpha 16, addition of appropriate ligands caused a severalfold increase in inositol phosphate production which was time- and dose-dependent. A similar activation of phospholipase C was observed when several other receptors which were previously shown to couple to members of the Gi and Gs family were coexpressed with G alpha 15/16. In addition, stimulation of inositol phosphate formation via receptors naturally coupled to phospholipase C was enhanced by cotransfection of G alpha 15 and G alpha 16. These data demonstrate that G alpha 15 and G alpha 16 are unique in that they can be activated by a wide variety of G-protein-coupled receptors. The ability of G alpha 15 and G alpha 16 to bypass the selectivity of receptor G-protein interaction can be a useful tool to understand the mechanism of receptor-induced G-protein activation. In addition, the promiscuous behavior of G alpha 15 and G alpha 16 toward receptors may be helpful in finding ligands corresponding to orphan receptors whose signaling properties are unknown.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM34236

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;25;15175-80

  • G protein-coupled signal transduction pathways for interleukin-8.

    Wu D, LaRosa GJ and Simon MI

    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125.

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is one of the major mediators of the inflammatory response. The pathways by which IL-8 activates inositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) were investigated by co-expression of different components of the guanosine triphosphate binding protein (G protein) pathway in COS-7 cells. Two distinct IL-8 receptors reconstituted ligand-dependent activation of endogenous PLC when transfected together with the G protein alpha subunits G alpha 14, G alpha 15, or G alpha 16. However, reconstitution was not observed with cells that overexpressed G alpha q or G alpha 11. Furthermore, IL-8 receptors interacted with endogenous pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins or with the recombinant G protein Gi to release free beta gamma subunits that could then specifically activate the beta 2 isoform of PLC. These findings suggest that IL-8 acts through signal-transducing pathways that are limited to specific heterotrimeric G proteins and effectors. These may provide suitable targets for the development of anti-inflammatory agents.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1993;261;5117;101-3

  • Phospholipase C-beta 1 is a GTPase-activating protein for Gq/11, its physiologic regulator.

    Berstein G, Blank JL, Jhon DY, Exton JH, Rhee SG and Ross EM

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235-9041.

    Purified M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptor and Gq/11 were coreconstituted in lipid vesicles. Addition of purified phospholipase C-beta 1 (PLC-beta 1) further stimulated the receptor-promoted steady-state GTPase activity of Gq/11 up to 20-fold. Stimulation depended upon receptor-mediated GTP-GDP exchange. Addition of PLC-beta 1 caused a rapid burst of hydrolysis of Gq/11-bound GTP that was at least 50-fold faster than in its absence. Thus, PLC-beta 1 stimulates hydrolysis of Gq/11-bound GTP and acts as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for its physiologic regulator, Gq/11. GTPase-stimulating activity was specific both for PLC-beta 1 and Gq/11. Such GAP activity by an effector coupled to a trimeric G protein can reconcile slow GTP hydrolysis by pure G proteins in vitro with fast physiologic deactivation of G protein-mediated signaling.

    Funded by: FIC NIH HHS: TW04475; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM30355

    Cell 1992;70;3;411-8

  • Characterization of G-protein alpha subunits in the Gq class: expression in murine tissues and in stromal and hematopoietic cell lines.

    Wilkie TM, Scherle PA, Strathmann MP, Slepak VZ and Simon MI

    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125.

    Murine G alpha 14 and G alpha 15 cDNAs encode distinct alpha subunits of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). These alpha subunits are related to members of the Gq class and share certain sequence characteristics with G alpha q, G alpha 11, and G alpha 16, such as the absence of a pertussis toxin ADP-ribosylation site. G alpha 11 and G alpha q are ubiquitously expressed among murine tissues but G alpha 14 is predominantly expressed in spleen, lung, kidney, and testis whereas G alpha 15 is primarily restricted to hematopoietic lineages. Among hematopoietic cell lines, G alpha 11 mRNA is found in all cell lines tested, G alpha q is expressed widely but is not found in most T-cell lines, G alpha 15 is predominantly expressed in myeloid and B-cell lineages, and G alpha 14 is expressed in bone marrow adherent (stromal) cells, certain early myeloid cells, and progenitor B cells. Polyclonal antisera produced from synthetic peptides that correspond to two regions of G alpha 15 react with a protein of 42 kDa expressed in B-cell membranes and in Escherichia coli transformed with G alpha 15 cDNA. The expression patterns that were observed in mouse tissues and cell lines indicate that each of the alpha subunits in the Gq class may be involved in pertussis toxin-insensitive signal-transduction pathways that are fundamental to hematopoietic cell differentiation and function.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM11576, GM34236

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1991;88;22;10049-53

Gene lists (3)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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