G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 1
G00001151 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000023523 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000127955 (Ensembl human gene)
2770 (Entrez Gene)
362 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
GNAI1 (GeneCards)
139310 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:4384 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P63096 (UniProt)

Literature (110)

Pubmed - other

  • CK beta 8/CCL23 induces cell migration via the Gi/Go protein/PLC/PKC delta/NF-kappa B and is involved in inflammatory responses.

    Kim J, Kim YS and Ko J

    School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, South Korea.

    Aims: CKbeta8/CCL23 is a CC chemokine and alternative splicing of the CKbeta8 gene produces two mRNAs that encode CKbeta8 and its isoform CKbeta8-1. Although it has been reported that CKbeta8 and CKbeta8-1 are implicated in leukocyte trafficking and development of inflammation, the exact roles of these two chemokines in immune responses and the associated chemotaxis signaling are still obscure.

    To understand the mechanism of CKbeta8- and CKbeta8-1-induced chemotaxis signaling, we examined the chemotactic activities of osteogenic sarcoma cells expressing CC chemokine receptor 1 in response to CKbeta8 and CKbeta8-1. We also examined involvement of CKbeta8 and CKbeta8-1 in inflammatory responses by determining the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory molecules induced by two chemokines and expressions of these chemokines in foam cells.

    Results from a chemotaxis assay using various inhibitors for signaling molecules showed that the chemotaxis signal pathway induced by both CKbeta8 and CKbeta8-1 was mediated via the G(i)/G(o) protein, phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta). Treatment with a nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) inhibitor reduced the chemotactic activities of CKbeta8 and CKbeta8-1, and NF-kappaB was activated in response to CKbeta8 and CKbeta8-1. In addition, CKbeta8 and CKbeta8-1 increased mRNA expres 10f8 sion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. The mRNA levels of CKbeta8 and CKbeta8-1 were increased in foam cells.

    Significance: These results indicate that both CKbeta8 and CKbeta8-1 transduce the chemotaxis signal through the G(i)/G(o) protein, PLC, PKCdelta, and NF-kappaB, and that CKbeta8 and CKbeta8-1 probably play important roles in inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis.

    Life sciences 2010;86;9-10;300-8

  • Altered G-protein coupling in an mGluR6 point mutant associated with congenital stationary night blindness.

    Beqollari D, Betzenhauser MJ and Kammermeier PJ

    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, USA.

    The highly specialized metabotropic glutamate receptor type 6 (mGluR6) is postsynaptically localized and expressed only in the dendrites of ON bipolar cells. Upon activation of mGluR6 by glutamate released from photoreceptors, a nonselective cation channel is inhibited, causing these cells to hyperpolarize. Mutations in this gene have been implicated in the development of congenital stationary night blindness type 1 (CSNB1). We investigated five known mGluR6 point mutants that lead to CSNB1 to determine the molecular mechanism of each phenotype. In agreement with other studies, four mutants demonstrated trafficking impairment. However, mGluR6 E775K (E781K in humans) suggested no trafficking or signaling deficiencies measured by our initial assays. Most importantly, our results indicate a switch in G-protein coupling, in which E775K loses G(o) coupling but retains coupling to G(i), which may explain the phenotype.

    Molecular pharmacology 2009;76;5;992-7

  • Local network topology in human protein interaction data predicts functional association.

    Li H and Liang S

    Department of Bioinformatics & Computational Biology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

    The use of high-throughput techniques to generate large volumes of protein-protein interaction (PPI) data has increased the need for methods that systematically and automatically suggest functional relationships among proteins. In a yeast PPI network, previous work has shown that the local connection topology, particularly for two proteins sharing an unusually large number of neighbors, can predict functional association. In this study we improved the prediction scheme by developing a new algorithm and applied it on a human PPI network to make a genome-wide functional inference. We used the new algorithm to measure and reduce the influence of hub proteins on detecting function-associated protein pairs. We used the annotations of the Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) as benchmarks to compare and evaluate the function relevance. The application of our algorithms to human PPI data yielded 4,233 significant functional associations among 1,754 proteins. Further functional comparisons between them allowed us to assign 466 KEGG pathway annotations to 274 proteins and 123 GO annotations to 114 proteins with estimated false discovery rates of <21% for KEGG and <30% for GO. We clustered 1,729 proteins by their functional associations and made functional inferences from detailed analysis on one subcluster highly enriched in the TGF-beta signaling pathway (P<10(-50)). Analysis of another four subclusters also suggested potential new players in six signaling pathways worthy of further experimental investigations. Our study gives clear insight into the common neighbor-based prediction scheme and provides a reliable method for large-scale functional annotation in this post-genomic era.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: K25 CA123344

    PloS one 2009;4;7;e6410

  • Evidence for a second, high affinity Gbetagamma binding site on Galphai1(GDP) subunits.

    Wang J, Sengupta P, Guo Y, Golebiewska U and Scarlata S

    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-8661, USA.

    It is well known that Galpha(i1)(GDP) binds strongly to Gbetagamma subunits to form the Galpha(i1)(GDP)-Gbetagamma heterotrimer, and that activation to Galpha(i1)(GTP) results in conformational changes that reduces its affinity for Gbetagamma subunits. Previous studies of G protein subunit interactions have used stoichiometric amounts of the proteins. Here, we have found that Galpha(i1)(GDP) can bind a second Gbetagamma subunit with an affinity only 10-fold weaker than the primary site and close to the affinity between activated Galpha(i1) and Gbetagamma subunits. Also, we find that phospholipase Cbeta2, an effector of Gbetagamma, does not compete with the second binding site implying that effectors can be bound to the Galpha(i1)(GDP)-(Gbetagamma)(2) complex. Biophysical measurements and molecu 5a8 lar docking studies suggest that this second site is distant from the primary one. A synthetic peptide having a sequence identical to the putative second binding site on Galpha(i1) competes with binding of the second Gbetagamma subunit. Injection of this peptide into cultured cells expressing eYFP-Galpha(i1)(GDP) and eCFP-Gbetagamma reduces the overall association of the subunits suggesting this site is operative in cells. We propose that this second binding site serves to promote and stabilize G protein subunit interactions in the presence of competing cellular proteins.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM53132

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;25;16906-13

  • Differential protein expression by dendritic cells from atopic and non-atopic individuals after stimulation by the major house dust mite allergen Der p 1.

    Horlock C, Shakib F, Jones NS, Sewell HF and Ghaemmaghami AM

    Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, School of Molecular Medical Sciences and Biomedical Research Unit, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

    Background: Dendritic cells (DCs) are sentinels of the immune system and are known to play a key role in allergic responses. However, it is not clear how DCs that have been exposed to an allergen support Th2 type immune responses. It is possible that DCs from atopic individuals are inherently programmed to support allergic disease, or it is the exposure of dendritic cells to allergens that is key to the development of allergic sensitisation.

    Methods: We used 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI mass spectrometry to compare the proteome of DCs from atopic and non-atopic individuals in both the resting state and after stimulation with the major house dust mite allergen Der p 1.

    Results: Our data show that unstimulated DCs from atopic and non-atopic individuals are very similar at the whole cell proteome level, showing few differentially expressed proteins. However, upon stimulation with Der p 1, a number of additional proteins are differentially expressed, and of these several were of potential relevance to Th2 cell differentiation and the allergic response, including GTP-binding regulatory protein Gi alpha-2, frabin and cathepsin D.

    Conclusion: Whilst there are inherent differences between DCs from atopic and non-atopic individuals, it seems that exposure to allergen plays a key role in differential expression of proteins by these key immune cells. Further studies should now focus on establishing the biological relevance of these proteins as biomarkers in house dust mite allergy and their role in allergen induced Th2 cell differentiation.

    International archives of allergy and immunology 2009;150;3;237-51

  • A point mutation to Galphai selectively blocks GoLoco motif binding: direct evidence for Galpha.GoLoco complexes in mitotic spindle dynamics.

    Willard FS, Zheng Z, Guo J, Digby GJ, Kimple AJ, Conley JM, Johnston CA, Bosch D, Willard MD, Watts VJ, Lambert NA, Ikeda SR, Du Q and Siderovski DP

    Department of Pharmacology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. willardfs@lilly.com

    Heterotrimeric G-protein Galpha subunits and GoLoco motif proteins are key members of a conserved set of regulatory proteins that influence invertebrate asymmetric cell division and vertebrate neuroepithelium and epithelial progenitor differentiation. GoLoco motif proteins bind selectively to the inhibitory subclass (Galphai) of Galpha subunits, and thus it is assumed that a Galphai.GoLoco motif protein complex plays a direct functional role in microtubule dynamics underlying spindle orientation and metaphase chromosomal segregation during cell division. To address this hypothesis directly, we rationally identified a point mutation to Galphai subunits that renders a selective loss-of-function for GoLoco motif binding, namely an asparagine-to-isoleucine substitution in the alphaD-alphaE loop of the Galpha helical domain. This GoLoco-insensitivity ("GLi") mutation prevented Galphai1 association with all human GoLoco motif proteins and abrogated interaction between the Caenorhabditis elegans Galpha subunit GOA-1 and the GPR-1 GoLoco motif. In contrast, the GLi mutation did not perturb any other biochemical or signaling properties of Galphai subunits, including nucleotide binding, intrinsic and RGS protein-accelerated GTP hydrolysis, and interactions with Gbetagamma dimers, adenylyl cyclase, and seven transmembrane-domain receptors. GoLoco insensitivity rendered Galphai subunits unable to recruit GoLoco motif proteins such as GPSM2/LGN and GPSM3 to the plasma membrane, and abrogated the exaggerated mitotic spindle rocking normally seen upon ectopic expression of wild type Galphai subunits in kidney epithelial cells. This GLi mutation should prove valuable in establishing the physiological roles of Galphai.GoLoco motif protein complexes in microtubule dynamics and spindle function during cell division as well as to delineate potential roles for GoLoco motifs in receptor-mediated signal transduction.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; NIGMS NIH HHS: F32 GM07694, GM078319, GM079506, R01 GM074268, R01 GM079506; NIMH NIH HHS: F30 MH074266, MH060397

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;52;36698-710

  • Structural determinants underlying the temperature-sensitive nature of a Galpha mutant in asymmetric cell division of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Johnston CA, Afshar K, Snyder JT, Tall GG, Gönczy P, Siderovski DP and Willard FS

    Department of Pharmacology and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins are integral to a conserved regulatory module that influences metazoan asymmetric cell division (ACD). In the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote, GOA-1 (Galpha(o)) and GPA-16 (Galpha(i)) are involved in generating forces that pull on astral microtubules and position the spindle asymmetrically. GPA-16 function has been analyzed in vivo owing notably to a temperature-sensitive allele gpa-16(it143), which, at the restrictive temperature, results in spindle orientation defects in early embryos. Here we identify the structural basis of gpa-16(it143), which encodes a point mutation (G202D) in the switch II region of GPA-16. Using Galpha(i1)(G202D) as a model in biochemical analyses, we demonstrate that high temperature induces instability of the mutant Galpha. At the permissive temperature, the mutant Galpha was stable upon GTP binding, but switch II rearrangement was compromised, as were activation state-selective interactions with regulators involved in ACD, including GoLoco motifs, RGS proteins, and RIC-8. We solved the crystal structure of the mutant Galpha bound to GDP, which indicates a unique switch II conformation as well as steric constraints that suggest activated GPA-16(it143) is destabilized relative to wild type. Spindle severing in gpa-16(it143) embryos revealed that pulling forces are symmetric and markedly diminished at the restrictive temperature. Interestingly, pulling forces are asymmetric and generally similar in magnitude to wild type at the permissive temperature despite defects in the structure of GPA-16(it143). These normal pulling forces in gpa-16(it143) embryos at the permissive temperature were attributable to GOA-1 function, underscoring a complex interplay of Galpha subunit function in ACD.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 074268

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;31;21550-8

  • Reviews in molecular biology and biotechnology: transmembrane signaling by G protein-coupled receptors.

    Luttrell LM

    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Medical Genetics, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, 816 CSB, P.O. Box 250624, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. luttrell@musc.edu

    As the most diverse type of cell surface receptor, the importance heptahelical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to clinical medicine cannot be overestimated. Visual, olfactory and gustatory sensation, intermediary metabolism, cell growth and differentiation are all influenced by GPCR signals. The basic receptor-G protein-effector mechanism of GPCR signaling is tuned by a complex interplay of positive and negative regulatory events that amplify the effect of a hormone binding the receptor or that dampen cellular responsiveness. The association of heptahelical receptors with a variety of intracellular partners other than G proteins has led to the discovery of potential mechanisms of GPCR signaling that extend beyond the classical paradigms. While the physiologic relevance of many of these novel mechanisms of GPCR signaling remains to be established, their existence suggests that the mechanisms of GPCR signaling are even more diverse than previously imagined.

    Molecular biotechnology 2008;39;3;239-64

  • Dissociation of heterotrimeric g proteins in cells.

    Lambert NA

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912-2300, USA. nlambert@mcg.edu

    Heterotrimeric G proteins dissociate into their component Galpha and Gbetagamma subunits when these proteins are activated in solution. Until recently, it has not been known if subunit dissociation also occurs in cells. The development of optical methods to study G protein activation in live cells has made it possible to demonstrate heterotrimer dissociation at the plasma membrane. However, subunit dissociation is far from complete, and many active [guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound] heterotrimers are intact in a steady state. This unexpectedly reluctant dissociation calls for inclusion of a GTP-bound heterotrimeric state in models of the G protein cycle and places renewed emphasis on the relation between subunit dissociation and effector activation.

    Science signaling 2008;1;25;re5

  • The PDZ protein mupp1 promotes Gi coupling and signaling of the Mt1 melatonin receptor.

    Guillaume JL, Daulat AM, Maurice P, Levoye A, Migaud M, Brydon L, Malpaux B, Borg-Capra C and Jockers R

    Institut Cochin, Department of Cell Biology, Université Paris Descartes, CNRS (UMR8104), Paris 75014, France.

    Intracellular signaling events are often organized around PDZ (PSD-95/Drosophila Disc large/ZO-1 homology) domain-containing scaffolding proteins. The ubiquitously expressed multi-PDZ protein MUPP1, which is composed of 13 PDZ domains, has been shown to interact with multiple viral and cellular proteins and to play important roles in receptor targeting and trafficking. In this study, we show that MUPP1 binds to the G protein-coupled MT(1) melatonin receptor and directly regulates its G(i)-dependent signal transduction. Structural determinants involved in this interaction are the PDZ10 domain of MUPP1 and the valine of the canonical class III PDZ domain binding motif DSV of the MT(1) carboxyl terminus. This high affinity interaction (K(d) approximately 4 nm), which is independent of MT(1) activation, occurs in the ovine pars tuberalis of the pituitary expressing both proteins endogenously. Although the disruption of the MT(1)/MUPP1 interaction has no effect on the subcellular localization, trafficking, or degradation of MT(1), it destabilizes the interaction between MT(1) and G(i) and abolishes G(i)-mediated signaling of MT(1). Our findings highlight a previously unappreciated role of PDZ proteins in promoting G protein coupling to receptors.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;24;16762-71

  • Endogenous RGS proteins attenuate Galpha(i)-mediated lysophosphatidic acid signaling pathways in ovarian cancer cells.

    Hurst JH, Henkel PA, Brown AL and Hooks SB

    Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia 1b6b , Athens, GA 30602, United States.

    Lysophosphatidic acid is a bioactive phospholipid that is produced by and stimulates ovarian cancer cells, promoting proliferation, migration, invasion, and survival. Effects of LPA are mediated by cell surface G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that activate multiple heterotrimeric G-proteins. G-proteins are deactivated by Regulator of G-protein Signaling (RGS) proteins. This led us to hypothesize that RGS proteins may regulate G-protein signaling pathways initiated by LPA in ovarian cancer cells. To determine the effect of endogenous RGS proteins on LPA signaling in ovarian cancer cells, we compared LPA activity in SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells expressing G(i) subunit constructs that are either insensitive to RGS protein regulation (RGSi) or their RGS wild-type (RGSwt) counterparts. Both forms of the G-protein contained a point mutation rendering them insensitive to inhibition with pertussis toxin, and cells were treated with pertussis toxin prior to experiments to eliminate endogenous G(i/o) signaling. The potency and efficacy of LPA-mediated inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity was enhanced in cells expressing RGSi G(i) proteins as compared to 3cd RGSwt G(i). We further showed that LPA signaling that is subject to RGS regulation terminates much faster than signaling thru RGS insensitive G-proteins. Finally, LPA-stimulated SKOV-3 cell migration, as measured in a wound-induced migration assay, was enhanced in cells expressing Galpha(i2) RGSi as compared to cells expressing Galpha(i2) RGSwt, suggesting that endogenous RGS proteins in ovarian cancer cells normally attenuate this LPA effect. These data establish RGS proteins as novel regulators of LPA signaling in ovarian cancer cells.

    Cellular signalling 2008;20;2;381-9

  • The heterotrimeric [corrected] G protein subunit G alpha i is present on mitochondria.

    Lyssand JS and Bajjalieh SM

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington Seattle, Box 357750, WA, USA.

    Receptors that signal through heterotrimeric [corrected] GTP binding (G) proteins mediate the majority of intercellular communication. Recent evidence suggests that receptors acting through G proteins also transfer signals across the nuclear membrane. Here we present cell fractionation and immunolabeling data showing that the heterotrimeric [corrected] G protein subunit Galphai is associated with mitochondria. This finding suggests that G protein receptor signaling may be a feature common to all membranes.

    FEBS letters 2007;581;30;5765-8

  • Gi alpha 1-mediated cardiac electrophysiological remodeling and arrhythmia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Ruan H, Mitchell S, Vainoriene M, Lou Q, Xie LH, Ren S, Goldhaber JI and Wang Y

    Department of Anesthesiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

    Background: Cardiac hypertrophy is a major risk factor for arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, the underlying signaling mechanisms involved in the induction of arrhythmia and electrophysiological remodeling in cardiac hypertrophy are unclear.

    Using an inducible gene-switch approach, we achieved tissue-specific and temporally regulated induction of a well-established hypertrophic pathway, the Ras-Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway, in adult mouse heart. On Ras activation, the transgenic animal developed ventricular hypertrophy and arrhythmias. The development of ventricular arrhythmias was temporally correlated with electrophysiological remodeling in isolated ventricular myocytes, including action potential prolongation, increased sodium-calcium exchanger activity, reduced outward potassium currents, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ defects, and loss of protein kinase A-dependent phospholamban phosphorylation. From genome-wide expression profiling, we discovered a selective induction of G alpha inhibiting subunit 1 (Gi alpha1) expression in the Ras transgenic heart. Treatment of transgenic animals with the Gi/o inhibitor pertussis toxin normalized the phospholamban phosphorylation by protein kinase A, reversed the action potential prolongation, and significantly reduced the frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in Ras transgenic animals.

    Conclusions: These data suggest that selective induction of G alpha inhibiting subunit 1 expression and activity is a novel downstream event in hypertrophic signaling that may be a critical factor leading to cellular electrophysiological remodeling and cardiac arrhythmias in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Circulation 2007;116;6;596-605

  • Purification and identification of G protein-coupled receptor protein complexes under native conditions.

    Daulat AM, Maurice P, Froment C, Guillaume JL, Broussard C, Monsarrat B, Delagrange P and Jockers R

    Department of Cell Biology, Institut Cochin, INSERM U567, CNRS UMR 8104, Université Paris Descartes, France.

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of membrane receptors and are of major therapeutic importance. The identification of GPCR-associated proteins is an important step toward a better understanding of these receptors. However, current methods are not satisfying as only isolated receptor domains (intracellular loops or carboxyl-terminal tails) can be used as "bait." We report here a method based on tandem affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry that overcomes these limitations as the entire receptor is used to identify protein complexes formed in living mammalian cells. The human MT(1) and MT(2) melatonin receptors were chosen as model GPCRs. Both receptors were tagged with the tandem affinity purification tag at their carboxyl-terminal tails and expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Receptor solubilization and purification conditions were optimized. The method was validated by the co-purification of G(i) proteins, which are well known GPCR interaction partners but which are difficult to identify with current protein-protein interaction assays. Several new and functionally relevant MT(1)- and MT(2)-associated proteins were identified; some of them were common to both receptors, and others were specific for each subtype. Taken together, our protocol allowed for the first time the purification of GPCR-associated proteins under native conditions in quantities suitable for mass spectrometry analysis.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;5;835-44

  • Real-time analysis of agonist-induced activation of protease-activated receptor 1/Galphai1 protein complex measured by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer in living cells.

    Ayoub MA, Maurel D, Binet V, Fink M, Prézeau L, Ansanay H and Pin JP

    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5203, Montpellier, France.

    G protein-coupled receptors transmit extracellular signals into the cells by activating heterotrimeric G proteins, a process that is often followed by receptor desensitization. Monitoring such a process in real time and in living cells will help better understand how G protein activation occurs. Energy transfer-based approaches [fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)] were recently shown to be powerful methods to monitor the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)-G protein association in living cells. Here, we used a BRET technique to monitor the coupling between the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) and Galpha(i1) protein. A specific constitutive BRET signal can be measured between nonactivated PAR1 and the Galpha(i1) protein expressed at a physiological level. This signal is insensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX) and probably reflects the preassembly of these two proteins. The BRET signal rapidly increases upon receptor activation in a PTX-sensitive manner. The BRET signal then returns to the basal level after few minutes. The desensitization of the BRET signal is concomitant with beta-arrestin-1 recruitment to the receptor, consistent with the known rapid desensitization of PARs. The agonist-induced BRET increase was dependent on the insertion site of fluorophores in proteins. Taken together, our results show that BRET between GPCRs and Galpha proteins can be used to monitor the receptor activation in real time and in living cells. Our data also revealed that PAR1 can be part of a preassembled complex with Galpha(i1) protein, resulting either from a direct interaction between these partners or from their colocalization in specific microdomains, and that receptor activation probably results in rearrangements within such complexes.

    Molecular pharmacology 2007;71;5;1329-40

  • Gi and RGS proteins provide biochemical control of androgen receptor nuclear exclusion.

    Rimler A, Jockers R, Lupowitz Z and Zisapel N

    Department of Neurobiochemistry, The George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel.

    Nuclear localization of androgen receptors (ARs) is essential for their activity. Melatonin induces AR nuclear exclusion via increase in cGMP, calcium, and protein kinase C (PKC) activation, presumably through G-protein(s). The effects of regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) on AR localization were studied in AR-expressing PC3 cells. Gi-specific RGS10 inhibited melatonin but not cGMP-induced AR nuclear exclusion, independent of androgen. No evidence for Gq activation by melatonin was found. However, Gi/Gq-selective RGS4 inhibited AR nuclear exclusion downstream of PKC activation--an effect that was abrogated by constitutively active Gq. RGS10 and RGS4, but not RGS2, ablated the inhibitory effects of melatonin on AR reporter gene activity. For the first time, these data show regulation by Gi and Gi-specific RGS protein-mediated AR nuclear exclusion, which is potentially important in the treatment of AR-dependent cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. They also reveal a role for a Gq protein downstream of PKC activation in AR nuclear localization.

    Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN 2007;31;1;1-12

  • Autotaxin stimulates urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression through phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-nuclear [corrected] factor kappa B signaling cascade in human melanoma cells.

    Lee J, Duk Jung I, Gyo Park C, Han JW and H

    College of Medicine, Konyang University, Daejeon, Korea.

    Autotaxin, a lysophospholipase D producing lysophosphatidic acid, augments invasive and metastatic potential of tumor cells. Current investigations have focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms by which autotaxin regulates the expression of a major mediator of tumor invasion and metastasis, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in human A2058 melanoma cells. Autotaxin induced uPA expression in a dose-dependent manner that was inhibited by pharmacological inhibitors for Gi (pertussis toxin), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, LY294002), Akt inhibitor (AktI), proteosome activity and IkappaB phosphorylation (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate), and by a dominant negative mutant (DN) of Akt. Autotaxin phosphorylated Akt and induced the translocation of nuclear [corrected] factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) to the nucleus that were inhibited by AktI or by overexpressing DN-Akt. Consistently, green fluorescence protein-tagged p65 of NF-kappaB accumulated in the nucleus by autotaxin that was abrogated when the cells were transfected with DN-Akt. Moreover, autotaxin increased the DNA binding ability of NF-kappaB and promoter activity of uPA. Collectively, these data strongly suggest autotaxin induces uPA expression via the Gi-PI3K-Akt-NF-kappaB signaling pathway that might be critical for autotaxin-induced tumor cell invasion and metastasis.

    Melanoma research 2006;16;5;445-52

  • Mechanism of the receptor-catalyzed activation of heterotrimeric G proteins.

    Oldham WM, Van Eps N, Preininger AM, Hubbell WL and Hamm HE

    Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-6600, USA.

    Heptahelical receptors activate intracellular signaling pathways by catalyzing GTP for GDP exchange on the heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunit (G alpha). Despite the crucial role of this process in cell signaling, little is known about the mechanism of G protein activation. Here we explore the structural basis for receptor-mediated GDP release using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Binding to the activated receptor (R*) causes an apparent rigid-body movement of the alpha5 helix of G alpha that would perturb GDP binding at the beta6-alpha5 loop. This movement was not observed when a flexible loop was inserted between the alpha5 helix and the R*-binding C terminus, which uncouples R* binding from nucleotide exchange, suggesting that this movement is necessary for GDP release. These data provide the first direct observation of R*-mediated conformational changes in G proteins and define the structural basis for GDP release from G alpha.

    Nature structural & molecular biology 2006;13;9;772-7

  • The Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus is a broad-spectrum modulator of chemokine receptor cell surface levels that acts independently of classical motifs for receptor endocytosis and Galphai signaling.

    Michel N, Ganter K, Venzke S, Bitzegeio J, Fackler OT and Keppler OT

    Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

    Chemokine receptors (CKRs) are important physiological mediators of immune defense, inflammatory responses, and angiogenesis, and they have also been implicated in a number of viral disease processes. Here, we report that the Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reduces cell surface levels of eight different members of the CC- and CXC-family of CKRs by up to 92%. This broad-range activity required specific elements in HIV(SF2) Nef, including the proline-rich motif P73P76P79P82 as well as the acidic cluster motif E66E67E68E69, and Nef expression induced a marked perinuclear accumulation of CKRs. Surprisingly, receptor mutagenesis demonstrated that the cytoplasmic tail of CCR5 and CXCR4, which is critical for basal and ligand-mediated endocytosis, was completely dispensable for this Nef activity. In contrast, triple-mutation of the highly conserved DRY motif in the second intracellular CKR loop abolished the Nef-mediated down-regulation of CXCR4 independently of this motif's role in CKR binding to heterotrimeric G proteins and signaling via the Galphai subunit. Thus, we identify the lentiviral pathogenicity factor Nef as a unique and broad-range modulator of CKR cell surface levels. Nef uses a mechanism that is distinct from well-established pathways orchestrating CKR metabolism and offers an interesting tool to study the multifaceted biology of CKRs.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2006;17;8;3578-90

  • G-protein alpha subunit interaction and guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor activity of the dual GoLoco motif protein PCP-2 (Purkinje cell protein-2).

    Willard FS, McCudden CR and Siderovski DP

    Department of Pharmacology, CB# 7365, 1106 Mary Ellen Jones Building, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7365, USA. fwillard@med.unc.edu

    Purkinje cell protein-2 (PCP-2; L7/GPSM4) is a GoLoco motif-containing protein that is specifically expressed in Purkinje and retinal ON bipolar cells. An alternative splice variant of PCP-2 has recently been isolated which contains two GoLoco motifs. Although the second GoLoco motif (GL2) of PCP-2 has been reported to interact with Galpha-subunits, a complete biochemical analysis of each individual motif of PCP-2 has not been performed. We demonstrate that the first GoLoco motif (GL1) of PCP-2 is equipotent as a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) towards Galphai1 and Galphai2, while it has sevenfold lower GDI activity for Galphai3 and greater than 20-fold lower GDI activity against Galphao. In contrast we found PCP-2 GL2 to be essentially equipotent as a GDI for all Galphai subunits, but it had negligible activity toward Galphao. Using co-immunoprecipitation from COS-7 cells, we found that PCP-2 was only able to interact with Galphai1 but not Galphao nor Galpha-subunits from other families (Galphas, Galphaq, or Galpha12). Mutational analysis of a non-canonical residue (glycine 24) in human PCP-2 GL1 provided evidence for heterogeneity in mechanisms of Galphai interactions with GoLoco motifs. Collectively, the data demonstrate that PCP-2 is a comparatively weak GoLoco motif protein that exhibits highest affinity interactions and GDI activity toward Galphai1, Galphai2, and Galphai3 subunits.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: P01 GM065533, R01 GM062338

    Cellular signalling 2006;18;8;1226-34

  • Identification and characterization of a G-protein regulatory motif in WAVE1.

    Song KS, Peterson YK, Freidman A, Blumer JB, Sato M and Lanier SM

    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1901 Perdido Street, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.

    The G-protein regulatory (GPR) motif is a approximately 25 amino acid sequence that stabilizes the GDP-bound conformation of Gialpha. To identify additional GPR motifs, we expanded a motif-based search strategy and identified an additional 4 mammalian proteins (WAVE1-3, rat GHRH) and 10 plant proteins with candidate GPR motifs. The WAVE1 GPR peptide inhibited GTPgammaS binding to purified G-protein. Endogenous Gialpha and WAVE1 coimmunoprecipitated from brain lysates. A WAVE1-G-protein complex was also observed following transfection of COS7 cells with Gialpha3 and WAVE1. The docking of Gialpha within a WAVE1 scaffolding complex may facilitate dynamic cycling and/or targeting for efficient and localized control of actin polymerization.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: F32 MH065092, MH90531; NINDS NIH HHS: NS24821

    FEBS letters 2006;580;8;1993-8

  • Gialpha and Gbeta subunits both define selectivity of G protein activation by alpha2-adrenergic receptors.

    Gibson SK and Gilman AG

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. scott.gibson@utsouthwestern.edu

    Previous studies of the specificity of receptor interactions with G protein subunits in living cells have relied on measurements of second messengers or other downstream responses. We have examined the selectivity of interactions between alpha2-adrenergic receptors (alpha2R) and various combinations of Gialpha and Gbeta subunit isoforms by measuring changes in FRET between Gialpha-yellow fluorescent protein and cyan fluorescent protein-Gbeta chimeras in HeLa cells. All combinations of Gialpha1, -2, or -3 with Gbeta1, -2, or -4 were activated to some degree by endogenous alpha2Rs as judged by agonist-dependent decreases in FRET. The degree of G protein activation is determined by the combination of Gialpha and Gbeta subunits rather than by the identity of an individual subunit. RT-PCR analysis and small interfering RNA knockdown of alpha2R subtypes, followed by quantification of radiolabeled antagonist binding, demonstrated that HeLa cells express alpha2a- and alpha2b-adrenergic receptor isoforms in a 2:1 ratio. Increasing receptor number by overexpression of the alpha2aR subtype minimized the differences among coupling preferences for Gialpha and Gbeta isoforms. The molecular properties of each Gialpha, Gbeta, and alpha2-adrenergic receptor subtype influence signaling efficiency for the alpha2-adrenergic receptor-mediated signaling pathway.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM34497, R01 GM034497, R37 GM034497

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006;103;1;212-7

  • The LIFEdb database in 2006.

    Mehrle A, Rosenfelder H, Schupp I, del Val C, Arlt D, Hahne F, Bechtel S, Simpson J, Hofmann O, Hide W, Glatting KH, Huber W, Pepperkok R, Poustka A and Wiemann S

    Division Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. a.mehrle@dkfz.de

    LIFEdb (http://www.LIFEdb.de) integrates data from large-scale functional genomics assays and manual cDNA annotation with bioinformatics gene expression and protein analysis. New features of LIFEdb include (i) an updated user interface with enhanced query capabilities, (ii) a configurable output table and the option to download search results in XML, (iii) the integration of data from cell-based screening assays addressing the influence of protein-overexpression on cell proliferation and (iv) the display of the relative expression ('Electronic Northern') of the genes under investigation using curated gene expression ontology information. LIFEdb enables researchers to systematically select and characterize genes and proteins of interest, and presents data and information via its user-friendly web-based interface.

    Nucleic acids research 2006;34;Database issue;D415-8

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • HIV type 1 glycoprotein 120 inhibits human B cell chemotaxis to CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 12, CC chemokine ligand (CCL)20, and CCL21.

    Badr G, Borhis G, Treton D, Moog C, Garraud O and Richard Y

    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Medicale, Unité 131, Institut Paris-Sud sur les Cytokines, Clamart, France.

    We analyzed the modulation of human B cell chemotaxis by the gp120 proteins of various HIV-1 strains. X4 and X4/R5 gp120 inhibited B cell chemotaxis toward CXCL12, CCL20, and CCL21 by 40-50%, whereas R5 gp120 decreased inhibition by 20%. This gp120-induced inhibition was strictly dependent on CXCR4 or CCR5 and lipid rafts but not on CD4 or V(H)3-expressing BCR. Inhibition did not impair the expression or ligand-induced internalization of CCR6 and CCR7. Our data suggest that gp120/CXCR4 and gp120/CCR5 interactions lead to the cross-desensitization of CCR6 and CCR7 because gp120 does not bind CCR6 and CCR7. Unlike CXCL12, gp120 did not induce the activation of phospholipase Cbeta3 and PI3K downstream from CXCR4, whereas p38 MAPK activation was observed. Similar results were obtained if gp120-treated cells were triggered by CCL21 and CCL20. Our results are consistent with a blockade restricted to signaling pathways using phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate as a substrate. X4 and X4/R5 gp120 induced the cleavage of CD62 ligand by a mechanism dependent on matrix metalloproteinase 1 and 3, CD4, CXCR4, Galpha(i), and p38 MAPK, whereas R5 gp120 did not. X4 and X4/R5 gp120 also induced the relocalization of cytoplasmic CD95 to the membrane and a 23% increase in CD95-mediated apoptosis. No such effects were observed with R5 gp120. The gp120-induced decrease in B cell chemotaxis and CD62 ligand expression, and increase in CD95-mediated B cell apoptosis probably have major deleterious effects on B cell responsiveness during HIV infection and in vaccination trials.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2005;175;1;302-10

  • Thrombopoietin complements G(i)- but not G(q)-dependent pathways for integrin {alpha}(IIb){beta}(3) activation and platelet aggregation.

    Campus F, Lova P, Bertoni A, Sinigaglia F, Balduini C and Torti M

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Pavia, via Bassi 21, 27100 Pavia.

    Binding of thrombopoietin (TPO) to the cMpl receptor on human platelets potentiates aggregation induced by a number of agonists, including ADP. In this work, we found that TPO was able to restore ADP-induced platelet aggregation upon blockade of the G(q)-coupled P2Y1 purinergic receptor but not upon inhibition of the G(i)-coupled P2Y12 receptor. Moreover, TPO triggered platelet aggregation upon co-stimulation of G(z) by epinephrine but not upon co-stimulation of G(q) by the thromboxane analogue U46619. Platelet aggregation induced by TPO and G(i) stimulation was biphasic, and cyclooxygenase inhibitors prevented the second but not the first phase. In contrast to ADP, TPO was unable to induce integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) activation, as evaluated by binding of both fibrinogen and PAC-1 monoclonal antibody. However, ADP-induced activation of integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) was blocked by antagonists of the G(q)-coupled P2Y1 receptor but was completely restored by the simultaneous co-stimulation of cMpl receptor by TPO. Inside-out activation of integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) induced by TPO and G(i) stimulation occurred independently of thromboxane A(2) production and was not mediated by protein kinase C, MAP kinases, or Rho-dependent kinase. Importantly, TPO and G(i) activation of integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) was suppressed by wortmannin and Ly294002, suggesting a critical regulation by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. We found that TPO did not activate phospholipase C in human platelets and was unable to restore ADP-induced phospholipase C activation upon blockade of the G(q)-coupled P2Y1 receptor. TPO induced a rapid and sustained activation of the small GTPase Rap1B through a pathway dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. In ADP-stimulated platelets, Rap1B activation was reduced, although not abolished, upon blockade of the P2Y1 receptor. However, accumulation of GTP-bound Rap1B in platelets activated by co-stimulation of cMpl and P2Y12 receptor was identical to that induced by the simultaneous ligation of P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptor by ADP. These results indicate that TPO can integrate G(i), but not G(q), stimulation and can efficiently support integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) activation platelet aggregation by an alternative signaling pathway independent of phospholipase C but involving the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the small GTPase Rap1B.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;26;24386-95

  • Structure of Galpha(i1) bound to a GDP-selective peptide provides insight into guanine nucleotide exchange.

    Johnston CA, Willard FS, Jezyk MR, Fredericks Z, Bodor ET, Jones MB, Blaesius R, Watts VJ, Harden TK, Sondek J, Ramer JK and Siderovski DP

    Department of Pharmacology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are molecular switches that regulate numerous signaling pathways involved in cellular physiology. This characteristic is achieved by the adoption of two principal states: an inactive, GDP bound state and an active, GTP bound state. Under basal conditions, G proteins exist in the inactive, GDP bound state; thus, nucleotide exchange is crucial to the onset of signaling. Despite our understanding of G protein signaling pathways, the mechanism of nucleotide exchange remains elusive. We employed phage display technology to identify nucleotide state-dependent Galpha binding peptides. Herein, we report a GDP-selective Galpha binding peptide, KB-752, that enhances spontaneous nucleotide exchange of Galpha(i) subunits. Structural determination of the Galpha(i1)/peptide complex reveals unique changes in the Galpha switch regions predicted to enhance nucleotide exchange by creating a GDP dissociation route. Our results cast light onto a potential mechanism by which Galpha subunits adopt a conformation suitable for nucleotide exchange.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: P01 GM 065533, P01 GM065533, R01 GM 062338, R01 GM062338

    Structure (London, England : 1993) 2005;13;7;1069-80

  • Amino acid-stimulated Ca2+ oscillations produced by the Ca2+-sensing receptor are mediated by a phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-independent pathway that requires G12, Rho, filamin-A, and the actin cytoskeleton.

    Rey O, Young SH, Yuan J, Slice L and Rozengurt E

    Unit of Signal Transduction and Gastrointestinal Cancer, Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, UCLA-CURE Digestive Diseases Research Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, 90095, USA.

    The G protein-coupled Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaR) is an allosteric protein that responds to two different agonists, Ca(2+) and aromatic amino acids, with the production of sinusoidal or transient oscillations in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Here, we examined whether these differing patterns of [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations produced by the CaR are mediated by separate signal transduction pathways. Using real time imaging of changes in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate hydrolysis and generation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in single cells, we found that stimulation of CaR by an increase in the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](o)) leads to periodic synthesis of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, whereas l-phenylalanine stimulation of the CaR does not induce any detectable change in the level this second messenger. Furthermore, we identified a novel pathway that mediates transient [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations produced by the CaR in response to l-phenylalanine, which requires the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and involves the small GTPase Rho, heterotrimeric proteins of the G(12) subfamily, the C-terminal region of the CaR, and the scaffolding protein filamin-A. Our model envisages that Ca(2+) or amino acids stabilize unique CaR conformations that favor coupling to different G proteins and subsequent activation of distinct downstream signaling pathways.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P50 CA090388; NIDDK NIH HHS: 5 P30 DK41301, DK 55003, DK 56930

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;24;22875-82

  • Cannabinoid receptor-induced neurite outgrowth is mediated by Rap1 activation through G(alpha)o/i-triggered proteasomal degradation of Rap1GAPII.

    Jordan JD, He JC, Eungdamrong NJ, Gomes I, Ali W, Nguyen T, Bivona TG, Philips MR, Devi LA and Iyengar R

    Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA.

    The G(alpha)o/i-coupled CB1 cannabionoid receptor induces neurite outgrowth in Neuro-2A cells. The mechanisms of signaling through G(alpha)o/i to induce neurite outgrowth were studied. The expression of G(alpha)o/i reduces the stability of its direct interactor protein, Rap1GAPII, by targeting it for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. This results in the activation of Rap1. G(alpha)o/i-induced activation of endogenous Rap1 in Neuro-2A cells is blocked by the proteasomal inhibitor lactacystin. G(alpha)o/i stimulates neurite outgrowth that is blocked by the expression of dominant negative Rap1. Expression of Rap1GAPII also blocks the G(alpha)o/i-induced neurite outgrowth and treatment with proteasomal inhibitors potentiates this inhibition. The endogenous G(alpha)o/i-coupled cannabinoid (CB1) receptor in Neuro-2A cells stimulates the degradation of Rap1GAPII; activation of Rap1 and treatment with pertussis toxin or lactacystin blocks these effects. The CB1 receptor-stimulated neurite outgrowth is blocked by treatment with pertussis toxin, small interfering RNA for Rap, lactacystin, and expression of Rap1GAPII. Thus, the G(alpha)o/i-coupled cannabinoid receptor, by regulating the p 1f40 roteasomal degradation of Rap1GAPII, activates Rap1 to induce neurite outgrowth.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-007824; NIDA NIH HHS: DA-00458, DA-05798, DA-08863; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-54508, GM-55279

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;12;11413-21

  • Striatin assembles a membrane signaling complex necessary for rapid, nongenomic activation of endothelial NO synthase by estrogen receptor alpha.

    Lu Q, Pallas DC, Surks HK, Baur WE, Mendelsohn ME and Karas RH

    Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

    Steroid hormone receptors (SHRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate gene expression. SHRs also mediate rapid, nongenomic cellular activation by steroids. In vascular endothelial cells, the SHR for estrogen, estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, is targeted by unknown mechanisms to a functional signaling module in membrane caveolae that enables estrogen to rapidly activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-Akt kinase pathways, and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Here we identify the 110-kDa caveolin-binding protein striatin as the molecular anchor that localizes ERalpha to the membrane and organizes the ERalpha-eNOS membrane signaling complex. Striatin directly binds to amino acids 183-253 of ERalpha, targets ERalpha to the cell membrane, and serves as a scaffold for the formation of an ERalpha-Galphai complex. Disruption of complex formation between ERalpha and striatin blocks estrogen-induced rapid activation mitogen-activated protein kinase, Akt kinase, and eNOS, but has no effect on ER-dependent regulation of an estrogen response element-driven reporter plasmid. These findings identify striatin as a molecular scaffold required for rapid, nongenomic estrogen-mediated activation of downstream signaling pathways. Furthermore, by demonstrating independent regulation of nongenomic vs. genomic ER-dependent signaling, these findings provide conceptual support for the potential development of "pathway-specific" selective ER modulators.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA057327

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;49;17126-31

  • Mammalian Pins is a conformational switch that links NuMA to heterotrimeric G proteins.

    Du Q and Macara IG

    Center for Cell Signaling, Department of Microbiology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.

    During asymmetric cell divisions, mitotic spindles align along the axis of polarization. In invertebrates, spindle positioning requires Pins or related proteins and a G protein alpha subunit. A mammalian Pins, called LGN, binds Galphai and also interacts through an N-terminal domain with the microtubule binding protein NuMA. During mitosis, LGN recruits NuMA to the cell cortex, while cortical association of LGN itself requires the C-terminal Galpha binding domain. Using a FRET biosensor, we find that LGN behaves as a conformational switch: in its closed state, the N and C termini interact, but NuMA or Galphai can disrupt this association, allowing LGN to interact simultaneously with both proteins, resulting in their cortical localization. Overexpression of Galphai or YFP-LGN causes a pronounced oscillation of metaphase spindles, and NuMA binding to LGN is required for these spindle movements. We propose that a related switch mechanism might operate in asymmetric cell divisions in the fly and nematode.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P01CA40042; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM070902

    Cell 2004;119;4;503-16

  • Vectorial proteomics reveal targeting, phosphorylation and specific fragmentation of polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) at the surface of caveolae in human adipocytes.

    Aboulaich N, Vainonen JP, Strålfors P and Vener AV

    Division of Cell Biology and Diabetes Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE58185 Linköping, Sweden.

    Caveolae, the specialized invaginations of plasma membranes, formed sealed vesicles with outwards-orientated cytosolic surface after isolation from primary human adipocytes. This morphology allowed differential, vectorial identification of proteins at the opposite membrane surfaces by proteolysis and MS. Extracellular-exposed caveolae-specific proteins CD36 and copper-containing amine oxidase were concealed inside the vesicles and resisted trypsin treatment. The cytosol-orientated caveolins were efficiently digested by trypsin, producing peptides amenable to direct MS sequencing. Isolation of peripheral proteins associated with the cytosolic surface of caveolae revealed a set of proteins that contained nuclear localization signals, leucine-zipper domains and PEST (amino acid sequence enriched in proline, glutamic acid, serine and threonine) domains implicated in regulation by proteolysis. In particular, PTRF (polymerase I and transcript release factor) was found as a major caveolae-associated protein and its co-localization with caveolin was confirmed by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. PTRF was present at the surface of caveolae in the intact form and in five different truncated forms. Peptides (44 and 45 amino acids long) comprising both the PEST domains were sequenced by nanospray-quadrupole-time-of-flight MS from the full-length PTRF, but were not found in the truncated forms of the protein. Two endogenous cleavage sites corresponding to calpain specificity were identified in PTRF; one of them was in a PEST domain. Both cleavage sites were flanked by mono- or diphosphorylated sequences. The phosphorylation sites were localized to Ser-36, Ser-40, Ser-365 and Ser-366 in PTRF. Caveolae of human adipocytes are proposed to function in targeting, relocation and proteolytic control of PTRF and other PEST-domain-containing signalling proteins.

    The Biochemical journal 2004;383;Pt 2;237-48

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • From ORFeome to biology: a functional genomics pipeline.

    Wiemann S, Arlt D, Huber W, Wellenreuther R, Schleeger S, Mehrle A, Bechtel S, Sauermann M, Korf U, Pepperkok R, Sültmann H and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    As several model genomes have been sequenced, the elucidation of protein function is the next challenge toward the understanding of biological processes in health and disease. We have generated a human ORFeome resource and established a functional genomics and proteomics analysis pipeline to address the major topics in the post-genome-sequencing era: the identification of human genes and splice forms, and the determination of protein localization, activity, and interaction. Combined with the understanding of when and where gene products are expressed in normal and diseased conditions, we create information that is essential for understanding the interplay of genes and proteins in the complex biological network. We have implemented bioinformatics tools and databases that are suitable to store, analyze, and integrate the different types of data from high-throughput experiments and to include further annotation that is based on external information. All information is presented in a Web database (http://www.dkfz.de/LIFEdb). It is exploited for the identification of disease-relevant genes and proteins for diagnosis and therapy.

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2136-44

  • CCL3, acting via the chemokine receptor CCR5, leads to independent activation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and Gi proteins.

    Mueller A and Strange PG

    School of Animal and Microbial Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AJ, UK.

    The interaction of the chemokine receptor, CCR5, expressed in recombinant cells, with different G proteins was investigated and CCR5 was found to interact with Gi, Go and Gq species. Interaction with Gi leads to G protein activation, whereas Gq does not seem to be activated. Additionally, CCR5 activation also leads to phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). Activation of JAK2 is independent of Gi or Gq activation. Gi protein activation was not prevented by inhibition of JAK, showing that heterotrimeric G protein activation and activation of the JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway are independent of each other.

    FEBS letters 2004;570;1-3;126-32

  • Guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor activity of the triple GoLoco motif protein G18: alanine-to-aspartate mutation restores function to an inactive second GoLoco motif.

    Kimple RJ, Willard FS, Hains MD, Jones MB, Nweke GK and Siderovski DP

    Department of Pharmacology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, and UNC Neuroscience Center, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

    GoLoco ('Galpha(i/o)-Loco' interaction) motif proteins have recently been identified as novel GDIs (guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors) for heterotrimeric G-protein alpha subunits. G18 is a member of the mammalian GoLoco-motif gene family and was uncovered by analyses of human and mouse genomes for anonymous open-reading frames. The encoded G18 polypeptide is predicted to contain three 19-amino-acid GoLoco motifs, which have been shown in other proteins to bind Galpha subunits and inhibit spontaneous nucleotide release. However, the G18 protein has thus far not been characterized biochemically. Here, we have cloned and expressed the G18 protein and assessed its ability to act as a GDI. G18 is capable of simultaneously binding more than one Galpha(i1) subunit. In binding assays with the non-hydrolysable GTP analogue guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, G18 exhibits GDI activity, slowing the exchange of GDP for GTP by Galpha(i1). Only the first and third GoLoco motifs within G18 are capable of interacting with Galpha subunits, and these bind with low micromolar affinity only to Galpha(i1) in the GDP-bound form, and not to Galpha(o), Galpha(q), Galpha(s) or Galpha12. Mutation of Ala-121 to aspartate in the inactive second GoLoco motif of G18, to restore the signature acidic-glutamine-arginine tripeptide that forms critical contacts with Galpha and its bound nucleotide [Kimple, Kimple, Betts, Sondek and Siderovski (2002) Nature (London) 416, 878-881], results in gain-of-function with respect to Galpha binding and GDI activity.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: P01 GM065533, R01 GM062338; NIMH NIH HHS: F30 MH064319, F30 MH064319-04, F30 MH64319

    The Biochemical journal 2004;378;Pt 3;801-8

  • Akt activation in platelets depends on Gi signaling pathways.

    Kim S, Jin J and Kunapuli SP

    Department of Physiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA.

    The serine-threonine kinase Akt has been established as an important signaling intermediate in regulating cell survival, cell cycle progression, as well as agonist-induced platelet activation. Stimulation of platelets with various agonists including thrombin results in Akt activation. As thrombin can stimulate multiple G protein signaling pathways, we investigated the mechanism of thrombin-induced activation of Akt. Stimulation of platelets with a PAR1-activating peptide (SFLLRN), PAR4-activating peptide (AYPGKF), and thrombin resulted in Thr308 and Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt, which results in its activation. This phosphorylation and activation of Akt were dramatically inhibited in the presence of AR-C69931MX, a P2Y12 receptor-selective antagonist, or GF 109203X, a protein kinase C inhibitor, but Akt phosphorylation was restored by supplemental Gi or Gz signaling. Unlike wild-type mouse platelets, platelets from Galphaq-deficient mice failed to trigger Akt phosphorylation by thrombin and AYPGKF, whereas Akt phosphorylation was not affected by these agonists in platelets from mice that lack P2Y1 receptor. However, ADP caused Akt phosphorylation in Galphaq- and P2Y1-deficient platelets, which was completely blocked by AR-C69931MX. In contrast, ADP failed to cause Akt phosphorylation in platelets from mice treated with clopidogrel, and thrombin and AYPGKF induced minimal phosphorylation of Akt, which was not affected by AR-C69931MX in these platelets. These data demonstrate that Gi, but not Gq or G12/13, signaling pathways are required for activation of Akt in platelets, and Gi signaling pathways, stimulated by secreted ADP, play an essential role in the activation of Akt in platelets.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL60683, HL64943

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;6;4186-95

  • CXCL16 signals via Gi, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, I kappa B kinase, and nuclear factor-kappa B and induces cell-cell adhesion and aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    Chandrasekar B, Bysani S and Mummidi S

    Department of Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229-390, USA. chandraseka@uthscsa.edu

    CXCL16, a recently discovered transmembrane chemokine, is expressed in human aortic smooth muscle cell (ASMC). It facilitates uptake of low density lipoproteins by macrophages, resulting in foam cell formation. However, it is not known whether ASMC express CXCR6, the receptor for CXCL16, or whether CXCL16 affects ASMC biology. To dissect the biological and signal transduction pathways elicited by CXCL16, human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) were treated with pharmacological inhibitors or transiently transfected with pathway-specific dominant-negative or kinase-dead expression vectors prior to the addition of CXCL16. HASMC expressed CXCR6 at basal conditions. Exposure of HASMC to CXCL16 increased NF-kappa B DNA binding activity, induced kappa B-driven luciferase activity, and up-regulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in an NF-kappa B-dependent manner. However, treatment with pertussis toxin (G(i) inhibitor), wortmannin or LY294002 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitors)), or Akt inhibitor or overexpression of dominant-negative (dn) PI3K gamma, dnPDK-1, kinase-dead (kd) Akt, kdIKK-beta, dnIKK-gamma, dnI kappa B-alpha, or dnI kappa B-beta significantly attenuated CXCL16-induced NF-kappa B activation. Furthermore, CXCL16 increased cell-cell adhesion and induced cellular proliferation in an NF-kappa B-dependent manner. In conclusion, CXCL16 is a potent and direct activator of NF-kappaB and induces kappa B-dependent proinflammatory gene transcription. CXCL16-mediated NF-kappa B activation occurred via heterotrimeric G proteins, PI3K, PDK-1, Akt, and I kappa B kinase (IKK). CXCL16 induced I kappa B phosphorylation and degradation. Most importantly, CXCL16 increased cell-cell adhesion and induced kappa B-dependent ASMC proliferation, indicating that CXCL16 may play an important role in the development and progression of atherosclerotic vascular disease.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL68020

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;5;3188-96

  • IRS-1 mediates inhibition of Ca2+ mobilization by insulin via the inhibitory G-protein Gi.

    Ferreira IA, Eybrechts KL, Mocking AI, Kroner C and Akkerman JW

    Thrombosis and Haemostasis Laboratory, Department of Hematology, University Medical Center Utrecht, and Institute for Biomembranes, Utrecht University, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands. i.a.ferreira@lab.azu.nl

    Platelet agonists initiate aggregation and secretion by activating receptors coupled to the G-protein G(q), thereby raising cytosolic Ca(2+), [Ca(2+)](i). The rise in [Ca(2+)](i) is facilitated via inhibition of cAMP formation by the inhibitory G-protein of adenylyl cyclase, G(i). Since insulin attenuates platelet activation, we investigated whether insulin interferes with cAMP regulation. Here we report that insulin (0.5-200 nmol/liter) interferes with agonist-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i) (ADP, thrombin), cAMP suppression (thrombin), and aggregation (ADP). The effects of insulin are as follows: (i) independent of the P2Y(12) receptor, which mediates ADP-induced cAMP lowering; (ii) not observed during G(s)-mediated cAMP formation; (iii) unaffected by treatments that affect phosphodiesterases (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine); and (iv) not changed by interfering with NO-mediated regulation of cAMP degradation (N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine). Hence, insulin might interfere with G(i). Indeed, insulin induces the following: (i) tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and G(i)alpha(2); (ii) co-precipitation of IRS-1 with G(i)alpha(2) but not with other G alpha subunits. Despite persistent receptor activation, the association of IRS-1 with G(i)alpha(2) is transient, being optimal at 5 min and 1 nmol/liter insulin, which is sufficient to suppress Ca(2+) signaling by ADP, and at 10 min and 100 nmol/liter insulin, which is required to suppress Ca(2+) signaling by thrombin. Epinephrine, a known platelet sensitizer and antagonist of insulin, abolishes the effect of insulin on [Ca(2+)](i), tyrosine phosphorylation of G(i)alpha(2), and aggregation by interfering with the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor beta subunit. We conclude that insulin attenuates platelet functions by interfering with cAMP suppression through IRS-1 and G(i).

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;5;3254-64

  • A region of the third intracellular loop of the short form of the D2 dopamine receptor dictates Gi coupling specificity.

    Senogles SE, Heimert TL, Odife ER and Quasney MW

    Department of Molecular Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 858 Madison Avenue, Suite G01, Memphis, TN 38163, USA. ssenogles@utmem.edu

    The D2 dopamine receptor has two isoforms, the short form (D2s receptor) and the long form (D2l receptor), which differ by the presence of a 29-amino acid insert in the third cytoplasmic loop. Both the D2s and D2l receptors have been shown to couple to members of the G alpha(i) family of G proteins, but whether each isoform couples to specific G alpha(i) protein(s) remains controversial. In previous studies using G alpha(i) mutants resistant to modification by pertussis toxin (G alpha(i)PT), we demonstrated that the D2s receptor couples selectively to G alpha(i2)PT and that the D2l receptor couples selectively to G alpha(i3)PT (Senogles, S. E. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 23120-23127). In this study, two point mutations of the D2s receptor were created by random mutagenesis (R233G and A234T). The two mutant D2s receptors demonstrated pharmacological characteristics comparable with those of the wild-type D2s receptor, with similar agonist and antagonist binding affinities. We used human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably transfected with G alpha(i1)PT, G alpha(i2)PT, or G alpha(i3)PT to measure agonist-mediated inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation before and after pertussis toxin treatment. The two mutant D2s receptors demonstrated a change in G(i) coupling specificity compared with the wild-type D2s receptor. Whereas the wild-type D2s receptor coupled predominantly to G alpha(i2)PT, mutant R233G coupled preferentially to G alpha(i3)PT, and mutant A234T coupled preferentially to G alpha(i1)PT. These results suggest that this region of the third cytoplasmic loop is crucial for determining G(i) protein coupling specificity.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 28811

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;3;1601-6

  • Analysis of RGSZ1 protein interaction with Galphai subunits.

    Wang Y and Young KH

    Neuroscience Discovery Research, Wyeth Research, Princeton, New Jersey 08543, USA.

    RGSZ1 has been reported to interact with G-protein subunits of the Galphai family and function as a GTPase-accelerating protein on intrinsic Galphai GTPase activity. This article describes several experimental approaches and assays used to investigate the effect of RGSZ1 on Galphai subunits. The formats described here include physical and functional interaction assays by which the association of RGSZ1 with Galphai is explored both in vitro and in vivo. The methods analyzing physical interaction include pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation assays. We also apply yeast two-hybrid techniques to detect RGSZ1 protein interaction with Galpha subunits. Additionally, we developed several functional assay systems to identify the functional relationship between RGSZ1 and Galphai, such as the single turnover GTPase assay, yeast pheromone response assay, mitogen-activated protein kinase assay, and serum response element reporter assay.

    Methods in enzymology 2004;390;31-52

  • Thermodynamic characterization of the binding of activator of G protein signaling 3 (AGS3) and peptides derived from AGS3 with G alpha i1.

    Adhikari A and Sprang SR

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics Graduate Program, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.

    Activator of G protein signaling 3 (AGS3) is a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) that contains four G protein regulatory (GPR) or GoLoco motifs in its C-terminal domain. The entire C-terminal domain (AGS3-C) as well as certain peptides corresponding to individual GPR motifs of AGS3 bound to G alpha i1 and inhibited the binding of GTP by stabilizing the GDP-bound conformation of G alpha i1. The stoichiometry, free energy, enthalpy, and dissociation constant for binding of AGS3-C to G alpha i1 were determined using isothermal titration calorimetry. AGS3-C possesses two apparent high affinity (Kd approximately 20 nm) and two apparent low affinity (Kd approximately 300 nm) binding sites for G alpha i1. Upon deletion of the C-terminal GPR motif from AGS3-C, the remaining sites were approximately equivalent with respect to their affinity (Kd approximately 400 nm) for G alpha i1. Peptides corresponding to each of the four GPR motifs of AGS3 (referred to as GPR1, GPR2, GPR3, and GPR4, respectively, going from N to C terminus) bound to G alpha i1 with Kd values in the range of 1-8 microm. Although GPR1, GPR2, and GPR4 inhibited the binding of the fluorescent GTP analog BODIPY-FL-guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate to G alpha i1, GPR3 did not. However, addition of N- and C-terminal flanking residues to the GPR3 GoLoco core increased its affinity for G alpha i1 and conferred GDI activity similar to that of AGS3-C itself. Similar increases were observed for extended GPR2 and extended GPR1 peptides. Thus, while the tertiary structure of AGS3 may affect the affinity and activity of the GPR motifs contained within its sequence, residues outside of the GPR motifs strongly potentiate their binding and GDI activity toward G alpha i1 even though the amino acid sequences of these residues are not conserved among the GPR repeats.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK46371, R01 DK046371

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;51;51825-32

  • Oxidized human neuroglobin acts as a heterotrimeric Galpha protein guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor.

    Wakasugi K, Nakano T and Morishima I

    Department of Molecular Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Japan. kei@wakasugi.mbox.media.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a newly discovered vertebrate heme protein that is expressed in the brain and can reversibly bind oxygen. It has been reported that Ngb expression levels increase in response to oxygen deprivation and that it protects neurons from hypoxia in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of this neuroprotection remains unclear. In the present study, we tried to clarify the neuroprotective role of Ngb under oxidative stress in vitro. By surface plasmon resonance, we found that ferric Ngb, which is generated spontaneously as a result of the rapid autoxidation, binds exclusively to the GDP-bound form of the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G protein (Galphai). In GDP dissociation assays or guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate binding assays, ferric Ngb behaved as a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI), inhibiting the rate of exchange of GDP for GTP. The interaction of GDP-bound Galphai with ferric Ngb will liberate Gbetagamma, leading to protection against neuronal death. In contrast, ferrous ligand-bound Ngb under normoxia did not have GDI activities. Taken together, we propose that human Ngb may be a novel oxidative stress-responsive sensor for signal transduction in the brain.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;38;36505-12

  • Functional characterization of human receptors for short chain fatty acids and their role in polymorphonuclear cell activation.

    Le Poul E, Loison C, Struyf S, Springael JY, Lannoy V, Decobecq ME, Brezillon S, Dupriez V, Vassart G, Van Damme J, Parmentier M and Detheux M

    Euroscreen, rue Adrienne Bolland 47, 6041 Gosselies, Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Catholic University of Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are produced at high concentration by bacteria in the gut and subsequently released in the bloodstream. Basal acetate concentrations in the blood (about 100 microm) can further increase to millimolar concentrations following alcohol intake. It was known previously that SCFAs can activate leukocytes, particularly neutrophils. In the present work, we have identified two previously orphan G protein-coupled receptors, GPR41 and GPR43, as receptors for SCFAs. Propionate was the most potent agonist for both GPR41 and GPR43. Acetate was more selective for GPR43, whereas butyrate and isobutyrate were more active on GPR41. The two receptors were coupled to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation, intracellular Ca2+ release, ERK1/2 activation, and inhibition of cAMP accumulation. They exhibited, however, a differential coupling to G proteins; GPR41 coupled exclusively though the Pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi/o family, whereas GPR43 displayed a dual coupling through Gi/o and Pertussis toxin-insensitive Gq protein families. The broad expression profile of GPR41 in a number of tissues does not allow us to infer clear hypotheses regarding its biological functions. In contrast, the highly selective expression of GPR43 in leukocytes, particularly polymorphonuclear cells, suggests a role in the recruitment of these cell populations toward sites of bacterial infection. The pharmacology of GPR43 matches indeed the effects of SCFAs on neutrophils, in terms of intracellular Ca2+ release and chemotaxis. Such a neutrophil-specific SCFA receptor is potentially involved in the development of a variety of diseases characterized by either excessive or inefficient neutrophil recruitment and activation, such as inflammatory bowel diseases or alcoholism-associated immune depression. GPR43 might therefore constitute a target allowing us to modulate immune responses in these pathological situations.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;28;25481-9

  • The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7.

    Hillier LW, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Graves TA, Pepin KH, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Maas J, Jaeger S, Walker R, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, O'Laughlin MD, Schaller ME, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Cordes M, Du H, Sun H, Edwards J, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Andrews S, Isak A, Vanbrunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Lamar B, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Bielicki L, Scott K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Harris A, Strong CM, Hou S, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Leonard S, Rohlfing T, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Abbott A, Minx P, Maupin R, Strowmatt C, Latreille P, Miller N, Johnson D, Murray J, Woessner JP, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Schultz BR, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Nelson JO, Berkowicz N, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Bedell JA, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Chissoe SL, Marra MA, Raymond C, Haugen E, Gillett W, Zhou Y, James R, Phelps K, Iadanoto S, Bubb K, Simms E, Levy R, Clendenning J, Kaul R, Kent WJ, Furey TS, Baertsch RA, Brent MR, Keibler E, Flicek P, Bork P, Suyama M, Bailey JA, Portnoy ME, Torrents D, Chinwalla AT, Gish WR, Eddy SR, McPherson JD, Olson MV, Eichler EE, Green ED, Waterston RH and Wilson RK

    Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8501, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.

    Human chromosome 7 has historically received prominent attention in the human genetics community, primarily related to the search for the cystic fibrosis gene and the frequent cytogenetic changes associated with various forms of cancer. Here we present more than 153 million base pairs representing 99.4% of the euchromatic sequence of chromosome 7, the first metacentric chromosome completed so far. The sequence has excellent concordance with previously established physical and genetic maps, and it exhibits an unusual amount of segmentally duplicated sequence (8.2%), with marked differences between the two arms. Our initial analyses have identified 1,150 protein-coding genes, 605 of which have been confirmed by complementary DNA sequences, and an additional 941 pseudogenes. Of genes confirmed by transcript sequences, some are polymorphic for mutations that disrupt the reading frame.

    Nature 2003;424;6945;157-64

  • The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor S1P4 regulates cell shape and motility via coupling to Gi and G12/13.

    Gräler MH, Grosse R, Kusch A, Kremmer E, Gudermann T and Lipp M

    Department of Tumor Genetics and Immunogenetics, Max-Delbrück-Centrum of Molecular Medicine, Robert-Rössle-Strasse 10, 13092 Berlin, Germany.

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors represent a novel subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors binding S1P specifically and with high affinity. Although their in vivo functions remain largely unknown, in vitro extracellular application of S1P induces distinct S1P receptor-dependent cellular responses including proliferation, differentiation, and migration. We have analyzed signaling pathways engaged by S1P(4), which is highly expressed in the lymphoid system. Here we show that S1P(4) couples directly to Galpha(i) and even more effectively to Galpha(12/13)-subunits of trimeric G-proteins, but not to Galpha(q) unlike other S1P receptors. Consequently, CHO-K1 cells ectopically expressing S1P(4) potently activate the small GTPase Rho and undergo cytoskeletal rearrangements, inducing peripheral stress fiber formation and cell rounding, upon S1P stimulation. Overexpression of S1P(4) in Jurkat T cells induces pertussis toxin-sensitive cell motility even in the absence of exogenously added S1P. In addition, S1P(4) is internalized upon binding of S1P. The capacity of S1P(4) to mediate cellular responses, such as motility and shape change through Galpha(i)- and Galpha(12/13)-coupled signaling pathways may be important for its in vivo function which is currently under investigation.


  • The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR40 is activated by medium and long chain fatty acids.

    Briscoe CP, Tadayyon M, Andrews JL, Benson WG, Chambers JK, Eilert MM, Ellis C, Elshourbagy NA, Goetz AS, Minnick DT, Murdock PR, Sauls HR, Shabon U, Spinage LD, Strum JC, Szekeres PG, Tan KB, Way JM, Ignar DM, Wilson S and Muir AI

    Department of Metabolic Diseases, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA. cpb15172@gsk.com

    GPR40 is a member of a subfamily of homologous G protein-coupled receptors that include GPR41 and GPR43 and that have no current function or ligand ascribed. Ligand fishing experiments in HEK293 cells expressing human GPR40 revealed that a range of saturated and unsaturated carboxylic acids with carbon chain lengths greater than six were able to induce an elevation of [Ca(2+)](i), measured using a fluorometric imaging plate reader. 5,8,11-Eicosatriynoic acid was the most potent fatty acid tested, with a pEC(50) of 5.7. G protein coupling of GPR40 was examined in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the G alpha(q/i)-responsive Gal4-Elk1 reporter system. Expression of human GPR40 led to a constitutive induction of luciferase activity, which was further increased by exposure of the cells to eicosatriynoic acid. Neither the constitutive nor ligand-mediated luciferase induction was inhibited by pertussis toxin treatment, suggesting that GPR40 was coupled to G alpha(q/11.) Expression analysis by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that GPR40 was specifically expressed in brain and pancreas, with expression in rodent pancreas being localized to insulin-producing beta-cells. These data suggest that some of the physiological effects of fatty acids in pancreatic islets and brain may be mediated through a cell-surface receptor.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;13;11303-11

  • Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases Erk1/2 by erythropoietin receptor via a G(i )protein beta gamma-subunit-initiated pathway.

    Guillard C, Chrétien S, Pelus AS, Porteu F, Muller O, Mayeux P and Duprez V

    Department of Hematology, Institut Cochin, INSERM U567, CNRS UMR 8104, Université René Descartes, 27 rue du Faubourg Saint-Jacques, 75014 Paris, France.

    We have recently shown that a heterotrimeric G(i) protein is coupled to the erythropoietin (Epo) receptor. The G(i) protein constitutively associates in its heterotrimeric form with the intracellular domain of Epo receptor (EpoR). After Epo stimulation G(i) is rele 10db ased from the receptor and activated. In the present study we have investigated the functional role of the heterotrimeric G(i) protein bound to EpoR. In Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing EpoR, the G(i) inhibitor pertussis toxin blocked mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Erk1/2 activation induced by Epo. Epo-dependent MAPK activation was also sensitive to the G beta gamma competitive inhibitor beta ARK1-ct (C-terminal fragment of the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase), to the Ras dominant negative mutant RasN17, and to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY 294002. A region of 7 amino acids (469-475) in the C-terminal end of EpoR was shown to be required for G(i) binding to EpoR in vivo. Deletion of this region in EpoR abolished both MAPK and PI3K activation in response to Epo. We conclude that in Chinese hamster ovary cells, Epo activates MAPK via a novel pathway dependent on G(i) association to EpoR, G beta gamma subunit, Ras, and PI3K. The tyrosine kinase Jak2 also contributes to this new pathway, more likely downstream of beta gamma and upstream of Ras and PI3K. This pathway is similar to the best characterized pathway used by seven transmembrane receptors coupled to G(i) to activate MAPK and may cooperate with other described Epo-dependent MAPK activation pathways in hematopoietic cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;13;11050-6

  • Free fatty acids regulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells through GPR40.

    Itoh Y, Kawamata Y, Harada M, Kobayashi M, Fujii R, Fukusumi S, Ogi K, Hosoya M, Tanaka Y, Uejima H, Tanaka H, Maruyama M, Satoh R, Okubo S, Kizawa H, Komatsu H, Matsumura F, Noguchi Y, Shinohara T, Hinuma S, Fujisawa Y and Fujino M

    Discovery Research Laboratories I, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd, Wadai 10, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-4293, Japan.

    Diabetes, a disease in which carbohydrate and lipid metabolism are regulated improperly by insulin, is a serious worldwide health issue. Insulin is secreted from pancreatic beta cells in response to elevated plasma glucose, with various factors modifying its secretion. Free fatty acids (FFAs) provide an important energy source as nutrients, and they also act as signalling molecules in various cellular processes, including insulin secretion. Although FFAs are thought to promote insulin secretion in an acute phase, this mechanism is not clearly understood. Here we show that a G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR40, which is abundantly expressed in the pancreas, functions as a receptor for long-chain FFAs. Furthermore, we show that long-chain FFAs amplify glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells by activating GPR40. Our results indicate that GPR40 agonists and/or antagonists show potential for the development of new anti-diabetic drugs.

    Nature 2003;422;6928;173-6

  • Mammalian Ric-8A (synembryn) is a heterotrimeric Galpha protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor.

    Tall GG, Krumins AM and Gilman AG

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75390-9041, USA.

    The activation of heterotrimeric G proteins is accomplished primarily by the guanine nucleotide exchange activity of ligand-bound G protein-coupled receptors. The existence of nonreceptor guanine nucleotide exchange factors for G proteins has also been postulated. Yeast two-hybrid screens with Galpha(o) and Galpha(s) as baits were performed to identify binding partners of these proteins. Two mammalian homologs of the Caenorhabditis elegans protein Ric-8 were identified in these screens: Ric-8A (Ric-8/synembryn) and Ric-8B. Purification and biochemical characterization of recombinant Ric-8A revealed that it is a potent guanine nucleotide exchange factor for a subset of Galpha proteins including Galpha(q), Galpha(i1), and Galpha(o), but not Galpha(s). The mechanism of Ric-8A-mediated guanine nucleotide exchange was elucidated. Ric-8A interacts with GDP-bound Galpha proteins, stimulates release of GDP, and forms a stable nucleotide-free transition state complex with the Galpha protein; this complex dissociates upon binding of GTP to Galpha.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM34497

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;10;8356-62

  • Age increases expression and receptor-mediated activation of G alpha i in human atria.

    Kilts JD, Akazawa T, Mathew JP, Newman MF and Kwatra MM

    Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    Recently, we demonstrated that beta2AR and several other Galphas-coupled receptors in human atria also couple to Galphai, a G protein that inhibits adenylyl cyclase (AC). The present study was undertaken to determine whether age increases expression of Galphai in human atrium, and more specifically whether it results in an increase in receptor-mediated activation of Galphai. Right atrial appendages were obtained from 14 mature adult (40-55 years) and 14 elderly (71-79 years) patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Immunoblotting of atrial membranes indicates that elderly atria have 82 +/- 18% more Galphai2 than atria from mature adults (P < 0.002); this increase in Galphai with age is confirmed by pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation as well as by photoaffinity labeling with [32P]azidoanilido-GTP. We also find that receptor-mediated activation of Galphai is greater in elderly atria and that both basal and receptor-mediated AC activities decrease in elderly atria. These decreases in AC activity can be reversed by disabling Galphai with pertussis toxin, indicating that the age-dependent increases in Galphai expression and activation have functional consequences. Because beta2ARs in human atria mediate contractility through cAMP-mediated phosphorylation of phospholamban, we conclude that an age-induced increase in Galphai may have a role in depressing cardiac function in aged human atria.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01-RR-30; NIA NIH HHS: AG15817

    Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology 2003;42;5;662-70

  • Regulator of G protein signaling Z1 (RGSZ1) interacts with Galpha i subunits and regulates Galpha i-mediated cell signaling.

    Wang Y, Ho G, Zhang JJ, Nieuwenhuijsen B, Edris W, Chanda PK and Young KH

    Neuroscience Discovery Research, Wyeth Research, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-8000, USA. wangy4@wyeth.com

    Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins constitute a family of over 20 proteins that negatively regulate heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathways by enhancing endogenous GTPase activities of G protein alpha subunits. RGSZ1, one of the RGS proteins specifically localized to the brain, has been cloned previously and described as a selective GTPase accelerating protein for Galpha(z) subunit. Here, we employed several methods to provide new evidence that RGSZ1 interacts not only with Galpha(z,) but also with Galpha(i), as supported by in vitro binding assays and functional studies. Using glutathione S-transferase fusion protein pull-down assays, glutathione S-transferase-RGSZ1 protein was shown to bind (35)S-labeled Galpha(i1) protein in an AlF(4)(-)dependent manner. The interaction between RGSZ1 and Galpha(i) was confirmed further by co-immunoprecipitation studies and yeast two-hybrid experiments using a quantitative luciferase reporter gene. Extending these observations to functional studies, RGSZ1 accelerated endogenous GTPase activity of Galpha(i1) in single-turnover GTPase assays. Human RGSZ1 functionally regulated GPA1 (a yeast Galpha(i)-like protein)-mediated yeast pheromone response when expressed in a SST2 (yeast RGS protein) knockout strain. In PC12 cells, transfected RGSZ1 blocked mitogen-activated protein kinase activity induced by UK14304, an alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist. Furthermore, RGSZ1 attenuated D2 dopamine receptor agonist-induced serum response element reporter gene activity in Chinese hamster ovary cells. In summary, these data suggest that RGSZ1 serves as a GTPase accelerating protein for Galpha(i) and regulates Galpha(i)-mediated signaling, thus expanding the potential role of RGSZ1 in G protein-mediated cellular activities.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;50;48325-32

  • Coordinated signaling through both G12/13 and G(i) pathways is sufficient to activate GPIIb/IIIa in human platelets.

    Dorsam RT, Kim S, Jin J and Kunapuli SP

    Department of Pharmacology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA.

    Activation of GPIIb/IIIa is known to require agonist-induced inside-out signaling through G(q), G(i), and G(z). Although activated by several platelet agonists, including thrombin and thromboxane A(2), the contribution of the G(12/13) signaling pathway to GPIIb/IIIa activation has not been investigated. In this study, we used selective stimulation of G protein pathways to investigate the contribution of G(12/13) activation to platelet fibrinogen receptor activation. YFLLRNP is a PAR-1-specific partial agonist that, at low concentrations (60 microm), selectively activates the G(12/13) signaling cascade resulting in platelet shape change without stimulating the G(q) or G(i) signaling pathways. YFLLRNP-mediated shape change was completely inhibited by the p160(ROCK) inhibitor, Y-27632. At this low concentration, YFLLRNP-mediated G(12/13) signaling caused platelet aggregation and enhanced PAC-1 binding when combined with selective G(i) or G(z) signaling, via selective stimulation of the P2Y(12) receptor or alpha(2A)-adrenergic receptor, respectively. Similar data were obtained when using low dose (10 nm), a thromboxane A(2) mimetic, to activate G(12/13) in the presence of G(i) signaling. These results suggest that selective activation of G(12/13) causes platelet GPIIb/IIIa activation when combined with G(i) signaling. Unlike either G(12/13) or G(i) activation alone, co-activation of both G(12/13) and G(i) resulted in a small increase in intracellular calcium. Chelation of intracellular calcium with dimethyl BAPTA dramatically blocked G(12/13) and G(i)-mediated platelet aggregation. No significant effect on aggregation was seen when using selective inhibitors for p160(ROCK), PKC, or MEKK1. PI 3-kinase inhibition lead to near abolishment of platelet aggregation induced by co-stimulation of G(q) and G(i) pathways, but not by G(12/13) and G(i) pathways. These data demonstrate that co-stimulation of G(12/13) and G(i) pathways is sufficient to activate GPIIb/IIIa in human platelets in a mechanism that involves intracellular calcium, and that PI 3-kinase is an important signaling molecule downstream of G(q) but not downstream of G(12/13) pathway.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL60683, HL64943, T32 HL07777

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;49;47588-95

  • Cloning and characterization of a novel regulator of G protein signalling in human platelets.

    Gagnon AW, Murray DL and Leadley RJ

    Cardiovascular Drug Discovery, Aventis Pharmaceuticals, 500 Arcola Road, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA.

    In an effort to understand the modulation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signalling in platelets, we sought to identify which regulators of G protein signalling proteins (RGSs) are present in human platelets. Using degenerate oligonucleotides, we performed RT-PCR with human platelet and megakaryocytic cell line RNA. In addition to confirming the presence of several known RGS transcripts, we found a novel RGS domain-containing transcript in platelet RNA. Northern blot analysis of multiple human tissues indicates that this transcript is most abundantly expressed in platelets compared to other tissues examined. Full-length cloning of this novel RGS, which we now term RGS18, demonstrates that this transcript is predicted to encode a 235-amino acid protein that is most closely related to RGS5 (46% identity) and that has approximately 30-40% identity to other RGS proteins. RGS18 is expressed in platelet, leukocyte, and megakaryocyte cell lines and binds to endogenous Galphai1, Galphai2, Galphai3, and Galphaq but not Galphaz, Galphas or Galpha12 in vitro.

    Cellular signalling 2002;14;7;595-606

  • Agonists activate Gi1 alpha or Gi2 alpha fused to the human mu opioid receptor differently.

    Massotte D, Brillet K, Kieffer B and Milligan G

    Département des Récepteurs et Protéines Membranaires, CNRS UPR 9050, Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Illkirch-Graffenstaden, France. massotte@igbmc.u-strasbg.fr

    As preferential coupling of opioid receptor to various inhibitory Galpha subunits is still under debate, we have investigated the selectivity of the human mu opioid receptor fused to a pertussis toxin insensitive C351I Gi1 alpha or C352I Gi2 alpha in stably transfected HEK 293 cells. Overall agonist binding affinities were increased for both fusion constructs when compared to the wild type receptor. [35 S]GTPgammaS binding was performed on pertussis toxin treated cells to monitor coupling efficiency of the fusion constructs. Upon agonist addition hMOR-C351I Gi1 a exhibited an activation profile similar to the non-fused receptor while hMOR-C352I Gi2 alpha was poorly activated. Interestingly no correlation could be drawn between agonist binding affinity and efficacy. Upon agonist addition, forskolin-stimulated cAMP production, as measured using a reporter gene assay, was inhibited by signals transduced via the fused Gi1 alpha and Gi2 alpha mainly. In contrast both fusion constructs were able to initiate ERK-MAPK phosphorylation via coupling to endogenous G proteins only. In conclusion our data indicate that hMOR couples more efficiently to Gi1 alpha than Gi2 alpha and that the coupling efficacy is clearly agonist-dependent.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2002;81;6;1372-82

  • Isoforms of mammalian adenylyl cyclase: multiplicities of signaling.

    Sunahara RK and Taussig R

    The Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0632, USA. sunahara@umich.edu

    Molecular interventions 2002;2;3;168-84

  • The complex of Arl2-GTP and PDE delta: from structure to function.

    Hanzal-Bayer M, Renault L, Roversi P, Wittinghofer A and Hillig RC

    Max-Planck-Institut für molekulare Physiologie, Abteilung Strukturelle Biologie, Otto-Hahn-Strasse 11, D-44227 Dortmund, Germany.

    Arf-like (Arl) proteins are close relatives of the Arf regulators of vesicular transport, but their function is unknown. Here, we present the crystal structure of full-length Arl2-GTP in complex with its effector PDE delta solved in two crystal forms (Protein Data Bank codes 1KSG, 1KSH and 1KSJ). Arl2 shows a dramatic conformational change from the GDP-bound form, which suggests that it is reversibly membrane associated. PDE delta is structurally closely related to RhoGDI and contains a deep empty hydrophobic pocket. Further experiments show that H-Ras, Rheb, Rho6 and G alpha(i1) interact with PDE delta and that, at least for H-Ras, the intact C-terminus is required. We suggest PDE delta to be a specific soluble transport factor for certain prenylated proteins and Arl2-GTP a regulator of PDE delta-mediated transport.

    The EMBO journal 2002;21;9;2095-106

  • A small sequence in the third intracellular loop of the VPAC(1) receptor is responsible for its efficient coupling to the calcium effector.

    Langer I, Vertongen P, Perret J, Waelbroeck M and Robberecht P

    Department of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Université Libre de Bruxelles, B-1070 Brussels, Belgium. ilanger@ulb.ac.be

    The stimulatory effect of VIP on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) has been investigated in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with the reporter gene aequorin, and expressing human VPAC(1), VPAC(2), chimeric VPAC(1)/VPAC(2), or mutated receptors. The VIP-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase was linearly correlated with receptor density and was higher in cells expressing VPAC(1) receptors than in cells expressing a similar VPAC(2) receptor density. The study was performed to establish the receptor sequence responsible for that difference. VPAC(1)/VPAC(2) chimeric receptors were first used for a broad positioning: those having the third intracellular loop (IC(3)) of the VPAC(1) or of the VPAC(2) receptor behaved, in that respect, phenotypically like VPAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptor, respectively. Replacement in the VPAC(2) receptor of the sequence 315-318 (VGGN) within the IC(3) by its VPAC(1) receptor counterpart 328-331 (IRKS) and the introduction of VGGN in state of IRKS in VPAC(1) was sufficient to mimic the VPAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptor characteristics, respectively. Thus, a small sequence in the IC(3) of the VPAC(1) receptor, probably through interaction with G(alphai) and G(alphaq) proteins, is responsible for the efficient agonist-stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) increase.

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 2002;16;5;1089-96

  • Structural determinants for GoLoco-induced inhibition of nucleotide release by Galpha subunits.

    Kimple RJ, Kimple ME, Betts L, Sondek J and Siderovski DP

    Department of Pharmacology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins bind to cell-surface receptors and are integral in transmission of signals from outside the cell. Upon activation of the Galpha subunit by binding of GTP, the Galpha and Gbetagamma subunits dissociate and interact with effector proteins for signal transduction. Regulatory proteins with the 19-amino-acid GoLoco motif can bind to Galpha subunits and maintain G-protein subunit dissociation in the absence of Galpha activation. Here we describe the structural determinants of GoLoco activity as revealed by the crystal structure of Galpha(i1) GDP bound to the GoLoco region of the 'regulator of G-protein signalling' protein RGS14. Key contacts are described between the GoLoco motif and Galpha protein, including the extension of GoLoco's highly conserved Asp/Glu-Gln-Arg triad into the nucleotide-binding pocket of Galpha to make direct contact with the GDP alpha- and beta-phosphates. The structural organization of the GoLoco Galpha(i1) complex, when combined with supporting data from domain-swapping experiments, suggests that the Galpha all-helical domain and GoLoco-region carboxy-terminal residues control the specificity of GoLoco Galpha interactions.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: T32 GM008570

    Nature 2002;416;6883;878-81

  • Activator of G-protein signaling 1 blocks GIRK channel activation by a G-protein-coupled receptor: apparent disruption of receptor signaling complexes.

    Takesono A, Nowak MW, Cismowski M, Duzic E and Lanier SM

    Department of Pharmacology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA.

    The Ras-related protein, activator of G-protein signaling 1 (AGS1) or Dexras1, interacts with G(i)/G(o)alpha and activates heterotrimeric G-protein signaling systems independent of a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). As an initial approach to further define the cellular role of AGS1 in GPCR signaling, we determined the influence of AGS1 on the regulation of G(betagamma)-regulated inwardly rectifying K(+) channel (GIRK) current (I(ACh)) by M(2)-muscarinic receptor (M(2)-MR) in Xenopus oocytes. AGS1 expression inhibited receptor-mediated current activation by >80%. Mutation of a key residue (G31V) within the G(1) domain involved in nucleotide binding for Ras-related proteins eliminated the action of AGS1. The inhibition of I(ACh) was not overcome by increasing concentrations of the muscarinic agonist acetylcholine but was progressively lost upon injection of increasing amounts of M(2)-MR cRNA. These data suggest that AGS1 may antagonize GPCR signaling by altering the pool of heterotrimeric G-proteins available for receptor coupling and/or disruption of a preformed signaling complex. Such regulation would be of particular importance for those receptors that exist precoupled to heterotrimeric G-protein and for receptors operating within signaling complexes.

    Funded by: NIAAA NIH HHS: K01 AA00287; NIMH NIH HHS: MH 59331; NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS24821

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;16;13827-30

  • Serine 232 of the alpha(2A)-adrenergic receptor is a protein kinase C-sensitive effector coupling switch.

    Liang M, Freedman NJ, Theiss CT and Liggett SB

    Department of Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 231 Albert Sabin Way, ML 0564, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0564, USA.

    alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors (alpha(2)AR) couple to multiple effectors including adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. We hypothesized that signaling selectivity to these effectors is dynamically directed by kinase-sensitive domains within the third intracellular loop of the receptor. Substitution of Ala for Ser232, which is in the N-terminal region of this loop in the alpha(2A)AR, resulted in a receptor that was markedly uncoupled ( approximately 82% impairment) from stimulation of inositol phosphate accumulation while the capacity to inhibit adenylyl cyclase remained relatively intact. In S232A alpha(2A)AR transfected cell membranes, agonist-promoted [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding was reduced by approximately 50%. Coexpression of modified G proteins rendered insensitive to pertussis toxin revealed that the S232A receptor was uncoupled from both G(i) and G(o). S232 is a potential PKC phosphorylation site, and whole cell phosphorylation studies showed that the mutant had depressed phosphorylation compared to wild type (1.3- vs 2.1-fold/basal). Consistent with S232 directing coupling to phospholipase C, PMA exposure resulted in approximately 67% desensitization of agonist-promoted inositol phosphate accumulation without significantly affecting inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. The dominant effect of mutation or phosphorylation at this site on inositol phosphate as compared to cAMP signaling was found to most likely be due to the low efficiency of signal transduction via phospholipase C vs adenylyl cyclase. Taken together, these results indicate that S232 acts as a selective, PKC-sensitive, modulator of effector coupling of the alpha(2A)AR to inositol phosphate stimulation. This represents one mechanism by which cells route stimuli directed to multifunctional receptors to selected effectors so as to attain finely targeted signaling.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL52318, HL53436

    Biochemistry 2001;40;49;15031-7

  • Multiplicity of mechanisms of serotonin receptor signal transduction.

    Raymond JR, Mukhin YV, Gelasco A, Turner J, Collinsworth G, Gettys TW, Grewal JS and Garnovskaya MN

    The Research Service of the Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, SC 29401, USA. raymondj@musc.edu

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptors have been divided into 7 subfamilies by convention, 6 of which include 13 different genes for G-protein-coupled receptors. Those subfamilies have been characterized by overlapping pharmacological properties, amino acid sequences, gene organization, and second messenger coupling pathways. Post-genomic modifications, such as alternative mRNA splicing or mRNA editing, creates at least 20 more G-protein-coupled 5-HT receptors, such that there are at least 30 distinct 5-HT receptors that signal through G-proteins. This review will focus on what is known about the signaling linkages of the G-protein-linked 5-HT receptors, and will highlight some fascinating new insights into 5-HT receptor signaling.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK02694, DK053981, DK52448, DK54720

    Pharmacology & therapeutics 2001;92;2-3;179-212

  • Interaction between the RGS domain of RGS4 with G protein alpha subunits mediates the voltage-dependent relaxation of the G protein-gated potassium channel.

    Inanobe A, Fujita S, Makino Y, Matsushita K, Ishii M, Chachin M and Kurachi Y

    Department of Pharmacology II, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

    1. In native cardiac myocytes, there is a time dependence to the G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K(+) (K(G)) channel current during voltage steps that accelerates as the concentration of acetylcholine is increased. This phenomenon has been called 'relaxation' and is not reproduced in the reconstituted Kir3.1/Kir3.4 channel in Xenopus oocytes. We have shown that RGS4, a regulator of G protein signalling, restores relaxation to the reconstituted Kir3.1/Kir3.4 channel. In this study, we examined the mechanism of this phenomenon by expressing various combinations of membrane receptors, G proteins, Kir3.0 subunits and mutants of RGS4 in Xenopus oocytes. 2. RGS4 restored relaxation to K(G) channels activated by the pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G protein-coupled m(2)-muscarinic receptor but not to those activated by the G(s) protein-coupled beta(2)-adrenergic receptor. 3. RGS4 induced relaxation not only in heteromeric K(G) channels composed of Kir3.1 and Kir3.4 but also in homomeric assemblies of either an active mutant of Kir3.1 (Kir3.1/F137S) or an isoform of Kir3.2 (Kir3.2d). 4. Truncation mutants of RGS4 showed that the RGS domain itself was essential to reproduce the effect of wild-type RGS4 on the K(G) channel. 5. The mutation of residues in the RGS domain which interact with the alpha subunit of the G protein (G(alpha)) impaired the effect of RGS4. 6. This study therefore shows that interaction between the RGS domain and PTX-sensitive G(alpha) subunits mediates the effect of RGS4 on the agonist concentration-dependent relaxation of K(G) channels.

    The Journal of physiology 2001;535;Pt 1;133-43

  • RGS12 and RGS14 GoLoco motifs are G alpha(i) interaction sites with guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor Activity.

    Kimple RJ, De Vries L, Tronchère H, Behe CI, Morris RA, Gist Farquhar M and Siderovski DP

    Department of Pharmacology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Caro 1f40 lina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7365, USA.

    The regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins accelerate the intrinsic guanosine triphosphatase activity of heterotrimeric G-protein alpha subunits and are thus recognized as key modulators of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. RGS12 and RGS14 contain not only the hallmark RGS box responsible for GTPase-accelerating activity but also a single G alpha(i/o)-Loco (GoLoco) motif predicted to represent a second G alpha interaction site. Here, we describe functional characterization of the GoLoco motif regions of RGS12 and RGS14. Both regions interact exclusively with G alpha(i1), G alpha(i2), and G alpha(i3) in their GDP-bound forms. In GTP gamma S binding assays, both regions exhibit guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) activity, inhibiting the rate of exchange of GDP for GTP by G alpha(i1). Both regions also stabilize G alpha(i1) in its GDP-bound form, inhibiting the increase in intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence stimulated by AlF(4)(-). Our results indicate that both RGS12 and RGS14 harbor two distinctly different G alpha interaction sites: a previously recognized N-terminal RGS box possessing G alpha(i/o) GAP activity and a C-terminal GoLoco region exhibiting G alpha(i) GDI activity. The presence of two, independent G alpha interaction sites suggests that RGS12 and RGS14 participate in a complex coordination of G-protein signaling beyond simple G alpha GAP activity.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA58689; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK07386, DK17780; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM07040, GM62338; NIMH NIH HHS: F30 MH064319, F30 MH064319-04

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;31;29275-81

  • Plasma membrane estrogen receptors are coupled to endothelial nitric-oxide synthase through Galpha(i).

    Wyckoff MH, Chambliss KL, Mineo C, Yuhanna IS, Mendelsohn ME, Mumby SM and Shaul PW

    Departments of Pediatrics and Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.

    Estrogen causes rapid endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production because of the activation of plasma membrane-associated estrogen receptors (ER) coupled to endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). In the present study, we determined the role of G proteins in eNOS activation by estrogen. Estradiol-17beta (E(2), 10(-8) m) and acetylcholine (10(-5) m) caused comparable increases in NOS activity (15 min) in intact endothelial cells that were fully blocked by pertussis toxin (Ptox). In addition, exogenous guanosine 5'-O-(2- thiodiphosphate) inhibited E(2)-mediated eNOS stimulation in isolated endothelial plasma membranes, and Ptox prevented enzyme activation by E(2) in COS-7 cells expressing ERalpha and eNOS. Coimmunoprecipitation studies of plasma membranes from COS-7 cells transfected with ERalpha and specific Galpha proteins demonstrated E(2)-stimulated interaction between ERalpha and Galpha(i) but not between ERalpha and either Galpha(q) or Galpha(s); the observed ERalpha-Galpha(i) interaction was blocked by the ER antagonist ICI 182,780 and by Ptox. E(2)-stimulated ERalpha-Galpha(i) interaction was also demonstrable in endothelial cell plasma membranes. Cotransfection of Galpha(i) into COS-7 cells expressing ERalpha and eNOS yielded a 3-fold increase in E(2)-mediated eNOS stimulation, whereas cotransfection with a protein regulator of G protein signaling, RGS4, inhibited the E(2) response. These findings indicate that eNOS stimulation by E(2) requires plasma membrane ERalpha coupling to Galpha(i) and that activated Galpha(i) mediates the requisite downstream signaling events. Thus, novel G protein coupling enables a subpopulation of ERalpha to initiate signal transduction at the cell surface. Similar mechanisms may underly the nongenomic actions of other steroid hormones.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL53546, HL56069, HL58888, HL59953; NICHD NIH HHS: HD30276; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM50515

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;29;27071-6

  • Coincident signalling between the Gi/Go-coupled delta-opioid receptor and the Gq-coupled m3 muscarinic receptor at the level of intracellular free calcium in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Yeo A, Samways DS, Fowler CE, Gunn-Moore F and Henderson G

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

    In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of delta-opioid receptors with [D-Pen(2,5)]-enkephalin (DPDPE; 1 microM) did not alter the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)](i). However, when DPDPE was applied during concomitant Gq-coupled m3 muscarinic receptor stimulation by carbachol or oxotremorine-M, it produced an elevation of [Ca(2+)](i). The DPDPE-evoked increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was abolished when the carbachol-sensitive intracellular Ca(2+) store was emptied. There was a marked difference between the concentration-response relationship for the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) by carbachol (EC(50) 13 microM, Hill slope 1) and the concentration-response relationship for carbachol's permissive action in revealing the delta-opioid receptor-mediated elevation of [Ca(2+)] (EC(50) 0.7 mM; Hill slope 1.8). Sequestration of free G protein beta gamma dimers by transient transfection of cells with a beta gamma binding protein (residues 495-689 of the C terminal tail of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2) reduced the ability of delta opioid receptor activation to elevate [Ca(2+)](i). However, DPDPE did not elevate either basal or oxotremorine-M-evoked inositol phosphate production indicating that delta-opioid receptor activation did not stimulate phospholipase C. Furthermore, delta-opioid receptor activation did not result in the reversal of muscarinic receptor desensitization, membrane hyperpolarization or stimulation of sphingosine kinase. There was no coincident signalling between the delta-opioid receptor and the lysophosphatidic acid receptor which couples to elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) in SH-SY5Y cells by a PLC-independent mechanism. In SH-SY5Y cells the coincident signalling between the endogenously expressed delta-opioid and m3 muscarinic receptors appears to occur in the receptor activation-Ca(2+) release signalling pathway at a step after the activation of phospholipase C.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2001;76;6;1688-700

  • Integrin-associated protein (CD47) and its ligands.

    Brown EJ and Frazier WA

    Program in Host-Pathogen Interactions, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    Integrin-associated protein (IAP or CD47) is a receptor for thrombospondin family members, a ligand for the transmembrane signaling protein SIRP alpha and a component of a supramolecular complex containing specific integrins, heterotrimeric G proteins and cholesterol. Peptides containing a VVM motif in the C-terminal domain of thrombospondins are agonists for CD47, initiating heterotrimeric Gi protein signaling that augments the functions of integrins of the beta 1, beta 2 and beta 3 families, thus modulating a range of cell activities including platelet activation, cell motility and adhesion, and leukocyte adhesion, migration and phagocytosis.

    Trends in cell biology 2001;11;3;130-5

  • Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs.

    Wiemann S, Weil B, Wellenreuther R, Gassenhuber J, Glassl S, Ansorge W, Böcher M, Blöcker H, Bauersachs S, Blum H, Lauber J, Düsterhöft A, Beyer A, Köhrer K, Strack N, Mewes HW, Ottenwälder B, Obermaier B, Tampe J, Heubner D, Wambutt R, Korn B, Klein M and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    With the complete human genomic sequence being unraveled, the focus will shift to gene identification and to the functional analysis of gene products. The generation of a set of cDNAs, both sequences and physical clones, which contains the complete and noninterrupted protein coding regions of all human genes will provide the indispensable tools for the systematic and comprehensive analysis of protein function to eventually understand the molecular basis of man. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of 500 novel human cDNAs containing the complete protein coding frame. Assignment to functional categories was possible for 52% (259) of the encoded proteins, the remaining fraction having no similarities with known proteins. By aligning the cDNA sequences with the sequences of the finished chromosomes 21 and 22 we identified a number of genes that either had been completely missed in the analysis of the genomic sequences or had been wrongly predicted. Three of these genes appear to be present in several copies. We conclude that full-length cDNA sequencing continues to be crucial also for the accurate identification of genes. The set of 500 novel cDNAs, and another 1000 full-coding cDNAs of known transcripts we have identified, adds up to cDNA representations covering 2%--5 % of all human genes. We thus substantially contribute to the generation of a gene catalog, consisting of both full-coding cDNA sequences and clones, which should be made freely available and will become an invaluable tool for detailed functional studies.

    Genome research 2001;11;3;422-35

  • Nrg-1 belongs to the endothelial differentiation gene family of G protein-coupled sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors.

    Malek RL, Toman RE, Edsall LC, Wong S, Chiu J, Letterle CA, Van Brocklyn JR, Milstien S, Spiegel S and Lee NH

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA.

    The previously cloned rat nerve growth factor-regulated G protein-coupled receptor NRG-1 (Glickman, M., Malek, R. L., Kwitek-Black, A. E., Jacob, H. J., and Lee N. H. (1999) Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 14, 141-52), also known as EDG-8, binds sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) with high affinity and specificity. In this paper we examined the signal transduction pathways regulated by the binding of S1P to EDG-8. In Chinese hamster ovary cells heterologously expressing EDG-8, S1P inhibited forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation and activated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase. Surprisingly, S1P inhibited serum-induced activation of extracellular regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Treatment with pertussis toxin, which ADP-ribosylates and inactivates G(i), blocked S1P-mediated inhibition of cAMP accumulation, but had no effect on c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation or inhibition of ERK1/2. The inhibitory effect of S1P on ERK1/2 activity was abolished by treatment with orthovanadate, suggesting the involvement of a tyrosine phosphatase. A subunit selective [35S] guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate binding assay demonstrates that EDG-8 activated G(i/o) and G12 but not Gs and G(q/11) in response to S1P. In agreement, EDG-8 did not stimulate phosphoinositide turnover or cAMP accumulation. The ability of S1P to induce mitogenesis in cells expressing the EDG-1 subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors is well characterized. In contrast, S1P inhibited proliferation in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing EDG-8 but not empty vector. The antiproliferative effect, like S1P-mediated ERK1/2 inhibition, was orthovanadate-sensitive and pertussis toxin-insensitive. Our results indicate that EDG-8, a member of the EDG-1 subfamily, couples to unique signaling pathways.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA61774; NINDS NIH HHS: NS352321

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;8;5692-9

  • Characterization of RGS5 in regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling.

    Zhou J, Moroi K, Nishiyama M, Usui H, Seki N, Ishida J, Fukamizu A and Kimura S

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

    RGS proteins (regulators of G protein signaling) serve as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for G alpha subunits and negatively regulate G protein-coupled receptor signaling. In this study, we characterized biochemical properties of RGS5 and its N terminal (1-33)-deleted mutant (deltaN-RGS5). RGS5 bound to G alpha(i1), G alpha(i2), G alpha(i3), G alpha(o) and G alpha(q) but not to G alpha(s) and G alpha13 in the presence of GDP/AIF4-, and accelerated the catalytic rate of GTP hydrolysis of G alpha(i3) subunit. When expressed in 293T cells stably expressing angiotensin (Ang) AT1a receptors (AT1a-293T cells), RGS5 suppressed Ang II- and endothelin (ET)-1-induced intracellular Ca2+ transients. The effect of RGS5 was concentration-dependent, and the slope of the concentration-response relationship showed that a 10-fold increase in amounts of RGS5 induced about 20-25% reduction of the Ca2+ signaling. Furthermore, a comparison study of three sets of 293T cells with different expression levels of AT1a receptors showed that RGS5 inhibited Ang II-induced responses more effectively in 293T cells with the lower density of AT1a receptors, suggesting that the degree of inhibition by RGS proteins reflects the ratio of amounts of RGS proteins to those of activated G alpha subunits after receptor stimulation by agonists. When expressed in AT1a-293T cells, deltaN-RGS5 was localized almost exclusively in the cytosolic fraction, and exerted the inhibitory effects as potently as RGS5 which was present in both membrane and cytosolic fractions. Studies on relationship between subcellular localization and inhibitory effects of RGS5 and deltaN-RGS5 revealed that the N terminal (1-33) of RGS5 plays a role in targeting this protein to membranes, and that the N terminal region of RGS5 is not essential for exerting activities.

    Life sciences 2001;68;13;1457-69

  • CB1 receptor-G protein association. Subtype selectivity is determined by distinct intracellular domains.

    Mukhopadhyay S and Howlett AC

    Department of Pharmacological and Physiological Science, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA.

    The CB1 cannabinoid receptor in N18TG2 neuroblastoma cells inhibits adenylate cyclase, and this response can be mimicked by a peptide corresponding to the juxtamembrane C-terminal domain (CB(1)401-417). Guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate binding to G proteins can be stimulated by both peptide CB(1)401-417 and peptides corresponding to the third intracellular loop [Howlett, A.C., Song, C., Berglund, B.A., Wilken, G.H. & Pigg, J.J. (1998) Mol. Pharmacol. 53, 504-510; Mukhopadhyay, S., Cowsik, S.M., Welsh, W.J. & Howlett, A.C. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 3447-3455]. In Chaps-solubilized N18TG2 membranes, the CB1 receptor coimmunoprecipitated with all three Gi subtypes. Pertussis toxin significantly reduced the CB(1) receptor-G alpha(i) association and attenuated the CB(1)401-417-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase. CB(1)401-417 significantly reduced the CB(1) receptor association with G alpha(i3), but not with G alpha(i1) or G alpha(i2). In contrast, third intracellular loop peptides significantly reduced the CB(1) receptor association with G alpha(i1) and G alpha(i2), but not G alpha(i3). These interactions are specific for the CB(1) receptor because a peptide corresponding to the juxtamembrane C-terminal domain of the CB(2) receptor failed to compete for the association of the CB1 receptor with any of the Gi alpha subtypes, and was not able to activate Gi proteins to inhibit adenylate cyclase. These studies indicate that different domains of the CB(1) receptor direct the interaction with specific G protein subtypes.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: K05-DA00182, R01 DA003690, R01-DA03690

    European journal of biochemistry 2001;268;3;499-505

  • Identification of the platelet ADP receptor targeted by antithrombotic drugs.

    Hollopeter G, Jantzen HM, Vincent D, Li G, England L, Ramakrishnan V, Yang RB, Nurden P, Nurden A, Julius D and Conley PB

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA.

    Platelets have a crucial role in the maintenance of normal haemostasis, and perturbations of this system can lead to pathological thrombus formation and vascular occlusion, resulting in stroke, myocardial infarction and unstable angina. ADP released from damaged vessels and red blood cells induces platelet aggregation through activation of the integrin GPIIb-IIIa and subsequent binding of fibrinogen. ADP is also secreted from platelets on activation, providing positive feedback that potentiates the actions of many platelet activators. ADP mediates platelet aggregation through its action on two G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes. The P2Y1 receptor couples to Gq and mobilizes intracellular calcium ions to mediate platelet shape change and aggregation. The second ADP receptor required for aggregation (variously called P2Y(ADP), P2Y(AC), P2Ycyc or P2T(AC)) is coupled to the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase through Gi. The molecular identity of the Gi-linked receptor is still elusive, even though it is the target of efficacious antithrombotic agents, such as ticlopidine and clopidogrel and AR-C66096 (ref. 9). Here we describe the cloning of this receptor, designated P2Y12, and provide evidence that a patient with a bleeding disorder has a defect in this gene. Cloning of the P2Y12 receptor should facilitate the development of better antiplatelet agents to treat cardiovascular diseases.

    Nature 2001;409;6817;202-7

  • Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel type of histamine receptor preferentially expressed in leukocytes.

    Oda T, Morikawa N, Saito Y, Masuho Y and Matsumoto S

    Helix Research Institute, Inc., 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu-shi, Chiba, 292-0812, Japan.

    Recently cDNA encoding the histamine H3 receptor was isolated after 15 years of considerable research. However, several studies have proposed heterogeneity of the H3 receptor. We report here the molecular cloning and characterization of a novel type of histamine receptor. A novel orphan G-protein-coupled receptor named GPRv53 was obtained through a search of the human genomic DNA data base and analyzed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). GPRv53 possessed the features of biologic amine receptors and had the highest homology with H3 receptor among known G-protein-coupled receptors. Mammalian cells expressing GPRv53 were demonstrated to bind and respond to histamine in a concentration-dependent manner. In functional assays, not only an H3 receptor agonist, R-(alpha)-methylhistamine, but also a H3 receptor antagonist, clobenpropit, and a neuroleptic, clozapine, activated GPRv53-expressing cells. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that expression of GPRv53 is localized in the peripheral blood leukocytes, spleen, thymus, and colon, which was totally different from the H3 receptor, whose expression was restricted to the brain. The discovery of the GPRv53 receptor will open a new phase of research on the physiological role of histamine.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;47;36781-6

  • Coupling of dopamine receptor subtypes to multiple and diverse G proteins.

    Sidhu A and Niznik HB

    Laboratory of Molecular Neurochemistry, Department of Pediatrics, Georgetown University Medical Center, Georgetown University, 3970 Reservoir Road, NW, Washington, DC 20007, USA. sidhua@odrge.odr.georgetown.edu

    The family of five dopamine receptors subtypes activate cellular effector systems through G proteins. Historically, dopamine receptors were thought to only stimulate or inhibit adenylyl cyclase, by coupling to either G(s)alpha or G(i)alpha, respectively. Recent studies in transfected cells, reviewed here, have shown that multiple and highly diverse signaling pathways are activated by specific dopamine receptor subtypes. This multiplicity of signaling responses occurs through selective coupling to distinct G proteins and each of the receptors can interact with more than one G protein. Although some of the multiple coupling of dopamine receptors to different G proteins occurs from within the same family of G proteins, these receptors can also couple to G proteins belonging to different families. Such multiple interactions between receptors and G proteins elicits functionally distinct physiological effects which acts to enhance and subsequently suppress the original receptor response, and to activate apparently distinct signaling pathways. In the brain, where coexpression of functionally distinct receptors in heterogeneous cells further adds to the complexity of dopamine signaling, minor alterations in receptor/G protein coupling states during either development or in adults, may underlie the imbalanced signaling seen in dopaminergic-linked diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS-29685, NS-34914

    International journal of developmental neuroscience : the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 2000;18;7;669-77

  • DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination.

    Hartley JL, Temple GF and Brasch MA

    Life Technologies, Inc., Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA. jhartley@lifetech.com

    As a result of numerous genome sequencing projects, large numbers of candidate open reading frames are being identified, many of which have no known function. Analysis of these genes typically involves the transfer of DNA segments into a variety of vector backgrounds for protein expression and functional analysis. We describe a method called recombinational cloning that uses in vitro site-specific recombination to accomplish the directional cloning of PCR products and the subsequent automatic subcloning of the DNA segment into new vector backbones at high efficiency. Numerous DNA segments can be transferred in parallel into many different vector backgrounds, providing an approach to high-throughput, in-depth functional analysis of genes and rapid optimization of protein expression. The resulting subclones maintain orientation and reading frame register, allowing amino- and carboxy-terminal translation fusions to be generated. In this paper, we outline the concepts of this approach and provide several examples that highlight some of its potential.

    Genome research 2000;10;11;1788-95

  • Polarity exchange at the interface of regulators of G protein signaling with G protein alpha-subunits.

    Wieland T, N, Zhou XB, Kleuss C and Simon MI

    Institut für Experimentelle und Klinische Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Universitäts-Krankenhaus Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, D-20246 Hamburg, Germany. wieland@uke.uni-hamburg.de

    RGS proteins are GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for G protein alpha-subunits. This GAP activity is mediated by the interaction of conserved residues on regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins and Galpha-subunits. We mutated the important contact sites Glu-89, Asn-90, and Asn-130 in RGS16 to lysine, aspartate, and alanine, respectively. The interaction of RGS16 and its mutants with Galpha(t) and Galpha(i1) was studied. The GAP activities of RGS16N90D and RGS16N130A were strongly attenuated. RGS16E89K increased GTP hydrolysis of Galpha(i1) by a similar extent, but with an about 100-fold reduced affinity compared with non-mutated RGS16. As Glu-89 in RGS16 is interacting with Lys-210 in Galpha(i1), this lysine was changed to glutamate for compensation. Galpha(i1)K210E was insensitive to RGS16 but interacted with RGS16E89K. In rat uterine smooth muscle cells, wild type RGS16 abolished G(i)-mediated alpha(2)-adrenoreceptor signaling, whereas RGS16E89K was without effect. Both Galpha(i1) and Galpha(i1)K210E mimicked the effect of alpha(2)-adrenoreceptor stimulation. Galpha(i1)K210E was sensitive to RGS16E89K and 10-fold more potent than Galpha(i1). Analogous mutants of Galpha(q) (Galpha(q)K215E) and RGS4 (RGS4E87K) were created and studied in COS-7 cells. The activity of wild type Galpha(q) was counteracted by wild type RGS4 but not by RGS4E87K. The activity of Galpha(q)K215E was inhibited by RGS4E87K, whereas non-mutated RGS4 was ineffective. We conclude that mutation of a conserved lysine residue to glutamate in Galpha(i) and Galpha(q) family members renders these proteins insensitive to wild type RGS proteins. Nevertheless, they are sensitive to glutamate to lysine mutants of RGS proteins. Such mutant pairs will be helpful tools in analyzing Galpha-RGS specificities in living cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;37;28500-6

  • Systematic subcellular localization of novel proteins identified by large-scale cDNA sequencing.

    Simpson JC, Wellenreuther R, Poustka A, Pepperkok R and Wiemann S

    Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, EMBL Heidelberg, Germany.

    As a first step towards a more comprehensive functional characterization of cDNAs than bioinformatic analysis, which can only make functional predictions for about half of the cDNAs sequenced, we have developed and tested a strategy that allows their systematic and fast subcellular localization. We have used a novel cloning technology to rapidly generate N- and C-terminal green fluorescent protein fusions of cDNAs to examine the intracellular localizations of > 100 expressed fusion proteins in living cells. The entire analysis is suitable for automation, which will be important for scaling up throughput. For > 80% of these new proteins a clear intracellular localization to known structures or organelles could be determined. For the cDNAs where bioinformatic analyses were able to predict possible identities, the localization was able to support these predictions in 75% of cases. For those cDNAs where no homologies could be predicted, the localization data represent the first information.

    EMBO reports 2000;1;3;287-92

  • Activation of heterotrimeric G-protein signaling by a ras-related protein. Implications for signal integration.

    Cismowski MJ, Ma C, Ribas C, Xie X, Spruyt M, Lizano JS, Lanier SM and Duzic E

    OSI Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, New York 10591, the Department of Pharmacology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA. mcismowski@neurocrine.com

    Utilizing a functional screen in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae we identified mammalian proteins that activate heterotrimeric G-protein signaling pathways in a receptor-independent fashion. One of the identified activators, termed AGS1 (for activator of G-protein signaling), is a human Ras-related G-protein that defines a distinct subgroup of the Ras superfamily. Expression of AGS1 in yeast and in mammalian cells results in specific activation of Galpha(i)/Galpha(o) heterotrimeric signaling pathways. In addition, the in vivo and in vitro properties of AGS1 are consistent with it functioning as a direct guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Galpha(i)/Galpha(o). AGS1 thus presents a unique mechanism for signal integration via heterotrimeric G-protein signaling pathways.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS24821

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;31;23421-4

  • Inhibitory G protein alpha subunit (Gi alpha) expression and localization during human trophoblast differentiation.

    Daiter E, Makrigiannakis A, Coukos G, Woolkalis MJ and Coutifaris C

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Center for Research in Women's Health and Reproduction, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia 19104, USA.

    Objective: Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) participates in the regulation of processes associated with trophoblast syncytialization. As guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding regulatory proteins (G-proteins) modulate adenylate cyclase activity, the present study investigated the expression and regulation of the alpha subunit of inhibitory G protein (Gi alpha) during human trophoblast differentiation in vitro.

    Protein levels and the immunolocalization of the protein at a subcellular-level were assessed.

    Results: Expression of Gi alpha protein decreased during syncytialization. Moreover, Gi alpha transmigrated from a predominantly cell membrane-associated to a predominantly perinuclear location during the process.

    Conclusion: These results suggest that Gi alpha is regulated and may be implicated in cAMP-dependent events during the terminal differentiation of human trophoblasts.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD-06274

    European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 2000;88;2;165-9

  • Association of heterotrimeric G(i) with the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor. Release of G(betagamma) subunits upon receptor activation.

    Hallak H, Seiler AE, Green JS, Ross BN and Rubin R

    Department of Pathology, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.

    The insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) is a key regulator of cell proliferation and survival. Activation of the IGF-IR induces tyrosine autophosphorylation and the binding of a series of adaptor molecules, thereby leading to the activation of MAPK. It has been demonstrated that pertussis toxin, which inactivates the G(i) class of GTP-binding proteins, inhibits IGF-I-mediated activation of MAPK, and a specific role for G(betagamma) subunits in IGF-I signaling was shown. In the present study, we have investigated the role of heterotrimeric G(i) in IGF-IR signaling in neuronal cells. Pertussis toxin inhibited IGF-I-induced activation of MAPK in rat cerebellar granule neurons and NG-108 neuronal cells. G(alphai) and G(beta) subunits were associated with IGF-IR immunoprecipitates. Similarly, in IGF-IR-null mouse embryo fibroblasts transfected with the human IGF-IR, G(i) was complexed with the IGF-IR. G(alphas) was not associated with the IGF-IR in any cell type. IGF-I induced the release of the G(beta) subunits from the IGF-IR but had no effect on the association of G(alphai). These results demonstrate an association of heterotrimeric G(i) with the IGF-IR and identify a discrete pool of G(betagamma) subunits available for downstream signaling following stimulation with IGF-I.

    Funded by: BHP HRSA HHS: AHA9730028N; NIAAA NIH HHS: AA07186, AA09976

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;4;2255-8

  • A novel spliced variant of the type 1 corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor with a deletion in the seventh transmembrane domain present in the human pregnant term myometrium and fetal membranes.

    Grammatopoulos DK, Dai Y, Randeva HS, Levine MA, Karteris E, Easton AJ and Hillhouse EW

    Sir Quinton Hazell Molecular Medicine Research Centre, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom. chdg@dna.bio.warwick.ac.uk

    CRH exerts its actions via activation of specific G protein-coupled receptors, which exist in two types, CRH-R1 and CRH-R2, and arise from different genes with multiple spliced variants. RT-PCR amplification of CRH receptor sequences from human myometrium and fetal membranes yielded cDNAs that encode a novel CRH-R type 1 spliced variant. This variant (CRH-R1d) is present in the human pregnant myometrium at term only, which suggests a physiologically important role at the end of human pregnancy and labor. The amino acid sequence of CRH-R1d is identical to the CRH-R1alpha receptor except that it contains an exon deletion resulting in the absence of 14 amino acids in the predicted seventh transmembrane domain. Binding studies in HEK-293 cells stably expressing the CRH-R1d or CRH-R1alpha receptors revealed that the deletion does not change the binding characteristics of the variant receptor. In contrast, studies on the G protein activation demonstrated that CRH-R1d is not well coupled to the four subtypes of G proteins (G(s), G(i), G(o), G(q)) that CRH-R1alpha can activate. These data suggest that although the deleted segment is not important for CRH binding, it plays a crucial role in CRH receptor signal transduction. Second messenger studies of the variant receptor showed that CRH and CRH-like peptides can stimulate the adenylate cyclase system, with reduced sensitivity and potency by 10-fold compared with the CRH-R1alpha. Furthermore, CRH failed to stimulate inositol trisphosphate production. Coexpression studies between the CRH-R1d or CRH-R1alpha showed that this receptor does not play a role as a dominant negative receptor for CRH.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 1999;13;12;2189-202

  • The chemokine SDF-1alpha triggers CXCR4 receptor dimerization and activates the JAK/STAT pathway.

    Vila-Coro AJ, Rodríguez-Frade JM, Martín De Ana A, Moreno-Ortíz MC, Martínez-A C and Mellado M

    Department of Immunology and Oncology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, CSIC-Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid, Spain.

    The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1alpha), the ligand for the CXCR4 receptor, induces a wide variety of effects that include calcium mobilization, chemotactic responses, bone marrow myelopoiesis, neuronal patterning, and prevention of HIV-1 infection. Nonetheless, little is known of the biochemical pathways required to achieve this variety of responses triggered after receptor-chemokine interaction. We developed a set of monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize the CXCR4 receptor and used them to identify the signaling pathway activated after SDF-1alpha binding in human T cell lines. Here we demonstrate that SDF-1alpha activation promotes the physical association of Galpha(i) with the CXCR4. Furthermore, within seconds of SDF-1alpha activation, the CXCR4 receptor becomes tyrosine phosphorylated through the activation and association with the receptor of JAK2 and JAK3 kinases. After SDF-1alpha binding, JAK2 and JAK3 associate with CXCR4 and are activated, probably by transphosphorylation, in a Galpha(i)-independent manner. This activation enables the recruitment and tyrosine phosphorylation of several members of the STAT family of transcription factors. Finally, we have also observed SDF-1alpha-induced activation and association of the tyrosine phosphatase Shp1 with the CXCR4 in a Galpha(i)-dependent manner. As occurs with the cytokine receptors in response to cytokines, the CXCR4 undergoes receptor dimerization after SDF-1alpha binding and is a critical step in triggering biological responses. We present compelling evidence that the chemokines signal through mechanisms similar to those activated by cytokines.

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 1999;13;13;1699-710

  • Differential coupling of the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors Edg-1, Edg-3, and H218/Edg-5 to the G(i), G(q), and G(12) families of heterotrimeric G proteins.

    Windh RT, Lee MJ, Hla T, An S, Barr AJ and Manning DR

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is one of several bioactive phospholipids that exert profound mitogenic and morphogenic actions. Originally characterized as a second messenger, S1P is now recognized to achieve many of its effects through cell surface, G protein-coupled receptors. We used a subunit-selective [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding assay to investigate whether the variety of actions exerted through Edg-1, a recently identified receptor for S1P, might be achieved through multiple G proteins. We found, employing both Sf9 and HEK293 cells, that Edg-1 activates only members of the G(i) family, and not G(s), G(q), G(12), or G(13). We additionally established that Edg-1 activates G(i) in response not only to S1P but also sphingosylphosphorylcholine; no effects of lysophosphatidic acid through Edg-1 were evident. Our assays further revealed a receptor(s) for S1P endogenous to HEK293 cells that mediates activation of G(13) as well as G(i). Because several of the biological actions of S1P are assumed to proceed through the G(12/13) family, we tested whether Edg-3 and H218/Edg-5, two other receptors for S1P, might have a broader coupling profile than Edg-1. Indeed, Edg-3 and H218/Edg-5 communicate not only with G(i) but also with G(q) and G(13). These studies represent the first characterization of S1P receptor activity through G proteins directly and establish fundamental differences in coupling.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM51196

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;39;27351-8

  • Ocular albinism: evidence for a defect in an intracellular signal transduction system.

    Schiaffino MV, d'Addio M, Alloni A, Baschirotto C, Valetti C, Cortese K, Puri C, Bassi MT, Colla C, De Luca M, Tacchetti C and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, 20132 Milan. schiaffi@tigem.it

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) participate in the most common signal transduction system at the plasma membrane. The wide distribution of heterotrimeric G proteins in the internal membranes suggests that a similar signalling mechanism might also be used at intracellular locations. We provide here structural evidence that the protein product of the ocular albinism type 1 gene (OA1), a pigment cell-specific integral membrane glycoprotein, represents a novel member of the GPCR superfamily and demonstrate that it binds heterotrimeric G proteins. Moreover, we show that OA1 is not found at the plasma membrane, being instead targeted to specialized intracellular organelles, the melanosomes. Our data suggest that OA1 represents the first example of an exclusively intracellular GPCR and support the hypothesis that GPCR-mediated signal transduction systems also operate at the internal membranes in mammalian cells.

    Funded by: Telethon: A.041, E.0583, TGM06S01, TGM97000

    Nature genetics 1999;23;1;108-12

  • Structural basis for the selectivity of the RGS protein, GAIP, for Galphai family members. Identification of a single amino acid determinant for selective interaction of Galphai subunits with GAIP.

    Woulfe DS and Stadel JM

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

    GAIP is a regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) that accelerates the rate of GTP hydrolysis by some G protein alpha subunits. In the present studies, we have examined the structural basis for the ability of GAIP to discriminate among members of the Galphai family. Galphai1, Galphai3, and Galphao interacted strongly with GAIP, whereas Galphai2 interacted weakly and Galphas did not interact at all. A chimeric G protein composed of a Galphai2 N terminus and a Galphai1 C terminus interacted as strongly with GAIP as native Galphai1, whereas a chimeric N-terminal Galphai1 with a Galphai2 C terminus did not interact. These results suggest that the determinants responsible for GAIP selectivity between these two Galphais reside within the C-terminal GTPase domain of the G protein. To further localize residues contributing to G protein-GAIP selectivity, a panel of 15 site-directed Galphai1 and Galphai2 mutants were assayed. Of the Galphai1 mutants tested, only that containing a mutation at aspartate 229 located at the N terminus of Switch 3 did not interact with GAIP. Furthermore, the only Galphai2 variant that interacted strongly with GAIP contained a replacement of the corresponding Galphai2 Switch 3 residue (Ala230) with aspartate. To determine whether GAIP showed functional preferences for Galpha subunits that correlate with the binding data, the ability of GAIP to enhance the GTPase activity of purified alpha subunits was tested. GAIP catalyzed a 3-5-fold increase in the rate of GTP hydrolysis by Galphai1 and Galphai2(A230D) but no increase in the rate of Galphai2 and less than a 2-fold increase in the rate of Galphai1(D229A) under the same conditions. Thus, GAIP was able to discriminate between Galphai1 and Galphai2 in both binding and functional assays, and in both cases residue 229/230 played a critical role in selective recognition.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;25;17718-24

  • Identification of a Gialpha binding site on type V adenylyl cyclase.

    Dessauer CW, Tesmer JJ, Sprang SR and Gilman AG

    Department of Pharmacology, Dallas, Texas 75235, USA.

    The stimulatory G protein alpha subunit Gsalpha binds within a cleft in adenylyl cyclase formed by the alpha1-alpha2 and alpha3-beta4 loops of the C2 domain. The pseudosymmetry of the C1 and C2 domains of adenylyl cyclase suggests that the homologous inhibitory alpha subunit Gialpha could bind to the analogous cleft within C1. We demonstrate that myristoylated guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate-Gialpha1 forms a stable complex with the C1 (but not the C2) domain of type V adenylyl cyclase. Mutagenesis of the membrane-bound enzyme identified residues whose alteration either increased or substantially decreased the IC50 for inhibition by Gialpha1. These mutations suggest binding of Gialpha within the cleft formed by the alpha2 and alpha3 helices of C1, analogous to the Gsalpha binding site in C2. Adenylyl cyclase activity reconstituted by mixture of the C1 and C2 domains of type V adenylyl cyclase was also inhibited by Gialpha. The C1b domain of the type V enzyme contributed to affinity for Gialpha, but the source of C2 had little effect. Mutations in this soluble system faithfully reflected the phenotypes observed with the membrane-bound enzyme. The pseudosymmetrical structure of adenylyl cyclase permits bidirectional regulation of activity by homologous G protein alpha subunits.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK46371; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM34497

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;40;25831-9

  • Expression of GTPase-deficient Gialpha2 results in translocation of cytoplasmic RGS4 to the plasma membrane.

    Druey KM, Sullivan BM, Brown D, Fischer ER, Watson N, Blumer KJ, Gerfen CR, Scheschonka A and Kehrl JH

    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1876, USA.

    The members of a recently identified protein family termed regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) act as GTPase-activating proteins for certain Galpha subunits in vitro, but their physiological effects in cells are uncertain in the face of similar biochemical activity and overlapping patterns of tissue expression. Consistent with its activity in in vitro GTPase-activating protein assays, RGS4 interacts efficiently with endogenous proteins of the Gi and Gq subclasses of Galpha subunits but not with G12alpha or Gsalpha. Unlike other RGS proteins such as RGS9, RGS-GAIP, and Sst2p, which have been reported to be largely membrane-associated, a majority of cellular RGS4 is found as a soluble protein in the cytoplasm. However, the expression of a GTPase-deficient Gialpha subunit (Gialpha2-Q204L) resulted in the translocation of both wild type RGS4 and a non-Gialpha-binding mutant (L159F) to the plasma membrane. These data suggest that RGS4 may be recruited to the plasma membrane indirectly by G-protein activation and that multiple RGS proteins within a given cell might be differentially localized to determine a physiologic response to a G-protein-linked stimulus.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK38452

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;29;18405-10

  • RGS7 attenuates signal transduction through the G(alpha q) family of heterotrimeric G proteins in mammalian cells.

    Shuey DJ, Betty M, Jones PG, Khawaja XZ and Cockett MI

    Department of CNS Disorders, Wyeth-Ayerst Research, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-8000, USA.

    The RGS proteins are a recently discovered family of G protein regulators that have been shown to act as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) on the G(alpha i) and G(alpha q) subfamilies of the heterotrimeric G proteins. Here, we demonstrate that RGS7 is a potent GAP in vitro on G(alpha i1), and G(alpha o) heterotrimeric proteins and that RGS7 acts to down-regulate G(alpha q)-mediated calcium mobilization in a whole-cell assay system using a transient expression protocol. This RGS protein and RGS4 are reported to be expressed predominantly in brain, and in situ hybridization studies have revealed similarities in the regional distribution of RGS and G(alpha q) mRNA expression. Our findings provide further evidence to support a functional role for RGS4 and RGS7 in G(alpha q)-mediated signaling in the CNS.

    Journal of neurochemistry 1998;70;5;1964-72

  • The regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) domains of RGS4, RGS10, and GAIP retain GTPase activating protein activity in vitro.

    Popov S, Yu K, Kozasa T and Wilkie TM

    Pharmacology Department, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75235-9041, USA.

    Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins accelerate GTP hydrolysis by Gi but not by Gs class alpha-subunits. All RGS proteins share a conserved 120-amino acid sequence termed the RGS domain. We have demonstrated that the RGS domains of RGS4, RGS10, and GAIP retain GTPase accelerating activity with the Gi class substrates Gialpha1, Goalpha, and Gzalpha in vitro. No regulatory activity of the RGS domains was detected for Gsalpha. Short deletions within the RGS domain of RGS4 destroyed GTPase activating protein activity and Gialpha1 substrate binding. Comparable protein-protein interactions between Gialpha1-GDP-AlF4- and the RGS domain or full-length RGS4 were detected using surface plasmon resonance.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK47890, R01 DK047890

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997;94;14;7216-20

  • Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing.

    Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, Muzny DM, Ding Y, Liu W, Ricafrente JY, Wentland MA, Lennon G and Gibbs RA

    A total of 100 kb of DNA derived from 69 individual human brain cDNA clones of 0.7-2.0 kb were sequenced by concatenated cDNA sequencing (CCS), whereby multiple individual DNA fragments are sequenced simultaneously in a single shotgun library. The method yielded accurate sequences and a similar efficiency compared with other shotgun libraries constructed from single DNA fragments (> 20 kb). Computer analyses were carried out on 65 cDNA clone sequences and their corresponding end sequences to examine both nucleic acid and amino acid sequence similarities in the databases. Thirty-seven clones revealed no DNA database matches, 12 clones generated exact matches (> or = 98% identity), and 16 clones generated nonexact matches (57%-97% identity) to either known human or other species genes. Of those 28 matched clones, 8 had corresponding end sequences that failed to identify similarities. In a protein similarity search, 27 clone sequences displayed significant matches, whereas only 20 of the end sequences had matches to known protein sequences. Our data indicate that full-length cDNA insert sequences provide significantly more nucleic acid and protein sequence similarity matches than expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for database searching.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: 1F32 HG00169-01, F32 HG000169, F33 HG000210, P30 HG00210-05, R01 HG00823, U54 HG003273

    Genome research 1997;7;4;353-8

  • GAIP is membrane-anchored by palmitoylation and interacts with the activated (GTP-bound) form of G alpha i subunits.

    De Vries L, Elenko E, Hubler L, Jones TL and Farquhar MG

    Division of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0651, USA.

    GAIP (G Alpha Interacting Protein) is a member of the recently described RGS (Regulators of G-protein Signaling) family that was isolated by interaction cloning with the heterotrimeric G-protein G alpha i3 and was recently shown to be a GTPase-activating protein (GAP). In AtT-20 cells stably expressing GAIP, we found that GAIP is membrane-anchored and faces the cytoplasm, because it was not released by sodium carbonate treatment but was digested by proteinase K. When Cos cells were transiently transfected with GAIP and metabolically labeled with [35S]methionine, two pools of GAIP--a soluble and a membrane-anchored pool--were found. Since the N terminus of GAIP contains a cysteine string motif and cysteine string proteins are heavily palmitoylated, we investigated the possibility that membrane-anchored GAIP might be palmitoylated. We found that after labeling with [3H]palmitic acid, the membrane-anchored pool but not the soluble pool was palmitoylated. In the yeast two-hybrid system, GAIP was found to interact specifically with members of the G alpha i subfamily, G alpha i1, G alpha i2, G alpha i3, G alpha z, and G alpha o, but not with members of other G alpha subfamilies, G alpha s, G alpha q, and G alpha 12/13. The C terminus of G alpha i3 is important for binding because a 10-aa C-terminal truncation and a point mutant of G alpha i3 showed significantly diminished interaction. GAIP interacted preferentially with the activated (GTP) form of G alpha i3, which is in keeping with its GAP activity. We conclude that GAIP is a membrane-anchored GAP with a cysteine string motif. This motif, present in cysteine string proteins found on synaptic vesicles, pancreatic zymogen granules, and chromaffin granules, suggests GAIP's possible involvement in membrane trafficking.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA58689, F32 CA066289; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK17780, R01 DK017780; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM07752, T32 GM007752

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1996;93;26;15203-8

  • The inducible G protein-coupled receptor edg-1 signals via the G(i)/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Lee MJ, Evans M and Hla T

    Department of Molecular Biology, Holland Laboratory, American Red Cross, Rockville, Maryland 20855, USA.

    The edg-1 gene encodes an inducible G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) homologue that is induced during the in vitro differentiation of human endothelial cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the G protein-coupling and -signaling properties of the edg-1 polypeptide. The third cytosolic loop (i3) of edg-1 associates with G(i) alpha and G(o) alpha polypeptides in a guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate)-sensitive manner. Immunoprecipitation of the edg-1 polypeptide in transfected cells results in the co-precipitation of G(i) alpha 1 and G(i) alpha 3 polypeptides. These data strongly suggest that edg-1 is capable of coupling to the Gi pathway. Overexpression of the edg-1 GPR in human embryonic kidney 293 cells results in the sustained activation of the MAP kinase activity that is blocked by pertussis toxin treatment. Moreover, NIH3T3 cells permanently transfected with edg-1 exhibit enhanced MAP kinase and phospholipase A2 activities. These data suggest that the G(i)/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is a major signaling pathway regulated by the orphan receptor edg-1.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 49094; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 45659

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;19;11272-9

  • A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction.

    Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W and Gibbs RA

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas, 77030, USA.

    The efficiency of shotgun DNA sequencing depends to a great extent on the quality of the random-subclone libraries used. We here describe a novel "double adaptor" strategy for efficient construction of high-quality shotgun libraries. In this method, randomly sheared and end-repaired fragments are ligated to oligonucleotide adaptors creating 12-base overhangs. Nonphosphorylated oligonucleotides are used, which prevents formation of adaptor dimers and ensures efficient ligation of insert to adaptor. The vector is prepared from a modified M13 vector, by KpnI/PstI digestion followed by ligation to oligonucleotides with ends complementary to the overhangs created in the digest. These adaptors create 5'-overhangs complementary to those on the inserts. Following annealing of insert to vector, the DNA is directly used for transformation without a ligation step. This protocol is robust and shows three- to fivefold higher yield of clones compared to previous protocols. No chimeric clones can be detected and the background of clones without an insert is <1%. The procedure is rapid and shows potential for automation.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: R01 HG00823

    Analytical biochemistry 1996;236;1;107-13

  • The human thyrotropin receptor: a heptahelical receptor capable of stimulating members of all four G protein families.

    Laugwitz KL, Allgeier A, Offermanns S, Spicher K, Van Sande J, Dumont JE and Schultz G

    Institut für Pharmakologie, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany.

    Thyrotropin is the primary hormone that, via one heptahelical receptor, regulates thyroid cell functions such as secretion, specific gene expression, and growth. In human thyroid, thyrotropin receptor activation leads to stimulation of the adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C cascades. However, the G proteins involved in thyrotropin receptor action have been only partially defined. In membranes of human thyroid gland, we immunologically identified alpha subunits of the G proteins Gs short, Gs long, Gi1, Gi2, Gi3, G(o) (Go2 and another form of Go, presumably Go1), Gq, G11, G12, and G13. Activation of the thyrotropin (TSH) receptor by bovine TSH led to increased incorporation of the photoreactive GTP analogue [alpha-32P]GTP azidoanilide into immunoprecipitated alpha subunits of all G proteins detected in thyroid membranes. This effect was receptor-dependent and not due to direct G protein stimulation because it was mimicked by TSH receptor-stimulating antibodies of patients suffering from Grave disease and was abolished by a receptor-blocking antiserum from a patient with autoimmune hypothyroidism. The TSH-induced activation of individual G proteins occurred with EC50 values of 5-50 milliunits/ml, indicating that the activated TSH receptor coupled with similar potency to different G proteins. When human thyroid slices were pretreated with pertussis toxin, the TSH receptor-mediated accumulation of cAMP increased by approximately 35% with TSH at 1 milliunits/ml, indicating that the TSH receptor coupled to Gs and G(i). Taken together, these findings show that, at least in human thyroid membranes, in which the protein is expressed at its physiological levels, the TSH receptor resembles a naturally occurring example of a general G protein-activating receptor.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1996;93;1;116-20

  • The structure of the G protein heterotrimer Gi alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 2.

    Wall MA, Coleman DE, Lee E, Iñiguez-Lluhi JA, Posner BA, Gilman AG and Sprang SR

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235, USA.

    The crystallographic structure of the G protein heterotrimer Gi alpha 1(GDP)beta 1 gamma 2 (at 2.3 A) reveals two nonoverlapping regions of contact between alpha and beta, an extended interface between beta and nearly all of gamma, and limited interaction of alpha with gamma. The major alpha/beta interface covers switch II of alpha, and GTP-induced rearrangement of switch II causes subunit dissociation during signaling. Alterations in GDP binding in the heterotrimer (compared with alpha-GDP) explain stabilization of the inactive conformation of alpha by beta gamma. Repeated WD motifs in beta form a circularized sevenfold beta propeller. The conserved cores of these motifs are a scaffold for display of their more variable linkers on the exterior face of each propeller blade.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK46371; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM34497

    Cell 1995;83;6;1047-58

  • Mechanism of GTP hydrolysis by G-protein alpha subunits.

    Kleuss C, Raw AS, Lee E, Sprang SR and Gilman AG

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235.

    Hydrolysis of GTP by a variety of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins is a crucial step for regulation of these biological switches. Mutations that impair the GTPase activity of certain heterotrimeric signal-transducing G proteins or of p21ras cause tumors in man. A conserved glutamic residue in the alpha subunit of G proteins has been hypothesized to serve as a general base, thereby activating a water molecule for nucleophilic attack on GTP. The results of mutagenesis of this residue (Glu-207) in Gi alpha 1 refute this hypothesis. Based on the structure of the complex of Gi alpha 1 with GDP, Mg2+, and AlF-4, which appears to resemble the transition state for GTP hydrolysis, we believe that Gln-204 of Gi alpha 1, rather than Glu-207, supports catalysis of GTP hydrolysis by stabilization of the transition state.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM34497

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1994;91;21;9828-31

  • Human somatostatin receptor, SSTR2, is coupled to adenylyl cyclase in the presence of Gi alpha 1 protein.

    Kagimoto S, Yamada Y, Kubota A, Someya Y, Ihara Y, Yasuda K, Kozasa T, Imura H, Seino S and Seino Y

    Department of Metabolism and Clinical Nutrition, Kyoto University Faculty of Medicine, Japan.

    Somatostatin has been shown to exert diverse biological effects in various tissues. Recently, the human genes encoding five subtypes of somatostatin receptor (SSTR1-SSTR5) were cloned. Among these subtypes SSTR2 is present in many endocrine tumors as well as normal tissues and may mediate the effects of somatostatin analog, SMS201-995. In this study, we have investigated the intracellular effect of SSTR2 stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Somatostatin-14 does not affect the forskolin stimulated cAMP formation when human SSTR2 is expressed in CHO cells, which lack internal Gi alpha 1 protein. However, somatostatin-14 inhibits the adenylyl cyclase in a dose dependent and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner when human SSTR2 is co-expressed with Gi alpha 1 in CHO cells. These results indicate that human SSTR2 is functionally coupled to Gi alpha 1 protein but not to Gi alpha 2 or Gi alpha 3 when expressed in CHO cells.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1994;202;2;1188-95

  • Structural determinants for activation of the alpha-subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein.

    Lambright DG, Noel JP, Hamm HE and Sigler PB

    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06510.

    The 1.8 A crystal structure of transducin alpha.GDP, when compared to that of the activated complex with GTP-gamma S, reveals the nature of the conformational changes that occur on activation of a heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunit. Structural changes initiated by direct contacts with the terminal phosphate of GTP propagate to regions that have been implicated in effector activation. The changes are distinct from those observed in other members of the GTPase superfamily.

    Nature 1994;369;6482;621-8

  • Gi alpha 1 selectively couples somatostatin receptor subtype 3 to adenylyl cyclase: identification of the functional domains of this alpha subunit necessary for mediating the inhibition by somatostatin of cAMP formation.

    Law SF, Zaina S, Sweet R, Yasuda K, Bell GI, Stadel J and Reisine T

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104.

    A major cellular action of the neuropeptide somatostatin (SRIF) is the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity. SRIF induces this effect after its interaction with membrane-bound receptors. Five SRIF receptors (SSTRs), which differ in their functional coupling to adenylyl cyclase, have recently been cloned. The third SSTR cloned, SSTR3, effectively mediates the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by SRIF. The molecular mechanism by which SRIF modulates intracellular cAMP synthesis via SSTR3 was investigated by initially identifying which G alpha subunits are involved in coupling SSTR3 to adenylyl cyclase. SRIF did not inhibit cAMP formation in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing SSTR3 and Gi alpha 2 or Gi alpha 3 but lacking Gi alpha 1. However, SRIF did inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing SSTR3 and Gi alpha 1, indicating that Gi alpha 1 selectively couples SSTR3 to adenylyl cyclase. To investigate the functional domains of Gi alpha 1 necessary for interaction with SSTR3, a chimeric alpha subunit (Gi alpha 2/Gi alpha 1) was constructed, consisting of the amino-terminal two thirds of Gi alpha 2 ligated to the carboxyl-terminal third of Gi alpha 1. SRIF inhibited cAMP formation in cells expressing SSTR3 and the Gi alpha 2/Gi alpha 1 chimera. These findings indicate that the carboxy-terminal third of Gi alpha 1 interacts with SSTR3 and is important in transmitting the signal of SSTR3 activation to adenylyl cyclase. In contrast, a similar Gi alpha 2/Gi alpha 3 chimera did not couple SSTR3 to adenylyl cyclase, further indicating that Gi alpha 3 does not contribute to SRIF inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity. These findings demonstrate that Gi alpha 1 selectively couples SSTR3 to adenylyl cyclase, and they indicate that the carboxyl-terminal region of this alpha subunit is involved in mediating SRIF inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH45533, MH48518

    Molecular pharmacology 1994;45;4;587-90

  • Identification of GTP-binding proteins in human glomeruli.

    Nitta K, Uchida K, Kawashima A, Tsutsui T, Ozu H, Naito T, Yumura W and Nihei H

    Department of Medicine, Kidney Center, Tokyo Women's Medical College, Japan.

    The localization of GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) in human glomeruli was examined using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Immunohistochemical staining for G-protein subunits demonstrated the existence of Gs alpha, Gi alpha and Go alpha proteins in the glomeruli. Moreover, immunoblots further revealed Gs alpha (52 kD), Gi alpha 1/2 (40-41 kD), Gi alpha 3 (40 kD) and Go alpha (39 kD) in the glomerular membranes. The predominant subspecies of Gs was a 52-kD protein, and Go alpha was detectable in the smallest amounts of the G-protein subunits. However, immunoblots failed to demonstrate detectable amounts of G-proteins in cytosolic extracts. This is the first report that characterizes G-protein subunits in human glomeruli. Further study is required to determine the roles of G-proteins in signal transductions in human glomeruli.

    Nihon Jinzo Gakkai shi 1994;36;1;9-12

  • Identification and expression of G-proteins in human myometrium: up-regulation of G alpha s in pregnancy.

    Europe-Finner GN, Phaneuf S, Watson SP and López Bernal A

    University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, United Kingdom.

    We report that human myometrium contains G alpha i1, G alpha i3, and G alpha q, and G alpha 11, which are expressed at similar levels in tissues from pregnant and nonpregnant women. G alpha i2 is also expressed, but at a slightly reduced level, in tissue taken from pregnant compared to nonpregnant donors. The major finding of this investigation is the substantial increase in G alpha s expression in pregnant myometrium. The increase in G alpha s levels may play a crucial role in maintaining relaxation of the uterus by favoring cAMP formation during pregnancy.

    Endocrinology 1993;132;6;2484-90

  • Thrombin inhibits the pertussis-toxin-dependent ADP-ribosylation of a novel soluble Gi-protein in human platelets.

    Gennity JM and Siess W

    Institut für Prophylaxe und Epidemiologie, Universität München, Federal Republic of Germany.

    A new G-protein was detected in human platelets which was ADP-ribosylated in a pertussis-toxin-dependent manner, was located in the supernatant of saponized platelets and was of a slightly lower molecular mass (40 kDa) than platelet membrane Gi alpha. This soluble ADP-ribosylated protein was immunoprecipitated by an antiserum to Gi alpha, but not by one to Go alpha. Prior thrombin stimulation of platelets led to an inhibition of the ADP-ribosylation of this protein. This inhibition was evident even under conditions which abolished the thrombin-stimulated inhibition of membrane Gi alpha ADP-ribosylation. These results indicate that the platelet thrombin receptor is coupled to two structurally and functionally distinct Gi alpha proteins: a major Gi alpha protein present in platelet membranes, and a minor Gi alpha protein detectable in the platelet soluble fraction.

    The Biochemical journal 1991;279 ( Pt 3);643-50

  • Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Jiang M, Pandey S, Tran VT and Fong HK

    Department of Microbiology, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles 90033.

    The expression of GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells was analyzed by RNA blot hybridization and cDNA amplification. Both adult and fetal human RPE cells contain mRNA for multiple G protein alpha subunits (G alpha) including Gs alpha, Gi-1 alpha, Gi-2 alpha, Gi-3 alpha, and Gz alpha (or Gx alpha), where Gs and Gi are proteins that stimulate or inhibit adenylyl cyclase, respectively, and Gz is a protein that may mediate pertussis toxin-insensitive events. Other G alpha-related mRNA transcripts were detected in fetal RPE cells by low-stringency hybridization to Gi-2 alpha and Gs alpha protein-coding cDNA probes. The diversity of G proteins in RPE cells was further studied by cDNA amplification with reverse transcriptase and the polymerase chain reaction. This approach revealed that, besides the above mentioned members of the G alpha gene family, at least two other G alpha subunits are expressed in RPE cells. Human retinal cDNA clones that encode one of the additional G alpha subunits were isolated and characterized. The results indicate that this G alpha subunit belongs to a separate subfamily of G proteins that may be insensitive to inhibition by pertussis toxin.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY08364

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1991;88;9;3907-11

  • GTP-binding proteins in human platelet membranes serving as the specific substrate of islet-activating protein, pertussis toxin.

    Nagata K, Katada T, Tohkin M, Itoh H, Kaziro Y, Ui M and Nozawa Y

    Department of Biochemistry, Gifu University School of Medicine, Japan.

    Two GTP-binding proteins serving as the specific substrate of islet-activating protein (IAP), pertussis toxin, were purified from human platelet membranes as heterotrimers with an alpha beta gamma-subunit structure. The alpha of the major IAP substrate had a molecular mass of 40 kDa and differed from that of Gi 1 or Go previously purified from brain membranes. The partial amino acid sequences of the 40 kDa alpha completely matched with the sequences which were deduced from the nucleotide sequences of the human Gi 2 alpha gene. On the other hand, the alpha of the minor IAP substrate purified from human platelets was about 41 kDa and cross-reacted with an antibody raised against alpha of brain Gi 1 (Gi 1 alpha). These results indicate that the major IAP substrate present in human platelet membranes is a product of the Gi 2 alpha gene.

    FEBS letters 1988;237;1-2;113-7

  • The gene for the alpha i1 subunit of human guanine nucleotide binding protein maps near the cystic fibrosis locus.

    Bloch DB, Bloch KD, Iannuzzi M, Collins FS, Neer EJ, Seidman JG and Morton CC

    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115.

    The gene for the alpha i1 subunit of human guanine nucleotide binding (G) protein was mapped by in situ hybridization to chromosome 7 at band q21. The regional chromosomal location of the human alpha i1 gene was confirmed using human/mouse somatic-cell hybrid lines containing portions of human chromosome 7. Because the alpha i1 gene mapped near the cystic fibrosis locus and because an abnormal G protein might be expected to contribute to the pathophysiology of this disease, the alpha i1 gene was mapped with respect to the cystic fibrosis locus as defined by the Met oncogene and anonymous DNA marker pJ3.11. The location of the alpha i1 gene proved to be distinct from that of the cystic fibrosis locus.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-07511; NIAID NIH HHS: AI 18436; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 36259

    American journal of human genetics 1988;42;6;884-8

  • Presence of three distinct molecular species of Gi protein alpha subunit. Structure of rat cDNAs and human genomic DNAs.

    Itoh H, Toyama R, Kozasa T, Tsukamoto T, Matsuoka M and Kaziro Y

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have cloned a new species of rat Gi alpha (Gi3 alpha) cDNA and genomic DNAs for three distinct human Gi alpha proteins (Gi1 alpha, Gi2 alpha, and Gi3 alpha). Gi3 alpha cDNA codes for a protein of 354 amino acids (Mr 40,522) whose sequence is closely related but distinct from that of the previously isolated rat Gi alpha (Gi2 alpha). By screening the human genomic libraries with the two rat Gi alpha cDNAs as probes, clones encoding human Gi1 alpha, Gi2 alpha, and Gi3 alpha were isolated. The human Gi2 alpha and Gi3 alpha genes are composed of eight coding exons and seven introns and possess a completely identical exon-intron organization. Southern blot analysis indicates that a single copy of each Gi alpha gene is present per haploid human genome.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1988;263;14;6656-64

  • The human genome encodes at least three non-allellic G proteins with alpha i-type subunits.

    Suki WN, Abramowitz J, Mattera R, Codina J and Birnbaumer L

    The amino acid sequence and composition of alpha-subunits of signal transducing G proteins of the same kind appear to vary by no more than 2% from species to species. Here we isolated a human liver cDNA using an oligonucleotide complementary to the sequences encoding the pertussis toxin (PTX) ADP-ribosylation site of the alpha-subunit of the rat brain G protein called Gi. Its open reading frame characterizes it as an alpha i-type cDNA--as opposed to alpha o-type--but predicts an amino acid composition that differs by 7% and 14%, respectively, from two other human alpha i-type molecules. Together with human brain alpha i (type-1) and human monocyte alpha i (type-2), the new human liver alpha i cDNA (type-3) forms parts of a family of alpha i molecules. Type-3 alpha i cDNA hybridizes to a approximately 3.6 kilobase long mRNA and type-2 alpha i cDNA hybridizes to an mRNA species of approximately 2.7 kilobases. This indicates that the human genome has at least three non-allellic genes encoding non-alpha o-type PTX substrates and provides structural evidence for the hypothesis that distinct effector systems are regulated by similar but nevertheless distinct PTX substrates.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-31164; NICHD NIH HHS: HD-09581; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-19318; ...

    FEBS letters 1987;220;1;187-92

  • Human cDNA clones for an alpha subunit of Gi signal-transduction protein.

    Bray P, Carter A, Guo V, Puckett C, Kamholz J, Spiegel A and Nirenberg M

    Two cDNA clones were obtained from a lambda gt11 cDNA human brain library that correspond to alpha i subunits of G signal-transduction proteins (where alpha i subunits refer to the alpha subunits of G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase). The nucleotide sequence of human brain alpha i is highly homologous to that of bovine brain alpha i [Nukada, T., Tanabe, T., Takahashi, H., Noda, M., Haga, K., Haga, T., Ichiyama, A., Kangawa, K., Hiranaga, M., Matsuo, H. & Numa, S. (1986) FEBS Lett. 197, 305-310] and the predicted amino acid sequences are identical. However, human and bovine brain alpha i cDNAs differ significantly from alpha i cDNAs from human monocytes, rat glioma, and mouse macrophages in amino acid (88% homology) and nucleotide (71-75% homology) sequences. In addition, the nucleotide sequences of the 3' untranslated regions of human and bovine brain alpha i cDNAs differ markedly from the sequences of human monocyte, rat glioma, and mouse macrophage alpha i cDNAs. These results suggest there are at least two classes of alpha i mRNA.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1987;84;15;5115-9

  • Inhibitory and stimulatory G proteins of adenylate cyclase: cDNA and amino acid sequences of the alpha chains.

    Sullivan KA, Liao YC, Alborzi A, Beiderman B, Chang FH, Masters SB, Levinson AD and Bourne HR

    The G protein family of signal transducers includes five heterotrimers, which are most clearly distinguished by their different alpha chains. The family includes Gs and Gi, the stimulatory and inhibitory GTP-binding regulators of adenylate cyclase; Go, a protein of unknown function abundant in brain; and transducin 1 and transducin 2, proteins involved in retinal phototransduction. Using a bovine alpha t1 cDNA as a hybridization probe, we have isolated mouse cDNAs that encode alpha chains of two G proteins. One encodes a polypeptide of 377 amino acids (Mr 43,856), identified as alpha s because it specifically fails to hybridize with any transcript in an alpha s-deficient S49 mouse lymphoma mutant, cyc-; the other encodes a polypeptide of 355 amino acids (Mr 40,482), presumed to be alpha i. These alpha chains and those of the retinal transducins exhibit impressive sequence homology. Of the four, alpha t1 and alpha t2 are most alike (81% identical amino acid residues), whereas the presumptive alpha i is more similar than alpha s to alpha t1 (63% vs. 38% identical residues). Sequence homologies with p21ras and elongation factor Tu identify regions of the alpha chains that form the site for GTP binding and hydrolysis. Further comparison of the alpha-chain sequences suggests additional regions that may contribute to interactions with beta gamma subunits and the receptor and effector components of different signal transduction systems.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL07192; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM27800, GM28310

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1986;83;18;6687-91

Gene lists (3)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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