G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
microtubule-associated protein 1A
G00001073 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000059756 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000166963 (Ensembl human gene)
4130 (Entrez Gene)
966 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
MAP1A (GeneCards)
600178 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:6835 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P78559 (UniProt)

Literature (37)

Pubmed - other

  • Association between genes of Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) interactors and schizophrenia supports the role of the DISC1 pathway in the etiology of major mental illnesses.

    Tomppo L, Hennah W, Lahermo P, Loukola A, Tuulio-Henriksson A, Suvisaari J, Partonen T, Ekelund J, Lönnqvist J and Peltonen L

    Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM and National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.

    Background: Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is currently one of the most interesting candidate genes for major mental illness, having been demonstrated to associate with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, autism, and Asperger's syndrome. We have previously reported a DISC1 haplotype, HEP3, and an NDE1 spanning tag haplotype to associate to schizophrenia in Finnish schizophrenia families. Because both DISC1 and NDE1 display association in our study sample, we hypothesized that other genes interacting with DISC1 might also have a role in the etiology of schizophrenia.

    Methods: We selected 11 additional genes encoding components of the "DISC1 pathway" and studied these in our study sample of 476 families including 1857 genotyped individuals. We performed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and haplotype association analyses in two independent sets of families. For markers and haplotypes found to be consistently associated in both sets, the overall significance was tested with the combined set of families.

    Results: We identified three SNPs to be associated with schizophrenia in PDE4D (rs1120303, p = .021), PDE4B (rs7412571, p = .018), and NDEL1 (rs17806986, p = .0038). Greater significance was observed with allelic haplotypes of PDE4D (p = .00084), PDE4B (p = .0022 and p = .029), and NDEL1 (p = .0027) that increased or decreased schizophrenia susceptibility.

    Conclusions: Our findings with other converging lines of evidence support the underlying importance of DISC1-related molecular pathways in the etiology of schizophrenia and other major mental illnesses.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 089061

    Biological psychiatry 2009;65;12;1055-62

  • Prefrontal cortex shotgun proteome analysis reveals altered calcium homeostasis and immune system imbalance in schizophrenia.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Rewerts C, Maccarrone G, Dias-Neto E and Turck CW

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua. Dr. Ovidio Pires de Campos, no 785, Consolação, São Paulo, SP 05403-010, Brazil.

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease, likely to be caused by a combination of serial alterations in a number of genes and environmental factors. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46) is involved in schizophrenia and executes high-level functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts and attitudes, correct social behavior and personality expression. Global proteomic analysis of post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples from schizophrenia patients and non-schizophrenic individuals was performed using stable isotope labeling and shotgun proteomics. The analysis resulted in the identification of 1,261 proteins, 84 of which showed statistically significant differential expression, reinforcing previous data supporting the involvement of the immune system, calcium homeostasis, cytoskeleton assembly, and energy metabolism in schizophrenia. In addition a number of new potential markers were found that may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

    European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience 2009;259;3;151-63

  • MAP1A light chain-2 interacts with GTP-RhoB to control epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent EGF receptor signaling.

    Lajoie-Mazenc I, Tovar D, Penary M, Lortal B, Allart S, Favard C, Brihoum M, Pradines A and Favre G

    INSERM U563, Département Oncogénèse, Signalisation et Innovation Thérapeutique, Toulouse F-31059, France. lajoie.isabelle@claudiusregaud.fr

    Rho GTPases have been implicated in the control of several cellular functions, including regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, cell proliferation, and oncogenesis. Unlike RhoA and RhoC, RhoB localizes in part to endosomes and controls endocytic trafficking. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen and a glutathione S-transferase pulldown assay, we identified LC2, the light chain of the microtubule-associated protein MAP1A, as a novel binding partner for RhoB. GTP binding and the 18-amino acid C-terminal hypervariable domain of RhoB are critical for its binding to MAP1A/LC2. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence experiments showed that this interaction occurs in U87 cells. Down-regulation of MAP1A/LC2 expression decreased epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor expression and modified the signaling response to EGF treatment. We concluded that MAP1A/LC2 is critical for RhoB function in EGF-induced EGF receptor regulation. Because MAP1A/LC2 is thought to function as an adaptor between microtubules and other molecules, we postulate that the RhoB and MAP1A/LC2 interactions facilitate endocytic vesicle trafficking and regulate the trafficking of signaling molecules.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;7;4155-64

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Heterotypic complex formation between subunits of microtubule-associated proteins 1A and 1B is due to interaction of conserved domains.

    Noiges R, Stroissnigg H, Tranciková A, Kalny I, Eichinger R and Propst F

    Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, University of Vienna, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9, A-1030 Vienna, Austria, Europe.

    The microtubule-associated proteins MAP1A and MAP1B are related but distinct multi-subunit protein complexes that consist of heavy and light chains. The predominant forms of these complexes are homotypic, i.e. they consist of a MAP1A heavy chain associated with MAP1A light chains or a MAP1B heavy chain associated with MAP1B light chains, respectively. In addition, MAP1A and MAP1B can exchange subunits and form heterotypic complexes consisting of a MAP1A heavy chain associated with MAP1B light chains which might play a role in a transition period of neuronal differentiation. Here we extend previous findings by confirming that heterotypic MAP1B heavy chain-MAP1A light chain complexes also exist in the developing murine brain. We show that these complexes form through interaction of homologous domains conserved in heavy and light chains of MAP1A and MAP1B. Likewise, conserved domains of the MAP1A and MAP1B light chains account for formation of light chain heterodimers. By yeast 2-hybrid analysis we located the light chain binding domain on the heavy chain to amino acids 211-508, thereby defining a new functional subdomain.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2006;1763;10;1011-6

  • Interaction of PDZRhoGEF with microtubule-associated protein 1 light chains: link between microtubules, actin cytoskeleton, and neuronal polarity.

    Longhurst DM, Watanabe M, Rothstein JD and Jackson M

    Centre for Neuroscience Research, the University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 1QH, Scotland, United Kingdom.

    Rat (r) PDZRhoGEF, initially identified as a glutamate transporter EAAT4-associated protein, is a member of a novel RhoGEF subfamily. The N terminus of the protein contains a PDZ and a proline-rich domain, two motifs known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. By using the yeast two-hybrid approach, we screened for proteins that interact with the N terminus of rPDZRhoGEF. The light chain 2 of microtubule-associated protein 1 (LC2) was the only protein identified from the screen that does not contain a type I PDZ-binding motif at its extreme C terminus (-(S/T)Xphi-COOH, where phi is a hydrophobic amino acid). However, the C terminus does conform to a type II-binding motif (-phiXphi). We report here that rPDZRhoGEF interacts with LC2 via the PDZ domain, and the interaction is abolished by mutations in the carboxylate-binding loop. The specificity of the interaction was confirmed using GST fusion protein pull-down assays and coimmunoprecipitations. Expression of rPDZRhoGEF mutants that are unable to interact with proteins via the carboxylate-binding loop induced changes in cell morphology and actin organization. These mutants alter the activation of RhoGTPases, and coexpression of dominant-negative RhoGTPases prevent the morphological changes. Furthermore, in cells expressing wild type rPDZRhoGEF, drug-induced microtubule depolymerization produces changes in cell morphology that are similar to those induced by rPDZRhoGEF mutants. These results indicate that modulation of the guanine nucleotide exchange activity of rPDZRhoGEF through interaction with microtubule-associated protein light chains may coordinate microtubule integrity and the reorganization of actin cytoskeleton. This coordinated action of the actin and microtubular cytoskeletons is essential for the development and maintenance of neuronal polarity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;17;12030-40

  • p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 exerts a tonic brake on G protein-coupled receptor signaling.

    Sheffler DJ, Kroeze WK, Garcia BG, Deutch AY, Hufeisen SJ, Leahy P, Brüning JC and Roth BL

    Departments of Biochemistry, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential for normal central CNS function and represent the proximal site(s) of action for most neurotransmitters and many therapeutic drugs, including typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. Similarly, protein kinases mediate many of the downstream actions for both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. We report here that genetic deletion of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) potentiates GPCR signaling. Initial studies of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptor signaling in fibroblasts obtained from RSK2 wild-type (+/+) and knockout (-/-) mice showed that 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and both basal and 5-HT-stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation are augmented in RSK2 knockout fibroblasts. Endogenous signaling by other GPCRs, including P2Y-purinergic, PAR-1-thrombinergic, beta1-adrenergic, and bradykinin-B receptors, was also potentiated in RSK2-deficient fibroblasts. Importantly, reintroduction of RSK2 into RSK2-/- fibroblasts normalized signaling, thus demonstrating that RSK2 apparently modulates GPCR signaling by exerting a "tonic brake" on GPCR signal transduction. Our results imply the existence of a novel pathway regulating GPCR signaling, modulated by downstream members of the extracellular signal-related kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. The loss of RSK2 activity in humans leads to Coffin-Lowry syndrome, which is manifested by mental retardation, growth deficits, skeletal deformations, and psychosis. Because RSK2-inactivating mutations in humans lead to Coffin-Lowry syndrome, our results imply that alterations in GPCR signaling may account for some of its clinical manifestations.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA 43703, P30 CA043703; NIMH NIH HHS: F31 MH 67435, F31 MH067435, K02 MH 01366, K02 MH001366, R01 MH 51635, R01 MH 61887, R01 MH061887

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006;103;12;4717-22

  • Nuclear export factor family protein participates in cytoplasmic mRNA trafficking.

    Tretyakova I, Zolotukhin AS, Tan W, Bear J, Propst F, Ruthel G and Felber BK

    Human Retrovirus Pathogenesis Section, Vaccine Branch, Center for Cancer Research, NCI-Frederick, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA.

    In eukaryotes, the nuclear export of mRNA is mediated by nuclear export factor 1 (NXF1) receptors. Metazoans encode additional NXF1-related proteins of unknown function, which share homology and domain organization with NXF1. Some mammalian NXF1-related genes are expressed preferentially in the brain and are thought to participate in neuronal mRNA metabolism. To address the roles of NXF1-related factors, we studied the two mouse NXF1 homologues, mNXF2 and mNXF7. In neuronal cells, mNXF2, but not mNXF7, exhibited mRNA export activity similar to that of Tip-associated protein/NXF1. Surprisingly, mNXF7 incorporated into mobile particles in the neurites that contained poly(A) and ribosomal RNA and colocalized with Staufen1-containing transport granules, indicating a role in neuronal mRNA trafficking. Yeast two-hybrid interaction, coimmunoprecipitation, and in vitro binding studies showed that NXF proteins bound to brain-specific microtubule-associated proteins (MAP) such as MAP1B and the WD repeat protein Unrip. Both in vitro and in vivo, MAP1B also bound to NXF export cofactor U2AF as well as to Staufen1 and Unrip. These findings revealed a network of interactions likely coupling the export and cytoplasmic trafficking of mRNA. We propose a model in which MAP1B tethers the NXF-associated mRNA to microtubules and facilitates their translocation along dendrites while Unrip provides a scaffold for the assembly of these transport intermediates.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;36;31981-90

  • MAP1A light chain 2 interacts with exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP 1 (EPAC1) to enhance Rap1 GTPase activity and cell adhesion.

    Gupta M and Yarwood SJ

    Molecular Pharmacology Group, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Davidson Building, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, United Kingdom.

    We have recently demonstrated that light chain 2 (LC2) of the microtubule-associated protein MAP1A interacts with the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-binding domain of exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP 1 (EPAC1). In the present study we used a simultaneous expression system and found that LC2 enhances both basal and 8-(4-chloro-phenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine-3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-CPT-2Me-cAMP)-stimulated Rap1 activation by EPAC1. LC2 is known to stabilize microtubules; therefore we examined whether microtubules enhanced Rap1 activation by LC2. Nocodazole inhibited Rap1 activity in cells transfected with EPAC1 alone but had little effect on Rap1 activity in cells transfected with both EPAC1 and LC2. This indicates that part of the actions of LC2 in enhancing EPAC1 activity may be through stabilization of microtubules. We also found that in cells transfected with LC2, Rap1 was more sensitive to activation by 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP. Moreover, LC2 enhanced the ability of transfected and endogenous EPAC1 to interact with cyclic AMP-agarose, indicating that LC2 elicits conformational changes in the cAMP domain of EPAC1, enhancing its ability to be activated by cyclic AMP. We also found that disruption of the interaction of endogenous EPAC1 and LC2 with antibodies to the cAMP domain of EPAC1 abolished Rap1 activity in PC12 cell lysates, demonstrating the importance of LC2 for EPAC1 activation in these cells. Consistent with a role of EPAC1 in controlling integrin activity, we found that cell adhesion to laminin was enhanced in LC2- and EPAC1-transfected cells stimulated with 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP. LC2 is therefore a biological enhancer of EPAC1 activity toward Rap1 and associated downstream signaling mechanisms.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;9;8109-16

  • Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells.

    Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, Zha XM, Polakiewicz RD and Comb MJ

    Cell Signaling Technology Inc., 166B Cummings Center, Beverly, Massachusetts 01915, USA.

    Tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in human cancer, yet the oncogenic signaling pathways driving cell proliferation and survival have been difficult to identify, in part because of the complexity of the pathways and in part because of low cellular levels of tyrosine phosphorylation. In general, global phosphoproteomic approaches reveal small numbers of peptides containing phosphotyrosine. We have developed a strategy that emphasizes the phosphotyrosine component of the phosphoproteome and identifies large numbers of tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Peptides containing phosphotyrosine are isolated directly from protease-digested cellular protein extracts with a phosphotyrosine-specific antibody and are identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Applying this approach to several cell systems, including cancer cell lines, shows it can be used to identify activated protein kinases and their phosphorylated substrates without prior knowledge of the signaling networks that are activated, a first step in profiling normal and oncogenic signaling networks.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R43CA101106

    Nature biotechnology 2005;23;1;94-101

  • Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) interacts with the light chain (LC) 2 of MAP1A.

    Magiera MM, Gupta M, Rundell CJ, Satish N, Ernens I and Yarwood SJ

    Molecular Pharmacology Group, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Davidson Building, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, UK.

    Using EPAC1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1) as bait in two-hybrid screens of foetal and adult human brain libraries, we identified the LC2 (light chain 2) of MAP1A (microtubule-associated protein 1A) as a protein capable of interaction with EPAC1. We applied an immunoprecipitation assay to demonstrate protein interaction between EPAC1 and LC2 in co-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. EPAC2 also co-immunoprecipitated with LC2 from extracts of rat cerebellum. Immunolocalization in co-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells revealed that EPAC1 co-localizes with LC2 throughout the cell body. We found that endogenous EPAC2 is also immunolocalized with LC2 in PC12 cells. Immunolocalization of EPAC1 in transfected COS1 cells showed that EPAC1 is associated with the perinuclear region surrounding the nucleus and filamentous structures throughout the cell. Removal of the cAMP-binding domain of EPAC1 (DeltacAMP-EPAC1) appeared to disrupt targeting of EPAC1 in cells resulting in a more dispersed staining pattern. Using two-hybrid assay, we tested the ability of LC2 to interact with DeltacAMP-EPAC1 and DeltaDEP-EPAC1, which lacks a DEP domain (dishevelled, Egl-10 and pleckstrin homology domain). We found that deletion of the cAMP-binding domain inhibited interaction between EPAC1 and LC2 in a two-hybrid assay, but removal of the DEP domain had little effect. LC2 was found to interact with a glutathione-S-transferase-fusion protein of the cAMP-binding domain of EPAC1 in a pull-down assay, but not the DEP, REM (Ras exchange motif) or CAT (catalytic) domains. Together with our two-hybrid results, this suggests that the cAMP-binding domain of EPAC1 mediates interaction with LC2.

    The Biochemical journal 2004;382;Pt 3;803-10

  • Sequence comparison of human and mouse genes reveals a homologous block structure in the promoter regions.

    Suzuki Y, Yamashita R, Shirota M, Sakakibara Y, Chiba J, Mizushima-Sugano J, Nakai K and Sugano S

    Human Genome Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639, Japan. ysuzuki@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    Comparative sequence analysis was carried out for the regions adjacent to experimentally validated transcriptional start sites (TSSs), using 3324 pairs of human and mouse genes. We aligned the upstream putative promoter sequences over the 1-kb proximal regions and found that the sequence conservation could not be further extended at, on average, 510 bp upstream positions of the TSSs. This discontinuous manner of the sequence conservation revealed a "block" structure in about one-third of the putative promoter regions. Consistently, we also observed that G+C content and CpG frequency were significantly different inside and outside the blocks. Within the blocks, the sequence identity was uniformly 65% regardless of their length. About 90% of the previously characterized transcription factor binding sites were located within those blocks. In 46% of the blocks, the 5' ends were bounded by interspersed repetitive elements, some of which may have nucleated the genomic rearrangements. The length of the blocks was shortest in the promoters of genes encoding transcription factors and of genes whose expression patterns are brain specific, which suggests that the evolutional diversifications in the transcriptional modulations should be the most marked in these populations of genes.

    Genome research 2004;14;9;1711-8

  • Direct interaction between BKCa potassium channel and microtubule-associated protein 1A.

    Park SM, Liu G, Kubal A, Fury M, Cao L and Marx SO

    Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA.

    The BKCa channel, a potassium channel that is allosterically activated by voltage and calcium, is expressed in both excitable and non-excitable cells. The channel plays an important role in regulating membrane excitability. The channel activity can be modulated by post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation. Recently, hippocampal BKCa channels were shown to be directly modulated by assembly/disassembly of the submembranous actin cytoskeleton. Here, we report that the BKCa channel physically interacts with the light chain of microtubule associated protein 1A (MAP1A). The light chain was isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human brain cDNA library. The specificity of the interaction was demonstrated in biochemical experiments utilizing GST fusion protein pulldown assays and reciprocal co-immunoprecipitations from rat brain. Furthermore, utilizing immunofluorescence, the BKCa channel and MAP1A co-localize in the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum. These studies identify a novel interaction between the C-terminal tail of the BKCa channel and the light chain of MAP1A, which enables channel association with and modulation by the cytoskeleton.

    FEBS letters 2004;570;1-3;143-8

  • A protein interaction framework for human mRNA degradation.

    Lehner B and Sanderson CM

    MRC Rosalind Franklin Centre for Genomics Research, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SB, United Kingdom.

    The degradation of mRNA is an important regulatory step in the control of gene expression. However, mammalian RNA decay pathways remain poorly characterized. To provide a framework for studying mammalian RNA decay, a two-hybrid protein interaction map was generated using 54 constructs from 38 human proteins predicted to function in mRNA decay. The results provide evidence for interactions between many different proteins required for mRNA decay. Of particular interest are interactions between the poly(A) ribonuclease and the exosome and between the Lsm complex, decapping factors, and 5'-->3' exonucleases. Moreover, multiple interactions connect 5'-->3' and 3'-->5' decay proteins to each other and to nonsense-mediated decay factors, providing the opportunity for coordination between decay pathways. The interaction network also predicts the internal organization of the exosome and Lsm complexes. Additional interactions connect mRNA decay factors to many novel proteins and to proteins required for other steps in gene expression. These results provide an experimental insight into the organization of proteins required for mRNA decay and their coupling to other cellular processes, and the physiological relevance of many of these interactions are supported by their evolutionary conservation. The interactions also provide a wealth of hypotheses to guide future research on mRNA degradation and demonstrate the power of exhaustive protein interaction mapping in aiding understanding of uncharacterized protein complexes and pathways.

    Genome research 2004;14;7;1315-23

  • DISC1 (Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1) is a centrosome-associated protein that interacts with MAP1A, MIPT3, ATF4/5 and NUDEL: regulation and loss of interaction with mutation.

    Morris JA, Kandpal G, Ma L and Austin CP

    Department of Neuroscience, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486, USA.

    Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a novel gene associated with schizophrenia by multiple genetic studies. In order to determine how mutations in DISC1 might cause susceptibility to schizophrenia, we undertook a comprehensive study of the cellular biology of DISC1 in its full-length and disease-associated mutant forms. DISC1 interacts by yeast two-hybrid, mammalian two-hybrid, and co-immunoprecipitation assays with multiple proteins of the centrosome and cytoskeletal system, including MIPT3, MAP1A and NUDEL; proteins which localize receptors to membranes, including alpha-actinin2 and beta4-spectrin; and proteins which transduce signals from membrane receptors, including ATF4 and ATF5. Truncated mutant DISC1 fails to interact with ATF4, ATF5 or NUDEL. Deletion mapping demonstrated that DISC1 has distinct interaction domains: MAP1A interacts via its LC2 domain with the N-terminus of DISC1, whereas MIPT3 and NUDEL bind via their C-terminal domains to the central coiled-coil domain of DISC1, and ATF4/5 bind via their C-terminal domains to the C-terminus of DISC1. In its full-length form, DISC1 protein localizes to predominantly perinuclear punctate structures which extend into neurites in some cells; mutant truncated DISC1, by contrast, is seen in a diffuse pattern throughout the cytoplasm and abundantly in neurites. Both forms co-localize with the centrosomal complex, although truncated less abundantly than full-length DISC1. Although both full-length and mutant DISC1 are found in microtubule fractions, neither form of DISC1 appears to bind directly to microtubules, but rather do so in a MIPT3-dependent fashion that is stabilized by taxol. Based on these data, we propose that DISC1 is a multifunctional protein whose truncation contributes to schizophrenia susceptibility by disrupting intracellular transport, neurite architecture and/or neuronal migration, all of which have been hypothesized to be pathogenic in the schizophrenic brain.

    Human molecular genetics 2003;12;13;1591-608

  • Role for RFX transcription factors in non-neuronal cell-specific inactivation of the microtubule-associated protein MAP1A promoter.

    Nakayama A, Murakami H, Maeyama N, Yamashiro N, Sakakibara A, Mori N and Takahashi M

    Department of Pathology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550, Aichi, Japan. k46191a@nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    Microtubule-associated protein MAP1A is expressed abundantly in mature neurons and is necessary for maintenance of neuronal morphology and localization of some molecules in association with the microtubule-based cytoskeleton. Previous studies indicated that its complementary expression together with MAP1B during nervous system development is regulated at the transcriptional level and that the mouse Map1A gene is transcribed under the control of 5' and intronic promoters. In this study, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms that govern the neuronal cell-specific activation of the MAP1A 5' promoter. We found that two regulatory factor for X box (RFX) binding sites in exon1 of both the mouse and human genes are important for effective transcriptional repression observed only in non-neuronal cells by reporter assays. Among RFX transcription factor family members, RFX1 and 3 mainly interact with repressive elements in vitro. Cotransfection studies indicated that RFX1, which is expressed ubiquitously, down-regulated the MAP1A 5' promoter activity in non-neuronal cells. Unexpectedly, RFX3, which is abundantly expressed in neuronal cells, down-regulated the transactivity as well, when it was expressed in non-neuronal cells. Both RFX1 and 3 did not down-regulate the transactivity in neuronal cells. These results suggest that RFX1 and 3 are pivotal factors in down-regulation of the MAP1A 5' promoter in non-neuronal cells. The cell type-specific down-regulation, however, does not depend simply on which RFX interacts with the elements, but seems to depend on underlying profound mechanisms.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;1;233-40

  • Microtubule-associated protein 1A is a modifier of tubby hearing (moth1).

    Ikeda A, Zheng QY, Zuberi AR, Johnson KR, Naggert JK and Nishina PM

    The Jackson Laboratory, 600 Main Street, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA.

    Once a mutation in the gene tub was identified as the cause of obesity, retinal degeneration and hearing loss in tubby mice, it became increasingly evident that the members of the tub gene family (tulps) influence maintenance and function of the neuronal cell lineage. Suggested molecular functions of tubby-like proteins include roles in vesicular trafficking, mediation of insulin signaling and gene transcription. The mechanisms through which tub functions in neurons, however, have yet to be elucidated. Here we report the positional cloning of an auditory quantitative trait locus (QTL), the modifier of tubby hearing 1 gene (moth1), whose wildtype alleles from strains AKR/J, CAST/Ei and 129P2/OlaHsd protect tubby mice from hearing loss. Through a transgenic rescue experiment, we verified that sequence polymorphisms in the neuron-specific microtubule-associated protein 1a gene (Mtap1a) observed in the susceptible strain C57BL/6J (B6) are crucial for the hearing-loss phenotype. We also show that these polymorphisms change the binding efficiency of MTAP1A to postsynaptic density molecule 95 (PSD95), a core component in the cytoarchitecture of synapses. This indicates that at least some of the observed polymorphisms are functionally important and that the hearing loss in C57BL/6J-tub/tub (B6-tub/tub) mice may be caused by impaired protein interactions involving MTAP1A. We therefore propose that tub may be associated with synaptic function in neuronal cells.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: R01 EY016501, R01 EY016501-06; NIDCD NIH HHS: R01 DC004301, R01 DC004301-01, R01 DC005827, R01 DC005827-01, R03 DC004376, R03 DC004376-01A1; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK046977, R01 DK046977-07, R01 DK046977-10

    Nature genetics 2002;30;4;401-5

  • Microtubule-associated protein 1A (MAP1A) and MAP1B: light chains determine distinct functional properties.

    Noiges R, Eichinger R, Kutschera W, Fischer I, Nemeth Z, Wiche G and Propst F

    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Vienna Biocenter, University of Vienna, A-1030 Vienna, Austria.

    The microtubule-associated proteins 1A (MAP1A) and 1B (MAP1B) are distantly related protein complexes consisting of heavy and light chains and are thought to play a role in regulating the neuronal cytoskeleton, MAP1B during neuritogenesis and MAP1A in mature neurons. To elucidate functional differences between MAP1B and MAP1A and to determine the role of the light chain in the MAP1A protein complex, we chose to investigate the functional properties of the light chain of MAP1A (LC2) and compare them with the light chain of MAP1B (LC1). We found that LC2 binds to microtubules in vivo and in vitro and induces rapid polymerization of tubulin. A microtubule-binding domain in its NH(2) terminus was found to be necessary and sufficient for these activities. The analysis of LC1 revealed that it too bound to microtubules and induced tubulin polymerization via a crucial but structurally unrelated NH(2)-terminal domain. The two light chains differed, however, in their effects on microtubule bundling and stability in vivo. Furthermore, we identified actin filament binding domains located at the COOH terminus of LC2 and LC1 and obtained evidence that binding to actin filaments is attributable to direct interaction with actin. Our findings establish LC2 as a crucial determinant of MAP1A function, reveal LC2 as a potential linker of neuronal microtubules and microfilaments, and suggest that the postnatal substitution of MAP1B by MAP1A leads to expression of a protein with an overlapping but distinct set of functions.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2002;22;6;2106-14

  • Similar ultrastructural distribution of the 5-HT(2A) serotonin receptor and microtubule-associated protein MAP1A in cortical dendrites of adult rat.

    Cornea-Hébert V, Watkins KC, Roth BL, Kroeze WK, Gaudreau P, Leclerc N and Descarries L

    Départements de pathologie et biologie cellulaire et de physiologie, Faculté de médecine, Université de Montréal, P.O. Box 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7.

    As visualized by light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry, the distribution of the neuronal serotonin-2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor is mainly intracellular throughout adult rat brain. This localization is particularly striking in the pyramidal cells of cerebral cortex, the dendrites of which are intensely immunoreactive, but without any labeling of their spines. In view of recent yeast two-hybrid and biochemical results suggesting an association of 5-HT(2A) receptors with the cytoskeletal microtubule-associated protein MAP1A, the respective subcellular distributions of the receptors and of MAP1A were compared by quantitative electron microscopic immunocytochemistry in dendrites of adult rat frontoparietal cortex. Counts of silver-intensified immunogold particles revealed a higher density of 5-HT(2A) receptors in smaller rather than larger dendrites, and an apportionment between pre-defined compartments representing the plasma membrane and the cytoplasm that was proportional to the relative surface area of these compartments. MAP1A immunoreactivity also predominated in smaller versus larger dendrites, but with a slightly lower proportion of labeling in the plasma membrane versus cytoplasmic compartment. The co-localization of 5-HT(2A) receptors and MAP1A protein in the same dendrites could be demonstrated in double immunolabeling experiments. These results confirmed the predominantly somato-dendritic, intracellular localization of 5-HT(2A) receptors in cerebral cortex, showed their higher concentration in distal as opposed to proximal dendrites, and suggested their potential association to the cytoskeleton in cortical neurons in vivo. Such a distribution of 5-HT(2A) receptors reinforces our earlier hypothesis that 5-HT(2A) receptors participate in intraneuronal signaling processes involving the cytoskeleton, and raises the possibility that their activation could be dependent upon that of another co-localized, plasma membrane-bound, 5-HT receptor.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: K02 MH 01366, R01 MH 61887

    Neuroscience 2002;113;1;23-35

  • Interactions between adaptor protein-1 of the clathrin coat and microtubules via type 1a microtubule-associated proteins.

    Orzech E, Livshits L, Leyt J, Okhrimenko H, Reich V, Cohen S, Weiss A, Melamed-Book N, Lebendiker M, Altschuler Y and Aroeti B

    Department of Cell and Animal Biology, Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel.

    The classical view suggests that adaptor proteins of the clathrin coat mediate the sorting of cargo protein passengers into clathrin-coated pits and the recruitment of clathrin into budding areas in the donor membrane. In the present study, we provide biochemical and morphological evidence that the adaptor protein 1 (AP-1) adaptor of the trans-Golgi network clathrin interacts with microtubules. AP-1 in cytosolic extracts interacted with in vitro assembled microtubules, and these interactions were inhibited by ATP depletion of the extracts or in the presence of 5'-adenylylimidodiphosphate. An overexpressed gamma-subunit of the AP-1 complex associated with microtubules, suggesting that this subunit may mediate the interaction of AP-1 with the cytoskeleton. Purified AP-1 did not interact with purified microtubules, but interaction occurred when an isolated microtubule-associated protein fraction was added to the reaction mix. The gamma-adaptin subunit of AP-1 specifically co-immunoprecipitated with a microtubule-associated protein of type 1a from rat brain cytosol. This suggests that type 1a microtubule-associated protein may mediate the association of AP-1 with microtubules in the cytoplasm. The microtubule binding activity of AP-1 was markedly inhibited in cytosol of mitotic cells. By means of its interaction with microtubule-associated proteins, we propose novel roles for AP-1 adaptors in modulating the dynamics of the cytoskeleton, the stability and shape of coated organelles, and the loading of nascent AP-1-coated vesicles onto appropriate microtubular tracks.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;33;31340-8

  • Differential binding regulation of microtubule-associated proteins MAP1A, MAP1B, and MAP2 by tubulin polyglutamylation.

    Bonnet C, Boucher D, Lazereg S, Pedrotti B, Islam K, Denoulet P and Larcher JC

    Biochimie Cellulaire, CNRS FRE 2219, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 9 quai Saint-Bernard, Case 265, 75252 Paris, Cedex 05, France.

    The major neuronal post-translational modification of tubulin, polyglutamylation, can act as a molecular potentiometer to modulate microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) binding as a function of the polyglutamyl chain length. The relative affinity of Tau, MAP2, and kinesin has been shown to be optimal for tubulin modified by approximately 3 glutamyl units. Using blot overlay assays, we have tested the ability of polyglutamylation to modulate the interaction of two other structural MAPs, MAP1A and MAP1B, with tubulin. MAP1A and MAP2 display distinct behavior in terms of tubulin binding; they do not compete with each other, even when the polyglutamyl chains of tubulin are removed, indicating that they have distinct binding sites on tubulin. Binding of MAP1A and MAP1B to tubulin is also controlled by polyglutamylation and, although the modulation of MAP1B binding resembles that of MAP2, we found that polyglutamylation can exert a different mode of regulation toward MAP1A. Interestingly, although the affinity of the other MAPs tested so far decreases sharply for tubulins carrying long polyglutamyl chains, the affinity of MAP1A for these tubulins is maintained at a significant level. This differential regulation exerted by polyglutamylation toward different MAPs might facilitate their selective recruitment into distinct microtubule populations, hence modulating their functional properties.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;16;12839-48

  • Expression of MAP1a and MAP1b in the ganglionic eminence and the internal capsule of the human fetal brain.

    Ulfig N, Feldhaus C, Setzer M and Bohl J

    Neuroembryonic Research Laboratory, Department of Anatomy, University of Rostock, Gertrudenstr 9, D-18055 Rostock, Germany. norbert.ulfig@med.uni-rostock.de

    The expression of microtubule-associated proteins 1a and 1b (MAP1a and 1b) were investigated in two transient structures, the ganglionic eminence (GE) being a prominent part of the telencephalic proliferative zone and the perireticular nucleus (PR) within the internal capsule (IC). Anti-MAP1a immunolabels PR neurons from 18 weeks of gestation (wg) onwards, whereas anti-MAP1b immunolabels long IC fibers between 18 and 22 wg. MAP1b is further present in thalamic fibers that seem to terminate at the medial margin of the GE, in a moderate number of cells of the GE and its medial extension, the gangliothalamic body (GTB). From 26 to 33 wg MAP1b is expressed in short fiber bundles of the IC, a few MAP1b-positive cells are seen in the GE. MAP1a has so far been described to appear in differentiated neurons and to be related to late developmental events. However, the transient PR being involved in axonal guidance as an intermediate target shows a precocious MAP1a-expression. The MAP1b-finding that thalamocortical fibers accumulate at the GE-margin indicates that this region represents an intermediate target for these fibers. The short MAP1b fiber bundles found in the IC are in accordance with cell culture experiments showing that MAP1b is concentrated in distal parts of outgrowing axons.

    Neuroscience research 2000;38;4;397-405

  • Regulation of microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) subunit composition.

    Mei X, Sweatt AJ and Hammarback JA

    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA.

    The MAP1B and MAP1A genes each produce an mRNA that encodes a polyprotein. When cleaved, each polyprotein yields a single heavy chain and a single light chain, which become noncovalently associated. In previous work, it was found that the MAP1B light chains and heavy chains exist in a 2:1 ratio. Through use of quantitative immunoblot techniques, this finding was further examined in the developing rat brain. MAP1B heavy chain (HC) and light chain (LC1), as well as the light chain of MAP1A (LC2), were prepared in purified form for use as standards and/or immunogens for generation of antibodies for immunoblotting. Brain homogenates and microtubule-enriched fractions from developing rats were assayed for MAP1B HC and LC1 content. Results indicated that postnatal rat brain homogenates contain LC1 in a 6:1 to 8:1 molar ratio to the MAP1B HC. Purified microtubules also contain LC1 in excess of MAP1B HC, but at a ratio of 2:1. We propose that most of the excess LC1 in homogenates is either insoluble or not bound to microtubules. The findings raise the possibility of a function for the "excess" LC1 that does not require association with MAP1 HC and/or microtubules. Given a synthetic mechanism that produces MAP1B HC and LC1 in a 1:1 ratio at both transcription and translation steps, we propose that the "excess" LC1 in brain homogenates is a consequence of LC1 having a greater half-life than the MAP1B HC. Consistently with this hypothesis, a major pool of MAP1B HC is rapidly degraded after blocking protein synthesis with cycloheximide, whereas LC1 levels remain constant even after 24 hr of cycloheximide treatment.

    Journal of neuroscience research 2000;62;1;56-64

  • A family of proteins with gamma-adaptin and VHS domains that facilitate trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the vacuole/lysosome.

    Hirst J, Lui WW, Bright NA, Totty N, Seaman MN and Robinson MS

    University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Wellcome Trust Centre for the Study of Molecular Mechanisms in Disease, Cambridge CB2 2XY, United Kingdom.

    We have cloned and characterized members of a novel family of proteins, the GGAs. These proteins contain an NH(2)-terminal VHS domain, one or two coiled-coil domains, and a COOH-terminal domain homologous to the COOH-terminal "ear" domain of gamma-adaptin. However, unlike gamma-adaptin, the GGAs are not associated with clathrin-coated vesicles or with any of the components of the AP-1 complex. GGA1 and GGA2 are also not associated with each other, although they colocalize on perinuclear membranes. Immunogold EM shows that these membranes correspond to trans elements of the Golgi stack and the TGN. GST pulldown experiments indicate that the GGA COOH-terminal domains bind to a subset of the proteins that bind to the gamma-adaptin COOH-terminal domain. In yeast there are two GGA genes. Deleting both of these genes results in missorting of the vacuolar enzyme carboxypeptidase Y, and the cells also have a defective vacuolar morphology phenotype. These results indicate that the function of the GGAs is to facilitate the trafficking of proteins between the TGN and the vacuole, or its mammalian equivalent, the lysosome.

    The Journal of cell biology 2000;149;1;67-80

  • Localization of postsynaptic density-93 to dendritic microtubules and interaction with microtubule-associated protein 1A.

    Brenman JE, Topinka JR, Cooper EC, McGee AW, Rosen J, Milroy T, Ralston HJ and Bredt DS

    Department of Physiology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-0444, USA.

    Postsynaptic density-93 (PSD-93)/Chapsyn-110 is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of PDZ domain-containing proteins. MAGUKs are widely expressed in the brain and are critical elements of the cytoskeleton and of certain synapses. In the ultrastructural studies that are described here, PSD-93 localizes to both postsynaptic densities and dendritic microtubules of cerebellar Purkinje neurons. The microtubule localization is paralleled by a high-affinity in vivo interaction of PSD-93 via its guanylate kinase (GK) domain with microtubule-associated protein 1A (MAP1A). GK domain truncations that mimic genetically identified mutations of a Drosophila MAGUK, discs-large, disrupt the GK/MAP-1A interaction. Additional biochemical experiments demonstrate that intact MAGUKs do not bind to MAP1A as effectively as do isolated GK domains. This appears to be attributable to an intramolecular inhibition of the GK domain by the PDZs, because GK binding activity of full-length MAGUKs is partially restored by a variety of PDZ ligands, including the C termini of NMDA receptor 2B, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), and CRIPT. Beyond demonstrating a novel cytoskeletal link for PSD-93, these experiments support a model in which intramolecular interactions between the multiple domains of MAGUKs regulate intermolecular associations and thereby may play a role in the proper targeting and function of MAGUK proteins.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS23347, NS36017

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1998;18;21;8805-13

  • Characterization of the microtubule-binding domain of microtubule-associated protein 1A and its effects on microtubule dynamics.

    Vaillant AR, Müller R, Langkopf A and Brown DL

    Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa K1N 6N5, Canada.

    To determine how MAP1a interacts with microtubules we expressed several 6myc-tagged MAP1a fragments in P19 EC and HeLa cells. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that the fragment consisting of amino acids (aa) 1-281 of MAP1a did not bind while the fragment consisting of aa 1-630 did, indicating that the region of MAP1a between aa 281 and 630 contains a microtubule-binding domain. Deletion of the basic repeats from aa 336-540 did not result in loss of microtubule binding, suggesting that the regions flanking the basic repeats can bind MAP1a to microtubules. These observations were confirmed using an in vitro microtubule binding assay. The levels of acetylation and detyrosination of polymerized microtubules were assessed by quantitative dot blotting in cells expressing MAP1a fragments or MAP2c. Compared with untransfected cells, the polymerized tubulin in cells expressing full-length MAP1a was more acetylated and detyrosinated, but these increases were smaller than those seen in cells expressing MAP2c. Consistent with this, the microtubules in MAP2c expressing cells were more resistant to colchicine than those in cells overexpressing MAP1a. These data implicate aa 281-336 and/or 540-630 of MAP1a in microtubule binding and suggest that MAP1a is less able to stabilize microtubules than MAP2c.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;22;13973-81

  • Human microtubule-associated protein 1a (MAP1A) gene: genomic organization, cDNA sequence, and developmental- and tissue-specific expression.

    Fink JK, Jones SM, Esposito C and Wilkowski J

    Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109, USA.

    Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) regulate microtubule stability and play critical roles in neuronal development and the balance between neuronal plasticity and rigidity. MAP1a (HGMW-approved symbol MAP1A) stabilizes microtubules in postnatal axons. We describe human MAP1a's genomic organization and deduced cDNA and amino acid sequences. MAP1a is a single-copy gene spanning 10.5 kb. MAP1a coding sequence is contained in five exons. Translation begins in exon 3. Human MAP1a contains 2805 amino acids (predicted molecular weight 306.5 kDa) and is slightly larger than rat MAP1a (2774 amino acids). Like rat and bovine MAP1a, human MAP1a contains conserved tubulin binding motifs in the amino-terminal region. The carboxy-terminal portion contains a conserved pentadecapeptide that is present in the light chain portion of rat and bovine MAP1a/LC2 polyprotein. We show that human MAP1a gene expression occurs almost exclusively in the brain and that there is approximately 10-fold greater gene expression in adult brain compared to fetal brain. Strong, interspecies conservation between human and rat MAP1a cDNA and amino acid sequences indicates important relationships between MAP1a's function and its primary amino acid sequence.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: 1R01 NS33645

    Genomics 1996;35;3;577-85

  • The cleavage of host cell proteins by HIV-1 protease.

    Snásel J and Pichová I

    Department of Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic.

    Folia biologica 1996;42;5;227-30

  • Brain-specific expression of human microtubule-associated protein 1A (MAP1A) gene and its assignment to human chromosome 15.

    Fukuyama R and Rapoport SI

    Laboratory of Neurosciences, NIA, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    We isolated several cDNA fragments by immunoscreening a human cDNA library with our monoclonal antibody, BG5, that showed neuronal staining on human and rat brain sections. A 1,570 bp sequence of one cDNA fragment showed 75% homology to the rat microtubule-associated protein 1A (MAP1A) cDNA sequence. This rat MAP1A-like human cDNA was highly specific to the adult brain among human tissues tested, and was expressed in various brain regions including white matter. The size of the mRNA detected with Northern blot analysis in adult human brain equaled 10 kb. The gene of this cDNA was assigned to human chromosome 15 that has a syntenic region of mouse chromosome 2, where the mouse MAP1A gene has been assigned. These results indicate that this rat MAP1A-like cDNA is a portion of human MAP1A and is a conserved molecular species among humans and rodents.

    Journal of neuroscience research 1995;40;6;820-5

  • Cloning of human microtubule-associated protein 1B and the identification of a related gene on chromosome 15.

    Lien LL, Feener CA, Fischbach N and Kunkel LM

    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

    We report here the complete cloning and sequencing of human microtubule associated protein 1B (MAP1B). Comparisons to mouse and partial rat MAP1B sequence indicate that this gene is extremely well conserved, with 91 and 90% identity, respectively. The entire human MAP1B genomic region has been isolated and the genomic organization determined. The gene includes seven exons, and the third exon contains sequence not represented in mouse or rat MAP1B. This sequence, labeled 3A, is present at the 5' end of an alternative transcript that is expressed at approximately 1/10th the level of the full-length transcript. By comparisons of human MAP1B with the sequence databases, we have identified a MAP1B-related gene that is probably the human homologue of rat MAP1A. This gene is expressed at high levels in brain and spinal cord and much lower levels in muscle and maps to the long arm of human chromosome 15.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD 18658; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS23740

    Genomics 1994;22;2;273-80

  • Molecular characterization of light chain 3. A microtubule binding subunit of MAP1A and MAP1B.

    Mann SS and Hammarback JA

    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157-1010.

    Light chain 3 (LC3) is a subunit of the neuronal microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), MAP1A and MAP1B. Recent findings show that the cDNAs for MAP1A and MAP1B encode polyproteins that contain the MAP1A or MAP1B heavy chain and a LC2 or LC1 subunit, respectively. We have sequenced a cDNA encoding rat LC3, and its sequence is not found in the MAP1A/LC2 or MAP1B/LC1 polyprotein cDNAs. The deduced amino acid sequence of LC3 is highly conserved between rat and mouse. Rat LC3 is a 16.4-kDa protein with a predicted pI of 9.2. It is encoded on a 1.7-kilobase mRNA. Our anti-LC3 antiserum shows that LC3 is abundant only in neurons and that the majority of LC3 in brain co-purifies with microtubules. Purified recombinant rat LC3 retains the ability to associate with microtubules assembled in the presence of brain MAPs and with microtubules assembled from purified tubulin. We propose that LC3 functions primarily as a MAP1A and MAP1B subunit and that its expression could regulate the microtubule binding activity of MAP1A and MAP1B.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS30985

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;15;11492-7

  • Microtubule associated protein MAP1A is an actin-binding and crosslinking protein.

    Pedrotti B, Colombo R and Islam K

    Department of Biology, Universita' di Milano, Italy.

    High molecular weight microtubule-associated proteins MAP1A and MAP2 form thin projections from microtubule surfaces and have been implicated in crosslinking microtubules and other cytoskeletal components. We have purified native MAP1A from bovine brain and have studied its interaction with G- and F-actin. Using a solid-phase immunoassay we show that MAP1A binds in a dose-dependent manner to both G-actin and F-actin. Addition of MAP1A to F-actin causes gelation of F-actin and SDS-PAGE analysis shows that MAP1A co-sediments with the gelled network, under conditions where F-actin alone does not pellet. The low apparent viscosity of F-actin is markedly increased in the presence of MAP1A, suggesting that MAP1A can crosslink F-actin. Co-incubation experiments indicate that MAP1A and MAP2 may bind to common or overlapping sites on the actin molecule. The widespread distribution of MAP1A and its interaction with microtubules, actin, and intermediate filaments suggests that it may constitute an important determinant of neuronal and non-neuronal cellular morphology.

    Cell motility and the cytoskeleton 1994;29;2;110-6

  • Microtubule-associated proteins, MAP 1A and MAP 1B, interact with F-actin in vitro.

    Fujii T, Watanabe M, Ogoma Y, Kondo Y and Arai T

    Department of Functional Polymer Science, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Nagano.

    Microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 1 consisting of MAP 1A and 1B was purified from rat brain by the poly-L-aspartic acid (PLAA) method. We found that MAP 1 bound to F-actin in vitro up to a molar ratio of MAP 1 to actin monomers of 1:10. The apparent binding constant was about 2.7 x 10(7) M-1. In contrast to the binding of MAP 2 or tau to F-actin, the binding of MAP 1 to F-actin did not affect the low-shear viscosity of actin filaments. Binding experiments performed using fragments of MAP 1, obtained by chymotrypsin digestion, indicated that MAP 1 included binding domains to F-actin that were different from those in microtubules and also two light chains (31 and 29 kDa) that were cosedimented with F-actin as well as with microtubules.

    Journal of biochemistry 1993;114;6;827-9

  • Proteolytic cleavage of microtubule-associated proteins by retroviral proteinases.

    Wallin M, Deinum J, Goobar L and Danielson UH

    Department of Zoophysiology, University of Göteborg, Sweden.

    Aspartic proteinases from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) were found to interfere with microtubule assembly. Preincubation of the proteinases with purified brain microtubule proteins (tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins) at low ionic strength (pH 6.8), completely inhibited microtubule assembly. Analysis of microtubule proteins after incubation with proteinase showed no effect on tubulin but extensive cleavage of the microtubule-associated proteins 1 and 2 was observed. The digestion by the two proteinases differed. In the presence of HIV-1 proteinase, a fragment with an Mr of approximately 300, appeared, as well as at least three other new fragments, with Mr values of 188,000, 124,000 and 73,000. In the presence of AMV proteinase, the microtubule-associated proteins were extensively digested to many small fragments. The extending microtubule-associated proteins normally seen by electron microscopy on the microtubule surface disappeared after treatment with AMV proteinase. Our results show that retroviral proteinases are not restricted to cleavage of viral polyproteins in vitro. It is suggested that proteolysis of microtubular proteins by viral proteinases is an important step in viral pathogenicity and that it may be part of a mechanism causing degenerative effects in infected cells.

    The Journal of general virology 1990;71 ( Pt 9);1985-91

  • MAP 1A and MAP 1B are structurally related microtubule associated proteins with distinct developmental patterns in the CNS.

    Schoenfeld TA, McKerracher L, Obar R and Vallee RB

    Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology, Shrewsbury, Massachusetts 01545.

    Five high-molecular-weight microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) were identified in brain tissue in previous work from this laboratory (Bloom et al., 1984). These proteins were termed MAP 1A, 1B, 1C, 2A, and 2B. The MAP 1's differed from the MAP 2's, and showed little evidence of interrelationship on the basis of immunological and biochemical comparison. We report here that MAP 1A and MAP 1B are, in fact, related at the level of subunit composition. Immunoprecipitation of the individual MAPs showed that both contained low-molecular-weight subunits of Mr 30,000 and Mr 19,000 (light chains 1 and 3). An additional subunit, light chain 2 (Mr 28,000), was primarily found in preparations of MAP 1A. The light chains co-sedimented with microtubules after chymotryptic digestion of the MAPs. This suggested an association of the light chains with the microtubule binding domains of the MAPs, which are identified here as distinct fragments of Mr 60,000 for MAP 1A and 120,000 for MAP 1B. A panel of monoclonal anti-MAP 1A and anti-MAP 1B antibodies, including one that reacts with a common phosphorylated epitope, was used to examine the distribution of these proteins in the developing rat brain and spinal cord. MAP 1B was found to be abundant in the newborn brain and to decrease with development, in contrast to MAP 1A which increased with development. By immunohistochemistry MAP 1B was found to be highly concentrated in developing axonal processes in the cerebellar molecular layer, the corticospinal tract, the mossy fibers in the hippocampus, and the olfactory nerve. Of particular interest, the mossy fiber and olfactory nerve staining persisted in the adult, indicating continued outgrowth of the mossy fibers as well as olfactory nerve axons. MAP 1A staining was, in contrast, weak or absent in developing axonal fibers but moderate in mature axons and intense in developing and mature dendritic processes. Our results indicate that MAP 1A and MAP 1B are structurally related components of the neuronal cytoskeleton with complementary patterns of expression.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM26701

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1989;9;5;1712-30

  • Widespread cellular distribution of MAP-1A (microtubule-associated protein 1A) in the mitotic spindle and on interphase microtubules.

    Bloom GS, Luca FC and Vallee RB

    In the accompanying paper (Bloom, G.S., T.A. Schoenfeld, and R.B. Vallee, 1983, J. Cell Biol. 98:320-330), we reported that microtubule-associated protein 1 (MAP 1) from brain comprises multiple protein species, and that the principal component, MAP 1A, can be detected in both neuronal and glial cells by immunofluorescence microscopy using a monoclonal antibody. In the present study, we sought to determine the cellular and subcellular distribution of MAP 1A in commonly used cultured cell systems. For this purpose we used immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analysis with anti-MAP 1A to examine 18 types of mammalian cell cultures. MAP 1A was detected in every culture system examined. Included among these were cells of mouse, rat, Chinese hamster, Syrian hamster, Potoroo (marsupial), and human origin derived from a broad variety of tissues and organs. Anti-MAP 1A consistently labeled mitotic spindles and stained cytoplasmic fibers during interphase in most of the cultures. These fibers were identified as microtubules by co-localization with tubulin in double-labeling experiments, by their disappearance in response to colchicine or vinblastine, and by their reorganization in response to taxol. The anti-MAP 1A stained microtubules in a punctate manner, raising the possibility that MAP 1A is located along microtubules at discrete foci that might represent sites of interaction between microtubules and other organelles. Verification that MAP 1A was, indeed, the reactive material in immunofluorescence microscopy was obtained from immunoblots. Anti-MAP 1A stained a band at the position of MAP 1A in all cultures examined. These results establish that MAP 1A, a major MAP from brain, is widely distributed among cultured mammalian cells both within and outside of the nervous system.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 26701

    The Journal of cell biology 1984;98;1;331-40

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000013 G2C Homo sapiens Human mGluR5 Human orthologues of mouse mGluR5 complex adapted from Collins et al (2006) 52
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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