G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
heat shock protein 90kDa beta (Grp94), member 1
G00001200 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000166598 (Ensembl human gene)
7184 (Entrez Gene)
620 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
HSP90B1 (GeneCards)
191175 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:12028 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P14625 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • GP96
  • GRP94

Literature (81)

Pubmed - other

  • Cell-surface processing of the metalloprotease pro-ADAMTS9 is influenced by the chaperone GRP94/gp96.

    Koo BH and Apte SS

    Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Korea.

    A disintegrin-like and metalloprotease domain with thrombospondin type 1 motifs 9 (ADAMTS9) is a highly conserved metalloprotease that has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene and is required for normal mouse development. The secreted ADAMTS9 zymogen undergoes proteolytic excision of its N-terminal propeptide by the proprotein convertase furin. However, in contrast to other metalloproteases, propeptide excision occurs at the cell surface and leads to decreased activity of the zymogen. Here, we investigated the potential cellular mechanisms regulating ADAMTS9 biosynthesis and cell-surface processing by analysis of molecular complexes formed by a construct containing the propeptide and catalytic domain of pro-ADAMTS9 (Pro-Cat) in HEK293F cells. Cross-linking of cellular proteins bound to Pro-Cat followed by mass spectrometric analysis identified UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase I, heat shock protein gp96 (GRP94), BiP (GRP78), and ERdj3 (Hsp40 homolog) as associated proteins. gp96 and BiP were present at the cell surface in an immunoprecipitable complex with pro-ADAMTS9 and furin. Treatment with geldanamycin, an inhibitor of the HSP90alpha family (including gp96), led to decreased furin processing of pro-ADAMTS9 and accumulation of the unprocessed pro-ADAMTS9 at the cell surface. gp96 siRNA down-regulated the levels of cell-surface pro-ADAMTS9 and furin, whereas the levels of cell-surface pro-ADAMTS9, but not of cell-surface furin, were decreased upon treatment with BiP siRNA. These data identify for the first time the cellular chaperones associated with secretion of an ADAMTS protease and suggest a role for gp96 in modulating pro-ADAMTS9 processing.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR49930, AR53890, R01 AR049930, R01 AR053890, R56 AR049930

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2010;285;1;197-205

  • Sialic acid content of tissue-specific gp96 and its potential role in modulating gp96-macrophage interactions.

    Suriano R, Ghosh SK, Chaudhuri D, Mittelman A, Banerjee A and Tiwari RK

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA.

    Cancer-derived heat shock protein gp96 induces a tumor-specific protective immune response primarily mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) directed toward cancer-associated peptides associated with gp96. Both innate and adaptive immune responses have been demonstrated using a cell culture-based signaling mechanism. When used as an extraneous vaccine, one critical interaction which must occur for an immune response to be generated is the interaction between gp96 and the antigen presenting cell (APC) surface receptors (CD91, SR-A, TLR-2, and TLR-4). Our previous study concluded that gp96 purified from various rat and human prostate cancers is differentially glycosylated based on the amino and neutral monosaccharide content, and it was postulated that the monosaccharides may play a role in its biological activity. In this report, we report differences in the cancer-specific sialic acid content of gp96 purified from normal rat prostate compared to two rat prostate cancers, MAT-LyLu and Dunning G, as well as between two human prostate cancer cells, LnCaP and DU145. We also examined the modulatory effect of sialic acid residues on the binding of gp96 to APCs and its subsequent activation. Our results supported the contention that significant differences in the sialic acid content exist between Dunning G, MAT-LyLu, and normal rat prostate gp96, which affected its binding and biochemical activity to APCs. We therefore postulate that varied glycans of HPS96, a hitherto neglected structural component, may play a pivotal role in its anticancer activity. We suggest that construction of the glycan tree is a key to identification of the necessary and sufficient elements in the structure-function activity of HSP96.

    Glycobiology 2009;19;12;1427-35

  • Efficient cross-priming of antiviral CD8+ T cells by antigen donor cells is GRP94 independent.

    Lev A, Dimberu P, Das SR, Maynard JC, Nicchitta CV, Bennink JR and Yewdell JW

    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    Cross-priming, the activation of naive CD8+ T cells by dendritic cells presenting Ags synthesized by other cells, is believed to play an important role in the generation of antiviral and antitumor responses. The molecular mechanism(s) underlying cross-priming remain poorly defined and highly controversial. GRP94 (gp96), an abundant endoplasmic reticulum chaperone with innate immune-activating capacity, has been widely reported to play a major role in cross-priming. In this study, we show that cells whose expression of GRP94 is silenced via transient or stable transfection with GRP94-directed small interfering RNAs demonstrate no reduction in their abilities to generate class I peptide complexes in cultured cells or to prime antiviral CD8+ T cell responses in vivo. In demonstrating the dispensability of GRP94, our finding points to the importance of alternative mechanisms for generation of class I peptide complexes from endogenous and exogenous Ags and immunogens.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS: Z01 AI000653-16; NCI NIH HHS: CA104392, R01 CA104392

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2009;183;7;4205-10

  • Silencing of GRP94 expression promotes apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Pan Z, Erkan M, Streit S, Friess H and Kleeff J

    Department of General Surgery, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.

    As a molecular chaperone, GRP94 is the most abundant glycoprotein in the endoplasmic reticulum, playing an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Here, we investigated the expression and the role of GRP94 in regulating cell growth and apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. GRP94 mRNA levels were analyzed by QRT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed to localize GRP94 in tissues of the normal pancreas (n=20), chronic pancreatitis (n=20) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n=44). Silencing of GRP94 expression was carried out by transfection with specific siRNA oligonucleotides. Apoptosis was induced by treatment with actinomycin D. Compared to normal pancreatic tissues, median mRNA levels of GRP94 were 1.5- and 3.7-fold (p<0.05) lower in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer tissues, respectively. GRP94 protein was strongly expressed in normal acinar cells and moderately expressed in normal ductal cells. GRP94 expression was lost in 48% of the cancer cases. Moderate or strong staining in cancer cells was observed in 32 and 20% of pancreatic cancer tissues, respectively. Silencing GRP94 by siRNA increased apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Patients with higher than the median expression have a tendency for a worsened survival. When the small number of patients with the highest expression (n=3) were compared with the rest of the group (n=41), the survival difference was significantly worse (5 vs. 18 months, respectively, p=0.006). Down-regulation of GRP94 decreases apoptosis resistance in pancreatic cancer cells. Clinically, patients with high GRP94 expression show a tendency for a worsened survival.

    International journal of oncology 2009;35;4;823-8

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIDDK NIH HHS: K01 DK098285; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • Upregulation of GRP78 and GRP94 and its function in chemotherapy resistance to VP-16 in human lung cancer cell line SK-MES-1.

    Zhang L, Wang S, Wangtao, Wang Y, Wang J, Jiang L, Li S, Hu X and Wang Q

    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Dalian University, Dalian, China.

    The upregulation of GRP78 and GRP94 under the induction of A23187 and its function in drug resistance to etoposide (VP-16) was investigated in human lung cancer cell line SK-MES-1. The expression of GRP78 and GRP94 induced by A23187 at different concentrations was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Cell survival to VP-16 was determined using a colony-formation assay. The expression of GRP78 and GRP94 in the cells was found to correspond well with the cell survival to VP-16. The results showed that upregulation of GRP78 and GRP94 can significantly confer the chemoresistance to VP-16 in human lung cancer cell line SK-MES-1.

    Cancer investigation 2009;27;4;453-8

  • Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells interact with gp96 via CD91 and regulate inflammatory responses.

    De Filippo A, Binder RJ, Camisaschi C, Beretta V, Arienti F, Villa A, Della Mina P, Parmiani G, Rivoltini L and Castelli C

    Unit of Immunotherapy of Human Tumours, Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano, Italy.

    Glucose-regulated stress protein gp96 is known to be involved in the host response to pathogens and to cancer. Our study explored the relationships between gp96 and human blood plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and proved that gp96 directly targets pDC by a receptor-dependent interaction. Competition studies identified CD91 as a gp96 receptor on pDC, and laser confocal imaging indicated that CD91 triggering was followed by gp96 endocytosis and trafficking into early endosomes and later into the endoplasmic reticulum compartment. Using two alternative Abs, we showed that human blood pDC reproducibly expressed CD91, although different levels of expression were detectable among the analyzed donors. Moreover, CpG-matured pDC displayed CD91 receptor up-regulation that correlated with an increased gp96 binding. Functionally, gp96-pDC interaction activated the NF-kappaB pathway, leading to the nuclear translocation of the NF-kappaB complex. gp96-treated pDC maintained an immature phenotype, while they down-modulated the release of IL-8, suggesting an anti-inflammatory role of this pathway, and they strongly up-regulated the cell surface expression of the gp96 receptor CD91. CpG-matured or gp96-treated pDC, expressing high levels of the gp96 receptor CD91, antagonized the gp96-induced activation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in terms of cell surface phenotype and cytokine production. Altogether, these results suggest that gp96-pDC interaction might represent an active mechanism controlling the strength of the immune response to free, extracellular available gp96; this mechanism could be particularly relevant in wounds and chronic inflammation.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2008;181;9;6525-35

  • Escherichia coli interaction with human brain microvascular endothelial cells induces signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 association with the C-terminal domain of Ec-gp96, the outer membrane protein A receptor for invasion.

    Maruvada R, Argon Y and Prasadarao NV

    Division of Infectious Diseases, The Saban Research Institute, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA.

    Our inability to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent meningitis due to Escherichia coli K1 is attributed to our incomplete understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease. Previously, we demonstrated that outer membrane protein A of E. coli interacts with a gp96 homologue, Ec-gp96, on human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) for invasion. However, signalling events mediated by Ec-gp96 that allow internalization of E. coli are incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activation and its interaction with Ec-gp96 were critical for E. coli invasion. The activated Stat3 was colocalized with Ec-gp96 at the actin condensation sites, and overexpressing a dominant negative (DN) form of Stat3 in HBMEC significantly abrogated the invasion. Furthermore, overexpression of Ec-gp96Delta200, the C-terminal 214-amino-acid truncated Ec-gp96, prevented the invasion of E. coli in HBMEC. In contrast, lack of ATP binding by gp96 did not affect the invasion. Overexpression of DN forms of either phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3-kinase) subunit p85 or protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) had no effect on the activation of Stat3 and its association with Ec-gp96, whereas overexpression of DN-Stat3 abolished the activation of both PI3-kinase and PKC-alpha. Together, our findings identified a novel interaction of Stat3 with Ec-gp96, upstream of PI3-kinase and PKC-alpha activation that is required for the invasion of E. coli into HBMEC.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI40567, R01 AI040567, R01 AI040567-13, R29 AI040567

    Cellular microbiology 2008;10;11;2326-38

  • Stable complexes formed by Grp94 with human IgG promoting angiogenic differentiation of HUVECs by a cytokine-like mechanism.

    Tramentozzi E, Montopoli M, Orso G, Pagetta A, Caparrotta L, Frasson M, Brunati AM and Finotti P

    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, L.go E. Meneghetti 2, 35131 Padova, Italy.

    To explore the molecular mechanisms by which complexes of Grp94 with IgG, purified from the plasma of diabetic subjects, could drive an inflammatory risk in vascular cells, native Grp94 was co-incubated with human, non-immune IgG to obtain the formation of complexes that were then tested on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Co-incubation of Grp94 with IgG led to the formation of stable, SDS-resistant complexes that displayed effects partly similar and partly significantly different from those of Grp94 alone. Both Grp94 alone and with IgG stimulated the cell growth and promoted angiogenesis by a mechanism of autocrine/paracrine activation of the expression of heat shock protein (HSP)90 and HSP70. However, the most striking alterations in the cell cytoskeleton, characterized by dramatic rearrangement of actin and increased formation of podosomes, were induced by Grp94 with IgG, and were mediated by the enhanced expression of HSP90. At variance with Grp94 alone, Grp94 with IgG promoted the angiogenic differentiation by activating a signaling pathway apparently independent of the intense stimulation of the ERK1/2 pathway that was instead more directly involved in mediating the proliferative effects on HUVECs. Results show unprecedented cytokine-like effects of Grp94 and a so far undisclosed capacity to bind irreversibly IgG, forming complexes that, with respect to Grp94 alone, display a more intense angiogenic transforming capacity that may predict an increased inflammatory risk in vascular cells in vivo.

    Molecular immunology 2008;45;13;3639-48

  • gp96 is a human colonocyte plasma membrane binding protein for Clostridium difficile toxin A.

    Na X, Kim H, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C and LaMont JT

    Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Dana 501, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215, USA.

    Clostridium difficile toxin A (TxA), a key mediator of antibiotic-associated colitis, requires binding to a cell surface receptor prior to internalization. Our aim was to identify novel plasma membrane TxA binding proteins on human colonocytes. TxA was coupled with biotin and cross-linked to the surface of HT29 human colonic epithelial cells. The main colonocyte binding protein for TxA was identified as glycoprotein 96 (gp96) by coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrum analysis. gp96 is a member of the heat shock protein family, which is expressed on human colonocyte apical membranes as well as in the cytoplasm. TxA binding to gp96 was confirmed by fluorescence immunostaining and in vitro coimmunoprecipitation. Following TxA binding, the TxA-gp96 complex was translocated from the cell membrane to the cytoplasm. Pretreatment with gp96 antibody decreased TxA binding to colonocytes and inhibited TxA-induced cell rounding. Small interfering RNA directed against gp96 reduced gp96 expression and cytotoxicity in colonocytes. TxA-induced inflammatory signaling via p38 and apoptosis as measured by activation of BAK (Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer) and DNA fragmentation were decreased in gp96-deficient B cells. We conclude that human colonocyte gp96 serves as a plasma membrane binding protein that enhances cellular entry of TxA, participates in cellular signaling events in the inflammatory cascade, and facilitates cytotoxicity.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK 47343, R01 DK047343, R37 DK 34583-21, R37 DK034583

    Infection and immunity 2008;76;7;2862-71

  • Overexpression of GRP78 and GRP94 are markers for aggressive behavior and poor prognosis in gastric carcinomas.

    Zheng HC, Takahashi H, Li XH, Hara T, Masuda S, Guan YF and Takano Y

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang 110003, China. zheng_huachuan@hotmail.com

    Glucose-related proteins (GRPs) are ubiquitously expressed in endoplasmic reticulum and able to assist in protein folding and assembly; consequently, they are considered as molecular chaperones. GRP78 and GRP94 expression was induced by glucose starvation and up-regulated in the malignancies. To clarify the roles of both molecules in tumorigenesis and progression of gastric carcinomas, immunohistochemistry was used on tissue microarray containing gastric carcinomas, adenomas, and nonneoplastic mucosa using the antibodies against GRP78 and GRP94, with a comparison of their expression with clinicopathological parameters of carcinomas. Gastric carcinoma cell lines (MKN28, AGS, MKN45, KATO-III, and HGC-27) were studied for both proteins by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. There was more expression of both proteins in gastric carcinoma and adenoma than in nonneoplastic mucosas (P < .05). All gastric carcinoma cell lines showed their expression at different levels. They were positively correlated with tumor size, depth of invasion, lymphatic and venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, and Union Internationale Contre le Cancer staging (P < .05), with positive relationship between both proteins (P < .05). Univariate analysis indicated the postsurgical cumulative survival rate of patients with positive GRP78 or GRP94 expression to be lower than that in those without GRP78 or GRP94 expression (P < .05), but the close link disappeared if stratified according to depth of invasion (P > .05). Multivariate analysis showed that age, depth of invasion, lymphatic invasion, lymph node metastasis, Union Internationale Contre le Cancer staging, and Lauren classification (P < .05), but not GRP78 and GRP94 expression, were independent prognostic factors for carcinomas (P > .05). Up-regulated expression of GRP78 and GRP94 was possibly involved in pathogenesis, growth, invasion, and metastasis of gastric carcinomas. They were considered objective and effective markers for the aggressive behavior and poor prognosis in gastric carcinomas.

    Human pathology 2008;39;7;1042-9

  • Interaction of heat-shock protein 90 beta isoform (HSP90 beta) with cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (c-IAP1) is required for cell differentiation.

    Didelot C, Lanneau D, Brunet M, Bouchot A, Cartier J, Jacquel A, Ducoroy P, Cathelin S, Decologne N, Chiosis G, Dubrez-Daloz L, Solary E and Garrido C

    INSERM, UMR 866, Dijon, France.

    Members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family have demonstrated functions in cell death, cell signalling, cell migration and mitosis. Several of them are E3 enzymes in the ubiquitination of proteins that leads to their degradation by the proteosomal machinery. We previously reported that one of them, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (c-IAP1), migrated from the nucleus to the surface of the Golgi apparatus in cells undergoing differentiation. Here, we show that c-IAP1 is a client protein of the stress protein HSP90 beta. In three distinct cellular models, the two proteins interact and migrate from the nucleus to the cytoplasm along the differentiation process through a leptomycin B-sensitive pathway. Inhibition of HSP90 proteins by small chemical molecules and specific depletion of HSP90 beta isoform by siRNA both lead to auto-ubiquitination of c-IAP1 and its degradation by the proteasome machinery. This chaperone function of HSP90 towards c-IAP1 is specific of its beta isoform as specific depletion of HSP90alpha does not affect c-IAP1 content. Chemical inhibition of HSP90 or siRNA-mediated depletion of HSP90 beta both inhibit cell differentiation, which can be reproduced by siRNA-mediated depletion of c-IAP1. Altogether, these results suggest that HSP90 beta prevents auto-ubiquitination and degradation of its client protein c-IAP1, whose depletion would be sufficient to inhibit cell differentiation.

    Cell death and differentiation 2008;15;5;859-66

  • Heat shock protein 90beta1 is essential for polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux.

    Zhang H, Li ZH, Zhang MQ, Katz MS and Zhang BX

    Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, Audie L. Murphy Division, Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA.

    Nonesterified fatty acids may influence mitochondrial function by alterations in gene expression, metabolism, and/or mitochondrial Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](m)) homeostasis. We have previously reported that polyunsaturated fatty acids induce Ca(2+) efflux from mitochondria, an action that may deplete [Ca(2+)](m) and thus contribute to nonesterified fatty acid-responsive mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we show that the chaperone protein heat shock protein 90 beta1 (hsp90beta1) is required for polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+) efflux (PIMCE). Retinoic acid induced differentiation of human teratocarcinoma NT2 cells in association with attenuation of PIMCE. Proteomic analysis of mitochondrial proteins revealed that hsp90beta1, among other proteins, was reduced in retinoic acid-differentiated cells. Blockade of PIMCE in NT2 cells by 17-(dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, a known inhibitor of the chaperone activity of hsp90, and hsp90beta1 RNA interference demonstrated that hsp90beta1 is essential for PIMCE. We also show localization of hsp90beta1 in mitochondria by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Distinctive effects of inhibitors binding to the N or C terminus of hsp90 on PIMCE in isolated mitochondria suggested that the C terminus of hsp90beta1 plays a critical role in PIMCE.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL075011

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;12;7580-9

  • Expression and clinical significance of glucose regulated proteins GRP78 (BiP) and GRP94 (GP96) in human adenocarcinomas of the esophagus.

    Langer R, Feith M, Siewert JR, Wester HJ and Hoefler H

    Institute of Pathology, TU München, München, Germany. Rupert.Langer@lrz.tu-muenchen.de

    Background: Glucose regulated proteins (GRPs) are main regulators of cellular homeostasis due to their role as molecular chaperones. Moreover, the functions of GRPs suggest that they also may play important roles in cancer biology. In this study we investigated the glucose regulated proteins GRP78 (BiP) and GRP94 (GP96) in a series of human esophageal adenocarcinomas to determine their implications in cancer progression and prognosis.

    Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of primary resected esophageal (Barrett) adenocarcinomas (n = 137) and corresponding normal tissue were investigated. mRNA-gene expression levels of GRP78 and GRP94 were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR after mRNA extraction. Protein expression analysis was performed with immunohistochemical staining of the cases, assembled on a tissue micorarray. The results were correlated with pathologic features (pT, pN, G) and overall survival.

    Results: GRP78 and GRP94 mRNA were expressed in all tumors. The relative gene expression of GRP78 was significantly higher in early cancers (pT1m and pT1sm) as compared to more advanced stages (pT2 and pT3) and normal tissue (p = 0.031). Highly differentiated tumors showed also higher GRP78 mRNA levels compared to moderate and low differentiated tumors (p = 0.035). In addition, patients with higher GRP78 levels tended to show a survival benefit (p = 0.07). GRP94 mRNA-levels showed no association to pathological features or clinical outcome.GRP78 and GRP94 protein expression was detectable by immunohistochemistry in all tumors. There was a significant correlation between a strong GRP78 protein expression and early tumor stages (pT1m and pT1sm, p = 0.038). For GRP94 low to moderate protein expression was significantly associated with earlier tumor stage (p = 0.001) and less lymph node involvement (p = 0.036). Interestingly, the patients with combined strong GRP78 and GRP94 protein expression exclusively showed either early (pT1m or pT1sm) or advanced (pT3) tumor stages and no pT2 stage (p = 0.031).

    Conclusion: We could demonstrate an association of GRP78 and GRP94 mRNA and protein expression with tumor stage and behaviour in esophageal adenocarcinomas. Increased expression of GRP78 may be responsible for controlling local tumor growth in early tumor stages, while high expression of GRP78 and GRP94 in advanced stages may be dependent from other factors like cellular stress reactions due to glucose deprivation, hypoxia or the hosts' immune response.

    BMC cancer 2008;8;70

  • A molecular chaperone glucose-regulated protein 94 blocks apoptosis induced by virus infection.

    Lee SH, Song R, Lee MN, Kim CS, Lee H, Kong YY, Kim H and Jang SK

    PBC, Department of Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Hyoja-dong, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Korea.

    Unlabelled: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 protein has been shown to block apoptosis and has been suggested to facilitate persistent infection of the virus. Here, we report that the anti-apoptotic activity of E2 is mediated by activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) that directs expression of survival gene products such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP), and survivin. Increased levels of these proteins were observed in HCV-infected cells and a cell line producing HCV E2 protein. The activation of NF-kappaB was mediated by HCV-E2-induced expression of the molecular chaperone glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94). Overexpression of GRP94 alone resulted in expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and blocked apoptosis induced by tumor-necrosis-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Interestingly, increased levels of GRP94 were observed in cells supporting HCV proliferation that originated from liver tissues from HCV patients. Moreover, small interfering RNA (siRNA) knock-down of GRP94 nullified the anti-apoptotic activity of HCV E2.

    Conclusion: These data indicate that HCV E2 blocks apoptosis induced by HCV infection and the host immune system through overproduction of GRP94, and that HCV E2 plays an important role in persistent HCV infection.

    Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) 2008;47;3;854-66

  • OS-9 and GRP94 deliver mutant alpha1-antitrypsin to the Hrd1-SEL1L ubiquitin ligase complex for ERAD.

    Christianson JC, Shaler TA, Tyler RE and Kopito RR

    Department of Biological Sciences & Bio-X Program, Stanford University, Lorry Lokey Bldg, 337 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

    Terminally misfolded or unassembled proteins in the early secretory pathway are degraded by a ubiquitin- and proteasome-dependent process known as ER-associated degradation (ERAD). How substrates of this pathway are recognized within the ER and delivered to the cytoplasmic ubiquitin-conjugating machinery is unknown. We report here that OS-9 and XTP3-B/Erlectin are ER-resident glycoproteins that bind to ERAD substrates and, through the SEL1L adaptor, to the ER-membrane-embedded ubiquitin ligase Hrd1. Both proteins contain conserved mannose 6-phosphate receptor homology (MRH) domains, which are required for interaction with SEL1L, but not with substrate. OS-9 associates with the ER chaperone GRP94 which, together with Hrd1 and SEL1L, is required for the degradation of an ERAD substrate, mutant alpha(1)-antitrypsin. These data suggest that XTP3-B and OS-9 are components of distinct, partially redundant, quality control surveillance pathways that coordinate protein folding with membrane dislocation and ubiquitin conjugation in mammalian cells.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM074874, R01 GM074874-04

    Nature cell biology 2008;10;3;272-82

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Decreased adhesiveness, resistance to anoikis and suppression of GRP94 are integral to the survival of circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer.

    Howard EW, Leung SC, Yuen HF, Chua CW, Lee DT, Chan KW, Wang X and Wong YC

    Department of Internal Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital, NW, Washington, DC 20007, USA.

    The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) is common in prostate cancer patients, however until recently their clinical significance was unknown. The CTC stage is essential for the formation of distant metastases, and their continuing presence after radical prostatectomy has been shown to predict recurrent or latent disease. Despite their mechanistic and prognostic importance, due both to their scarcity and difficulties in their isolation, little is known about the characteristics that enable their production and survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the survival of CTC cells. A novel CTC cell line from the bloodstream of an orthotopic mouse model of castration-resistant prostate cancer was established and compared with the primary tumor using attachment assays, detachment culture, Western blot, flow cytometry and 2D gel electrophoresis. Decreased adhesiveness and expression of adhesion molecules E-cadherin, beta4-integrin and gamma-catenin, together with resistance to detachment and drug-induced apoptosis and upregulation of Bcl-2 were integral to the development of CTC and their survival. Using proteomic studies, we observed that the GRP94 glycoprotein was suppressed in CTC. GRP94 was also shown to be suppressed in a tissue microarray study of 79 prostate cancer patients, indicating its possible role in prostate cancer progression. Overall, this study suggests molecular alterations accounting for the release and survival of CTC, which may be used as drug targets for either anti-metastatic therapy or the suppression of latent disease. We also indicate the novel involvement of GRP94 suppression in prostate cancer metastasis.

    Clinical & experimental metastasis 2008;25;5;497-508

  • Gp96 and its different expression in breast carcinomas.

    Hodorova I, Rybarova S, Solar P, Vecanova J, Prokopcakova L, Bohus P, Solarova Z, Mellova Y and Schmidtova K

    Department of Anatomy, P.J. Safarik University, Faculty of Medicine, Kosice, Slovak Republic. ingrid.hodorova@post.sk

    The aim of our work was to determine the expression of glycoprotein 96 (gp96; glucose-regulated protein 94 - GRP94) in 69 samples of breast carcinoma. Enzyme immunohistochemical method was chosen for the detection of gp96 protein and its expression was compared in breast cancer cells versus normal breast cells. We found higher expression of gp96 protein in breast carcinoma cells and low or no expression in normal breast cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate first time, that ductal invasive breast carcinomas showed higher expression of gp96 than lobular invasive breast carcinomas.

    Neoplasma 2008;55;1;31-5

  • Immunolocalisation of heat shock protein 72 and glycoprotein 96 in colonic adenocarcinoma.

    Wang X, Wang Q, Guo L, Ying X and Zhao Y

    Department of Pathology, Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xianyang 712046, Shaanxi, China. wxpphd@yahoo.com.cn

    Heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and glycoprotein 96 (gp96) are highly expressed in cancer tissues. Recent studies indicate the possible roles of HSP72 and gp96 in the development and progression of colonic carcinomas, but detailed information is still ambiguous. In this study, we investigated the correlation between clinical pathology and immunolocalisation of HSP72 and gp96 in human colonic carcinoma. The distribution of HSP72 and gp96 was studied in 160 human colonic carcinomas, with or without metastasis, as well as in mucous membranes adjacent to cancers by means of immunohistochemistry. HSP72 immunoreactivity was detected in 145 of 160 primary tumours (90.6%) and in 44 of 160 mucous membranes adjacent to cancers (27.5%). Gp96 was detected in 81.3% colonic carcinomas and in 13.8% mucous membranes adjacent to cancer. Immunolocalisation of HSP72 and gp96 was mainly cytoplasmic. HSP72 and gp96 immunolabelling was significantly higher in colonic carcinomas with metastasis than in those without metastasis (P<0.05). The results indicate a significant correlation between the immunopositivity of HSP72 and gp96 and the progression of colonic carcinomas. Immunolabelling of HSP72 and gp96 may be useful as diagnostic or prognostic markers in colonic carcinoma.

    Acta histochemica 2008;110;2;117-23

  • Network-based analysis of calcium-binding protein genes identifies Grp94 as a target in human oral carcinogenesis.

    Nomura H, Uzawa K, Yamano Y, Fushimi K, Ishigami T, Kato Y, Saito K, Nakashima D, Higo M, Kouzu Y, Ono K, Ogawara K, Shiiba M, Bukawa H, Yokoe H and Tanzawa H

    Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chiba, Japan.

    To characterise Ca(2+) -binding protein gene expression changes in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), we compared the gene expression profiles in OSCC-derived cell lines with normal oral tissues. One hundred Ca(2+) -binding protein genes differentially expressed in OSCCs were identified, and genetic pathways associated with expression changes were generated. Among genes mapped to the network with the highest significance, glucose-regulated protein 94 kDa (Grp94) was evaluated further for mRNA and protein expression in the OSCC cell lines, primary OSCCs, and oral premalignant lesions (OPLs). A significant (P<0.001) overexpression of Grp94 protein was observed in all cell lines compared to normal oral epithelium. Immunohistochemical analysis showed highly expressed Grp94 in primary OSCCs and OPLs, whereas most of the corresponding normal tissues had no protein immunoreaction. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR data agreed with the protein expression status. Moreover, overexpression of Grp94 in primary tumours was significantly (P<0.001) correlated with poor disease-free survival. The results suggested that Grp94 may have potential clinical application as a novel diagnosis and prognostic biomarker for human OSCCs.

    British journal of cancer 2007;97;6;792-801

  • Phosphorylated PKR contributes the induction of GRP94 under ER stress.

    Ito M, Onuki R, Bando Y, Tohyama M and Sugiyama Y

    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 13-0033, Japan.

    Phosphorylated double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is thought to play an important role during ER stress induced cell death, but its molecular mechanism of action has not yet been clarified completely. To resolve this issue, we employed a PKR inhibitor together with ER stress inducers (tunicamycin, thapsigargin, and 2-deoxyglucose) and found that this treatment applied to SK-N-SH and HepG2 cells suppressed the expressional induction of 94kDa glucose regulated protein (GRP94) but not GRP78 proteins at both protein and mRNA levels. Although GRP94 mRNA increased, no significant difference was observed in the mRNA level of spliced X box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and reporter gene assay using GRP78 and GRP94 promoter with an ER stress response element (ERSE) showed that PKR inhibitor did not affect their activity. These results suggest that a novel mechanism other than ERSE-dependent mRNA transcription is required for the induction of GRP94 and phosphorylation of PKR contributes to the induction of GRP94 under ER stress.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2007;360;3;615-20

  • Inhibition of ICMT induces endothelial cell apoptosis through GRP94.

    Lu Q, Harrington EO, Newton J, Jankowich M and Rounds S

    Providence VA Medical Center, Pulmonary/Critical Care Medicine Section, 830 Chalkstone Avenue, Providence, RI 02908, USA.

    Isoprenylcysteine-O-carboxyl methyltransferase (ICMT) catalyzes methylation of proteins containing a C-terminal CAAX motif. We have previously shown that chemical inhibition of ICMT caused endothelial cell apoptosis, an effect correlated with decreased Ras and RhoA carboxyl methylation and GTPase activities. In the current study, proteomic analysis of pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) exposed to the ICMT inhibitor, N-acetyl-geranylgeranyl-cysteine (AGGC), demonstrated a shift in the isoelectric points (pI) of the glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 94. Two-dimensional PAGE and immunoblot analysis further documented that ICMT inhibition caused multiple changes in the pI of GRP94. GRP94 is an endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone, a component of the unfolded protein response (UPR), and is involved in apoptosis. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed redistribution and aggregation of GRP94 after 3 h exposure to AGGC. A similar finding was noted with calnexin. In addition, GRP94 protein levels were significantly diminished upon 18 h AGGC exposure or ICMT suppression. The effects of ICMT inhibition on changes in GRP94 subcellular localization and protein content were blunted by overexpression of constitutively active RhoA or a caspase inhibitor. Furthermore, GRP94 depletion augmented endothelial cell apoptosis induced by ICMT inhibition. These results indicate that ICMT inhibition leads to GRP94 relocalization, aggregation, and degradation; effects were dependent upon the activities of RhoA and caspases. We speculate that changes in the pI, subcellular localization, and protein level of GRP94 cause endothelial cell apoptosis, possibly through UPR dysfunction. These studies suggest a novel link between RhoA GTPases and the UPR.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 63496, HL 67795

    American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology 2007;37;1;20-30

  • Identification of NTN4, TRA1, and STC2 as prognostic markers in breast cancer in a screen for signal sequence encoding proteins.

    Esseghir S, Kennedy A, Seedhar P, Nerurkar A, Poulsom R, Reis-Filho JS and Isacke CM

    Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Centre, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK.

    Purpose: In a previous screen using a signal-trap library, we identified a number of secreted proteins up-regulated in primary tumor cells isolated from invasive breast cancers. The purpose of this study was to assess the expression of these genes in human invasive breast tumors and to determine the significance of their expression for prognosis in breast cancer.

    A tissue microarray containing 245 invasive breast tumors from women treated with curative surgery followed by anthracycline-based chemotherapy and hormone therapy for the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors was screened by in situ hybridization with probes against thrombospondin 3 (TSP3), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), tumor rejection antigen 1 (TRA1), stanniocalcin 2 (STC2), and netrin 4 (NTN4). Correlations between categorical variables were done using the chi(2) test and Fisher's exact test. Cumulative survival probabilities were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate survival analysis was done with Cox hazard model. A series of breast cancers were also stained with NTN4 antibodies.

    Results: All five genes examined were expressed in invasive breast tumor cells. NTN4 protein expression was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Together, these data validate the design and screening of the signal-trap library. Univariate survival analysis revealed that expressions of TRA1, STC2, and NTN4 are correlated with longer disease-free survival and that TRA1 and NTN4 are associated with longer overall survival. Multivariate analysis showed that NTN4 is an independent prognostic factor of overall survival.

    Conclusions: This article describes the identification of three secreted proteins, NTN4, TRA1, and STC2, as potential novel prognostic markers in breast cancer.

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2007;13;11;3164-73

  • Endoplasmic reticulum quality control regulates the fate of transthyretin variants in the cell.

    Sato T, Susuki S, Suico MA, Miyata M, Ando Y, Mizuguchi M, Takeuchi M, Dobashi M, Shuto T and Kai H

    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.

    The secretion of transthyretin (TTR) variants contributes to the pathogenesis of amyloidosis because they form aggregates in the extracellular environment. However, the mechanism of how TTR variants pass the quality control system in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has not yet been elucidated. We investigated here the mechanism of how TTR passes ER monitoring. Monomeric mutation introduced in TTRs (M-TTRs) resulted in the ER retention of amyloidogenic M-TTRs but not non-amyloidogenic M-TTRs. Retention of amyloidogenic M-TTRs induced the unfolded protein response and upregulated the expression of ER chaperones BiP and glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 94. Additionally, we showed that the ER-retained amyloidogenic M-TTRs are subject to ER-associated degradation. On the other hand, the amyloidogenic TTR variants and non-amyloidogenic M-TTRs were secreted normally. These findings suggest that unlike for wild-type TTR, the ER quality control system may differentially regulate the fate of the TTR variants and their monomeric counterparts.

    The EMBO journal 2007;26;10;2501-12

  • Association analysis of HSP90B1 with bipolar disorder.

    Kakiuchi C, Ishiwata M, Nanko S, Kunugi H, Minabe Y, Nakamura K, Mori N, Fujii K, Umekage T, Tochigi M, Kohda K, Sasaki T, Yamada K, Yoshikawa T and Kato T

    Laboratory for Molecular Dynamics of Mental Disorders, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.

    Pathophysiological role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response signaling has been suggested for bipolar disorder. The goal of this study was to test the genetic association between bipolar disorder and an ER chaperone gene, HSP90B1 (GRP94/gp96), which is located on a candidate locus, 12q23.3. We tested the genetic association between bipolar disorder and HSP90B1 by case-control studies in two independent Japanese sample sets and by a transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) in NIMH Genetics initiative bipolar trio samples (NIMH trios). We also performed gene expression analysis of HSP90B1 in lymphoblastoid cells. Among the 11 SNPs tested, rs17034977 showed significant association in both Japanese sample sets. The frequency of the SNP was lower in NIMH samples than in Japanese samples and there was no significant association in NIMH trios. Gene expression analysis of HSP90B1 in lymphoblastoid cells suggested a possible relationship between the associated SNP and mRNA levels. HSP90B1 may have a pathophysiological role in bipolar disorder in the Japanese population, though further study will be needed to understand the underlying functional mechanisms.

    Journal of human genetics 2007;52;10;794-803

  • TLR4 up-regulation at protein or gene level is pathogenic for lupus-like autoimmune disease.

    Liu B, Yang Y, Dai J, Medzhitov R, Freudenberg MA, Zhang PL and Li Z

    Department of immunology, Center for Immunotherapy of Cancer and Infectious Diseases, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT 06030-1601, USA.

    TLR4 is the receptor for the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall component LPS. TLR4 signaling is controlled by both positive and negative regulators to balance optimal immune response and potential sepsis. Unchecked TLR4 activation might result in autoimmune diseases, a hypothesis that has not been formally resolved. In this study, we found that TLR4 signaling to LPS can be positively enforced by expressing gp96 on cell surfaces through the chaperone function of, but not the direct signaling by, gp96; TLR4 as well as the commensal flora are essential for the production of anti-dsDNA Ab and the immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis in transgenic mice that express surface gp96. Moreover, a similar constellation of autoimmunity was evident in mice that encode multiple copies of tlr4 gene. Our study has revealed that increased TLR4 signaling alone without exogenous insult can break immunological tolerance. It provides a strong experimental evidence for TLR4 dysregulation as an etiology of lupus-like renal disease.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA100191, CA90337

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2006;177;10;6880-8

  • Proteomic and bioinformatic characterization of the biogenesis and function of melanosomes.

    Chi A, Valencia JC, Hu ZZ, Watabe H, Yamaguchi H, Mangini NJ, Huang H, Canfield VA, Cheng KC, Yang F, Abe R, Yamagishi S, Shabanowitz J, Hearing VJ, Wu C, Appella E and Hunt DF

    Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA.

    Melanin, which is responsible for virtually all visible skin, hair, and eye pigmentation in humans, is synthesized, deposited, and distributed in subcellular organelles termed melanosomes. A comprehensive determination of the protein composition of this organelle has been obstructed by the melanin present. Here, we report a novel method of removing melanin that includes in-solution digestion and immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). Together with in-gel digestion, this method has allowed us to characterize melanosome proteomes at various developmental stages by tandem mass spectrometry. Comparative profiling and functional characterization of the melanosome proteomes identified approximately 1500 proteins in melanosomes of all stages, with approximately 600 in any given stage. These proteins include 16 homologous to mouse coat color genes and many associated with human pigmentary diseases. Approximately 100 proteins shared by melanosomes from pigmented and nonpigmented melanocytes define the essential melanosome proteome. Proteins validated by confirming their intracellular localization include PEDF (pigment-epithelium derived factor) and SLC24A5 (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger 5, NCKX5). The sharing of proteins between melanosomes and other lysosome-related organelles suggests a common evolutionary origin. This work represents a model for the study of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR01744; NHGRI NIH HHS: U01-HG02712; NICHD NIH HHS: HD40179; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 37537

    Journal of proteome research 2006;5;11;3135-44

  • Interaction of TLR2 and TLR4 ligands with the N-terminal domain of Gp96 amplifies innate and adaptive immune responses.

    Warger T, Hilf N, Rechtsteiner G, Haselmayer P, Carrick DM, Jonuleit H, von Landenberg P, Rammensee HG, Nicchitta CV, Radsak MP and Schild H

    Institute of Immunology, University of Mainz, Obere Zahlbacherstrasse 67, 55131 Mainz, Germany.

    Activation of dendritic cells by ligands for Toll-like receptors (TLR) is a crucial event in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Several classes of TLR ligands have been identified that interact with distinct members of the TLR-family. TLR4 ligands include lipopolysaccharide derived from different Gram-negative bacteria and viral proteins. Recent reports have demonstrated the TLR-mediated activation of dendritic cells by heat shock proteins (HSPs). However, doubts were raised as to what extent this effect was due to lipopolysaccharide contaminations of the HSP preparations. We re-examined this phenomenon using Gp96 or its N-terminal domain, nominally endotoxin-free (<0.5 enzyme units/mg). As described previously, innate immune cells are activated by Gp96 at high concentrations (> or =50 microg/ml) but not at lower concentrations. However, preincubation of low amounts of Gp96 with TLR2 and TLR4 ligands at concentrations unable to activate dendritic cells by themselves results in the production of high levels of proinflammatory cytokines, up-regulation of activation markers, and amplification of T cell activation. Our results provide significant new insights into the mechanism of HSP-mediated dendritic cell activation and present a new function of HSPs in the amplification of dendritic cell activation by bacterial products and induction of adaptive immune responses.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;32;22545-53

  • Effects of heat shock protein gp96 on human dendritic cell maturation and CTL expansion.

    Zhang Y, Zan Y, Shan M, Liu C, Shi M, Li W, Zhang Z, Liu N, Wang F, Zhong W, Liao F, Gao GF and Tien P

    Molecular Virology Research Center, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, PR China.

    We reported previously that heat shock protein gp96 and its N-terminal fragment were able to stimulate CTL expansion specific for a HBV peptide (SYVNTNMGL) in BALB/c mice. Here we characterized the adjuvant effects of gp96 on human HLA-A2 restricted T cells. Full-length gp96 isolated from healthy human liver and recombinant fragments both from prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells were analyzed for their ability to stimulate maturation of human dendritic cells. It was found that in vitro these proteins were capable of maturating human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) isolated from healthy donors as well as from HBV-positive, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. In HLA-A2.1/Kb transgenic mice, gp96 and the recombinant fragments were found to augment CTL response specific for the HBcAg(18-27) FLPSDFFPSV peptide of hepatitis B virus.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2006;344;2;581-7

  • Decreased protein and mRNA expression of ER stress proteins GRP78 and GRP94 in HepG2 cells over-expressing CYP2E1.

    Dey A, Kessova IG and Cederbaum AI

    Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.

    CYP2E1 causes oxidative stress mediated cell death; the latter is one mechanism for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the cell. Unfolded proteins accumulate during ER stress and ER resident proteins GRP78 and GRP94 protect cells against ER dysfunction. We examined the possible role of GRP78 and GRP94 as protective factors against CYP2E1-mediated toxicity in HepG2 cells expressing CYP2E1 (E47 cells). E47 cells expressed high levels of CYP2E1 protein and catalytic activity which is associated with increased ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and the elevated presence of ubiquinated and aggregated proteins as compared to control HepG2 C34 cells which do not express CYP2E1. The mRNA and protein expression of GRP78 and GRP94 were decreased in E47 cells compared to the C34 cells, which may explain the accumulation of ubiquinated and aggregated proteins. Expression of these GRP proteins was induced with the ER stress agent thapsigargin in E47 cells, and E47 cells were more resistant to the toxicity caused by thapsigargin and calcimycin, possibly due to this upregulation and also because of the high expression of GSH and antioxidant enzymes in E47 cells. Antioxidants such as trolox and N-acetylcysteine increased GRP78 and GRP94 levels in the E47 cells, suggesting that CYP2E1- derived oxidant stress was responsible for down regulation of these GRPs in the E47 cells. Thapsigargin mediated toxicity was decreased in cells treated with the antioxidant trolox indicating a role for oxidative stress in this toxicity. These results suggest that CYP2E1 mediated oxidative stress downregulates the expression of GRP proteins in HepG2 cells and oxidative stress is an important mechanism in causing ER dysfunction in these cells.

    Funded by: NIAAA NIH HHS: AA 06610

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2006;447;2;155-66

  • Elucidation of N-glycosylation sites on human platelet proteins: a glycoproteomic approach.

    Lewandrowski U, Moebius J, Walter U and Sickmann A

    Protein Mass Spectrometry and Functional Proteomics Group, Rudolf Virchow Center for Experimental Biomedicine, Versbacher Strasse 9, 97078 Wuerzburg, Germany.

    Among known platelet proteins, a prominent and functionally important group is represented by glycoprotein isoforms. They account e.g. for secretory proteins and plasma membrane receptors including integrins and glycoprotein VI as well as intracellular components of cytosol and organelles including storage proteins (multimerin 1 etc.). Although many of those proteins have been studied for some time with regard to their function, little attention has been paid with respect to their glycosylation sites. Here we report the analysis of N-glycosylation sites of human platelet proteins. For the enrichment of glycopeptides, lectin affinity chromatography as well as chemical trapping of protein bound oligosaccharides was used. Therefore, concanavalin A was used for specific interaction with carbohydrate species along with periodic acid oxidation and hydrazide bead trapping of glycosylated proteins. Derivatization by peptide:N-glycosidase F yielded deglycosylated peptides, which provided the basis for the elucidation of proteins and their sites of modification. Using both methods in combination with nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis 70 different glycosylation sites within 41 different proteins were identified. Comparison with the Swiss-Prot database established that the majority of these 70 sites have not been specifically determined by previous research projects. With this approach including hydrazide bead affinity trapping, the immunoglobulin receptor G6f, which is known to couple to the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in the immune system, was shown here for the first time to be present in human platelets.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2006;5;2;226-33

  • The HSP90 family of genes in the human genome: insights into their divergence and evolution.

    Chen B, Piel WH, Gui L, Bruford E and Monteiro A

    Department of Biological Sciences, The State University of New York at Buffalo, NY 14260, USA. bchen2@buffalo.edu

    HSP90 proteins are important molecular chaperones. Transcriptome and genome analyses revealed that the human HSP90 family includes 17 genes that fall into four classes. A standardized nomenclature for each of these genes is presented here. Classes HSP90AA, HSP90AB, HSP90B, and TRAP contain 7, 6, 3, and 1 genes, respectively. HSP90AA genes mapped onto chromosomes 1, 3, 4, and 11; HSP90AB genes mapped onto 3, 4, 6, 13 and 15; HSP90B genes mapped onto 1, 12, and 15; and the TRAP1 gene mapped onto 16. Six genes, HSP90AA1, HSP90AA2, HSP90N, HSP90AB1, HSP90B1 and TRAP1, were recognized as functional, and the remaining 11 genes were considered putative pseudogenes. Amino acid polymorphic variants were detected for genes HSP90AA1, HSP90AA2, HSP90AB1, HSP90B1, and TRAP1. The structures of these genes and the functional motifs and polymorphic variants of their proteins were documented and the features and functions of their proteins were discussed. Phylogenetic analyses based on both nucleotide and protein data demonstrated that HSP90(AA+AB+B) formed a monophyletic clade, whereas TRAP is a relatively distant paralogue of this clade.

    Genomics 2005;86;6;627-37

  • Activated tyrosine kinase Ack1 promotes prostate tumorigenesis: role of Ack1 in polyubiquitination of tumor suppressor Wwox.

    Mahajan NP, Whang YE, Mohler JL and Earp HS

    Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7295, USA.

    Aberrant activation of tyrosine kinases is linked causally to human cancers. Activated Cdc42-associated kinase (Ack1), an intracellular tyrosine kinase, has primarily been studied for its signaling properties but has not been linked to specific pathologic conditions. Herein, we report that expression of activated Ack1 in LNCaP cells, while minimally increasing growth in culture, enhanced anchorage-independent growth in vitro and dramatically accelerated tumorigenesis in nude mice. Molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90beta (Hsp90beta)-bound Ack1 and treatment of cells with geldanamycin, a Hsp90 inhibitor, inhibited Ack1 kinase activity and suppressed tumorigenesis. Further, we identify the tumor suppressor WW domain containing oxidoreductase (Wwox) as an Ack1-interacting protein. Activated Ack1 tyrosine phosphorylated Wwox, leading to rapid dissociation of the Ack1-Wwox complex and concomitant Wwox polyubiquitination followed by degradation. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Wwox was critical for its degradation, as splice variant WwoxDelta5-8 that was not phosphorylated by Ack1 failed to undergo polyubiquitination and degradation. It has been reported that phosphorylation of Wwox at Tyr33 stimulated its proapoptotic activity. We observed that Y33F Wwox mutant was still tyrosine phosphorylated and polyubiquitinated by Ack1 action. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that activated Ack1 primarily phosphorylated Wwox at Tyr287, suggesting that phosphorylation of distinct tyrosine residues activate or degrade Wwox. Primary androgen-independent prostate tumors but not benign prostate showed increased tyrosine-phosphorylated Ack1 and decreased Wwox. Taken together, these data indicate that Ack1 stimulated prostate tumorigenesis in part by negatively regulating the proapoptotic tumor suppressor, Wwox. Further, these findings suggest that Ack1 could be a novel therapeutic target for prostate cancer.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-100700, CA-77739, CA-81503, CA-85772, K08 CA085772, K08 CA085772-06, R21 CA100700, R21 CA100700-02

    Cancer research 2005;65;22;10514-23

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Proteomics of human umbilical vein endothelial cells applied to etoposide-induced apoptosis.

    Bruneel A, Labas V, Mailloux A, Sharma S, Royer N, Vinh J, Pernet P, Vaubourdolle M and Baudin B

    Service de Biochimie A, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, AP-HP, Paris, France. arnaud.bruneel@sat.ap-hop-paris.fr

    We have undertaken to continue the proteomic study of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using the combination of 2-DE, automated trypsin digestion, and PMF analysis after MALDI-TOF MS and peptide sequencing using nano LC-ESI-MS/MS. The overall functional characterization of the 162 identified proteins from primary cultures of HUVECs confirms the metabolic capabilities of endothelium and illustrates various cellular functions more related to cell motility and angiogenesis, protein folding, anti-oxidant defenses, signal transduction, proteasome pathway and resistance to apoptosis. In comparison with controls cells, the differential proteomic analysis of HUVECs treated by the pro-apoptotic topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide further revealed the variation of eight proteins, namely, GRP78, GRP94, valosin-containing protein, proteinase inhibitor 9, cofilin, 37-kDa laminin receptor protein, bovine apolipoprotein, and tropomyosin. These data suggest that etoposide-induced apoptosis of human vascular endothelial cells results from the intricate involvement of multiple apoptosis processes including at least the mitochondrial and the ER stress pathways. The presented 2-D pattern and protein database, as well as the data related to apoptosis of HUVECs, are available at http://www.huvec.com.

    Proteomics 2005;5;15;3876-84

  • Grp78, Grp94, and Grp170 interact with alpha1-antitrypsin mutants that are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Schmidt BZ and Perlmutter DH

    Department of Pediatrics, Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, 3705 Fifth Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213-2583, USA.

    In alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT) deficiency, a mutant form of alpha1-AT polymerizes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of liver cells resulting in chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma by a gain of toxic function mechanism. Although some aspects of the cellular response to mutant alpha1-AT Z have been partially characterized, including the involvement of several proteasomal and nonproteasomal mechanisms for disposal, other parts of the cellular response pathways, particularly the chaperones with which it interacts and the signal transduction pathways that are activated, are still not completely elucidated. The alpha1-AT Z molecule is known to interact with calnexin, but, according to one study, it does not interact with Grp78. To carry out a systematic search for the chaperones with which alpha1-AT Z interacts in the ER, we used chemical cross-linking of several different genetically engineered cell systems. Mutant alpha1-AT Z was cross-linked with Grp78, Grp94, calnexin, Grp170, UDP-glucose glycoprotein:glucosyltransferase, and two unknown proteins of approximately 110-130 kDa. Sequential immunoprecipitation/immunoblot analysis and coimmunoprecipitation techniques demonstrated each of these interactions without chemical cross-linking. The same chaperones were found to interact with two nonpolymerogenic alpha1-AT mutants that are retained in the ER, indicating that these interactions are not specific for the alpha1-AT Z mutant. Moreover, sucrose density gradient centrifugation studies suggest that approximately 85% of alpha1-AT Z exists in heterogeneous soluble complexes with multiple chaperones and approximately 15% in extremely large polymers/aggregates devoid of chaperones. Agents that perturb the synthesis and/or activity of ER chaperones such as tunicamycin and calcium ionophore A23187, have different effects on the solubility and degradation of alpha1-AT Z as well as on its residual secretion.

    American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 2005;289;3;G444-55

  • Gp96 is a receptor for a novel Listeria monocytogenes virulence factor, Vip, a surface protein.

    Cabanes D, Sousa S, Cebriá A, Lecuit M, García-del Portillo F and Cossart P

    Unité des Interactions Bactéries Cellules Institut Pasteur, INSERM U604, INRA USC 2020, Paris, France.

    By comparative genomics, we have identified a gene of the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes that encodes an LPXTG surface protein absent from nonpathogenic Listeria species. This gene, vip, is positively regulated by PrfA, the transcriptional activator of the major Listeria virulence factors. Vip is anchored to the Listeria cell wall by sortase A and is required for entry into some mammalian cells. Using a ligand overlay approach, we identified a cellular receptor for Vip, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident chaperone Gp96 recently shown to interact with TLRs. The Vip-Gp96 interaction is critical for bacterial entry into some cells. Comparative infection studies using oral and intravenous inoculation of nontransgenic and transgenic mice expressing human E-cadherin demonstrated a role for Vip in Listeria virulence, not only at the intestine level but also in late stages of the infectious process. Vip thus appears as a new virulence factor exploiting Gp96 as a receptor for cell invasion and/or signalling events that may interfere with the host immune response in the course of the infection.

    The EMBO journal 2005;24;15;2827-38

  • Co-expression of heat shock protein 70 and glucose-regulated protein 94 in human gastric carcinoma cell line BGC-823.

    Wang XP, Liao J, Liu GZ, Wang XC and Shang HW

    Department of Pathology, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100054, China. wxpphd@yahoo.com.cn

    Aim: To investigate the co-expression and significance of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and glucose-regulated protein 94 (grp94) in human gastric carcinoma cell line BGC-823.

    Methods: The expression and localization of HSP70 and grp94 in human gastric carcinoma cell line BGC-823 were determined by immunocytochemistry and indirect immunofluorescence cytochemical staining. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the correlation between expression of HSP70, grp94 and cell cycle in BGC-823 cell line.

    Results: Gastric cancer cell line BGC-823 expressed high level of HSP70 and grp94. The positive rate of HSP70 and grp94 was 84.9+/-4.94% and 79.6+/-5.16%, respectively. Both of them were stained in cell plasma. There was a significant difference compared with control group (1.9+/-0.94%, P<0.01). During the cell cycle, HSP70 and grp94 were continuously expressed in BGC-823.

    Conclusion: HSP70 and grp94 are highly expressed in human gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cells through the whole cell cycle. There is no relationship between expression of HSP70, grp94 and cell cycle.

    World journal of gastroenterology 2005;11;23;3601-4

  • Testing the role of gp96 as peptide chaperone in antigen processing.

    Demine R and Walden P

    Charité-University Medicine Berlin, Humboldt University, Clinical Research Group Tumor Immunology, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, D-10098 Berlin, Germany.

    gp96 is a 96-kDa glycoprotein of the endoplasmic reticulum that is believed to be involved in antigen processing as an intermediate carrier of peptides for presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. This function implies that gp96 carries a large array of different peptides that represent the antigenicity of the cell and can serve all MHC class I molecules. So far, the evidence regarding these peptides is largely indirect and based on experiments where mice immunized with gp96 from tumor or virus-infected cells developed T cellular immune responses with the corresponding specificities. We analyzed by mass spectrometry peptides isolated from gp96 and found a number of different peptides derived from the proteins of different cellular compartments but mostly cytoplasm and nucleus. The sequences of these peptides provide information on the specificity of antigen processing and reveal structural requirements for binding to gp96 that only partially correspond to those of peptides presented by MHC class I molecules. The yield of peptides extracted from gp96 was far substoichiometric with an estimated occupancy of this chaperone of between 0.1% and 0.4%. These results strongly argue against a regular role for gp96 as a peptide chaperone in antigen processing.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;18;17573-8

  • Protein profiling of human pancreatic islets by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Ahmed M, Forsberg J and Bergsten P

    Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. meftun.khandker@drl.ox.ac.uk

    Completion of the human genome sequence has provided scientists with powerful resources with which to explore the molecular events associated with disease states such as diabetes. Understanding the relative levels of expression of gene products, especially of proteins, and their post-translational modifications will be critical. However, though the pancreatic islets play a key role in glucose homeostasis, global protein expression data in human are decidedly lacking. We here report the two-dimensional protein map and database of human pancreatic islets. A high level of reproducibility was obtained among the gels and a total of 744 protein spots were detected. We have successfully identified 130 spots corresponding to 66 different protein entries and generated a reference map of human islets. The functionally characterized proteins include enzymes, chaperones, cellular structural proteins, cellular defense proteins, signaling molecules, and transport proteins. A number of proteins identified in this study (e.g., annexin A2, elongation factor 1-alpha 2, histone H2B.a/g/k, heat shock protein 90 beta, heat shock 27 kDa protein, cyclophilin B, peroxiredoxin 4, cytokeratins 7, 18, and 19) have not been previously described in the database of mouse pancreatic islets. In addition, altered expression of several proteins, like GRP78, GRP94, PDI, calreticulin, annexin, cytokeratins, profilin, heat shock proteins, and ORP150 have been associated with the development of diabetes. The data presented in this study provides a first-draft reference map of the human islet proteome, that will pave the way for further proteome analysis of pancreatic islets in both healthy and diabetic individuals, generating insights into the pathophysiology of this condition.

    Journal of proteome research 2005;4;3;931-40

  • Expression and significance of heat shock protein 70 and glucose-regulated protein 94 in human esophageal carcinoma.

    Wang XP, Liu GZ, Song AL, Chen RF, Li HY and Liu Y

    Department of Pathology, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100054, China. wxpphd@yahoo.com.cn

    Aim: To investigate the expression and significance of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and glucose-regulated protein 94 (grp94) in human esophageal carcinoma and adjacent normal tissues.

    Methods: The expression of HSP70 and grp94 in 78 human esophageal cancer and adjacent normal tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and pathology photograph analysis.

    Results: Both esophageal cancer and adjacent normal tissues could express HSP70 and grp94. Of the 78 cases of esophageal carcinoma, 95.0%(72/78) showed positive HSP70, mainly stained in nuclei, while grp94 was mainly stained in cell plasma, and the positive rate was 71.8%(56/78). There was a significant difference in the expression of HSP70 and grp94 between esophageal cancer and adjacent normal tissues (P<0.01). Compared with adjacent normal tissues, there was a significant difference between differential types and HSP70 expression (P<0.01).

    Conclusion: HSP70 and grp94 express differently in cell plasma and nuclei. The expression intensity of HSP70 is related to the differentiation of esophageal carcinoma.

    World journal of gastroenterology 2005;11;3;429-32

  • Up-regulation of 94-kDa glucose-regulated protein by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in human endothelial cells in response to hypoxia.

    Paris S, Denis H, Delaive E, Dieu M, Dumont V, Ninane N, Raes M and Michiels C

    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology, University of Namur, 61 Rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur, Belgium.

    Hypoxic environment in solid tumor is known to favor cell survival and to initiate the formation of new capillaries. In this work, we identified by 2D gel analysis 94-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP94) as being upregulated in human endothelial cells in response to hypoxia. Three putative hypoxia responsive elements (HRE) were found in the GRP94 promoter. Competition experiments of HIF-1 DNA binding using specific probes containing each HRE sequence of the GRP94 promoter clearly evidenced that HIF-1 binds these sequences with high affinity. The human GRP94 promoter was then cloned upstream of the luciferase gene and showed enhanced activity in hypoxic conditions. Mutation of two of the three HREs present in this promoter completely inhibited the hypoxia-induced increase in luciferase activity.

    FEBS letters 2005;579;1;105-14

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Dendritic cells, T-cell infiltration, and Grp94 expression in cholangiocellular carcinoma.

    Takagi S, Miyagawa S, Ichikawa E, Soeda J, Miwa S, Miyagawa Y, Iijima S, Noike T, Kobayashi A and Kawasaki S

    First Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Nagano, Japan.

    Although dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in tumor immunity, there have been no reports on their role in cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC). In 26 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from patients with CCC, cells positive for CD83 (a marker of mature DCs), CD1a (a marker of immature DCs), and CD8 and CD4 (T cell markers) were counted, and expression of glucose-regulated protein (grp) 94, which is considered to participate in the maturation of DCs, was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis to study the relationship between their expression and patients' disease outcome. The number of CD83-positive DCs at the invasive margin of CCCs correlated significantly with the number of CD8-positive or CD4-positive T cells in the cancerous region and was significantly higher in grp94-positive cancer than in grp94-negative cancer (P = 0.0006). CD83-positive patients (positive cells in invasive margin > 12.4/field) had both a significantly lower incidence of lymph node metastasis (23.1% vs 69.2%; P = 0.0206) and a better outcome than CD83-negative patients (P <0.001). We conclude that mature DCs are distributed predominantly at the invasive margin of cancers, and a significantly higher number of mature DCs at the invasive margin are observed in patients with grp94-positive cancer cells. Mature DCs may enhance CD8- and CD4-positive cell infiltration into cancers and improve prognosis in patients with CCC, due in part to abatement of lymph node metastasis.

    Human pathology 2004;35;7;881-6

  • GRP94 reduces cell death in SH-SY5Y cells perturbated calcium homeostasis.

    Bando Y, Katayama T, Aleshin AN, Manabe T and Tohyama M

    Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ybando@asahikawa-med.ac.jp

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident-94 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP94), plays a pivotal role in cell death due to ER stress. In our study expression of GRP94 was increased in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells due to exposure to calcium ionophore A23187. A23187-mediated cell death was associated with activation of the major cysteine proteases, caspase-3 and calpain. Pretreatment with adenovirus-mediated antisense GRP94 (AdGRP94AS) reduced viability of SH-SY5Y cells subjected to A23187 treatment compared with wild type cells or cells with adenovirus-mediated overexpression of GRP94 (AdGRP94S). These results indicated that suppression of GRP94 is associated with accelerated cell death. Moreover, expression of GRP94 suppressed A23187-induced cell death and stabilized calcium homeostasis.

    Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death 2004;9;4;501-8

  • The Fanconi anemia core complex forms four complexes of different sizes in different subcellular compartments.

    Thomashevski A, High AA, Drozd M, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Grant PA and Kupfer GM

    Department of Microbiology, University of Virginia Health System, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disease marked by congenital defects, bone marrow failure, and cancer susceptibility. FA cells exhibit a characteristic hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents such as mitomycin C. The molecular mechanism for the disease remains elusive, but at least 6 FA proteins are known to be part of what is termed the FA core complex. We used affinity pulldown of FLAG-FANCA to pull down the FA complex from whole-cell extracts. Mass spectroscopy detected previously reported FA-binding proteins, including FANCA, FANCC, FANCG, cdc2, and GRP94, thus validating the approach. We further describe a method of purification of the FA core complex in an effort to find novel complex components and biochemical activity to define the function of the complex. By using conventional chromatographic fractionation of subcellular preparations, we report: (i) the FA core complex exists in a cytoplasmic form at 500-600 kDa; (ii) a larger, 750-kDa cytoplasmic form is seen only at mitosis; (iii) a nuclear form achieves a size of 2 megaDaltons; and (iv) a distinct 1-megaDalton FA core complex exists bound to chromatin that contains phosphorylated FANCA after undergoing DNA damage. We are continuing our analysis using mass spectroscopy in an effort to characterize novel binding proteins. These data will help define the biochemical role of the FA core complex in normal cell physiology as well as in the development of the FA disease state.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;25;26201-9

  • Normal development and fertility of knockout mice lacking the tumor suppressor gene LRP1b suggest functional compensation by LRP1.

    Marschang P, Brich J, Weeber EJ, Sweatt JD, Shelton JM, Richardson JA, Hammer RE and Herz J

    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.

    LRP1b and the closely related LRP1 are large members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family. At the protein level LRP1b is 55% identical to LRP1, a multifunctional and developmentally essential receptor with roles in cargo transport and cellular signaling. Somatic LRP1b mutations frequently occur in non-small cell lung cancer and urothelial cancers, suggesting a role in the modulation of cellular growth. In contrast to LRP1, LRP1b-deficient mice develop normally, most likely due to its restricted expression pattern and functional compensation by LRP1 or other receptors. LRP1b is expressed predominantly in the brain, and a differentially spliced form is present in the adrenal gland and in the testis. Despite the presence of a potential furin cleavage site and in contrast to LRP1, immunoblotting for LRP1b reveals the presence of a single 600-kDa polypeptide species. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we have identified two intracellular proteins, the postsynaptic density protein 95 and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein, that bind to the intracellular domain of LRP1b. In addition, we have found several potential ligands that bind to the extracellular domain. Analysis of LRP1b knockout mice may provide further insights into the role of LRP1b as a tumor suppressor and into the mechanisms of cancer development.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL20948, HL63762, P01 HL020948, R01 HL063762, R37 HL063762; NINDS NIH HHS: NS43408, R01 NS043408

    Molecular and cellular biology 2004;24;9;3782-93

  • Down-regulation of gp96 by Orientia tsutsugamushi.

    Cho NH, Choi CY and Seong SY

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Korea.

    gp96 plays a central role in innate as well as acquired immunity, maturation and chemotaxis of dendritic cells, Ab production, and cross-priming, and is a peptide acceptor in endoplasmic reticulum and an accessory to peptide loading of MHC class I molecules. The remarkable conservation of essential immunological properties of gp96 suggests their important roles during the evolution of the immune system. Considering their importance in immunity, immune evasion mechanisms of pathogens by modulating gp96 expression have been speculated. By differential display PCR, we observed that obligate intracellular bacteria, Orientia tsutsugamushi, inhibit gp96 expression of a macrophage cell line, J774A.1. Not only gp96 transcripts but also protein was lower than for null-infected cells. The down-regulation was also consistent in an endothelial cell line, HMEC-1, and in murine peritoneal cells. These data support the idea that gp96 may be one of the target molecules for the immune evasion by intracellular bacteria.

    Microbiology and immunology 2004;48;4;297-305

  • Human tumor-derived heat shock protein 96 mediates in vitro activation and in vivo expansion of melanoma- and colon carcinoma-specific T cells.

    Rivoltini L, Castelli C, Carrabba M, Mazzaferro V, Pilla L, Huber V, Coppa J, Gallino G, Scheibenbogen C, Squarcina P, Cova A, Camerini R, Lewis JJ, Srivastava PK and Parmiani G

    Unit of Immunotherapy of Human Tumor, Gastrointestinal and Liver Surgery Unit, and. Colorectal Surgery Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Milan, Italy. licia.rivoltini@istitutomori.mi.it

    Heat shock proteins (hsp) 96 play an essential role in protein metabolism and exert stimulatory activities on innate and adaptive immunity. Vaccination with tumor-derived hsp96 induces CD8(+) T cell-mediated tumor regressions in different animal models. In this study, we show that hsp96 purified from human melanoma or colon carcinoma activate tumor- and Ag-specific T cells in vitro and expand them in vivo. HLA-A*0201-restricted CD8(+) T cells recognizing Ags expressed in human melanoma (melanoma Ag recognized by T cell-1 (MART-1)/melanoma Ag A (Melan-A)) or colon carcinoma (carcinoembryonic Ag (CEA)/epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)) were triggered to release IFN-gamma and to mediate cytotoxic activity by HLA-A*0201-matched APCs pulsed with hsp96 purified from tumor cells expressing the relevant Ag. Such activation occurred in class I HLA-restricted fashion and appeared to be significantly higher than that achieved by direct peptide loading. Immunization with autologous tumor-derived hsp96 induced a significant increase in the recognition of MART-1/Melan-A(27-35) in three of five HLA-A*0201 melanoma patients, and of CEA(571-579) and EpCAM(263-271) in two of five HLA-A*0201 colon carcinoma patients, respectively, as detected by ELISPOT and HLA/tetramer staining. These increments in Ag-specific T cell responses were associated with a favorable disease course after hsp96 vaccination. Altogether, these data provide evidence that hsp96 derived from human tumors can present antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells and activate them both in vitro and in vivo, thus representing an important tool for vaccination in cancer patients.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2003;171;7;3467-74

  • Yeast two-hybrid screens imply involvement of Fanconi anemia proteins in transcription regulation, cell signaling, oxidative metabolism, and cellular transport.

    Reuter TY, Medhurst AL, Waisfisz Q, Zhi Y, Herterich S, Hoehn H, Gross HJ, Joenje H, Hoatlin ME, Mathew CG and Huber PA

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg, Germany.

    Mutations in one of at least eight different genes cause bone marrow failure, chromosome instability, and predisposition to cancer associated with the rare genetic syndrome Fanconi anemia (FA). The cloning of seven genes has provided the tools to study the molecular pathway disrupted in Fanconi anemia patients. The structure of the genes and their gene products provided few clues to their functional role. We report here the use of 3 FA proteins, FANCA, FANCC, and FANCG, as "baits" in the hunt for interactors to obtain clues for FA protein functions. Using five different human cDNA libraries we screened 36.5x10(6) clones with the technique of the yeast two-hybrid system. We identified 69 proteins which have not previously been linked to the FA pathway as direct interactors of FANCA, FANCC, or FANCG. Most of these proteins are associated with four functional classes including transcription regulation (21 proteins), signaling (13 proteins), oxidative metabolism (10 proteins), and intracellular transport (11 proteins). Interaction with 6 proteins, DAXX, Ran, IkappaBgamma, USP14, and the previously reported SNX5 and FAZF, was additionally confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and/or colocalization studies. Taken together, our data strongly support the hypothesis that FA proteins are functionally involved in several complex cellular pathways including transcription regulation, cell signaling, oxidative metabolism, and cellular transport.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL56045

    Experimental cell research 2003;289;2;211-21

  • Identification and quantification of N-linked glycoproteins using hydrazide chemistry, stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometry.

    Zhang H, Li XJ, Martin DB and Aebersold R

    Institute for Systems Biology, 1441 N 34th Street, Seattle, Washington 98103-8904, USA.

    Quantitative proteome profiling using stable isotope protein tagging and automated tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is an emerging technology with great potential for the functional analysis of biological systems and for the detection of clinical diagnostic or prognostic marker proteins. Owing to the enormous complexity of proteomes, their comprehensive analysis is an as-yet-unresolved technical challenge. However, biologically or clinically important information can be obtained if specific, information-rich protein classes, or sub-proteomes, are isolated and analyzed. Glycosylation is the most common post-translational modification. Here we describe a method for the selective isolation, identification and quantification of peptides that contain N-linked carbohydrates. It is based on the conjugation of glycoproteins to a solid support using hydrazide chemistry, stable isotope labeling of glycopeptides and the specific release of formerly N-linked glycosylated peptides via peptide- N-glycosidase F (PNGase F). The recovered peptides are then identified and quantified by MS/MS. We applied the approach to the analysis of plasma membrane proteins and proteins contained in human blood serum.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: K08CA97282-01, R33 CA93302

    Nature biotechnology 2003;21;6;660-6

  • Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides.

    Gevaert K, Goethals M, Martens L, Van Damme J, Staes A, Thomas GR and Vandekerckhove J

    Department of Medical Protein Research, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Ghent University, A. Baertsoenkaai 3, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. kris.gevaert@rug.ac.be

    Current non-gel techniques for analyzing proteomes rely heavily on mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatically digested protein mixtures. Prior to analysis, a highly complex peptide mixture is either separated on a multidimensional chromatographic system or it is first reduced in complexity by isolating sets of representative peptides. Recently, we developed a peptide isolation procedure based on diagonal electrophoresis and diagonal chromatography. We call it combined fractional diagonal chromatography (COFRADIC). In previous experiments, we used COFRADIC to identify more than 800 Escherichia coli proteins by tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis of isolated methionine-containing peptides. Here, we describe a diagonal method to isolate N-terminal peptides. This reduces the complexity of the peptide sample, because each protein has one N terminus and is thus represented by only one peptide. In this new procedure, free amino groups in proteins are first blocked by acetylation and then digested with trypsin. After reverse-phase (RP) chromatographic fractionation of the generated peptide mixture, internal peptides are blocked using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); they display a strong hydrophobic shift and therefore segregate from the unaltered N-terminal peptides during a second identical separation step. N-terminal peptides can thereby be specifically collected for further liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis. Omitting the acetylation step results in the isolation of non-lysine-containing N-terminal peptides from in vivo blocked proteins.

    Nature biotechnology 2003;21;5;566-9

  • Cloning and expression of the Escherichia coli K1 outer membrane protein A receptor, a gp96 homologue.

    Prasadarao NV, Srivastava PK, Rudrabhatla RS, Kim KS, Huang SH and Sukumaran SK

    Division of Infectious Diseases, MS #51, Children's Hospital Los Angeles and Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA. pnemani@chla.usc.edu

    Escherichia coli is one of the most common gram-negative bacteria that cause meningitis in neonates. Our previous studies have shown that outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of E. coli interacts with a 95-kDa human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC) glycoprotein, Ecgp, for invasion. Here, we report the identification of a gene that encodes Ecgp by screening of an HBMEC cDNA expression library as well as by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The sequence of the Ecgp gene shows that it is highly similar to gp96, a tumor rejection antigen-1, and contains an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal, KDEL. Overexpression of either Ecgp or gp96 in both HBMECs and CHO cells increases E. coli binding and invasion. We further show that Ecgp gene-transfected HBMECs express Ecgp on the cell surface despite the presence of the KDEL motif. Northern blot analysis of total RNA from various eukaryotic cells indicates that Ecgp is significantly expressed in HBMECs. Recombinant His-tagged Ecgp blocked E. coli invasion efficiently by binding directly to the bacteria. These results suggest that OmpA of E. coli K1 interacts with a gp96-like molecule on HBMECs for invasion.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI 40567; NICHD NIH HHS: HD 41525

    Infection and immunity 2003;71;4;1680-8

  • Nascent lipidated apolipoprotein B is transported to the Golgi as an incompletely folded intermediate as probed by its association with network of endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperones, GRP94, ERp72, BiP, calreticulin, and cyclophilin B.

    Zhang J and Herscovitz H

    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Center for Advanced Biomedical Research, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

    We have previously demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident molecular chaperones interact with apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB) during its maturation. The initial stages of apoB folding occur while it is bound to the ER membrane, where it becomes partially lipidated to form a primordial intermediate. We determined whether this intermediate is dependent on the assistance of molecular chaperones for its subsequent folding steps. To that end, microsomes were prepared from HepG2 cells and luminal contents were subjected to KBr density gradient centrifugation. Immunoprecipitation of apoB followed by Western blotting showed that the luminal pool floated at a density of 1.12 g/ml and, like the membrane-bound pool, was associated with GRP94, ERp72, BiP, calreticulin, and cyclophilin B. Except for calreticulin, chaperone/apoB ratio in the lumen was severalfold higher than that in the membrane, suggesting a role for these chaperones both in facilitating the release of the primordial intermediate into the ER lumen and in providing stability. Subcellular fractionation on sucrose gradients showed that apoB in the Golgi was associated with the same array of chaperones as the pool of apoB recovered from heavy microsomes containing the ER, except that chaperone/apoB ratio was lower. KBr density gradient fractionation showed that the major pool of luminal apoB in the Golgi was recovered from 1.02 < d < 1.08 g/ml, whereas apoB in ER was recovered primarily from 1.08 < d < 1.2 g/ml. Both fractions were associated with the same spectrum of chaperones. Together with the finding that GRP94 was found associated with sialylated apoB, we conclude that correct folding of apoB is dependent on the assistance of molecular chaperone, which play multiple roles in its maturation throughout the secretory pathway including distal compartments such as the trans-Golgi network.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-26335, HL-58833

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;9;7459-68

  • Proteomic analysis of early melanosomes: identification of novel melanosomal proteins.

    Basrur V, Yang F, Kushimoto T, Higashimoto Y, Yasumoto K, Valencia J, Muller J, Vieira WD, Watabe H, Shabanowitz J, Hearing VJ, Hunt DF and Appella E

    Laboratory of Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    Melanin is a heterogeneous biopolymer produced only by specific cells termed melanocytes, which synthesize and deposit the pigment in specialized membrane-bound organelles known as melanosomes. Although melanosomes have been suspected of being closely related to lysosomes and platelets, the total number of melanosomal proteins is still unknown. Thus far, six melanosome-specific proteins have been identified, and the challenge is to characterize the complete proteome of the melanosome to further understand its mechanism of biogenesis. In this report, we used mass spectrometry and subcellular fractionation to identify protein components of early melanosomes. Using this approach, we have identified all 6 of the known melanosome-specific proteins, 56 proteins that are shared with other organelles, and confirmed the presence of 6 novel melanosomal proteins using western blotting and by immunohistochemistry.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 37537

    Journal of proteome research 2003;2;1;69-79

  • A subset of chaperones and folding enzymes form multiprotein complexes in endoplasmic reticulum to bind nascent proteins.

    Meunier L, Usherwood YK, Chung KT and Hendershot LM

    Department of Tumor Cell Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.

    We demonstrate the existence of a large endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized multiprotein complex that is comprised of the molecular chaperones BiP; GRP94; CaBP1; protein disulfide isomerase (PDI); ERdj3, a recently identified ER Hsp40 cochaperone; cyclophilin B; ERp72; GRP170; UDP-glucosyltransferase; and SDF2-L1. This complex is associated with unassembled, incompletely folded immunoglobulin heavy chains. Except for ERdj3, and to a lesser extent PDI, this complex also forms in the absence of nascent protein synthesis and is found in a variety of cell types. Cross-linking studies reveal that the majority of these chaperones are included in the complex. Our data suggest that this subset of ER chaperones forms an ER network that can bind to unfolded protein substrates instead of existing as free pools that assembled onto substrate proteins. It is noticeable that most of the components of the calnexin/calreticulin system, which include some of the most abundant chaperones inside the ER, are either not detected in this complex or only very poorly represented. This study demonstrates an organization of ER chaperones and folding enzymes that has not been previously appreciated and suggests a spatial separation of the two chaperone systems that may account for the temporal interactions observed in other studies.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-21765, P30 CA021765; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-54068, R01 GM054068

    Molecular biology of the cell 2002;13;12;4456-69

  • Phosphorylation-dependent interaction of the asialoglycoprotein receptor with molecular chaperones.

    Huang T, Deng H, Wolkoff AW and Stockert RJ

    Marion Bessin Liver Research Center and the Departments of Medicine and Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.

    A membrane protein trafficking mutant (Trf1) of HuH-7 alters the asialoglycoprotein (ASGPR) and transferrin receptor subcellular distribution. Expression cloning of a cDNA complementing the trf1 mutation led to the discovery of a novel casein Kinase 2 catalytic subunit (CK2alpha"). To purify potential CK2alpha" phosphorylation-dependent sorting proteins from cytosol, the ASGPR cytoplasmic domain was expressed as a GST fusion protein and immobilized on glutathione-agarose. In the absence of phosphorylation, only trace amounts of cytosol protein were bound and eluted. When the fusion protein was phosphorylated, a heterocomplex of potential sorting proteins was recovered. Mass spectrometer and immunoblot analysis identified five of these proteins as gp96, HSP70, HSP90, cyclophilin-A, and FKBP18. Treatment of HuH-7 with rapamycin to disrupt the heterocomplex reduced surface ASGPR binding activity by 65 +/- 5.7%. In Trf1 cells, surface-binding activity was 48 +/- 7% of that in HuH-7 and was not further reduced by rapamycin treatment. Immunoanalysis showed significantly fewer surface receptors on rapamycin-treated HuH7 cells than on nontreated cells, with no affect on the level of surface receptors in Trf1 cells. The data presented provide evidence that phosphorylation of the ASGPR cytoplasmic domain is required for the binding of specific molecular chaperones with the potential to regulate receptor trafficking.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 17702, DK 41918

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;40;37798-803

  • Mortalin: present and prospective.

    Kaul SC, Taira K, Pereira-Smith OM and Wadhwa R

    Research Center for Glycoscience, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566, Japan.

    Mortalin, also known as mthsp70/PBP74/GRP75, resides in multiple subcellular sites including mitochondria, ER, plasma membrane, cytoplasmic vesicles and cytosol. It is differentially distributed in normal and cancerous cells; the latter, when reverted back to normal phenotype, also show change in mortalin staining pattern similar to normal cells. Depending on its different subcellular niche and binding partner therein, mortalin is expected to perform multiple functions relevant to cell survival, control of proliferation and stress response.

    Experimental gerontology 2002;37;10-11;1157-64

  • The endoplasmic reticulum-resident heat shock protein Gp96 activates dendritic cells via the Toll-like receptor 2/4 pathway.

    Vabulas RM, Braedel S, Hilf N, Singh-Jasuja H, Herter S, Ahmad-Nejad P, Kirschning CJ, Da Costa C, Rammensee HG, Wagner H and Schild H

    Institute for Cell Biology, Department of Immunology, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 15, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.

    The heat shock protein Gp96 has been shown to induce specific immune responses. On one hand, this phenomenon is based on the specific interaction with CD91 that mediates endocytosis and results in major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted representation of the Gp96-associated peptides. On the other hand, Gp96 induces activation of professional antigen-presenting cells, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and up-regulation of costimulatory molecules by unknown mechanisms. In this study, we have analyzed the consequences of Gp96 interaction with cells expressing different Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells from mice lacking functional TLR2 and/or TLR4 molecules. We find that the Gp96-TLR2/4 interaction results in activation of nuclear factor kappaB-driven reporter genes and mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinases and induces IkappaBalpha degradation. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells of C3H/HeJ and more pronounced C3H/HeJ/TLR2(-/-) mice fail to respond to Gp96. Interestingly, activation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells depends on endocytosis of Gp96 molecules. Our results provide, for the first time, the molecular basis for understanding the Gp96-mediated activation of antigen-presenting cells by describing the simultaneous stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune system. This feature explains the remarkable ability of Gp96 to induce specific immune responses against tumors and pathogens.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;23;20847-53

  • Dimerization and release of molecular chaperone inhibition facilitate activation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 kinase in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Ma K, Vattem KM and Wek RC

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA.

    Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2) by pancreatic eIF2 kinase (PEK), induces a program of translational expression in response to accumulation of malfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This study addresses the mechanisms activating PEK, also designated PERK or EIF2AK3. We describe the characterization of two regions in the ER luminal portion of the transmembrane PEK that carry out distinct functions in the regulation of this eIF2 kinase. The first region mediates oligomerization between PEK polypeptides, and deletion of this portion of PEK blocked induction of eIF2 kinase activity. The second characterized region of PEK facilitates interaction with ER chaperones. In the absence of stress, PEK associates with ER chaperones GRP78 (BiP) and GRP94, and this binding is released in response to ER stress. ER luminal sequences flanking the transmembrane domain are required for GRP78 interaction, and deletion of this portion of PEK led to its activation even in the absence of ER stress. These results suggest that this ER chaperone serves as a repressor of PEK activity, and release of ER chaperones from PEK when misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER induces gene expression required to enhance the protein folding capacity of the ER.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01GM49164, R01GM643540

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;21;18728-35

  • An integrated view of the roles and mechanisms of heat shock protein gp96-peptide complex in eliciting immune response.

    Li Z, Dai J, Zheng H, Liu B and Caudill M

    Center for Immunotherapy of Cancer and Infectious Diseases, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT 06030-1601, USA. zli@up.uchc.edu

    Heat shock protein (HSP) gp96, or grp94 is an endoplasmic reticular (ER) paralog of the cytosolic HSP90. Being abundant and non-polymorphic, gp96 plays significant roles in maintaining protein homeostasis in the secretory pathway. This "house-keeping" role of gp96 has now been overshadowed by the intriguing findings that gp96 modulates both the innate and adaptive components of the immune system. It has been found that, (i) gp96 is one of the major peptide binding proteins in the ER, (ii) gp96 interacts specifically with receptors including CD91 and possibly toll-like receptors (TLRs), on the surface of professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), (iii) interaction with APCs leads to re-presentation of gp96-chaperoned peptides to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules of APCs, (iv) direct access of gp96 to APCs triggers functional activation of APCs. In this review, we will examine each of these immunological attributes of gp96 critically. As experimentalists, we will also propose specific experiments to examine the argument that gp96, perhaps along with other members of HSP family, is the antigenic carrier for mediating cross priming of antigen-specific T lymphocytes in vertebrates.

    Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library 2002;7;d731-51

  • Host cell proteins binding to the encapsidation signal epsilon in hepatitis B virus RNA.

    Shin HJ, Kim SS, Cho YH, Lee SG and Rho HM

    School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Korea.

    The highly conserved encapsidation signal (epsilon) of hepatitis B viral (HBV) pregenomic RNA has been reported as an essential component for encapsidation and protein priming of HBV polymerase. Here, we report that two HBV epsilon RNA-binding host proteins (80 and 43 kDa) and a copurifying protein (100 kDa) were purified and characterized by the combined methods of UV cross-linking analysis with the epsilon RNA and column chromatography. Amino-terminal microsequencing showed that 80- and 43-kDa proteins were identified as the heterodimeric nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF90/NF45) and 100 kDa as a molecular chaperone, the GRP94. The heterodimeric factor interacted preferentially with the upper-bulge region of HBV epsilon RNA helping the HBV polymerase bind the lower-bulge region. Using in vitro protein priming analysis, the initial oligonucleotide of the protein-priming product was deduced as 5'-GAAC-3', which is the complementary sequence of both regions of DR1 and epsilon in the pregenomic RNA. Previously, we also proposed that the GRP94 was associated with HBV polymerase in the human liver cell HepG2. These results suggest that the heterodimeric factor plays an important role in the priming activity of HBV polymerase.

    Archives of virology 2002;147;3;471-91

  • Fanconi anemia protein, FANCA, associates with BRG1, a component of the human SWI/SNF complex.

    Otsuki T, Furukawa Y, Ikeda K, Endo H, Yamashita T, Shinohara A, Iwamatsu A, Ozawa K and Liu JM

    Department of Hematology, Jichi Medical School, Yakushiji 3311-1, Minamikawachi, Kawachi, Tochigi 329-0498, Japan.

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disorder that predisposes to hematopoietic failure, birth defects and cancer. We identified an interaction between the FA protein, FANCA and brm-related gene 1 (BRG1) product. BRG1 is a subunit of the SWI/SNF complex, which remodels chromatin structure through a DNA-dependent ATPase activity. FANCA was demonstrated to associate with the endogenous SWI/SNF complex. We also found a significant increase in the molecular chaperone, glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) among BRG1-associated factors isolated from a FANCA-mutant cell line, which was not seen in either a normal control cell line or the mutant line complemented by wild-type FANCA. Despite this specific difference, FANCA did not appear to be absolutely required for in vitro chromatin remodeling. Finally, we demonstrated co-localization in the nucleus between transfected FANCA and BRG1. The physiological action of FANCA on the SWI/SNF complex remains to be clarified, but our work suggests that FANCA may recruit the SWI/SNF complex to target genes, thereby enabling coupled nuclear functions such as transcription and DNA repair.

    Human molecular genetics 2001;10;23;2651-60

  • Endoplasmic reticulum chaperone gp96 is required for innate immunity but not cell viability.

    Randow F and Seed B

    Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Molecular Biology, 50 Blossom Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.

    Chaperone proteins are thought to promote the correct folding and assembly of newly synthesized proteins and to facilitate restoration of the folded state under environmental conditions that favour protein denaturation. They are among the most ubiquitous and highly conserved of all proteins. The eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone gp96 in particular has long been thought to be indispensable for cell survival. Here we report that a screen for genes required for the immune response to bacterial endotoxins has identified a B-cell line deficient in gp96. Absence of gp96 is compatible with cellular survival even under stress conditions and causes a defect in the formation of only a small subset of cell surface receptors. Toll-like receptors are retained intracellularly in the absence of gp96, explaining the unresponsiveness of the mutant to microbial stimuli.

    Nature cell biology 2001;3;10;891-6

  • The carboxy-terminal domain of Grp94 binds to protein kinase CK2 alpha but not to CK2 holoenzyme.

    Roher N, Sarno S, Miró F, Ruzzene M, Llorens F, Meggio F, Itarte E, Pinna LA and Plana M

    Department de Bioquímica i Biologia Molcular, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.

    Surface plasmon resonance analysis shows that the carboxy-terminal domain of Grp94 (Grp94-CT, residues 518-803) physically interacts with the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 (CK2 alpha) under non-stressed conditions. A K(D) of 4 x 10(-7) was determined for this binding. Heparin competed with Grp94-CT for binding to CK2 alpha. CK2 beta also inhibited the binding of Grp94-CT to CK2 alpha, and CK2 holoenzyme reconstituted in vitro was unable to bind Grp94-CT. The use of CK2 alpha mutants made it possible to map the Grp94-CT binding site to the four lysine stretch (residues 74-77) present in helix C of CK2 alpha. Grp94-CT stimulated the activity of CK2 alpha wild-type but was ineffective on the CK2 alpha K74-77A mutant.

    FEBS letters 2001;505;1;42-6

  • A novel von Willebrand disease-causing mutation (Arg273Trp) in the von Willebrand factor propeptide that results in defective multimerization and secretion.

    Allen S, Abuzenadah AM, Hinks J, Blagg JL, Gursel T, Ingerslev J, Goodeve AC, Peake IR and Daly ME

    Division of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, University of Sheffield, UK. simon.allen@sheffield.ac.uk

    In this report we describe the molecular defect underlying partial and severe quantitative von Willebrand factor (VWF) deficiencies in 3 families previously diagnosed with types 1 and 3 Von Willebrand-disease. Analysis of the VWF gene in affected family members revealed a novel C to T transition at nucleotide 1067 of the VWF complemetary DNA (cDNA), predicting substitution of arginine by tryptophan at amino acid position 273 (R273W) of pre-pro-VWF. Two patients, homozygous for the R273W mutation, had a partial VWF deficiency (VWF:Ag levels of 0.06 IU/mL and 0.09 IU/mL) and lacked high-molecular weight VWF multimers in plasma. A third patient, also homozygous for the R273W mutation, had a severe VWF deficiency (VWF:Ag level of less than 0.01 IU/mL) and undetectable VWF multimers in plasma. Recombinant VWF having the R273W mutation was expressed in COS-7 cells. Pulse-chase experiments showed that secretion of rVWFR273W was severely impaired compared with wild-type rVWF. However, the mutation did not affect the ability of VWF to form dimers in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Multimer analysis showed that rVWFR273W failed to form high-molecular-weight multimers present in wild-type rVWF. We concluded that the R273W mutation is responsible for the quantitative VWF deficiencies and aberrant multimer patterns observed in the affected family members. To identify factors that may function in the intracellular retention of rVWFR273W, we investigated the interactions of VWF expressed in COS-7 cells with molecular chaperones of the ER. The R273W mutation did not affect the ability of VWF to bind to BiP, Grp94, ERp72, calnexin, and calreticulin in COS-7 cells. (Blood. 2000;96:560-568)

    Blood 2000;96;2;560-8

  • The endoplasmic reticulum chaperone glycoprotein GRP94 with Ca(2+)-binding and antiapoptotic properties is a novel proteolytic target of calpain during etoposide-induced apoptosis.

    Reddy RK, Lu J and Lee AS

    Department of Biochemistry, USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA.

    GRP94 is a 94-kDa chaperone glycoprotein with Ca(2+)-binding properties. We report here that during apoptosis induced by the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide, a fraction of GRP94 associated with the endoplasmic reticulum membrane undergoes specific proteolytic cleavage, coinciding with the activation of the caspase CPP32 and initiation of DNA fragmentation. In vivo, inhibitors of caspases able to block etoposide-induced apoptosis can only partially protect GRP94 from proteolytic cleavage, whereas complete inhibition is observed with calpain inhibitor I but not with the proteasome inhibitor. In vitro, GRP94 is not a substrate for CPP32; rather, it can be completely cleaved by calpain, a Ca(2+)-regulated protease. The cleavage of GRP94 by calpain is Ca(2+)-dependent and generates a discrete polypeptide of 80 kDa. In contrast, calpain has no effect on other stress proteins such as GRP78 or HSP70. Further, immunohistochemical staining reveals specific co-localization of GRP94 with calpain in the perinuclear region following etoposide treatment. We further showed that reduction of GRP94 by antisense decreased cell viability in etoposide-treated Jurkat cells. Our studies provide new evidence that the cytoprotective GRP94, as in the case of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, can be targets of proteolytic cleavage themselves during the apoptotic process.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA27607; NEI NIH HHS: EY03040

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;40;28476-83

  • Involvement of oxidative reactions and extracellular protein chaperones in the rescue of misassembled thyroglobulin in the follicular lumen.

    Delom F, Lejeune PJ, Vinet L, Carayon P and Mallet B

    Unité 38 INSERM, Faculté de Médecine, Marseille, France.

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in many pathological processes through modifications of structure and activity of proteins. ROS also participate in physiological pathways such as thyroid hormone biosynthesis, which proceeds through oxidation of the prothyroid hormone (thyroglobulin, Tg) and iodide. Regarding the colloidal insoluble multimerized Tg (m-Tg), which bears dityrosine bridges and is present in the follicular lumen, a mild oxidative system generated different soluble forms of Tg, more or less compacted by hydrophobic associations, and linked with Grp78 and Grp94. In vitro, the combined action of ROS and PDI, in the presence of free glutathione (reduced/oxidized), increased the solubility of this misassembled Tg and partially restored the ability of Tg to synthesize hormones. Our results show that protein chaperones escape from the ER and are involved with ROS in thyroid hormone synthesis. Therefore, we propose a model of roles of m-Tg in the follicular lumen.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1999;255;2;438-43

  • Multiple molecular chaperones interact with apolipoprotein B during its maturation. The network of endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperones (ERp72, GRP94, calreticulin, and BiP) interacts with apolipoprotein b regardless of its lipidation state.

    Linnik KM and Herscovitz H

    Department of Biophysics, Center for Advanced Biomedical Research, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

    The present study was undertaken to identify and characterize molecular chaperones that assist in the folding of apolipoprotein (apo) B, a secretory protein that requires assembly with lipids (lipidation) for its secretion. Both HepG2 cells, normally secreting full-length apoB (apoB-100), and C127 cells transfected to secrete truncated forms of apoB, apoB-41, apoB-29, and apoB-17, respectively, were employed. C127 cells were used to determine whether chaperone binding is dependent on apoB lipidation as they secrete both unlipidated and lipidated apoB forms despite their lack of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), which mediates lipidation of apoB in HepG2 cells. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident molecular chaperones GRP94, calreticulin, and ERp72 were co-immunoprecipitated with apoB-100 from HepG2 cell lysates following cross-linking of proteins in living cells. The same chaperones including BiP/GRP78 were also associated with all truncated forms of apoB. Sequential immunoprecipitation with antibodies to MTP and apoB revealed the presence of ternary complexes containing apoB-100, MTP, and ERp72. However, MTP is not obligatory for the binding of ERp72 as it was associated with all truncated forms of apoB in C127 cells that lack MTP. The interactions between apoB-100 and ERp72 or GRP94 persisted for at least 2 h following a 30-min pulse. Thus, BiP/GRP78, calreticulin, ERp72, and GRP94 may participate in critical steps in the folding of apoB before any substantial lipidation occurs. ERp72 and GRP94 may also mediate the folding of more advanced folding intermediates and/or target the misfolded underlipidated pool of apoB for degradation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL26335-18, HL58833-02

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;33;21368-73

  • Molecular chaperone GRP94 binds to the Fanconi anemia group C protein and regulates its intracellular expression.

    Hoshino T, Wang J, Devetten MP, Iwata N, Kajigaya S, Wise RJ, Liu JM and Youssoufian H

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    The FAC protein encoded by the gene defective in Fanconi anemia (FA) complementation group C binds to at least three ubiquitous cytoplasmic proteins in vitro. We used here the complete coding sequence of FAC in a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify interacting proteins. The molecular chaperone GRP94 was isolated twice from a B-lymphocyte cDNA library. Binding was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation of FAC and GRP94 from cytosolic, but not nuclear, lysates of transfected COS-1 cells, as well as from mouse liver cytoplasmic extracts. Deletion mutants of FAC showed that residues 103-308 were required for interaction with GRP94, and a natural splicing mutation within the IVS-4 of FAC that removes residues 111-148 failed to bind GRP94. Ribozyme-mediated inactivation of GRP94 in the rat NRK cell line led to significantly reduced levels of immunoreactive FAC and concomitant hypersensitivity to mitomycin C, similar to the cellular phenotype of FA. Our results demonstrate that GRP94 interacts with FAC both in vitro and in vivo and regulates its intracellular level in a cell culture model. In addition, the pathogenicity of the IVS-4 splicing mutation in the FAC gene may be mediated in part by its inability to bind to GRP94.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL52138, P01 HL42443

    Blood 1998;91;11;4379-86

  • Multiple molecular chaperones complex with misfolded large oligomeric glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Kuznetsov G, Chen LB and Nigam SK

    Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Thyroglobulin (Tg), the major protein secreted by thyroid epithelial cells and precursor of thyroid hormones, is a large dimeric glycoprotein with multiple disulfide bonds. The folding and assembly of this complex molecule begins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is likely to involve a variety of reactions catalyzed by molecular chaperones (Kuznetsov, G., Chen, L. B., and Nigam, S. K. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 22990-22995). By coimmunoprecipitation in rat thyroid cells, we were able to demonstrate that BiP, grp94, ERp72, and grp170, four proteins believed to function as specific molecular chaperones, complex with Tg during its maturation. The same complex of the four putative chaperones with Tg was observed in cells treated with tunicamycin, indicating that these four ER chaperones stably associate with Tg when it is misfolded/misassembled due to inhibition of its glycosylation. BiP, grp94, and ERp72 were also found to associate with Tg in cells in which misfolding was induced by perturbing ER calcium stores. To determine if the assembly of a complex between the four chaperones and Tg under conditions of misglycosylation was unique to the maturation of this particular secretory protein or a more general phenomenon, adenovirus-transformed rat thyroid cells that do not synthesize Tg were analyzed. In these transformed cells, the only protein these same four chaperones were found to complex with was a protein of approximately 200 kDa. This protein was subsequently identified as thrombospondin, which, like Tg, is a large oligomeric secreted glycoprotein with multiple disulfide bonds. We therefore propose that these ER chaperones complex together with a variety of large oligomeric secretory glycoproteins as they fold and assemble in the ER.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK44503, R01 DK49517

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;5;3057-63

  • p185erbB2 binds to GRP94 in vivo. Dissociation of the p185erbB2/GRP94 heterocomplex by benzoquinone ansamycins precedes depletion of p185erbB2.

    Chavany C, Mimnaugh E, Miller P, Bitton R, Nguyen P, Trepel J, Whitesell L, Schnur R, Moyer J and Neckers L

    Clinical Pharmacology Branch and Medicine Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    Treatment of SKBr3 cells with benzoquinone ansamycins, such as geldanamycin (GA), depletes p185erbB2, the receptor tyrosine kinase encoded by the erbB2 gene. In the same cells, a biologically active benzoquinone photoaffinity label specifically binds a protein of about 100 kDa, and the ability of various GA derivatives to reduce the intracellular level of p185erbB2 correlates with their ability to compete with the photoaffinity label for binding to this protein. In this report, we present evidence that the approximately 100-kDa ansamycin-binding protein is GRP94. Membrane-associated p185erbB2 exists in a stable complex with GRP94. GA binding to GRP94 disrupts this complex, leading to degradation of pre-existing p185erbB2 protein, and resulting in an altered subcellular distribution of newly synthesized p185erbB2.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;9;4974-7

  • Chaperone function of a Grp 94-related protein for folding and transport of the pancreatic bile salt-dependent lipase.

    Bruneau N and Lombardo D

    INSERM Unité 260, Faculté de Médecine Timone, Marseille, France.

    In its fundamental attributes, the secretion pathway of the pancreatic bile salt-dependent lipase (BSDL) followed that described for all enzymes involved in regulated secretion. This route was inhibited by drugs that affect protein synthesis and intracellular transport. In the presence of monensin, BSDL was solely detected in microsome membrane fractions. The association of BSDL with intracellular membranes involved a protein complex, formed by at least two proteins of 94 and 56 kDa. In cells experiencing the metabolic stress due to azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, BSDL was additionally associated with a protein of 46 kDa. Affinity blotting showed that BSDL bound directly to the 94-kDa protein (p94). It was suggested that p94 could be a molecular chaperone, further identified as related to the 94-kDa glucose regulated protein (Grp 94). The membrane-associated BSDL (i.e. BSDL bound to the Grp 94-related p94) was O- and N-glycosylated and consequently appeared released from membranes in the trans-Golgi compartment. Therefore and for the first time, it is suggested that a multiprotein complex including the chaperone Grp 94-related p94 protein may play an essential role in the folding and transport of BSDL. One hypothesis is that the association of BSDL with membrane via the Grp 94-related p94 along its secretion pathway is required for its complete O-glycosylation, which occurs on the extended mucin-like structures present on the C-terminal part of the protein.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;22;13524-33

  • The endoplasmic reticular heat shock protein gp96 is transcriptionally upregulated in interferon-treated cells.

    Anderson SL, Shen T, Lou J, Xing L, Blachere NE, Srivastava PK and Rubin BY

    Department of Biological Sciences, Fordham University, Bronx, New York 10458.

    A cDNA clone complementary to an interferon (IFN)-induced mRNA approximately 3 kb in length was identified and sequenced revealing homology with the endoplasmic reticular heat shock protein/ATPase gp96. Both IFN-alpha and -gamma transcriptionally upregulate expression of this gene. gp96 transcripts, protein, and ATPase activity are shown to be enhanced as a result of IFN treatment in two human cell lines and this effect requires de novo protein synthesis. gp96 molecules have recently been implicated in the presentation of endogenous antigens. A number of the key elements in this pathway, the transporter proteins, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-linked units of the proteasomes and the MHC class I molecules are known to be IFN inducible. Our results show that yet another molecule suggested to play an accessory role in the endogenous presentation pathway is IFN inducible. Further, our studies represent the first demonstration of modulation of expression of a heat shock protein by a cytokine and identify a new enzymatic activity upregulated in IFN-treated cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-38861, CA-44786

    The Journal of experimental medicine 1994;180;4;1565-9

  • HLA-DR associates with specific stress proteins and is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum in invariant chain negative cells.

    Schaiff WT, Hruska KA, McCourt DW, Green M and Schwartz BD

    Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110.

    The major histocompatibility complex class II molecules are composed of two polymorphic chains which, in cells normally expressing them, transiently associate with a third, nonpolymorphic molecule, the invariant chain (Ii). To determine differences in the biology of class II molecules synthesized in the presence or absence of Ii, a comparative study was performed of BALB/c 3T3 cells that had been transfected with human class II HLA-DR molecules with or without cotransfection with human Ii. It was observed that in the absence of Ii, at least three high molecular weight proteins coimmunoprecipitate with HLA-DR molecules. These proteins did not coimmunoprecipitate with HLA-DR from cells cotransfected with Ii, nor did they coimmunoprecipitate with class I molecules from any of the transfectants. NH2-terminal sequence and/or Western blot analysis revealed the identity of two of the proteins as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident stress proteins GRP94 and ERp72. Neither of these proteins was found to have an increased level of synthesis in the Ii- versus the Ii+ transfectants, indicating that their synthesis was not induced over constitutive levels. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that in the Ii- transfectants, the majority of the HLA-DR molecules were present in the ER, whereas in the Ii+ transfectants, the HLA-DR molecules were found in vesicular structures. We hypothesize that in the absence of Ii, ER resident stress proteins bind to class II molecules and retain them in the ER. This process, in turn, could prevent class II molecules from exiting the ER with endogenous peptides bound in their peptide binding cleft, and therefore could minimize autoimmune responses to endogenously processed self-peptides.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI-15322, AI-27430

    The Journal of experimental medicine 1992;176;3;657-66

  • Human homologue of murine tumor rejection antigen gp96: 5'-regulatory and coding regions and relationship to stress-induced proteins.

    Maki RG, Old LJ and Srivastava PK

    Department of Pharmacology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, City University of New York, NY 10029-6574.

    Cell-surface glycoproteins of 96 kDa (gp96) have been implicated in immunogenicity of methylcholanthrene-induced mouse sarcomas in syngeneic hosts. In view of the potential immunogenicity of gp96-related molecules in human tumors, we have defined the 5'-regulatory and complete coding regions of a human gp96 transcript. The 5'-regulatory region contains an imperfect heat shock element apart from other regulatory sequences. The amino acid sequence of human gp96 is 96% homologous to its murine counterpart and genes for the two molecules show significant homology between untranslated regions. Comparison of gp96 sequences to other sequences in DNA and protein data bases indicates significant homology with the stress proteins 94-kDa glucose-regulated protein (grp94) and 108-kDa heat shock protein (hsp108) and 99-kDa endoplasmic reticular protein (ERp99). These molecules are either identical or represent a family of closely related molecules. With regard to their role in tumor immunity, it needs to be determined whether gp96 molecules are tumor antigens per se or whether they serve as carriers of other immunogenic moieties.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA44786; NIGMS NIH HHS: N01-GM-7-2110

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1990;87;15;5658-62

  • Soluble and membrane-associated human low-affinity adenosine binding protein (adenotin): properties and homology with mammalian and avian stress proteins.

    Hutchison KA, Nevins B, Perini F and Fox IH

    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109-0108.

    A low-affinity adenosine binding protein has recently been distinguished from the adenosine A2 receptor and purified from human placental membranes. Soluble human placental extracts contain an adenosine binding activity that has properties similar to those of the membrane low-affinity adenosine binding protein. The binding protein was purified from soluble human placental extracts 134-fold to 89% purity with a Bmax of 2.5 nmol/mg. It comprises 0.7-0.9% of the soluble protein. The major purified soluble protein has a subunit molecular mass of 98 kDa and a Stokes radius identical with that of the membrane-bound adenosine binding protein. Competition analysis of the soluble protein revealed similar affinities and an identical potency order for displacement of 5'-(N-ethylcarbamoyl)[2,8-3H]adenosine ([3H]NECA) as follows: NECA greater than 2-chloroadenosine greater than adenosine greater than (R)-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine. The soluble binding protein was more acidic than the membrane binding protein as revealed by a comparison of the elution properties during ion exchange chromatography. A second form of soluble adenosine binding activity comprised 17% of the major form and had a charge similar to that of the membrane binding protein, a smaller Stokes radius, and a subunit molecular mass of 74 kDa. Carbohydrate composition analysis revealed that the major soluble form has 4.3% carbohydrate by weight as compared to the membrane-associated form, which has 5.5% carbohydrate by weight.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: 5 MOI RR 00042; NIAMS NIH HHS: 2P60 AR-20557

    Biochemistry 1990;29;21;5138-44

  • Partial separation of platelet and placental adenosine receptors from adenosine A2-like binding protein.

    Zolnierowicz S, Work C, Hutchison K and Fox IH

    Department of Internal Medicine and Biological Chemistry, University Hospital, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0108.

    The ubiquitous adenosine A2-like binding protein obscures the binding properties of adenosine receptors assayed with 5'-N-[3H]ethylcarboxamidoadenosine [( 3H]NECA). To solve this problem, we developed a rapid and simple method to separate adenosine receptors from the adenosine A2-like binding protein. Human platelet and placental membranes were solubilized with 1% 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate. The soluble platelet extract was precipitated with polyethylene glycol and the fraction enriched in adenosine receptors was isolated from the precipitate by differential centrifugation. The adenosine A2-like binding protein was removed from the soluble placental extract with hydroxylapatite and adenosine receptors were precipitated with polyethylene glycol. The specificity of the [3H]NECA binding is typical of an adenosine A2 receptor for platelets and an adenosine A1 receptor for placenta. This method leads to enrichment of adenosine A2 receptors for platelets and adenosine A1 receptors for placenta. This provides a useful preparation technique for pharmacologic studies of adenosine receptors.

    Funded by: FIC NIH HHS: 1-FOS-TW04102; NCRR NIH HHS: 5 M01 RR 00042; NIAMS NIH HHS: 2 P60 AR-20557

    Molecular pharmacology 1990;37;4;554-9

  • Glucose-regulated protein (GRP94 and GRP78) genes share common regulatory domains and are coordinately regulated by common trans-acting factors.

    Chang SC, Erwin AE and Lee AS

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles 90033.

    We isolated the promoter of the human gene encoding the 94,000-dalton glucose-regulated protein (GRP94). The 5'-flanking region important for its expression was identified by deletion analysis. Comparison of the promoters of the genes for GRP78 and GRP94 derived from human, rat, and chicken cells revealed a common domain of 28 base pairs within the putative regulatory regions of both genes. This domain has been shown to interact with protein factors in the promoter of the gene for GRP78. Since the genes for GRP94 and GRP78 are transcriptionally regulated with similar kinetics under a variety of stress conditions, we are interested in examining the possible mechanisms for their coordinated expression. Through in vitro and in vivo competition assays, we found that the protein factors which interact with the promoter of the gene for GRP94 also have affinity for the conserved domain of the promoter of the gene for GRP78. These findings suggest that the genes for GRP94 and GRP78 are coordinately regulated through common trans-acting factors which recognize a common regulatory domain of glucose-regulated protein gene promoters.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R37 CA27607

    Molecular and cellular biology 1989;9;5;2153-62

Gene lists (3)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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