G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
myosin, heavy chain 14, non-muscle
G00001132 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000071517 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000105357 (Ensembl human gene)
79784 (Entrez Gene)
1194 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
MYH14 (GeneCards)
608568 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:23212 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q7Z406 (UniProt)

Synonyms (4)

  • FLJ13881
  • KIAA2034
  • MHC16
  • MYH17

Literature (21)

Pubmed - other

  • An alternatively spliced isoform of non-muscle myosin II-C is not regulated by myosin light chain phosphorylation.

    Jana SS, Kim KY, Mao J, Kawamoto S, Sellers JR and Adelstein RS

    Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology and Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, NHLBI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. bcssj@iacs.res.in

    We report a novel isoform of non-muscle myosin II-C (NM II-C), NM II-C2, that is generated by alternative splicing of an exon, C2, encoding 41 amino acids in mice (33 in humans). The 41 amino acids are inserted into loop 2 of the NM II-C heavy chain within the actin binding region. Unlike most vertebrate non-muscle and smooth muscle myosin IIs, baculovirus-expressed mouse heavy meromyosin (HMM) II-C2 demonstrates no requirement for regulatory myosin light chain (MLC(20)) phosphorylation for maximum actin-activated MgATPase activity or maximum in vitro motility as measured by the sliding actin filament assay. In contrast, noninserted HMM II-C0 and another alternatively spliced isoform HMM II-C1, which contains 8 amino acids inserted into loop 1, are dependent on MLC(20) phosphorylation for both actin-activated MgATPase activity and in vitro motility ( Kim, K. Y., Kovacs, M., Kawamoto, S., Sellers, J. R., and Adelstein, R. S. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 22769-22775 ). HMM II-C1C2, which contains both the C1 and C2 inserts, does not require MLC(20) phosphorylation for full activity similar to HMM II-C2. These constitutively active C2-inserted isoforms of NM II-C are expressed only in neuronal tissue. This is in contrast to NM II-C1 and NM II-C0, both of which are ubiquitously expressed. Full-length NM II-C2-GFP expressed in COS-7 cells localizes to filaments in interphase cells and to the cytokinetic ring in dividing cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;17;11563-71

  • Candidate gene association study for noise-induced hearing loss in two independent noise-exposed populations.

    Konings A, Van Laer L, Wiktorek-Smagur A, Rajkowska E, Pawelczyk M, Carlsson PI, Bondeson ML, Dudarewicz A, Vandevelde A, Fransen E, Huyghe J, Borg E, Sliwinska-Kowalska M and Van Camp G

    Department of Medical Genetics, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, Antwerp, Belgium.

    Millions of people are daily exposed to high levels of noise. Consequently, noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is one of the most important occupational health hazards worldwide. In this study, we performed an association study for NIHL based on a candidate gene approach. 644 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in 53 candidate genes were analyzed in two independent NIHL sample sets, a Swedish set and part of a Polish set. Eight SNPs with promising results were selected and analysed in the remaining part of the Polish samples. One SNP in PCDH15 (rs7095441), resulted in significant associations in both sample sets while two SNPs in MYH14 (rs667907 and rs588035), resulted in significant associations in the Polish sample set and significant interactions with noise exposure level in the Swedish sample set. Calculation of odds ratios revealed a significant association of rs588035 with NIHL in the Swedish high noise exposure level group. Our studies suggest that PCDH15 and MYH14 may be NIHL susceptibility genes, but further replication in independent sample sets is mandatory.

    Funded by: Action on Hearing Loss: G26

    Annals of human genetics 2009;73;2;215-24

  • Investigation of MYH14 as a candidate gene in cleft lip with or without cleft palate.

    Martinelli M, Arlotti M, Palmieri A, Scapoli L, Savoia A, Di Stazio M, Pezzetti F, Masiero E and Carinci F

    Department of Histology, Embryology and Applied Biology, Centre of Molecular Genetics CARISBO Foundation, University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro, Bologna, Italy. marcella.martinelli@unibo.it

    Clefts of the orofacial region are among the most common facial defects and are caused by abnormal facial development during gestation. Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a birth defect with a complex etiology resulting from a mixture of genetic and environmental factors. In the present study we considered myosin 14 (MYH14) as a candidate gene for CL/P. This gene codes for the heavy chain of non-muscle myosin IIC (NMMHC-IIC), maps in the OFC3 region, and shares significant homology with myosin 9, a gene that our group has recently seen to be involved in CL/P. A linkage disequilibrium investigation was conducted with six single nucleotide polymorphisms in MYH14 and a sample of 239 CL/P nonsyndromic patients and their parents. Our family-based investigation provided no evidence of association between MYH14 and CL/P alleles. These data do not support the involvement of MYH14 in CL/P among the Italian population.

    European journal of oral sciences 2008;116;3;287-90

  • Divergent evolution of the myosin heavy chain gene family in fish and tetrapods: evidence from comparative genomic analysis.

    Ikeda D, Ono Y, Snell P, Edwards YJ, Elgar G and Watabe S

    Laboratory of Aquatic Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan.

    Myosin heavy chain genes (MYHs) are the most important functional domains of myosins, which are highly conserved throughout evolution. The human genome contains 15 MYHs, whereas the corresponding number in teleost appears to be much higher. Although teleosts comprise more than one-half of all vertebrate species, our knowledge of MYHs in teleosts is rather limited. A comprehensive analysis of the torafugu (Takifugu rubripes) genome database enabled us to detect at least 28 MYHs, almost twice as many as in humans. RT-PCR revealed that at least 16 torafugu MYH representatives (5 fast skeletal, 3 cardiac, 2 slow skeletal, 1 superfast, 2 smooth, and 3 nonmuscle types) are actually transcribed. Among these, MYH(M743-2) and MYH(M5) of fast and slow skeletal types, respectively, are expressed during development of torafugu embryos. Syntenic analysis reveals that torafugu fast skeletal MYHs are distributed across five genomic regions, three of which form clusters. Interestingly, while human fast skeletal MYHs form one cluster, its syntenic region in torafugu is duplicated, although each locus contains just a single MYH in torafugu. The results of the syntenic analysis were further confirmed by corresponding analysis of MYHs based on databases from Tetraodon, zebrafish, and medaka genomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that fast skeletal MYHs evolved independently in teleosts and tetrapods after fast skeletal MYHs had diverged from four ancestral MYHs.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0401138

    Physiological genomics 2007;32;1;1-15

  • A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration.

    Lim J, Hao T, Shaw C, Patel AJ, Szabó G, Rual JF, Fisk CJ, Li N, Smolyar A, Hill DE, Barabási AL, Vidal M and Zoghbi HY

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Many human inherited neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by loss of balance due to cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration. Although the disease-causing mutations have been identified for a number of these disorders, the normal functions of the proteins involved remain, in many cases, unknown. To gain insight into the function of proteins involved in PC degeneration, we developed an interaction network for 54 proteins involved in 23 inherited ataxias and expanded the network by incorporating literature-curated and evolutionarily conserved interactions. We identified 770 mostly novel protein-protein interactions using a stringent yeast two-hybrid screen; of 75 pairs tested, 83% of the interactions were verified in mammalian cells. Many ataxia-causing proteins share interacting partners, a subset of which have been found to modify neurodegeneration in animal models. This interactome thus provides a tool for understanding pathogenic mechanisms common for this class of neurodegenerative disorders and for identifying candidate genes for inherited ataxias.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD24064; NINDS NIH HHS: NS27699

    Cell 2006;125;4;801-14

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Disease-associated mutations and alternative splicing alter the enzymatic and motile activity of nonmuscle myosins II-B and II-C.

    Kim KY, Kovács M, Kawamoto S, Sellers JR and Adelstein RS

    Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology and Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, NHLBI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    Human families with single amino acid mutations in nonmuscle myosin heavy chain (NMHC) II-A (MYH9) and II-C (MYH14) have been described as have mice generated with a point mutation in NMHC II-B (MYH10). These mutations (R702C and N93K in human NMHC II-A, R709C in murine NMHC II-B, and R726S in human NMHC II-C) result in phenotypes affecting kidneys, platelets, and leukocytes (II-A), heart and brain (II-B), and the inner ear (II-C). To better understand the mechanisms underlying these defects, we characterized the in vitro activity of mutated and wild-type baculovirus-expressed heavy meromyosin (HMM) II-B and II-C. We also expressed two alternatively spliced isoforms of NMHC II-C which differ by inclusion/exclusion of eight amino acids in loop 1, with and without mutations. Comparison of the actin-activated MgATPase activity and in vitro motility shows that mutation of residues Asn-97 and Arg-709 in HMM II-B and the homologous residue Arg-722 (Arg-730 in the alternatively spliced isoform) in HMM II-C decreases both parameters but affects in vitro motility more severely. Analysis of the transient kinetics of the HMM II-B R709C mutant shows an extremely tight affinity of HMM for ADP and a very slow release of ADP from acto-HMM. Although mutations generally decreased HMM activity, the R730S mutation in HMM II-C, unlike the R730C mutation, had no effect on actin-activated MgATPase activity but decreased the rate of in vitro motility by 75% compared with wild type. Insertion of eight amino acids into the HMM II-C heavy chain increases both actin-activated MgATPase activity and in vitro motility.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;24;22769-75

  • Large-scale cDNA transfection screening for genes related to cancer development and progression.

    Wan D, Gong Y, Qin W, Zhang P, Li J, Wei L, Zhou X, Li H, Qiu X, Zhong F, He L, Yu J, Yao G, Jiang H, Qian L, Yu Y, Shu H, Chen X, Xu H, Guo M, Pan Z, Chen Y, Ge C, Yang S and Gu J

    National Laboratory for Oncogenes and Related Genes, Cancer Institute of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 25/Ln 2200 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032, People's Republic of China.

    A large-scale assay was performed by transfecting 29,910 individual cDNA clones derived from human placenta, fetus, and normal liver tissues into human hepatoma cells and 22,926 cDNA clones into mouse NIH 3T3 cells. Based on the results of colony formation in hepatoma cells and foci formation in NIH 3T3 cells, 3,806 cDNA species (8,237 clones) were found to possess the ability of either stimulating or inhibiting cell growth. Among them, 2,836 (6,958 clones) were known genes, 372 (384 clones) were previously unrecognized genes, and 598 (895 clones) were unigenes of uncharacterized structure and function. A comprehensive analysis of the genes and the potential mechanisms for their involvement in the regulation of cell growth is provided. The genes were classified into four categories: I, genes related to the basic cellular mechanism for growth and survival; II, genes related to the cellular microenvironment; III, genes related to host-cell systemic regulation; and IV, genes of miscellaneous function. The extensive growth-regulatory activity of genes with such highly diversified functions suggests that cancer may be related to multiple levels of cellular and systemic controls. The present assay provides a direct genomewide functional screening method. It offers a better understanding of the basic machinery of oncogenesis, including previously undescribed systemic regulatory mechanisms, and also provides a tool for gene discovery with potential clinical applications.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;44;15724-9

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Nonmuscle myosin heavy-chain gene MYH14 is expressed in cochlea and mutated in patients affected by autosomal dominant hearing impairment (DFNA4).

    Donaudy F, Snoeckx R, Pfister M, Zenner HP, Blin N, Di Stazio M, Ferrara A, Lanzara C, Ficarella R, Declau F, Pusch CM, Nürnberg P, Melchionda S, Zelante L, Ballana E, Estivill X, Van Camp G, Gasparini P and Savoia A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Dipartimento di Patologia Generale, Seconda Università di Napoli, Naples, Italy.

    Myosins have been implicated in various motile processes, including organelle translocation, ion-channel gating, and cytoskeleton reorganization. Different members of the myosin superfamily are responsible for syndromic and nonsyndromic hearing impairment in both humans and mice. MYH14 encodes one of the heavy chains of the class II nonmuscle myosins, and it is localized within the autosomal dominant hearing impairment (DFNA4) critical region. After demonstrating that MYH14 is highly expressed in mouse cochlea, we performed a mutational screening in a large series of 300 hearing-impaired patients from Italy, Spain, and Belgium and in a German kindred linked to DFNA4. This study allowed us to identify a nonsense and two missense mutations in large pedigrees, linked to DFNA4, as well as a de novo allele in a sporadic case. Absence of these mutations in healthy individuals was tested in 200 control individuals. These findings clearly demonstrate the role of MYH14 in causing autosomal dominant hearing loss and further confirm the crucial role of the myosin superfamily in auditive functions.

    Funded by: NIDCD NIH HHS: 5R01 DC001402-09, R01 DC001402; Telethon: TGM03P12, TGM06S01

    American journal of human genetics 2004;74;4;770-6

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • Identification and characterization of nonmuscle myosin II-C, a new member of the myosin II family.

    Golomb E, Ma X, Jana SS, Preston YA, Kawamoto S, Shoham NG, Goldin E, Conti MA, Sellers JR and Adelstein RS

    Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology, NHLBI, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. golomb@szmc.org.il

    A previously unrecognized nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain (NMHC II), which constitutes a distinct branch of the nonmuscle/smooth muscle myosin II family, has recently been revealed in genome data bases. We characterized the biochemical properties and expression patterns of this myosin. Using nucleotide probes and affinity-purified antibodies, we found that the distribution of NMHC II-C mRNA and protein (MYH14) is widespread in human and mouse organs but is quantitatively and qualitatively distinct from NMHC II-A and II-B. In contrast to NMHC II-A and II-B, the mRNA level in human fetal tissues is substantially lower than in adult tissues. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed distinct patterns of expression for all three NMHC isoforms. NMHC II-C contains an alternatively spliced exon of 24 nucleotides in loop I at a location analogous to where a spliced exon appears in NMHC II-B and in the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. However, unlike neuron-specific expression of the NMHC II-B insert, the NMHC II-C inserted isoform has widespread tissue distribution. Baculovirus expression of noninserted and inserted NMHC II-C heavy meromyosin (HMM II-C/HMM II-C1) resulted in significant quantities of expressed protein (mg of protein) for HMM II-C1 but not for HMM II-C. Functional characterization of HMM II-C1 by actin-activated MgATPase activity demonstrated a V(max) of 0.55 + 0.18 s(-1), which was half-maximally activated at an actin concentration of 16.5 + 7.2 microm. HMM II-C1 translocated actin filaments at a rate of 0.05 + 0.011 microm/s in the absence of tropomyosin and at 0.072 + 0.019 microm/s in the presence of tropomyosin in an in vitro motility assay.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;4;2800-8

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • A novel myosin heavy chain gene in human chromosome 19q13.3.

    Leal A, Endele S, Stengel C, Huehne K, Loetterle J, Barrantes R, Winterpacht A and Rautenstrauss B

    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 10, 91054 Erlangen, Germany.

    A human myosin heavy chain gene was identified in chromosome 19q13 by computational sequence analysis, RT-PCR and DNA sequencing of the cDNA. The complete cDNA has a length of 6786 bp and comprises 41 exons (40 coding) included in 108 kb of genomic sequence. Alternative splicing variants were also identified. The gene is expressed in a multitude of tissues, but mainly in small intestine, colon and skeletal muscle. The putative protein (228 kDa) carries the common myosin domains and presents high homology with the non-muscle myosin heavy chains (MYH9 and MYH10) as well as the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain MYH11. Nevertheless, phylogenetic analysis indicated that these homologous proteins are more related among themselves than to MYH14, suggesting that possibly this myosin heavy chain should be classified in a new myosin-subfamily.

    Gene 2003;312;165-71

  • Evolutionary implications of three novel members of the human sarcomeric myosin heavy chain gene family.

    Desjardins PR, Burkman JM, Shrager JB, Allmond LA and Stedman HH

    Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 421 Curie Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

    Sarcomeric myosin heavy chain (MyHC) is the major contractile protein of striated muscle. Six tandemly linked skeletal MyHC genes on chromosome 17 and two cardiac MyHC genes on chromosome 14 have been previously described in the human genome. We report the identification of three novel human sarcomeric MyHC genes on chromosomes 3, 7, and 20, which are notable for their atypical size and intron-exon structure. Two of the encoded proteins are structurally most like the slow-beta MyHC, whereas the third one is closest to the adult fast IIb isoform. Data from pairwise comparisons of aligned coding sequences imply the existence of ancestral genomes with four sarcomeric genes before the emergence of a dedicated smooth muscle MyHC gene. To further address the evolutionary relationships of the distinct sarcomeric and nonsarcomeric rod sequences, we have identified and further annotated human genomic DNA sequences corresponding to 14 class-II MyHCs. An extensive analysis provides a timeline for intron gain and loss, gene contraction and expansion, and gene conversion among genes encoding class-II myosins. One of the novel human genes is found to have introns at positions shared only with the molluscan catchin/MyHC gene, providing evidence for the structure of a pre-Cambrian ancestral gene.

    Molecular biology and evolution 2002;19;4;375-93

  • Insight into hepatocellular carcinogenesis at transcriptome level by comparing gene expression profiles of hepatocellular carcinoma with those of corresponding noncancerous liver.

    Xu XR, Huang J, Xu ZG, Qian BZ, Zhu ZD, Yan Q, Cai T, Zhang X, Xiao HS, Qu J, Liu F, Huang QH, Cheng ZH, Li NG, Du JJ, Hu W, Shen KT, Lu G, Fu G, Zhong M, Xu SH, Gu WY, Huang W, Zhao XT, Hu GX, Gu JR, Chen Z and Han ZG

    Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai, 351 Guo Shou-Jing Road, Shanghai 201203, China.

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. In this work, we report on a comprehensive characterization of gene expression profiles of hepatitis B virus-positive HCC through the generation of a large set of 5'-read expressed sequence tag (EST) clusters (11,065 in total) from HCC and noncancerous liver samples, which then were applied to a cDNA microarray system containing 12,393 genes/ESTs and to comparison with a public database. The commercial cDNA microarray, which contains 1,176 known genes related to oncogenesis, was used also for profiling gene expression. Integrated data from the above approaches identified 2,253 genes/ESTs as candidates with differential expression. A number of genes related to oncogenesis and hepatic function/differentiation were selected for further semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis in 29 paired HCC/noncancerous liver samples. Many genes involved in cell cycle regulation such as cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, and cell cycle negative regulators were deregulated in most patients with HCC. Aberrant expression of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway and enzymes for DNA replication also could contribute to the pathogenesis of HCC. The alteration of transcription levels was noted in a large number of genes implicated in metabolism, whereas a profile change of others might represent a status of dedifferentiation of the malignant hepatocytes, both considered as potential markers of diagnostic value. Notably, the altered transcriptome profiles in HCC could be correlated to a number of chromosome regions with amplification or loss of heterozygosity, providing one of the underlying causes of the transcription anomaly of HCC.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001;98;26;15089-94

  • Linkage of a gene for dominant non-syndromic deafness to chromosome 19.

    Chen AH, Ni L, Fukushima K, Marietta J, O'Neill M, Coucke P, Willems P and Smith RJ

    Department of Otolaryngology, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA.

    Inherited hearing impairment can occur either in the presence of other clinical features (syndromic hearing loss, SHL) or in isolation (non-syndromic hearing loss, NSHL). The latter is more common and is highly heterogeneous. To date, six NSHL loci have been mapped. We report the identification of a seventh locus (DFNA4) on chromosome 19q13 and suggest DM kinase as a possible candidate gene.

    Human molecular genetics 1995;4;6;1073-6

  • Identification and overlapping expression of multiple unconventional myosin genes in vertebrate cell types.

    Bement WM, Hasson T, Wirth JA, Cheney RE and Mooseker MS

    Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8103.

    Myosin diversity in the human epithelial cell line Caco-2BBe, the porcine epithelial cell line LLC-PK1 (CL-4), human peripheral blood leukocytes, and human liver was analyzed. PCR amplification yielded 8-11 putative myosins (depending on the cDNA source) representing six distinct myosin classes. Analysis of clones obtained by hybridization screening demonstrated that the original PCR products correspond to bona fide myosins, based on the presence of sequences highly conserved in other myosins. RNase protection analysis confirmed mRNA expression of 11 myosins in Caco-2BBe cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that at least 6 myosin immunogens are expressed in Caco-2BBe cells. The results reveal the existence of at least 11 unconventional human myosin genes, most of which are expressed in an overlapping fashion in different cell types. The abundance of myosins suggests that the myosin I vs. myosin II paradigm is inadequate to explain actin-based cellular motility.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 25387, DK 34989, DK 38979

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1994;91;14;6549-53

  • Cleavage of human and mouse cytoskeletal and sarcomeric proteins by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease. Actin, desmin, myosin, and tropomyosin.

    Shoeman RL, Sachse C, Höner B, Mothes E, Kaufmann M and Traub P

    Max-Planck-Institut für Zellbiologie, Ladenburg, Federal Republic of Germany.

    HeLa cell actin was cleaved by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease when in its soluble, globular form (G-actin). No cleavage of the polymerized, filamentous form of actin (F-actin) was observed when examined by denaturing gel electrophoresis; however, electron microscopy revealed a low level of cleavage of F-actin. Immunoblotting of mouse skeletal and human pectoral muscle myofibrils treated in vitro with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease showed that myosin heavy chain, desmin, tropomyosin, and a fraction of the actin were all cleaved. Electron microscopy of these myofibrils demonstrated changes consistent with cleavage of these proteins: Z-lines were rapidly lost, the length of the A bands was shortened, and the thick filaments (myosin filaments) were often laterally frayed such that the structures disintegrated. Nonmuscle myosin heavy chains were also cleaved by this enzyme in vitro. These data demonstrate that this protease can cause alterations in muscle cell ultrastructure in vitro that may be of clinical relevance in infected individuals.

    The American journal of pathology 1993;142;1;221-30

OMIM - other

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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