G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00002386
Gene symbol
SYP (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
synaptophysin
Orthologue
G00001137 (Mus musculus)

Databases (9)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000034557 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000102003 (Ensembl human gene)
6855 (Entrez Gene)
332 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
SYP (GeneCards)
Literature
313475 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:11506 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
76 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
P08247 (UniProt)

Literature (48)

Pubmed - other

  • Aberrant expression of class III beta-tubulin in basal cell carcinoma of the skin.

    Ishida M, Kushima R and Okabe H

    Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga, Japan.

    Tubulin is a major component of microtubules. Class III beta-tubulin (beta III) is a neuron-associated beta-tubulin isotype and expressed in the normal central and peripheral nervous systems. According to a previous study, beta III is not expressed in normal skin and squamous cell carcinoma. However, its expression has not been examined in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin. Expression of beta III was analyzed together with neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), chromogranin A, synaptophysin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and cytokeratin (CK) 20 by immunohistochemical methods in 10 non-neoplastic skin tissues and 50 BCCs. In the normal skin, immunoreactivity to beta III was restricted to the nerve bundles in the dermis and subcutis, no positivity was shown in epithelial cells of the epidermis and skin appendages. beta III and NCAM were expressed in 50 and 68% of BCCs, respectively, predominantly periphery of tumor nests, although the distribution of both markers was not always identical. Chromogranin A, synaptophysin and CK 20 were not expressed in any of BCCs. EMA was focally expressed in only 8% of BCCs. beta III is a potential candidate for inclusion to the panel of immunohistochemical markers to distinguish small BCCs from non-neoplastic hair buds, because non-neoplastic hair follicles are not positive for beta III.

    Oncology reports 2009;22;4;733-7

  • Clinical relevance of neuroendocrine differentiation in non-small cell lung cancer assessed by immunohistochemistry: a retrospective study on 405 surgically resected cases.

    Sterlacci W, Fiegl M, Hilbe W, Auberger J, Mikuz G and Tzankov A

    Institute for Pathology, Medical University Innsbruck, Muellerstrasse 44, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria. william.sterlacci@i-med.ac.at

    Neuroendocrine differentiation in non-small cell lung cancer is a common feature, which has caused contradictory conclusions concerning survival estimates and responsiveness to therapy. Aiming to clarify this conflict, we analyzed neuroendocrine differentiation by immunohistochemistry in 405 surgically resected non-small cell lung carcinomas using standardized tissue microarray platform and the currently recommended antibody panel consisting of chromogranin-A, synaptophysin, and neural-cell adhesion molecule. Diagnostic criteria provided by the World Health Organization were applied. Histological subtypes were primarily reclassified according to current guidelines, assisted by auxiliary immunohistochemistry. Extensive clinical data was acquired, enabling detailed clinicopathological correlation. Importantly, neuroendocrine differentiation assessed by immunohistochemistry showed no significant relation to overall survival estimates, which remained unaffected by histological subtype, neuroendocrine marker type, adjuvant therapy, and recurring disease. The only exception was a small group consisting of three large cell carcinomas, each expressing all three neuroendocrine markers and demonstrating decreased survival. In conclusion, additional immunohistochemical detection of neuroendocrine differentiation in non-small cell lung cancer is presently not of prognostic importance and does not justify a distinct consideration.

    Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology 2009;455;2;125-32

  • Synaptic proteins, neuropathology and cognitive status in the oldest-old.

    Head E, Corrada MM, Kahle-Wrobleski K, Kim RC, Sarsoza F, Goodus M and Kawas CH

    Institute of Brain Aging and Dementia, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4540, USA. ehead@uci.edu

    An increasing number of individuals in our population are surviving to over 90 years and a subset is at risk for developing dementia. However, senile plaque and neurofibrillary tangle pathology do not consistently differentiate individuals with and without dementia. Synaptic protein loss is a feature of aging and dementia and may dissociate 90+ individuals with and without dementia. Synaptophysin (SYN), postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) were studied in the frontal cortex of an autopsy series of 32 prospectively followed individuals (92-105 years) with a range of cognitive function. SYN protein levels were decreased in individuals with dementia and increased in those with clinical signs of cognitive impairment insufficient for a diagnosis of dementia. SYN but neither PSD-95 nor GAP-43 protein levels were significantly correlated with mini-mental status examination (MMSE) scores. Frontal cortex SYN protein levels may protect neuronal function in oldest-old individuals and reflect compensatory responses that may be involved with maintaining cognition.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: P50 AG000658, P50 AG016573, P50 AG16573, R01 AG021055, R01AG21055

    Neurobiology of aging 2009;30;7;1125-34

  • Chromogranin A-, serotonin-, synaptophysin- and vascular endothelial growth factor-positive endocrine cells and the prognosis of colorectal cancer: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    Gulubova M and Vlaykova T

    Department of General and Clinical Pathology, Medical Faculty, Trakia University, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria. mgulubova@hotmail.com

    Endocrine differentiation in colorectal adenocarcinoma has been reported but its significance as a prognostic marker remains uncertain. The aim of the present study was to analyze the prognostic significance of endocrine differentiation in colorectal cancer.

    Methods: The presence of endocrine cells (EC) was determined in 137 colorectal cancers using light and electron immunohistochemistry and the immunogold method with chromogranin A, serotonin and synaptophysin. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in tumor biopsies was also analyzed applying anti-VEGF antibodies.

    Results: EC labeled with at least one of the studied markers were detected in 47 (34.3%) primary colorectal cancers (30% chromogranin A-positive, 33% synaptophysin-positive and 18% serotonin-positive). In 23% of tumor biopsies, VEGF-positive EC were also detected. The immunostaining on serial sections showed that some chromogranin A-, synaptophysin- or serotonin-positive EC also contained VEGF immune deposits. By the immunogold method, the presence of VEGF was localized to the granules of EC. Tumors with VEGF-positive EC appeared to have significantly higher vascularization, detected as systematic microvessel density (28.89 vs 15.22 vessels/mm(2), P = 0.044, Mann-Whitney U-test) compared to those without VEGF-positive EC. Ultrastructurally, EC in the tumor tissue displayed some features different from those in the normal colon. The survival analyses revealed that patients with EC in primary tumor tissues had a worse prognosis after surgical therapy than those without endocrine cell differentiation (P < 0.05, log-rank test).

    Conclusions: Endocrine differentiation is not an uncommon event in primary colorectal cancer and it could be a useful marker for a worse prognosis after the surgical therapy. Tumors positive for VEGF and containing VEGF-positive EC have higher vascularization, which probably also contributes to the unfavorable prognosis of patients.

    Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology 2008;23;10;1574-85

  • Synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95 in the human prefrontal cortex from mid-gestation into early adulthood.

    Glantz LA, Gilmore JH, Hamer RM, Lieberman JA and Jarskog LF

    Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB# 7160, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7160, USA. leisa_glantz@med.unc.edu

    Previous studies of postnatal synaptic development in human frontal cortex have shown that synaptic density rises after birth, reaches a plateau in childhood and then decreases to adult levels by late adolescence. A similar pattern has been seen in nonhuman primate cortex. These earlier studies in human cortex are limited, however, by significant age gaps in study subjects at critical inflection points of the developmental curve. Additionally, it is unclear if synaptic development occurs in different patterns in different cortical layers in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The purpose of this study was to examine synaptic density in human PFC across development by measuring two synaptic marker proteins: synaptophysin (presynaptic), and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95; postsynaptic). Western blotting was used to assess the relative levels of synaptophysin and PSD-95 in dorsolateral PFC of 42 subjects, distributed in age from 18 weeks gestation to 25 years. In addition, synaptophysin immunoreactivity was examined in each layer of areas 9 and 46 of PFC in 24 subjects, ranging in age from 0.1-25 years. Synaptophysin levels slowly increased from birth until age 5 and then increased more rapidly to peak in late childhood around age 10. Synaptophysin subsequently decreased until the adult level was reached by mid-adolescence, around age 16. PSD-95 levels increased postnatally to reach a stable plateau by early childhood with a slight reduction in late adolescence and early adulthood. The pattern of synaptophysin immunoreactivity seen with immunohistochemistry was similar to the Western experiments but the changes across age were more subtle, with little change by layer within and across age. The developmental patterns exhibited by these synaptic marker proteins expand upon previous studies of developmental synaptic changes in human frontal cortex; synaptic density increases steadily from birth to late childhood, then decreases in early adolescence to reach adult levels by late adolescence.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: K01 MH069655, K01 MH069655-04, K08 MH001752, K08 MH001752-05, MH-01752, MH-069655, MH-64065, P50 MH064065, P50 MH064065-06

    Neuroscience 2007;149;3;582-91

  • Prognostic significance of synaptophysin in stage I of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung.

    González-Aragoneses F, Moreno-Mata N, Cebollero-Presmanes M, García-Yuste M, Cañizares-Carretero MA, Molins-López-Rodó L, Quevedo-Losada S, Torres-Lanzas J, Alvarez-Fernández E and Spanish Multicenter Study of Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Lung of the Spanish Society of Pneumonology, ThoracicSurgery (EMETNE-SEPAR)

    Thoracic Surgery, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain. fgaragoneses@hotmail.com

    Background: The prognostic significance of the presence of a neuroendocrine marker (synaptophysin, SY) was analyzed in stage I of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung.

    Methods: A multicentric retrospective study was conducted with immunohistochemical staining in a single center of 318 patients resected for squamous carcinoma or adenocarcinoma in pathologic stage I.

    Results: In all, 162 cases of squamous carcinoma and 156 cases of adenocarcinoma were identified, which included 105 patients in stage IA (50 patients with squamous carcinoma and 55 patients with adenocarcinoma) and 213 in stage IB (112 with squamous carcinoma and 101 with adenocarcinoma). Eighty-six tumors showed a presence of SY+ (27%). Univariate analysis showed lower survival rates at 5 years for those patients older than 70 years of age compared with those patients younger than 70 years of age (60.35% vs 70.57%; P = .007) and for those patients with SY+ compared with those with SY- (52.48% vs 72.68%; P = .0017). Patients with SY+ tumors showed a higher rate of recurrence than patients with SY- tumors (50% vs 33.6%; P = .008). Multivariate analysis showed that those patients greater that 70 years of age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-2.65) and the presence of SY (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.40-3.30) were significant independent prognostic factors associated with a poor outcome.

    Conclusions: Stage I of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung with SY+ has a poor prognosis, with a higher frequency of recurrence and lower survival rates.

    Cancer 2007;110;8;1776-81

  • Synaptophysin I selectively specifies the exocytic pathway of synaptobrevin 2/VAMP2.

    Bonanomi D, Rusconi L, Colombo CA, Benfenati F and Valtorta F

    San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute University, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan, Italy.

    Biogenesis and recycling of synaptic vesicles are accompanied by sorting processes that preserve the molecular composition of the compartments involved. In the present study, we have addressed the targeting of synaptobrevin 2/VAMP2 (vesicle-associated membrane protein 2), a critical component of the synaptic vesicle--fusion machinery, in a heterotypic context where its sorting is not confounded by the presence of other neuron-specific molecules. Ectopically expressed synaptophysin I interacts with VAMP2 and alters its default surface targeting to a prominent vesicular distribution, with no effect on the targeting of other membrane proteins. Protein-protein interaction is not sufficient for the control of VAMP2 sorting, which is mediated by the C-terminal domain of synaptophysin I. Synaptophysin I directs the sorting of VAMP2 to vesicles before surface delivery, without influencing VAMP2 endocytosis. Consistent with this, dynamin and alpha-SNAP (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein-attachment protein) mutants which block trafficking at the plasma membrane do not abrogate the effect of synaptophysin I on VAMP2 sorting. These results indicate that the sorting determinants of synaptic vesicle proteins can operate independently of a neuronal context and implicate the association of VAMP2 with synaptophysin I in the specification of the pathway of synaptic vesicle biogenesis.

    Funded by: Telethon: GGP05134

    The Biochemical journal 2007;404;3;525-34

  • Interaction of the mu-opioid receptor with synaptophysin influences receptor trafficking and signaling.

    Liang YJ, Wu DF, Yang LQ, Höllt V and Koch T

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany.

    There is increasing evidence that the signal transduction of opioid receptors is modulated by receptor-associated proteins. In the search for proteins regulating mu-opioid receptor (MOPr) endocytosis, synaptophysin was found to bind to the rat micro-opioid receptor in yeast two-hybrid assay. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays confirmed that the micro-opioid receptor constitutively interacts with synaptophysin in human embryonic kidney 293 cells overexpressing MOPr and synaptophysin. In this study, we show that overexpression of synaptophysin enhances the micro-opioid receptor endocytosis. One explanation for the observed effects is that synaptophysin recruits dynamin to the plasma membrane, facilitating fission of clathrin-coated vesicles. This suggestion is supported by our finding that overexpression of a synaptophysin truncation mutant, which breaks the interaction between synaptophysin and dynamin, prevents agonist-mediated micro-opioid receptor endocytosis. In addition, the synaptophysin-augmented micro-opioid receptor trafficking leads to attenuated agonist-induced receptor desensitization and faster receptor resensitization. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that synaptophysin plays an important role in the regulation of micro-opioid receptor trafficking and signaling.

    Molecular pharmacology 2007;71;1;123-31

  • The analysis of 51 genes in DSM-IV combined type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: association signals in DRD4, DAT1 and 16 other genes.

    Brookes K, Xu X, Chen W, Zhou K, Neale B, Lowe N, Anney R, Aneey R, Franke B, Gill M, Ebstein R, Buitelaar J, Sham P, Campbell D, Knight J, Andreou P, Altink M, Arnold R, Boer F, Buschgens C, Butler L, Christiansen H, Feldman L, Fleischman K, Fliers E, Howe-Forbes R, Goldfarb A, Heise A, Gabriëls I, Korn-Lubetzki I, Johansson L, Marco R, Medad S, Minderaa R, Mulas F, Müller U, Mulligan A, Rabin K, Rommelse N, Sethna V, Sorohan J, Uebel H, Psychogiou L, Weeks A, Barrett R, Craig I, Banaschewski T, Sonuga-Barke E, Eisenberg J, Kuntsi J, Manor I, McGuffin P, Miranda A, Oades RD, Plomin R, Roeyers H, Rothenberger A, Sergeant J, Steinhausen HC, Taylor E, Thompson M, Faraone SV and Asherson P

    MRC Social Genetic Developmental and Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK.

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder, starting in early childhood and persisting into adulthood in the majority of cases. Family and twin studies have demonstrated the importance of genetic factors and candidate gene association studies have identified several loci that exert small but significant effects on ADHD. To provide further clarification of reported associations and identify novel associated genes, we examined 1,038 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning 51 candidate genes involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter pathways, particularly dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin pathways, in addition to circadian rhythm genes. Analysis used within family tests of association in a sample of 776 DSM-IV ADHD combined type cases ascertained for the International Multi-centre ADHD Gene project. We found nominal significance with one or more SNPs in 18 genes, including the two most replicated findings in the literature: DRD4 and DAT1. Gene-wide tests, adjusted for the number of SNPs analysed in each gene, identified associations with TPH2, ARRB2, SYP, DAT1, ADRB2, HES1, MAOA and PNMT. Further studies will be needed to confirm or refute the observed associations and their generalisability to other samples.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0300189, G0501329, G19/2; NIMH NIH HHS: R01MH62873

    Molecular psychiatry 2006;11;10;934-53

  • Absence of synaptophysin near cortical neurons containing oligomer Abeta in Alzheimer's disease brain.

    Ishibashi K, Tomiyama T, Nishitsuji K, Hara M and Mori H

    Department of Neuroscience, Osaka City University School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

    Soluble amyloid beta protein (Abeta) oligomers have been considered recently to be responsible for the cognitive dysfunction that sets in prior to senile plaque formation in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. By using the newly prepared antibody against oligomer Abeta, rather than fibrillar or monomer Abeta, we observed that oligomer Abeta in AD brains was localized as clusters ofdot-likeimmunostains in the neurons in a manner different from that in senile plaques. The relationship of oligomer Abeta with synaptophysin, a synaptic molecular marker, was examined because oligomer Abeta is widely believed to be related to synaptic failure. We observed that immunostainings for synaptophysin were absent near neurons bearing clusters of oligomer Abeta. The present study provides morphological evidence to support the idea that accumulated oligomer Abeta, but not fibrillar Abeta, is closely associated with synaptic failure, which is the major cause of cognitive dysfunction.

    Journal of neuroscience research 2006;84;3;632-6

  • Synaptophysin protein and mRNA expression in the human hippocampal formation from birth to old age.

    Eastwood SL, Weickert CS, Webster MJ, Herman MM, Kleinman JE and Harrison PJ

    Department of Psychiatry of the University of Oxford, Neurosciences Building, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom.

    In the human neocortex, progressive synaptogenesis in early postnatal life is followed by a decline in synaptic density, then stability from adolescence until middle age. No comparable data are available in the hippocampus. In this study, the integral synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin, measured immunoautoradiographically, was used as an index of synaptic terminal abundance in the hippocampal formation of 37 subjects from 5 weeks to 86 yr old, divided into 4 age groups (10 infants, 15 adolescents/young adults, 6 adults, and 6 elderly). In all hippocampal subfields, synaptophysin was lowest in infancy, but did not differ significantly between the older age groups, except in dentate gyrus (DG) where the rise was delayed until adulthood. A similar developmental profile was found in the rat hippocampus. We also measured synaptophysin mRNA in the human subjects and found no age-related changes, except in parahippocampal gyrus wherein the mRNA declined from infancy to adolescence, and again in old age. The synaptophysin protein data demonstrate a significant presynaptic component to human postnatal hippocampal development. In so far as synaptophysin abundance reflects synaptic density, the findings support an increase in hippocampal and parahippocampal synapse formation during early childhood, but provide no evidence for adolescent synaptic pruning. The mRNA data indicate that the maturational increases in synaptophysin protein are either translational rather than transcriptional in origin, or else are secondary to mRNA increases in neurons, the cell bodies of which lie outside the hippocampal formation.

    Hippocampus 2006;16;8;645-54

  • DNA pooling analysis of ADHD and genes regulating vesicle release of neurotransmitters.

    Brookes KJ, Knight J, Xu X and Asherson P

    MRC Social, Genetic Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, United Kingdom.

    ADHD is one of the most prevalent, and heritable behavioural disorders in childhood. Genetic associations have been reported with polymorphic variants within or near to dopamine pathway genes. Recently snap-25 has also shown association with ADHD in several datasets. We therefore investigated other genes that produce proteins that interact with SNAP-25 in the mechanism of vesicular release of neurotransmitters at the synapse. A total of 106 SNPs were screened for minor allele frequency greater than 5% and 61 SNPs selected for analysis in DNA pools made up from an ADHD clinical sample of DSM-IV combined type probands (n = 180) and a control sample of 90 males and 90 females. Initial screening identified several SNPs that showed allele frequency differences of 5% or more. One SNP in the synaptophysin gene showed suggestive evidence of association following case-control and TDT analysis and warrants further investigation.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2005;139B;1;33-7

  • Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and synaptophysin alterations in the dentate gyrus of patients with schizophrenia.

    Chambers JS, Thomas D, Saland L, Neve RL and Perrone-Bizzozero NI

    Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, 915 Camino de Salud NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.

    Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) expression is critical for the proper establishment of neural circuitry, a process thought to be disrupted in schizophrenia. Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated decreased GAP-43 levels in post-mortem tissue from the entire hippocampal formation of affected individuals. In the present study, we used immunocytochemical techniques to localize alterations in GAP-43 protein to specific synapses. GAP-43 distribution was compared to that of synaptophysin, another synaptic protein known to be altered in schizophrenia. The levels and distribution of GAP-43 and synaptophysin proteins were measured in the dentate gyrus of subjects with schizophrenia and sex-, age-, and postmortem interval-matched normal controls and subjects with bipolar disorder. Tissue from subjects was provided by the Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center. In control subjects, GAP-43 immunostaining was prominent in synaptic terminals in the inner molecular layer and hilar region. Subjects with schizophrenia had significant decreases in GAP-43 immunoreactivity in the hilus (p<0.05, paired t-test) and inner molecular layer (p<0.05, paired t-test) but not in the outer molecular layer. In the same tissues, synaptophysin immunoreactivity was significantly reduced in both the inner and outer molecular layers of the dentate gyrus (both p<0.01 by paired t-test), but not in the hilus. In contrast to patients with schizophrenia, GAP-43 and synaptophysin levels in subjects with bipolar disorder did not differ from controls. Given the relationship of GAP-43 and synaptophysin with the development and plasticity of synaptic connections, the observed alterations in the hippocampus of patients with schizophrenia may be related to cognitive deficits associated with this illness.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH 31862; NINDS NIH HHS: NS 31862

    Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry 2005;29;2;283-90

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Cellular expression and specific intragranular localization of chromogranin A, chromogranin B, and synaptophysin during ontogeny of pancreatic islet cells: an ultrastructural study.

    Lukinius A, Stridsberg M and Wilander E

    Department of Genetics and Pathology, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden. agneta.lukinius@genpat.uu.se

    To get more insight into the differentiation patterns of pancreatic islet neuroendocrine cells and granules during ontogeny, the expression and localization of chromogranin A (CgA), chromogranin B (CgB), synaptophysin, and insulin were ultrastructurally studied with the immunogold technique in porcine and human pancreatic islet neuroendocrine cells.

    In porcine pancreas at early fetal stage, CgA was visualized throughout the immature granules in all neuroendocrine cells. Later, CgB also was expressed with the same pattern in most granules in all types of cells. In neonatal islets, CgA was localized in the periphery of immature alpha- and beta-cell granules and throughout the matrix of delta-cell granules; CgB was distributed throughout the matrix of these granules. In adult islets, alpha-cell granules stored CgA in the halo and CgB in both the core and the halo, beta-cell granules stored both CgA and CgB in their cores, and in delta-cell granules, both substances were mixed throughout the matrix. In all ontogenetic stages, synaptophysin was demonstrated in all cell types and granules. Insulin was expressed in early fetal cells of both pigs and humans, and colocalization with CgA, CgB, and synaptophysin was demonstrated.

    Conclusion: The early expression of CgA and synaptophysin may reflect a role at early fetal stages, and the individual localization of CgA and CgB upon differentiation indicates individual functions.

    Pancreas 2003;27;1;38-46

  • Differential somatostatin receptor subtype expression in human normal pineal gland and pineal parenchymal tumors.

    Champier J, Jouvet A, Rey C, Guyotat J and Fevre-Montange M

    INSERM U433, Faculté de Médecine RTH Laennec, Lyon Cedex, France. champier@laennec.univ-lyon1.fr

    Somatostatin is a potent antiproliferative signal in both tumoral and normal mammalian cells, and altered somatostatin receptor (sst) expression is associated with carcinogenesis in human tissues. In this study, two normal and three tumoral human pineal glands were analyzed using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the presence of mRNA coding for the five different somatostatin receptors (sst1-sst5). Pineal parenchymal tumor (PPT) differentiation was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of neuroendocrine markers (synaptophysin, neurofilaments, and chromogranin A). The presence of mRNA coding for c-myc, a proto-oncogene, and for tryptophan hydroxylase (TPOH), serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT), and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), enzymes of the melatonin pathway, was also analyzed by RT-PCR. Only the tumoral tissues contained c-myc mRNA. All five tissues contained TPOH, NAT, and HIOMT mRNA, the levels of HIOMT mRNA being lower in PPT than in the normal pineal gland, suggesting that PPT retain the ability to synthesize melatonin. All tissues contained sst1, sst2, and sst3 transcripts, but not sst4, while small amounts of sst5 mRNA were only found in normal pineal glands. Real-time PCR, performed only with the most abundant subtpe sst2, evidenced an about sixfold higher level in in normal pineal glands. These results demonstrate the presence of somatostatin receptors in the human pineal gland, as described in other species, and point to a differential expression of the sst2 and sst5 subtypes associated with carcinogenesis.

    Cellular and molecular neurobiology 2003;23;1;101-13

  • The synaptophysin/synaptobrevin interaction critically depends on the cholesterol content.

    Mitter D, Reisinger C, Hinz B, Hollmann S, Yelamanchili SV, Treiber-Held S, Ohm TG, Herrmann A and Ahnert-Hilger G

    Institut für Anatomie der Charité, Mathematisch-natur-wissenschaftliche Fakultät I, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

    Synaptophysin interacts with synaptobrevin in membranes of adult small synaptic vesicles. The synaptophysin/synaptobrevin complex promotes synaptobrevin to built up functional SNARE complexes thereby modulating synaptic efficiency. Synaptophysin in addition is a cholesterol-binding protein. Depleting the membranous cholesterol content by filipin or beta-methylcyclodextrin (beta-MCD) decreased the solubility of synaptophysin in Triton X-100 with less effects on synaptobrevin. In small synaptic vesicles from rat brain the synaptophysin/synaptobrevin complex was diminished upon beta-MCD treatment as revealed by chemical cross-linking. Mice with a genetic mutation in the Niemann-Pick C1 gene developing a defect in cholesterol sorting showed significantly reduced amounts of the synaptophysin/synaptobrevin complex compared to their homo- or heterozygous littermates. Finally when using primary cultures of mouse hippocampus the synaptophysin/synaptobrevin complex was down-regulated after depleting the endogenous cholesterol content by the HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitor lovastatin. Alternatively, treatment with cholesterol up-regulated the synaptophysin/synaptobrevin interaction in these cultures. These data indicate that the synaptophysin/synaptobrevin interaction critically depends on a high cholesterol content in the membrane of synaptic vesicles. Variations in the availability of cholesterol may promote or impair synaptic efficiency by interfering with this complex.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2003;84;1;35-42

  • Immunohistochemical characterization of clathrin assembly protein AP180 and synaptophysin in human brain.

    Yao PJ, O'Herron TM and Coleman PD

    Department of Neurobiology & Anatomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. pamela_yao@urmc.rochester.edu

    Neurons rely on clathrin-mediated endocytosis for retrieving synaptic vesicles (SVs) at the presynaptic compartment after the release of neurotransmitters. The clathrin assembly protein AP180 is shown to be a regulator for this clathrin-dependent SV recycling pathway. AP180 is efficient in facilitating the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles and regulating their size, but its exact location in synapse is not clear. In this study, we compared the expression of AP180 with synaptophysin in the aged human brain using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Synaptophysin is well characterized for its association with SVs and therefore a commonly used presynaptic marker. We achieved satisfactory immunofluorescent labeling by using an autofluorescence blocker Sudan Black B and more photostable Alexa Fluor dyes. Although we found that AP180 had an overall expression similar to synaptophysin, the immunoreactivity for the two proteins did not always co-localize.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG14441

    Neurobiology of aging 2003;24;1;173-8

  • RE-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) regulates human synaptophysin gene transcription through an intronic sequence-specific DNA-binding site.

    Lietz M, Hohl M and Thiel G

    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Saarland Medical Center, Homburg, Germany.

    Synaptophysin, one of the major proteins on synaptic vesicles, is ubiquitously expressed throughout the brain. Synaptophysin and synapsin I, another synaptic vesicle protein, are also expressed by retinoic acid-induced neuronally differentiated P19 teratocarcinoma cells. Here, we show that inhibition of histone deacetylase activity in P19 cells is sufficient to activate transcription of the synaptophysin and synapsin I genes, indicating that neuronal differentiation and impairment of histone deacetylases results in a similar gene expression pattern. The transcription factor REST, a repressor of neuronal genes in non-neuronal tissues, has been shown to function via recruitment of histone deacetylases to the transcription unit, indicating that modulation of the chromatin structure via histone deacetylation is of major importance for REST function and neuron-specific gene transcription. Furthermore, REST has been shown to be the major regulator of neuronal expression of synapsin I. Here, we have identified a functional binding site for REST in the first intron of the human synaptophysin gene indicating that REST blocks human synaptophysin gene transcription through an intronic neuron-specific silencer element. The synaptophysin promoter is, however, devoid of neuron-specific genetic elements and directs transcription in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Using a dominant-negative approach we have identified the transcription factor Sp1 as one of the regulators responsible for constitutive transcription of the human synaptophysin gene.

    European journal of biochemistry 2003;270;1;2-9

  • Interaction of synaptophysin with the AP-1 adaptor protein gamma-adaptin.

    Horikawa HP, Kneussel M, El Far O and Betz H

    Department of Neurochemistry, Max-Planck-Institute for Brain Research, Deutschordenstrasse 46, 60528, Frankfurt, Germany.

    Synaptophysin is one of the most abundant proteins of the synaptic vesicle membrane. Here, we selected the cytoplasmic carboxyterminal region of synaptophysin to search for interacting proteins by using the yeast two-hybrid system. This identified gamma-adaptin, a component of the AP-1 adaptor complex, as a synaptophysin binding protein. An anti-synaptophysin antibody coimmunoprecipitated gamma-adaptin from brain extracts, and immunocytochemistry disclosed a partial colocalization of synaptophysin and gamma-adaptin in the perinuclear region of cultured hippocampal neurons. Our results are consistent with synaptophysin serving as a docking site for AP-1 during clathrin-dependent vesicle budding and/or kinesin-based transport reactions.

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2002;21;3;454-62

  • Recapitulation of embryonic neuroendocrine differentiation in adult human pancreatic duct cells expressing neurogenin 3.

    Heremans Y, Van De Casteele M, in't Veld P, Gradwohl G, Serup P, Madsen O, Pipeleers D and Heimberg H

    Diabetes Research Center, Brussels Free University (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels, Belgium.

    Regulatory proteins have been identified in embryonic development of the endocrine pancreas. It is unknown whether these factors can also play a role in the formation of pancreatic endocrine cells from postnatal nonendocrine cells. The present study demonstrates that adult human pancreatic duct cells can be converted into insulin-expressing cells after ectopic, adenovirus-mediated expression of the class B basic helix-loop-helix factor neurogenin 3 (ngn3), which is a critical factor in embryogenesis of the mouse endocrine pancreas. Infection with adenovirus ngn3 (Adngn3) induced gene and/or protein expression of NeuroD/beta2, Pax4, Nkx2.2, Pax6, and Nkx6.1, all known to be essential for beta-cell differentiation in mouse embryos. Expression of ngn3 in adult human duct cells induced Notch ligands Dll1 and Dll4 and neuroendocrine- and beta-cell-specific markers: it increased the percentage of synaptophysin- and insulin-positive cells 15-fold in ngn3-infected versus control cells. Infection with NeuroD/beta2 (a downstream target of ngn3) induced similar effects. These data indicate that the Delta-Notch pathway, which controls embryonic development of the mouse endocrine pancreas, can also operate in adult human duct cells driving them to a neuroendocrine phenotype with the formation of insulin-expressing cells.

    The Journal of cell biology 2002;159;2;303-12

  • [Adrenocortical tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation].

    Kazantseva IA, Poliakova GA, Gurevich LG, Morozov IA, Bezuglova TV and Smirnov VB

    Moscow Region Research Clinical Institute, 129110, Moscow.

    18 adrenocortical tumours and 5 pheochromocytomas were studied immunohistochemically. Expression of synaptophysin and chromogranin A was found in cells of cortical adenomas, "frontier" neoplasms and in 20-75% of carcinoma cells, this ultramicroscopically was confirmed by observation of typical neuroendocrine granules. Some groups of cells of cortico-medullary tumours also expressed proteins of neural differentiation (protein S-100).

    Arkhiv patologii 2002;64;5;8-13

  • Fluorescence resonance energy transfer detection of synaptophysin I and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 interactions during exocytosis from single live synapses.

    Pennuto M, Dunlap D, Contestabile A, Benfenati F and Valtorta F

    Department of Neuroscience, S. Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute University, Milan, Italy.

    To investigate the molecular interactions of synaptophysin I and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2)/synaptobrevin II during exocytosis, we have used time-lapse videomicroscopy to measure fluorescence resonance energy transfer in live neurons. For this purpose, fluorescent protein variants fused to synaptophysin I or VAMP2 were expressed in rat hippocampal neurons. We show that synaptophysin I and VAMP2 form both homo- and hetero-oligomers on the synaptic vesicle membrane. When exocytosis is stimulated with alpha-latrotoxin, VAMP2 dissociates from synaptophysin I even in the absence of appreciable exocytosis, whereas synaptophysin I oligomers disassemble only upon incorporation of the vesicle with the plasma membrane. We propose that synaptophysin I has multiple roles in neurotransmitter release, regulating VAMP2 availability for the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor complex and possibly participating in the late steps of exocytosis.

    Funded by: Telethon: 1131

    Molecular biology of the cell 2002;13;8;2706-17

  • Transplanted sheets of human retina and retinal pigment epithelium develop normally in nude rats.

    Aramant RB and Seiler MJ

    Departments of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA. magdalene.seiler@louisville.edu

    This study investigated whether transplanted sheets of human fetal retina together with its retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) could develop and maintain their cytoarchitecture after long survival times. Transplant recipients were nine albino athymic nu/nu rats with a normal retina. The donor tissue was dissected from fetuses of 12-17 weeks gestational age. Transplants were analyzed at 5-12 months after surgery by light and electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry with various antibodies specific for rhodopsin, S-antigen, transducin, neurofilament and synaptophysin. In 4 of 11 transplants, the RPE stayed as a monolayer sheet and supported the development of the retinal sheet with a normal lamination, including photoreceptor inner and outer segments. Cones and rods in the organized transplants were labeled with different photoreceptor markers. Inner and outer plexiform layers, containing cone pedicles and rods spherules, were immunoreactive for synaptophysin. As the recipients had a normal retina, transplant/host integration was not expected. However, at the transplant/host interface, there were sometimes areas without glial barriers, and neurofilament-containing processes could be observed crossing between transplant and host. In other, more disorganized transplants, the RPE cells were partially dispersed or clumped together in clusters. Such transplants developed photoreceptors in rosettes, often with inner and outer segments. In conclusion, sheets of human fetal retina transplanted together with its RPE to the subretinal space of nude rats can develop and maintain perfectly laminated transplants after long survival times, indicating the potential of applying cotransplantation to human patients with retinal diseases.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY08519

    Experimental eye research 2002;75;2;115-25

  • Synaptic and nuclear localization of brain-enriched guanylate kinase-associated protein.

    Yao I, Iida J, Nishimura W and Hata Y

    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519, Japan.

    Brain-enriched guanylate kinase-associated protein (BEGAIN) interacts with postsynaptic density (PSD)-95/synapse-associated protein (SAP) 90. In immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry, BEGAIN was detected in nuclei and at synapses in neurons. Nuclear localization was also confirmed through subcellular fractionation. BEGAIN was localized exclusively in nuclei when expressed in epithelial cells. These findings led us to analyze the mechanism to determine the subcellular localization of BEGAIN in neurons. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged BEGAIN appeared first in nuclei and subsequently accumulated at dendrites. Approximately 75 and 90% of GFP-BEGAIN clusters were colocalized with synaptophysin and PSD-95/SAP90, respectively. GFP-protein containing only the N-terminal region also formed foci in nuclei and clusters at dendrites. The N-terminal BEGAIN was not precisely targeted to synapses, although it was partially localized at synapses, possibly through dimer formation with endogenous BEGAIN. The truncated form of PSD-95/SAP90 containing the guanylate kinase domain blocked synaptic targeting of BEGAIN but did not affect cluster formation at dendrites. NMDA receptor antagonists blocked localization of GFP-BEGAIN at synapses but did not affect recruitment to dendrites. These results suggest that BEGAIN is recruited to dendrites by the N-terminal region independently of NMDA receptor activity and that synaptic targeting of BEGAIN depends on NMDA receptor activity and may be mediated by interaction with PSD-95/SAP90.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2002;22;13;5354-64

  • Expressed sequence tag analysis of human retina for the NEIBank Project: retbindin, an abundant, novel retinal cDNA and alternative splicing of other retina-preferred gene transcripts.

    Wistow G, Bernstein SL, Wyatt MK, Ray S, Behal A, Touchman JW, Bouffard G, Smith D and Peterson K

    Section on Molecular Structure and Function, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-2740, USA. graeme@helix.nih.gov

    Purpose: Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis was performed on un-normalized, unamplified cDNA libraries constructed from adult human retina to examine the expression profile of the tissue and to contribute resources for functional genomics studies.

    Methods: Two size fractionated cDNA libraries (designated hd and he) were constructed from human retina RNA. Clones were randomly selected for sequencing and analyzed using the bioinformatics program GRIST (GRouping and Identification of Sequence Tags). PCR, Northern blotting and other techniques have been used to examine selected novel transcripts.

    Results: After informatics analysis, 2200 retina cDNAs yield 1254 unique clusters, potentially representing individual genes. Opsin is the most abundant transcript and other retina transcripts are prominently represented. One abundant cluster of cDNAs encodes retbindin, a novel, retina preferred transcript which has sequence similarity to riboflavin binding proteins and whose gene is on chromosome 19. Variant transcripts of known retina genes are also observed, including an alternative exon in the coding sequence of the transcription factor NRL and a skipped coding sequence exon in the phosphodiesterase gammasubunit (PDE6G).

    Conclusions: The new retina cDNA libraries compare favorably in quality with those already represented in public databases. They are rich in retina specific sequences and include abundant cDNAs for a novel protein, retbindin. The function of retbindin remains to be determined, but it is a candidate for flavinoid or carotenoid binding. Analysis of multiple clones for highly expressed retina genes reveals several alternative splice variants in both coding and noncoding sequences which may have functional significance. The validated set of retina cDNAs will contribute to a nonredundant set for microarray construction.

    Molecular vision 2002;8;196-204

  • Regulation of synaptophysin degradation by mammalian homologues of seven in absentia.

    Wheeler TC, Chin LS, Li Y, Roudabush FL and Li L

    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    Synaptophysin is an integral membrane protein of synaptic vesicles characterized by four transmembrane domains with both termini facing the cytoplasm. Although synaptophysin has been implicated in neurotransmitter release, and decreased synaptophysin levels have been associated with several neurodegenerative diseases, the molecular mechanism that regulates the degradation of synaptophysin remains unsolved. Using the cytoplasmic C terminus of synaptophysin as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified two synaptophysin-binding proteins, Siah-1A and Siah-2, which are rat homologues of Drosophila Seven in Absentia. We demonstrated that Siah-1A and Siah-2 associate with synaptophysin both in vitro and in vivo and defined the binding domains of synaptophysin and Siah that mediate their association. Siah proteins exist in both cytosolic and membrane-associated pools and co-localize with synaptophysin on synaptic vesicles and early endosomes. In addition, Siah proteins interact specifically with the brain-enriched E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH8 and facilitate the ubiquitination of synaptophysin. Furthermore, overexpression of Siah proteins promotes the degradation of synaptophysin via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Our findings indicate that Siah proteins function as E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases to regulate the ubiquitination and degradation of synaptophysin.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS36320

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;12;10273-82

  • Expression of a kinase anchoring protein 79 and synaptophysin in the developing human red nucleus.

    Ulfig N and Chan WY

    Department of Anatomy, Neuroembryonic Research Laboratory, University of Rostock, Germany. norbert.ulfig@med.uni-rostock.de

    Our previous study showed that in the human fetal and neonatal brain, the magnocellular and parvocellular parts of the red nucleus can be well delineated by calcium-binding proteins. To study the development of rubral afferents, the expression of A kinase anchoring protein 79 (AKAP79) and synaptophysin (SYN) was examined in the human fetal red nucleus. It was found that during prenatal development both AKAP79 and SYN expression increased gradually although a major alteration in the distribution of the proteins within the two compartments of the red nucleus was not observed. In AKAP79 immunopreparations, the magnocellular part became well demarcated from 23 weeks of gestation onwards and both parts showed punctate immunolabelling with moderate to high packing densities of immunoreactive cells. SYN immunoreactivity with a punctate appearance was, however, mainly located in the parvocellular part. It was evenly distributed throughout the compartment at 14-22 weeks of gestation, and then from 23 weeks to the time of birth, there was a pericellular arrangement of SYN. Our observations are mainly in line with connectivity data regarding the red nucleus.

    Neuro-Signals 2002;11;2;95-102

  • The development of synaptophysin immunoreactivity in the human sympathetic ganglia.

    Roudenok V and Kühnel W

    Department of Human Anatomy, Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk. roudenok@msmi.minsk.by

    Using an indirect immunohistochemical method, synaptophysin immunoreactivity (SYN-IR) has been studied in cryostat sections of stellate and thoracic ganglia in human fetuses, neonates, infants and adults. In the course of development, a progressive increase in SYN-IR in axonal terminals and around nerve cells was demonstrated. In contrast, large clusters of small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells and paraganglionic cells increased in number in fetuses and premature neonates at 24-25 weeks. Such SIF cell clusters varied in form and often occurred at pole or subcapsular areas of sympathetic ganglia close to blood vessels or paraganglia. With increasing gestational age and during infancy, a decrease in sizes of SIF cell groups and paraganglionic cells as well as changes in their distribution were found. The results show that the amount and distribution of SYN-IR is temporally related to the maturation and functional activity of human sympathetic ganglia neurons. It was suggested that numerous SIF cells and paraganglia in human prenatal sympathetic ganglia were both indicative of incomplete cell migration and an important source of regulation of ganglionic microcirculation under the conditions of relative hypoxia and immature nervous regulation.

    Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft 2001;183;4;345-51

  • Evidence for targeted vesicular glutamate exocytosis in osteoblasts.

    Bhangu PS, Genever PG, Spencer GJ, Grewal TS and Skerry TM

    Department of Biology, University of York, York, UK.

    Regulated intercellular signaling is essential for the maintenance of bone mass. In recent work we described how osteoblasts and osteoclasts express functional receptors for the excitatory amino acid, glutamate, indicating that a signaling pathway analogous to synaptic neurotransmission exists in bone. Here, we show that osteoblasts also express the essential molecular framework for regulated glutamate exocytosis to occur as is present in presynaptic neurons. A combination of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and northern and western blotting is used to show expression of the target membrane-SNARE (soluble NSF attachment protein receptor), proteins SNAP-25 and syntaxin 4 and the vesicular-SNARE protein VAMP (synaptobrevin), the minimum molecular requirements for core exocytotic complex formation. Immunofluorescent localizations reveal peripheral SNAP-25 expression on osteoblastic cells, particularly at intercellular contact sites, colocalizing with immunoreactive glutamate and the synaptic vesicle-specific protein, synapsin I. We also identify multiple accessory proteins associated with vesicle trafficking, including munc18, rSec8, DOC2, syntaxin 6, and synaptophysin, which have varied roles in regulated glutamate exocytosis. mRNA for the putative Ca(2+)-dependent regulators of vesicle recycling activity, synaptotagmin I (specialized for fast Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis as seen in synaptic neurotransmission), and the GTP-binding protein Rab3A are also identified by northern blot analysis. Finally, we demonstrate that osteoblastic cells actively release glutamate in a differentiation-dependent manner. These data provide compelling evidence that osteoblasts are able to direct glutamate release by regulated vesicular exocytosis, mimicking presynaptic glutamatergic neurons, showing that a process with striking similarity to synaptic neurotransmission occurs in bone.

    Bone 2001;29;1;16-23

  • Differential expression of syntaxin-1 and synaptophysin in the developing and adult human retina.

    Nag TC and Wadhwa S

    Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India.

    Synaptophysin and syntaxin-1 are membrane proteins that associate with synaptic vesicles and presynaptic active zones at nerve endings, respectively. The former is known to be a good marker of synaptogenesis; this aspect, however, is not clear with syntaxin-1. In this study, the expression of both proteins was examined in the developing human retina and compared with their distribution in postnatal to adult retinas, by immunohistochemistry. In the inner plexiform layer, both were expressed simultaneously at 11-12 weeks of gestation, when synaptogenesis reportedly begins in the central retina. In the outer plexiform layer, however, the immunoreactivities were prominent by 16 weeks of gestation. Their expression in both plexiform layers followed a centre-to-periphery gradient. The immunoreactivities for both proteins were found in the immature photoreceptor, amacrine and ganglion cells; however, synaptophysin was differentially localized in bipolar cells and their axons, and syntaxin was present in some horizontal cells. In postnatal-to-adult retinas, synaptophysin immunoreactivity was prominent in photo-receptor terminals lying in the outer plexiform layer; on the contrary, syntaxin-1 was present in a thin immunoreactive band in this layer. In the inner plexiform layer, however, both were homogeneously distributed. Our study suggests that (i) syntaxin-1 appears in parallel with synapse formation; (ii) synaptogenesis in the human retina might follow a centre-to-periphery gradient; (iii) syntaxin-1 is likely to be absent from ribbon synapses of the outer plexiform layer, but may occur at presynaptic terminals of photoreceptor and horizontal cells, as is apparent from its localization in these cells, which is hitherto unreported for any vertebrate retina.

    Journal of biosciences 2001;26;2;179-91

  • Cholesterol binds to synaptophysin and is required for biogenesis of synaptic vesicles.

    Thiele C, Hannah MJ, Fahrenholz F and Huttner WB

    Department of Neurobiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. Christoph_Thiele@hotmail.com

    Here, to study lipid-protein interactions that contribute to the biogenesis of regulated secretory vesicles, we have developed new approaches by which to label proteins in vivo, using photoactivatable cholesterol and glycerophospholipids. We identify synaptophysin as a major specifically cholesterol-binding protein in PC12 cells and brain synaptic vesicles. Limited cholesterol depletion, which has little effect on total endocytic activity, blocks the biogenesis of synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs) from the plasma membrane. We propose that specific interactions between cholesterol and SLMV membrane proteins, such as synaptophysin, contribute to both the segregation of SLMV membrane constituents from plasma-membrane constituents, and the induction of synaptic-vesicle curvature.

    Nature cell biology 2000;2;1;42-9

  • Synaptophysin: A novel marker for human and rat hepatic stellate cells.

    Cassiman D, van Pelt J, De Vos R, Van Lommel F, Desmet V, Yap SH and Roskams T

    Laboratory of Liver and Pancreatic Diseases, Leuven University, Leuven, Belgium.

    Synaptophysin is a protein involved in neurotransmitter exocytosis and is a neuroendocrine marker. We studied synaptophysin immunohistochemical expression in 35 human liver specimens (normal and different pathological conditions), in rat models of galactosamine hepatitis and carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis, and in freshly isolated rat stellate cells. Synaptophysin reactivity was present in perisinusoidal stellate cells in both human and rat normal liver biopsies. The number of synaptophysin-reactive perisinusoidal cells increased in pathological conditions. Double staining for alpha-smooth muscle actin and synaptophysin, detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy, unequivocally demonstrated colocalization of both markers in lobular stellate cells. In addition, freshly isolated rat stellate cells expressed synaptophysin mRNA (detected by polymerase chain reaction) and protein. Finally, electron microscopy showed the presence of small electron translucent vesicles, comparable to the synaptophysin-reactive synaptic vesicles in neurons, in stellate cell projections. We conclude that synaptophysin is a novel marker for quiescent as well as activated hepatic stellate cells. Together with the stellate cell's expression of neural cell adhesion molecule, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and nestin, this finding raises questions about its embryonic origin and its differentiation. In addition, the presence of synaptic vesicles in stellate cell processes suggests a hitherto unknown mechanism of interaction with neighboring cells.

    The American journal of pathology 1999;155;6;1831-9

  • The synaptic-vesicle-specific proteins rab3a and synaptophysin are reduced in thalamus and related cortical brain regions in schizophrenic brains.

    Davidsson P, Gottfries J, Bogdanovic N, Ekman R, Karlsson I, Gottfries CG and Blennow K

    Institute of Clinical Neuroscience, Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Mölndal, Mölndal, Sweden. pia.davidsson@ms.se

    Two synaptic-vesicle proteins, rab3a and synaptophysin, have been studied on post-mortem brain tissues of schizophrenics and healthy controls. We found significantly reduced levels of rab3a in thalamus (p<0.001); for both proteins in gyrus cinguli and hippocampus (p<0.0001); for rab3a in frontal and parietal cortex (p<0.05); and no differences in temporal cortex or cerebellum in schizophrenics compared with controls. Reduced synaptic density may be a prominent feature of the molecular neuropathology of schizophrenia.

    Schizophrenia research 1999;40;1;23-9

  • Detection of synaptophysin-producing cells in human thymus by immunohistochemistry and nonradioactive in situ hybridization.

    Maggiano N, Lauriola L, Serra FG, Ricci R, Capelli A and Ranelletti FO

    Institutes of Pathology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italy.

    We investigated human thymic tissue by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization for the presence of synaptophysin-producing cells. Our results indicate that anti-synaptophysin antibody detected immunoreactive material in nerve fibers around vessels located in major thymic septa, in a relevant number of cortical epithelial cells, and in scattered epithelial cells in the medulla. The epithelial nature of synaptophysin-positive cells was documented by the co-expression of cytokeratins as revealed by double immunofluorescence. In situ hybridization studies revealed the presence of synaptophysin mRNA in cells mainly located in the cortex, the specific fluorescent signals being localized in the cell cytoplasm. Western blot analysis using an affinity-purified polyclonal antibody revealed an immunoreactive band of about 38 kD in the extracts from unfractionated thymic tissue and from epithelial cell-enriched fractions. No staining was observed in isolated thymocytes. The expression of synaptophysin in epithelial cells of the thymic cortex suggests that this protein may be involved in secretory activities related to T-cell maturation.

    The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 1999;47;2;237-43

  • Co-localization of synaptophysin with different neuroendocrine hormones in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Portela-Gomes GM, Stridsberg M, Johansson H and Grimelius L

    Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden. portela@patologi.uu.se

    Colocalisation of synaptophysin has been studied in different neuroendocrine cell types in histologically normal mucosa from human gastrointestinal tract (corpus, antrum, duodenum, ileum and colon) using double-immunofluorescence stainings. Numerous synaptophysin immunoreactive cells were seen in the antrum, while a smaller number were found in the intestinal tract. Synaptophysin immunoreactivity was strong in the antrum but weak in the intestine. In the intestinal colocalisation studies the synaptophysin immunoreactivity was enhanced by using the tyramide amplification method. Synaptophysin and chromogranin A were colocalised but the latter occurred mainly basally, whereas synaptophysin was found to occur diffusely throughout the cytoplasm. Synaptophysin immunoreactivity occurred in the serotonin cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and in the antral gastrin and somatostatin cells. In the intestinal tract only a small fraction of somatostatin, gastrin, cholecystokinin, enteroglucagon, enteroglucagon/ peptide tyrosine tyrosine displayed synaptophysin immunoreactivity. In the gastrointestinal tract (except the antrum), chromogranin A is a better general neuroendocrine marker than synaptophysin. The functional role of synaptophysin is unclear but it may be involved in the intracellular transport and release of hormones. Based on the distribution background of synaptophysin, it seems to be of greater importance in the antrum than in the intestinal tract as a whole.

    Histochemistry and cell biology 1999;111;1;49-54

  • Sequence-based exon prediction around the synaptophysin locus reveals a gene-rich area containing novel genes in human proximal Xp.

    Fisher SE, Ciccodicola A, Tanaka K, Curci A, Desicato S, D'urso M and Craig IW

    Department of Biochemistry, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QU, United Kingdom.

    The human Xp11.23-p11.22 interval has been implicated in several inherited diseases including Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome; three forms of X-linked hypercalciuric nephrolithiaisis; and the eye disorders retinitis pigmentosa 2, congenital stationary night blindness, and Aland Island eye disease. In constructing YAC contigs spanning Xp11. 23-p11.22, we have previously shown that the region around the synaptophysin (SYP) gene is refractory to cloning in YACs, but highly stable in cosmids. Preliminary analysis of the latter suggested that this might reflect a high density of coding sequences and we therefore undertook the complete sequencing of a SYP-containing cosmid. Sequence data were extensively analyzed using computer programs such as CENSOR (to mask repeats), BLAST (for homology searches), and GRAIL and GENE-ID (to predict exons). This revealed the presence of 29 putative exons, organized into three genes, in addition to the 7 exons of the complete SYP coding region, all mapping within a 44-kb interval. Two genes are novel, one (CACNA1F) showing high homology to alpha1 subunits of calcium channels, the other (LMO6) encoding a product with significant similarity to LIM-domain proteins. RT-PCR and Northern blot studies confirmed that these loci are indeed transcribed. The third locus is the previously described, but not previously localized, A4 differentiation-dependent gene. Given that the intron-exon boundaries predicted by the analysis are consistent with previous information where available, we have been able to suggest the genomic organization of the novel genes with some confidence. The region has an elevated GC content (>53%), and we identified CpG islands associated with the 5' ends of SYP, A4, and LMO6. The order of loci was Xpter-A4-LMO6-SYP-CACNA1F-Xcen, with intergenic distances ranging from approximately 300 bp to approximately 5 kb. The density of transcribed sequences in this area (>80%) is comparable to that found in the highly gene-rich chromosomal band Xq28. Further studies may aid our understanding of the long-range organization surrounding such gene-enriched regions.

    Genomics 1997;45;2;340-7

  • Proliferation and differentiation in the human fetal endocrine pancreas.

    Bouwens L, Lu WG and De Krijger R

    Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, Free University Brussels (V.U.B), Belgium.

    The morphogenesis and growth of the endocrine pancreas has not been well investigated in man although it represents an important issue in diabetology. We examined human fetal pancreas from 12 to 41 weeks of gestation immunocytochemically to evaluate proliferative activity with the Ki-67 marker, and cytodifferentiation with cytokeratin 19 (ductal cells), synaptophysin (all endocrine cells), and insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide (islet cell types). Ki-67 labelling was found in all these cell types but was much higher in ductal cells than in islet cells. An intermediate population expressed synaptophysin but lacked islet hormones. With increasing gestational age the Ki-67 labelling index decreased from 17 to 4% in ductal cells, from 9 to 1% in synaptophysin-positive cells, and from 3 to 0.1% in insulin- or glucagon-positive cells. From 12 to 16 weeks, all epithelial cells including the endocrine islet cells expressed cytokeratin 19. Thereafter cytokeratin 19 expression decreased and eventually disappeared from most islet cells, whereas strong expression remained in the ductal cells. We show that differentiated human islet cells have only very limited proliferative capacity, and we demonstrate the existence of transitional differentiation stages between ductal and islet cells.

    Diabetologia 1997;40;4;398-404

  • Synaptophysin expression in the human spinal cord. Diagnostic implications of an immunohistochemical study.

    Zhang PJ and Rosenblum MK

    Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA.

    Surface perikaryal labeling on immunohistochemical assay for synaptophysin (SYN)--a glycoprotein component of synaptic vesicle membranes--has been posited to distinguish the neoplastic neuronal elements of gangliogliomas from native central nervous system neurons overrun by gliomas invasive of gray matter. To assess the validity of this criterion in the evaluation of intramedullary neoplasms, we screened formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from 35 histologically unremarkable spinal cords (removed at autopsy) using commercially available monoclonal antibodies to SYN. All specimens exhibited anti-SYN reactivity, which was confined to gray matter, and all evidenced the concentrated deposition of reaction product along the perikarya of large neurons in the anterior horns, Clarke's columns, and intermediolateral cell columns. A majority (23 specimens) contained neurons completely outlined by reaction product rings comparable to those depicted as being pathognomonic of neuronal neoplasia. This phenomenon presumably reflects the rich complement of axosomatic synapses documented in fine structural studies of the normal spinal cord. Surface perikaryal labeling for SYN is not restricted to the neoplastic neurons of ganglion cell tumors and should be cautiously interpreted, particularly when neurosurgical material derives from the spinal cord.

    The American journal of surgical pathology 1996;20;3;273-6

  • Specific involvement of tyrosine 764 of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor in signal transduction mediated by p145/Shc/GRB2 or p90/GRB2 complexes.

    de Koning JP, Schelen AM, Dong F, van Buitenen C, Burgering BM, Bos JL, Löwenberg B and Touw IP

    Institute of Hematology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    Signal transduction from the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSF-R) occurs via multiple pathways, one of which involves activation of p21Ras and mitogen-activated protein kinase. The SH2 domain-containing proteins Shc and GRB2 have been implicated in this latter signaling route. We studied the role of these proteins in signal transduction from wild type (WT) G-CSF-R, C-terminal deletion mutants, and tyrosine-to-phenylalanine substitution mutants in transfectants of the mouse pro-B cell line, BAF3. G-CSF stimulation of BAF3 cells expressing WT G-CSF-R induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc. Anti-Shc antibodies co-immunoprecipitated tyrosine-phosphorylated 145-kD proteins (p145), whereas GRB2 immunoprecipitates contained phosphorylated Shc, Syp, and proteins of 145 and 90 kD (p90). Neither of these complexes were detected after activation of a C-terminal deletion mutant of G-CSF-R that lacked all four conserved cytoplasmic tyrosine residues. G-CSF induced formation of Syp/GRB2 complexes in all the tyrosine-substitution mutants, suggesting that this association did not depend on the presence of single specific tyrosine residues in G-CSF-R. In contrast, tyrosine 764 of G-CSF-R appeared to be exclusively required for tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc and its association with p145 and GRB2. In addition, tyrosine 764 also specifically mediated binding of GRB2 to p90 without the involvement of Shc. These findings indicate that tyrosine 764 of G-CSF-R has a prominent role in G-CSF signal transduction.

    Blood 1996;87;1;132-40

  • Complexins: cytosolic proteins that regulate SNAP receptor function.

    McMahon HT, Missler M, Li C and Südhof TC

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas 75235, USA.

    A family of proteins called complexins was discovered that compete with alpha-SNAP, but not synaptotagmin, for SNAP receptor binding. Complexins I and II are highly homologous hydrophilic proteins that are tightly conserved, with 100% identity among mouse, rat, and human complexin II. They are enriched in neurons where they colocalize with syntaxin and SNAP-25; in addition, complexin II is expressed ubiquitously at low levels. Complexins bind weakly to syntaxin alone and not at all to synaptobrevin and SNAP-25, but strongly to the SNAP receptor-core complex composed of these three molecules. They compete with alpha-SNAP for binding to the core complex but not with other interacting molecules, including synaptotagmin I, suggesting that the complexins regulate the sequential interactions of alpha-SNAP and synaptotagmins with the SNAP receptor during exocytosis.

    Cell 1995;83;1;111-9

  • Involvement of SH2-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase Syp in erythropoietin receptor signal transduction pathways.

    Tauchi T, Feng GS, Shen R, Hoatlin M, Bagby GC, Kabat D, Lu L and Broxmeyer HE

    Department of Medicine (Hematology/Oncology), Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202.

    Erythropoietin (Epo) regulates the proliferation and differentiation of erythroid precursors. The phosphorylation of proteins at tyrosine residues is critical in the growth signaling induced by Epo. This mechanism is regulated by the activities of both protein-tyrosine kinases and protein tyrosine phosphatases. The discovery of phosphotyrosine phosphatases that contain SH2 domains suggests roles for these molecules in growth factor signaling pathways. We found that Syp, a phosphotyrosine phosphatase, widely expressed in all tissues in mammals became phosphorylated on tyrosine after stimulation with Epo in M07ER cells engineered to express high levels of human EpoR. Syp was complexed with Grb2 in Epo-stimulated M07ER cells. Direct binding between Syp and Grb2 was also observed in vitro. Furthermore, Syp appeared to bind directly to tyrosine-phosphorylated EpoR in M07ER cells. Both NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal SH2 domains of Syp, made as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins, were able to bind to the tyrosine-phosphorylated EpoR in vitro. These results suggest that Syp may be an important signaling component downstream of the EpoR and may regulate the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R37 CA36464; NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL46549, R01 HL49202

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;10;5631-5

  • Ultrastructural localization of synaptophysin to the secretory granules of normal glucagon and insulin cells in human islets of Langerhans.

    Kalina M, Lukinius A, Grimelius L, Höög A and Falkmer S

    Department of Pathology, University of Uppsala, Sweden.

    Immunogold labeling of the pancreatic islets in humans by means of monoclonal antibodies to synaptophysin resulted in a distinct localization of gold particles to the secretory granules of glucagon-immunoreactive cells. The same type of immunoreactivity was noted with antiserum to chromogranin A. Glucagon immunoreactivity was concentrated in the dense central core of the secretory granules. Some immunoreactivity for synaptophysin was also found in the secretory granules of the insulin-producing cells, although it was weaker in this location.

    Ultrastructural pathology 1991;15;3;215-9

  • Synaptophysin: structure of the human gene and assignment to the X chromosome in man and mouse.

    Ozçelik T, Lafreniere RG, Archer BT, Johnston PA, Willard HF, Francke U and Südhof TC

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University Medical Center, CA 94305-5428.

    Synaptophysin is an integral membrane protein of small synaptic vesicles in brain and endocrine cells. We have determined the structure and organization of the human synaptophysin gene and have established the chromosome localizations in man and mouse. Analysis of a cosmid clone containing the human synaptophysin gene (SYP) revealed seven exons distributed over approximately 20 kb, when compared with the previously published cDNA sequence. The exon-intron boundaries have been identified and do not correlate with functional domains. One intron interrupts the 3' untranslated region. Chromosomal localization of the human and murine genes for synaptophysin established the human SYP locus on the X chromosome in subbands Xp11.22-p11.23 and the mouse synaptophysin gene locus (Syp) on the X chromosome in region A-D. In addition, an Eco0109 RFLP has been identified and used in genetic mapping of the human SYP locus and supports the order TIMP-SYP-DXS14 within a span of approximately 4-7 centimorgans.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM26105; PHS HHS: ER60689

    American journal of human genetics 1990;47;3;551-61

  • Calcineurin and synaptophysin in the human spinal cord of normal individuals and patients with familial dysautonomia.

    Goto S, Hirano A and Pearson J

    Division of Neuropathology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10467.

    This report concerns the immunohistochemical demonstration of two neuronal Ca2(+)-binding proteins, calcineurin and synaptophysin, in the spinal cord of normal controls and from patients with familial dysautonomia. In controls, calcineurin immunoreactivity was highly concentrated in small nerve cells and fibers of the substantia gelatinosa. Synaptophysin immunoreactivity was normally distributed throughout the spinal cord gray matter, being highly concentrated in the substantia gelatinosa, the dorsal nucleus of Clarke and the anterior horn. In patients with familial dysautonomia, no apparent changes in calcineurin immunoreactivity were found in the substantia gelatinosa. By contrast, there was a significant depletion of synaptophysin-positive axon terminals in the substantia gelatinosa and in the dorsal nucleus of Clarke of patients with familial dysautonomia.

    Acta neuropathologica 1990;79;6;647-52

  • The cDNA and derived amino acid sequences for rat and human synaptophysin.

    Südhof TC, Lottspeich F, Greengard P, Mehl E and Jahn R

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Dallas 75235.

    Nucleic acids research 1987;15;22;9607

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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