G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
ankyrin repeat and sterile alpha motif domain containing 1B
G00001138 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000185046 (Ensembl human gene)
56899 (Entrez Gene)
696 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ANKS1B (GeneCards)
607815 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:24600 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9NRX7 (UniProt)

Synonyms (4)

  • AIDA-1
  • ANKS2
  • EB-1
  • cajalin-2

Literature (14)

Pubmed - other

  • Genome-wide pharmacogenomic analysis of response to treatment with antipsychotics.

    McClay JL, Adkins DE, Aberg K, Stroup S, Perkins DO, Vladimirov VI, Lieberman JA, Sullivan PF and van den Oord EJ

    Center for Biomarker Research and Personalized Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA. jlmcclay@vcu.edu

    Schizophrenia is an often devastating neuropsychiatric illness. Understanding the genetic variation affecting response to antipsychotics is important to develop novel diagnostic tests to match individual schizophrenia patients to the most effective and safe medication. In this study, we use a genome-wide approach to detect genetic variation underlying individual differences in response to treatment with the antipsychotics olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone and perphenazine. Our sample consisted of 738 subjects with DSM-IV schizophrenia who took part in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness. Subjects were genotyped using the Affymetrix 500 K genotyping platform plus a custom 164 K chip to improve genome-wide coverage. Treatment outcome was measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Our criterion for genome-wide significance was a prespecified threshold that ensures that, on an average, only 10% of the significant findings are false discoveries. The top statistical result reached significance at our prespecified threshold and involved a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in an intergenic region on chromosome 4p15. In addition, SNPs in Ankyrin Repeat and Sterile Alpha Motif Domain-Containing Protein 1B (ANKS1B) and in the Contactin-Associated Protein-Like 5 gene (CNTNAP5), which mediated the effects of olanzapine and risperidone on Negative symptoms, were very close to our threshold for declaring significance. The most significant SNP in CNTNAP5 is nonsynonymous, giving rise to an amino-acid substitution. In addition to highlighting our top results, we provide all P-values for download as a resource for investigators with the requisite samples to carry out replication. This study demonstrates the potential of genome-wide association studies to discover novel genes that mediate the effects of antipsychotics, which could eventually help to tailor drug treatment to schizophrenic patients.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: R01 HG004240, R01 HG004240-02; NIMH NIH HHS: N01 MH90001, R01 MH074027, R01 MH074027-01A1, R01 MH077139, R01 MH077139-01A1, R01 MH078069, R01 MH078069-01A2

    Molecular psychiatry 2011;16;1;76-85

  • EB1 recognizes the nucleotide state of tubulin in the microtubule lattice.

    Zanic M, Stear JH, Hyman AA and Howard J

    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden, Germany.

    Plus-end-tracking proteins (+TIPs) are localized at the fast-growing, or plus end, of microtubules, and link microtubule ends to cellular structures. One of the best studied +TIPs is EB1, which forms comet-like structures at the tips of growing microtubules. The molecular mechanisms by which EB1 recognizes and tracks growing microtubule ends are largely unknown. However, one clue is that EB1 can bind directly to a microtubule end in the absence of other proteins. Here we use an in vitro assay for dynamic microtubule growth with two-color total-internal-reflection-fluorescence imaging to investigate binding of mammalian EB1 to both stabilized and dynamic microtubules. We find that under conditions of microtubule growth, EB1 not only tip tracks, as previously shown, but also preferentially recognizes the GMPCPP microtubule lattice as opposed to the GDP lattice. The interaction of EB1 with the GMPCPP microtubule lattice depends on the E-hook of tubulin, as well as the amount of salt in solution. The ability to distinguish different nucleotide states of tubulin in microtubule lattice may contribute to the end-tracking mechanism of EB1.

    PloS one 2009;4;10;e7585

  • A nuclear localization signal at the SAM-SAM domain interface of AIDA-1 suggests a requirement for domain uncoupling prior to nuclear import.

    Kurabi A, Brener S, Mobli M, Kwan JJ and Donaldson LW

    Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    The neuronal scaffolding protein AIDA-1 is believed to act as a convener of signals arising at postsynaptic densities. Among the readily identifiable domains in AIDA-1, two closely juxtaposed sterile alpha motif (SAM) domains and a phosphotyrosine binding domain are located within the C-terminus of the longest splice variant and exclusively in four shorter splice variants. As a first step towards understanding the possible emergent properties arising from this assembly of ligand binding domains, we have used NMR methods to solve the first structure of a SAM domain tandem. Separated by a 15-aa linker, the two SAM domains are fused in a head-to-tail orientation that has been observed in other hetero- and homotypic SAM domain structures. The basic nuclear import signal for AIDA-1 is buried at the interface between the two SAM domains. An observed disparity between the thermal stabilities of the two SAM domains suggests a mechanism whereby the second SAM domain decouples from the first SAM domain to facilitate translocation of AIDA-1 to the nucleus.

    Journal of molecular biology 2009;392;5;1168-77

  • The incidence of T-cell receptor gene rearrangements in childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia is related to immunophenotype and fusion oncogene expression.

    Meleshko AN, Belevtsev MV, Savitskaja TV and Potapnev MP

    Belarusian Research Center for Pediatric Oncology & Hematology, Scientific Department, P.O. Lesnoye, 223052 Minsk, Belarus. meleshko@tut.by

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement is conventionally used for assessment of lymphoid malignant cells. TCR genes rearrangements were reported to occur at high frequency in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Therefore, we have analyzed 83 children with acute B-lineage ALL (67 de novo patients and 19 relapses) by PCR analysis for clonal IgH, incomplete TCRD (Vdelta2-Ddelta3 and Ddelta2-Ddelta3) and TCRG rearrangements. It was shown that clonal cross-lineage TCR rearrangements were associated with more immature immunophenotype (CD34+, CD117+, CyIgM-) of leukemic cells from patients' bone marrow (BM) samples as compared to cell samples without cross-lineage TCR rearrangements. That was equally detected both in de novo and relapsed cases of disease. Low frequency of clonal TCRG rearrangements was associated with expression of E2A/PBX chimeric oncogene. We suggest that TCRG and TCRD clonal rearrangements in leukemic B-cells are associated with early stages of their differentiation.

    Leukemia research 2006;30;7;795-800

  • p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 exerts a tonic brake on G protein-coupled receptor signaling.

    Sheffler DJ, Kroeze WK, Garcia BG, Deutch AY, Hufeisen SJ, Leahy P, Brüning JC and Roth BL

    Departments of Biochemistry, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential for normal central CNS function and represent the proximal site(s) of action for most neurotransmitters and many therapeutic drugs, including typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. Similarly, protein kinases mediate many of the downstream actions for both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. We report here that genetic deletion of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) potentiates GPCR signaling. Initial studies of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptor signaling in fibroblasts obtained from RSK2 wild-type (+/+) and knockout (-/-) mice showed that 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and both basal and 5-HT-stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation are augmented in RSK2 knockout fibroblasts. Endogenous signaling by other GPCRs, including P2Y-purinergic, PAR-1-thrombinergic, beta1-adrenergic, and bradykinin-B receptors, was also potentiated in RSK2-deficient fibroblasts. Importantly, reintroduction of RSK2 into RSK2-/- fibroblasts normalized signaling, thus demonstrating that RSK2 apparently modulates GPCR signaling by exerting a "tonic brake" on GPCR signal transduction. Our results imply the existence of a novel pathway regulating GPCR signaling, modulated by downstream members of the extracellular signal-related kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. The loss of RSK2 activity in humans leads to Coffin-Lowry syndrome, which is manifested by mental retardation, growth deficits, skeletal deformations, and psychosis. Because RSK2-inactivating mutations in humans lead to Coffin-Lowry syndrome, our results imply that alterations in GPCR signaling may account for some of its clinical manifestations.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA 43703, P30 CA043703; NIMH NIH HHS: F31 MH 67435, F31 MH067435, K02 MH 01366, K02 MH001366, R01 MH 51635, R01 MH 61887, R01 MH061887

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006;103;12;4717-22

  • A novel EB-1/AIDA-1 isoform, AIDA-1c, interacts with the Cajal body protein coilin.

    Xu H and Hebert MD

    Department of Biochemistry, The University of Mississippi Medical Center Jackson, MS 39216-4505, USA. hxu@biochem.umsmed.edu

    Background: Cajal bodies (CBs) are nuclear suborganelles that play a role in the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), which are crucial for pre-mRNA splicing. Upon nuclear reentry, Sm-class snRNPs localize first to the CB, where the snRNA moiety of the snRNP is modified. It is not clear how snRNPs target to the CB and are released from this structure after their modification. Coilin, the CB marker protein, may participate in snRNP biogenesis given that it can interact with snRNPs and SMN. SMN is crucial for snRNP assembly and is the protein mutated in the neurodegenerative disease Spinal Muscular Atrophy. Coilin knockout mice display significant viability problems and altered CB formation. Thus characterization of the CB and its associated proteins will give insight into snRNP biogenesis and clarify the dynamic organization of the nucleus.

    Results: In this report, we identify a novel protein isoform of EB-1/AIDA-1, termed AIDA-1c, that interacts with the CB marker protein, coilin. Northern and nested PCR experiments reveal that the AIDA-1c isoform is expressed in brain and several cancer cell lines. Competition binding experiments demonstrate that AIDA-1c competes with SmB' for coilin binding sites, but does not bind SMN. When ectopically expressed, AIDA-1c is predominantly nuclear with no obvious accumulations in CBs. Interestingly, another EB-1/AIDA-1 nuclear isoform, AIDA-1a, does not bind coilin in vivo as efficiently as AIDA-1c. Knockdown of EB-1/AIDA-1 isoforms by siRNA altered Cajal body organization and reduced cell viability.

    Conclusion: These data suggest that specific EB-1/AIDA-1 isoforms, such as AIDA-1c, may participate in the regulation of nucleoplasmic coilin protein interactions in neuronal and transformed cells.

    BMC cell biology 2005;6;1;23

  • Amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP) intracellular domain-associated protein-1 proteins bind to AbetaPP and modulate its processing in an isoform-specific manner.

    Ghersi E, Noviello C and D'Adamio L

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.

    The amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP) is a type I transmembrane molecule that undergoes several finely regulated cleavage events. The physiopathological relevance of AbetaPP derives from the fact that its aberrant processing strongly correlates with the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by neuronal cell death, loss of synapses, and deposition of misfolded protein plaques in the brain; the main constituent of these plaques is the amyloid-beta peptide, a 40-42 amino-acid-long protein fragment derived by AbetaPP upon two sequential processing events. Mutations in the genes encoding for AbetaPP and some of the enzymes responsible for its processing are strongly associated with familial forms of early onset AD. Therefore, the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying AbetaPP metabolism appears crucial to understanding the basis for the onset of AD. Apart from Abeta, upon processing of AbetaPP other fragments are generated. The long extracellular domain is released in the extracellular space, whereas the short cytoplasmic tail, named AbetaPP intracellular domain (AID) is released intracellularly. AID appears be involved in several cellular processes, apoptosis, calcium homeostasis, and transcriptional regulation. We have recently reported the cloning and characterization of different isoforms of AID associated protein-1 (AIDA-1), a novel AID-binding protein. Here we further analyzed the interaction between several AIDA-1 isoforms and the cytoplasmic tail of AbetaPP. Our data demonstrated that the interaction between the two molecules is regulated by alternative splicing of the AIDA-1 proteins. Furthermore, we provide data supporting a possible function for AIDA-1a as a modulator of AbetaPP processing.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: R01 AG21588, R01 AG22024; Telethon: GFP02006

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;47;49105-12

  • The intracellular localization of amyloid beta protein precursor (AbetaPP) intracellular domain associated protein-1 (AIDA-1) is regulated by AbetaPP and alternative splicing.

    Ghersi E, Vito P, Lopez P, Abdallah M and D'Adamio L

    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.

    The Amyloid-beta Protein Precursor (AbetaPP) is a widely expressed transmembrane protein that is extensively processed in intracellular vesicular compartments and on the cell membrane. As a result of two sequential proteolytic cleavages, AbetaPP releases the Amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide, which accumulates in insoluble plaques in the brain of patients affected by Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Another peptide, a C-terminal fragment named AbetaPP Intracellular Domain (AID), is generated by AbetaPP processing and is released intracellularly. Several functions for AID have been proposed: pro-apoptotic peptide, regulator of calcium homeostasis, molecule involved in transcriptional regulation. Many intracellular proteins, such as Fe65, Jip-1, Shc, Numb and X11alpha, interact with AID and modulate its function by different mechanisms. Here we report the cloning and initial characterization of two isoforms of a novel protein that we named AID Associated protein-1a (AIDA-1a), AIDA-1b and AIDA-1bDeltaAnk. We show that AbetaPP and the AIDA-1 proteins interact in vitro, in living cells and, endogenously, in leukemia cell lines. Transfected AIDA-1a, AIDA-1b and AIDA-1bDeltaAnk localize in different compartments and the intracellular distribution of AIDA-1a can be modified by over-expression of AbetaPP. AIDA-1 proteins are expressed at high levels in the brain; thus, studying their involvement in AbetaPP processing and AID function might give new insights regarding a possible role for these molecules in normal brain development and in the pathogenesis of AD.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: R01 AG 22024-01

    Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD 2004;6;1;67-78

  • Regulation of amyloid precursor protein expression and secretion via activation of ERK1/2 by hepatocyte growth factor in HEK293 cells transfected with APP751.

    Liu F, Su Y, Li B and Ni B

    Neuroscience Discovery Research, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA.

    The increased intracellular levels and aberrant processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) are associated with beta-amyloid peptide (A beta) production, cerebrovascular amyloid deposition, and amyloid plaque formation. Here we report that APP level, soluble APP (sAPP) secretion, and A beta production in HEK293 cells transfected with either wild-type APP(751) or APP(751) carrying the Swedish mutation are all elevated by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We investigated the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the HGF effect. Our data show that HGF stimulated extended activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2). Pretreatment of cells with inhibitors (UO126 or PD98059) for MEK, the upstream kinase of ERK1/2, abolished ERK1/2 activation evoked by HGF, and abrogated HGF-induced increases in APP levels and sAPP secretion. In addition, transient expression of active MEK1 activated ERK1/2 and increased intracellular APP levels and sAPP secretion. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activity, however, failed to block HGF-stimulated A beta production. Consistently, transient expression of active MEK1 did not increase A beta accumulation. Taken together, these results suggest that: (1) HGF regulates the intracellular levels of APP and the secretion of sAPP and A beta; (2) the modulation of APP levels and sAPP secretion induced by HGF is mediated via the MEK1/ERK1/2 signaling pathway; (3) HGF-stimulated A beta production is independent of ERK activity and, therefore, independent of HGF-evoked elevation of intracellular APP levels.

    Experimental cell research 2003;287;2;387-96

  • E2A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in human leukemia.

    LeBrun DP

    Department of Pathology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. lebrun@cliff.path.queensu.ca

    The gene E2A on chromosome 19 is involved in recurrent chromosomal rearrangements associated with pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The resulting fusion of 5' E2A sequences with 3' portions of other genes leads to the expression of two well-characterized fusion proteins: E2A-PBX1 and E2A-HLF. Since the E2A, PBX1 and HLF proteins all appear to function as transcription factors, it appears likely that the oncogenic fusion proteins contribute to leukemia development by causing abnormal transcriptional regulation of key target genes. Furthermore, since the E2A portion of the fusion proteins contains transcriptional activation domains, and the PBX1 and HLF portions contain DNA binding domains, leukemogenesis may be due, at least in part, to excessive transcriptional induction of target genes defined by PBX1 or HLF. However, recent findings suggest that this model is simplistic and possibly incorrect. In this article, I review the evidence pertaining to leukemogenesis by the well-characterized E2A-fusion proteins and consider its mechanistic implications.

    Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library 2003;8;s206-22

  • Functional interaction of megalin with the megalinbinding protein (MegBP), a novel tetratrico peptide repeat-containing adaptor molecule.

    Petersen HH, Hilpert J, Militz D, Zandler V, Jacobsen C, Roebroek AJ and Willnow TE

    Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine and Medical Faculty of the Free University of Berlin, Germany.

    Megalin is a member of the LDL receptor gene family that plays an important role in forebrain development and in cellular vitamin D metabolism through endocytic uptake of vitamin D metabolites. Similar to other receptors in this gene family, megalin is believed to functionally interact with intracellular proteins through adaptors that bind to the receptor tail and regulate its endocytic and signal transducing activities. Using yeast two-hybrid screens, we identified a novel scaffold protein with tetratrico peptide repeats, the megalin-binding protein (MegBP) that associates with the receptor. The binding site of MegBP was mapped to an N-terminal region on the receptor tail harboring a proline-rich peptide element. MegBP binding did not block the endocytic activity of the receptor; however, overexpression resulted in cellular lethality. In further screens, we identified proteins that bound to MegBP and thus might be recruited to the megalin tail. MegBP-interacting partners included several transcriptional regulators such as the SKI-interacting protein (SKIP), a co-activator of the vitamin D receptor. These finding suggest a model whereby megalin directly participates in transcriptional regulation through controlled sequestration or release of transcription factors via MegBP.

    Journal of cell science 2003;116;Pt 3;453-61

  • Site-specific translocation and evidence of postnatal origin of the t(1;19) E2A-PBX1 fusion in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Wiemels JL, Leonard BC, Wang Y, Segal MR, Hunger SP, Smith MT, Crouse V, Ma X, Buffler PA and Pine SR

    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA. wiemels@itsa.ucsf.edu

    The t(1;19) translocation yields a fusion between E2A and PBX1 genes and occurs in 5% of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and adults. We used chromosomal translocations and Ig heavy chain (IGH)/T cell antigen receptor (TCR) rearrangements to develop an understanding of the etiology and natural history of this subtype of leukemia. We sequenced the genomic fusion between E2A and PBX1 in 22 preB acute lymphoblastic leukemias and two cell lines. The prenatal origin of the leukemia was assessed in 15 pediatric patients by screening for the clonotypic E2A-PBX1 translocation in neonatal blood spots, or Guthrie cards, obtained from the children at the time of birth. Two patients were determined to be weakly positive for the fusion at the time of birth, in contrast to previously studied childhood leukemia fusions, t(12;21), t(8;21), and t(4;11), which were predominantly prenatal. The presence of extensive N-nucleotides at the point of fusion in the E2A-PBX1 translocation as well as specific characteristics of the IGH/TCR rearrangements provided additional evidence for a postnatal, preB cell origin. Intriguingly, 16 of 24 breakpoints on the 3.2-kb E2A intron 14 were located within 5 bp, providing evidence for a site-specific recombination mechanism. Breakpoints on the 232-kb PBX1 intron 1 were more dispersed but highly clustered proximal to exon 2. In sum, the translocation breakpoints displayed evidence of unique temporal, ontological, and mechanistic formation than the previously analyzed pediatric leukemia translocation breakpoints and emphasize the need to differentiate cytogenetic and molecular subgroups for studies of leukemia causality.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA30969, R01 CA089032; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES01896, ES04705, P30 ES001896, P42 ES004705, R01 ES009137; PHS HHS: S09137

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;23;15101-6

  • EB-1, a tyrosine kinase signal transduction gene, is transcriptionally activated in the t(1;19) subset of pre-B ALL, which express oncoprotein E2a-Pbx1.

    Fu X, McGrath S, Pasillas M, Nakazawa S and Kamps MP

    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego, California, USA.

    The t(1;19) translocation of pre-B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) produces E2a-Pbx1, a chimeric oncoprotein containing the transactivation domains of E2a joined to the homeodomain protein, Pbx1. E2a-Pbx1 causes T cell and myeloid leukemia in mice, blocks differentiation of cultured myeloid progenitors, and transforms fibroblasts through a mechanism accompanied by aberrant expression of tissue-specific and developmentally-regulated genes. Here we investigate whether aberrant gene expression also occurs specifically in the t(1;19)-containing subset of pre-B cell ALL in man. Two new genes, EB-1 and EB-2, as well as Caldesmon were transcriptionally activated in each of seven t(1;19) cell lines. EB-1 expression was extremely low in marrow from patients having pre-B ALL not associated with the t(1;19), and elevated more than 100-fold in marrow from patients with pre-B ALL associated with the t(1;19). Normal EB-1 expression was strong in brain and testis, the same tissues exhibiting the highest levels of PBX1 expression. EB-1 encodes a signaling protein containing a phosphotyrosine binding domain homologous to that of dNumb developmental regulators and two SAM domains homologous to those in the C-terminal tail of Eph receptor tyrosine kinases. We conclude that aberrant expression of tissue-specific genes is a characteristic of t(1;19) pre-B ALL, as was previously found in fibroblasts transformed by E2a-Pbx1. Potentially, EB-1 overexpression could interfere with normal signaling controlling proliferation or differentiation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 2P01 CA50528, CA56876

    Oncogene 1999;18;35;4920-9

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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