G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
ELKS/RAB6-interacting/CAST family member 1
G00001062 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000082805 (Ensembl human gene)
23085 (Entrez Gene)
1010 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ERC1 (GeneCards)
607127 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:17072 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q8IUD2 (UniProt)

Synonyms (4)

  • CAST2
  • ELKS
  • KIAA1081
  • MGC12974

Literature (19)

Pubmed - other

  • A PDGFRB-positive acute myeloid malignancy with a new t(5;12)(q33;p13.3) involving the ERC1 gene.

    Gorello P, La Starza R, Brandimarte L, Trisolini SM, Pierini V, Crescenzi B, Limongi MZ, Nanni M, Belloni E, Tapinassi C, Gerbino E, Martelli MF, Foà R, Meloni G, Pelicci PG and Mecucci C

    Leukemia 2008;22;1;216-8

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization.

    Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Data analysis and interpretation remain major logistical challenges when attempting to identify large numbers of protein phosphorylation sites by nanoscale reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (Supplementary Figure 1 online). In this report we address challenges that are often only addressable by laborious manual validation, including data set error, data set sensitivity and phosphorylation site localization. We provide a large-scale phosphorylation data set with a measured error rate as determined by the target-decoy approach, we demonstrate an approach to maximize data set sensitivity by efficiently distracting incorrect peptide spectral matches (PSMs), and we present a probability-based score, the Ascore, that measures the probability of correct phosphorylation site localization based on the presence and intensity of site-determining ions in MS/MS spectra. We applied our methods in a fully automated fashion to nocodazole-arrested HeLa cell lysate where we identified 1,761 nonredundant phosphorylation sites from 491 proteins with a peptide false-positive rate of 1.3%.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG03456; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945

    Nature biotechnology 2006;24;10;1285-92

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and cellular organization.

    Jin J, Smith FD, Stark C, Wells CD, Fawcett JP, Kulkarni S, Metalnikov P, O'Donnell P, Taylor P, Taylor L, Zougman A, Woodgett JR, Langeberg LK, Scott JD and Pawson T

    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada.

    Background: 14-3-3 proteins are abundant and conserved polypeptides that mediate the cellular effects of basophilic protein kinases through their ability to bind specific peptide motifs phosphorylated on serine or threonine.

    Results: We have used mass spectrometry to analyze proteins that associate with 14-3-3 isoforms in HEK293 cells. This identified 170 unique 14-3-3-associated proteins, which show only modest overlap with previous 14-3-3 binding partners isolated by affinity chromatography. To explore this large set of proteins, we developed a domain-based hierarchical clustering technique that distinguishes structurally and functionally related subsets of 14-3-3 target proteins. This analysis revealed a large group of 14-3-3 binding partners that regulate cytoskeletal architecture. Inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphoprotein recognition in vivo indicates the general importance of such interactions in cellular morphology and membrane dynamics. Using tandem proteomic and biochemical approaches, we identify a phospho-dependent 14-3-3 binding site on the A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP)-Lbc, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Rho GTPase. 14-3-3 binding to AKAP-Lbc, induced by PKA, suppresses Rho activation in vivo.

    Conclusion: 14-3-3 proteins can potentially engage around 0.6% of the human proteome. Domain-based clustering has identified specific subsets of 14-3-3 targets, including numerous proteins involved in the dynamic control of cell architecture. This notion has been validated by the broad inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphorylation-dependent binding in vivo and by the specific analysis of AKAP-Lbc, a RhoGEF that is controlled by its interaction with 14-3-3.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK44239

    Current biology : CB 2004;14;16;1436-50

  • Activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB requires ELKS, an IkappaB kinase regulatory subunit.

    Ducut Sigala JL, Bottero V, Young DB, Shevchenko A, Mercurio F and Verma IM

    Salk Institute for Biological Sciences, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) family of transcription factors plays a seminal role in inflammation, apoptosis, development, and cancer. Modulation of NF-kappaB-mediated gene expression in response to diverse signals is coordinated by the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex. We identified ELKS, an essential regulatory subunit of the IKK complex. Silencing ELKS expression by RNA interference blocked induced expression of NF-kappaB target genes, including the NF-kappaB inhibitor IkappaBalpha and proinflammatory genes such as cyclo-oxygenase 2 and interleukin 8. These cells were also not protected from apoptosis in response to cytokines. ELKS likely functions by recruiting IkappaBalpha to the IKK complex and thus serves a regulatory function for IKK activation.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2004;304;5679;1963-7

  • CAST2: identification and characterization of a protein structurally related to the presynaptic cytomatrix protein CAST.

    Deguchi-Tawarada M, Inoue E, Takao-Rikitsu E, Inoue M, Ohtsuka T and Takai Y

    KAN Research Institute, Kyoto Research Park, Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto 600-8815, Japan.

    The cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) is thought to define the site of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of neurotransmitters. We have recently identified a novel CAZ protein from rat brain which we have named CAST (CAZ-associated structural protein). CAST forms a large molecular complex with other CAZ proteins such as Bassoon, RIM1 and Munc13-1, at least through direct binding to RIM1. Here, we have identified a rat protein that is structurally related to CAST and named it CAST2. Subcellular fractionation analysis of rat brain shows that CAST2 is also tightly associated with the postsynaptic density fraction. Like CAST, CAST2 directly binds RIM1 and forms a hetero-oligomer with CAST. In primary cultured rat hippocampal neurones, CAST2 co-localizes with Bassoon at synapses. Furthermore, immunoelectron microscopy reveals that CAST2 localizes to the vicinity of the presynaptic membrane of synapses in mouse brain. Sequence analysis reveals that CAST2 is a rat orthologue of the human protein ELKS. ELKS has also recently been identified as Rab6IP2 and ERC1. Accordingly, the original CAST is tentatively re-named CAST1. These results indicate that CAST2 is a new component of the CAZ and, together with CAST1, may be involved in the formation of the CAZ structure.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2004;9;1;15-23

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Interaction of the ERC family of RIM-binding proteins with the liprin-alpha family of multidomain proteins.

    Ko J, Na M, Kim S, Lee JR and Kim E

    National Creative Research Initiative Center for Synaptogenesis and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.

    Liprin-alpha/SYD-2 is a family of multidomain proteins with four known isoforms. One of the reported functions of liprin-alpha is to regulate the development of presynaptic active zones, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here we report that liprin-alpha directly interacts with the ERC (ELKS-Rab6-interacting protein-CAST) family of proteins, members of which are known to bind RIMs, the active zone proteins that regulate neurotransmitter release. In vitro results indicate that ERC2/CAST, an active zone-specific isoform, interacts with all of the known isoforms of liprin-alpha and that liprin-alpha1 associates with both ERC2 and ERC1b, a splice variant of ERC1 that distributes to both cytosolic and active zone regions. ERC2 colocalizes with liprin-alpha1 in cultured neurons and forms a complex with liprin-alpha1 in brain. Liprin-alpha1, when expressed alone in cultured neurons, shows a partial synaptic localization. When coexpressed with ERC2, however, liprin-alpha1 is redistributed to synaptic sites. Moreover, roughly the first half of ERC2, which contains the liprin-alpha-binding region, is sufficient for the synaptic localization of liprin-alpha1 while the second half is not. These results suggest that the interaction between ERC2 and liprin-alpha may be involved in the presynaptic localization of liprin-alpha and the molecular organization of presynaptic active zones.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;43;42377-85

  • A family of RIM-binding proteins regulated by alternative splicing: Implications for the genesis of synaptic active zones.

    Wang Y, Liu X, Biederer T and Südhof TC

    The Center for Basic Neuroscience and Department of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9111, USA.

    RIMs are presynaptic active zone proteins that regulate neurotransmitter release. We describe two related genes that encode proteins with identical C-terminal sequences that bind to the conserved PDZ domain of RIMs via an unusual PDZ-binding motif. These proteins were previously reported separately as ELKS, Rab6-interacting protein 2, and CAST, leading us to refer to them by the acronym ERC. Alternative splicing of the C terminus of ERC1 generates a longer ERC1a variant that does not bind to RIMs and a shorter ERC1b variant that binds to RIMs, whereas the C terminus of ERC2 is synthesized only in a single RIM-binding variant. ERC1a is expressed ubiquitously as a cytosolic protein outside of brain; ERC1b is detectable only in brain, where it is both a cytosolic protein and an insoluble active zone component; and ERC2 is brain-specific but exclusively localized to active zones. Only brain-specific ERCs bind to RIMs, but both ubiquitous and brain-specific ERCs bind to Rab6, a GTP-binding protein involved in membrane traffic at the Golgi complex. ERC1a and ERC1b/2 likely perform similar functions at distinct localizations, indicating unexpected connections between nonneuronal membrane traffic at the Golgi complex executed via Rab6 and neuronal membrane traffic at the active zone executed via RIMs.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;22;14464-9

  • Differential expression of multiple isoforms of the ELKS mRNAs involved in a papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Nakata T, Yokota T, Emi M and Minami S

    Department of Bioregulation, Institute of Gerontology, Nippon Medical School, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan.

    A novel gene, ELKS, whose 5' portion was fused to the RET gene, was found in a papillary thyroid carcinoma. A cDNA of this gene obtained from a human-brain cDNA library revealed that it encoded a peptide of 948 amino acids, termed ELKSalpha. We identified four other isoforms, which encoded ELKSbeta, ELKSgamma, ELKSdelta, and ELKSepsilon proteins consisting, respectively, of 992, 720, 1088, and 1116 amino acid residues. Analysis of the gene structure revealed that the isoforms were generated by alternative splicing. Isoforms beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon all contain an optional exon (exon14a), but ELKSgamma, -delta, and -epsilon lack exon 1b. ELKSgamma lacks exons 3 to 6. ELKSdelta and -epsilon lack exons 12 and 17; ELKSepsilon contains an optional exon (exon 6a). Analysis by RT-PCR suggested that ELKSalpha and ELKSbeta mRNAs are abundant in the brain, ELKSdelta and ELKSepsilon mRNAs predominate in testis and thyroid, and ELKSepsilon mRNA predominates in other tissues. To prove whether the fusion of different ELKS isoforms to RET (between ELKS coiled-coil domains and the RET kinase domain) could produce chimeric proteins that could be autophosphorylated, we synthesized ELKSgamma-RET, ELKSdelta-RET, and ELKSepsilon-RET fusion proteins in vitro. Immunoblotting with anti-ELKS, anti-RET, and anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies demonstrated that the chimeric proteins were constitutively phosphorylated at tyrosine residues, whereas native RET protein was not. These results indicate that the ELKS gene is alternatively spliced, and that every type of ELKS-RET chimeric protein having oligomerization domains can activate RET's cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase.

    Genes, chromosomes & cancer 2002;35;1;30-7

  • Construction of expression-ready cDNA clones for KIAA genes: manual curation of 330 KIAA cDNA clones.

    Nakajima D, Okazaki N, Yamakawa H, Kikuno R, Ohara O and Nagase T

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    We have accumulated information on protein-coding sequences of uncharacterized human genes, which are known as KIAA genes, through cDNA sequencing. For comprehensive functional analysis of the KIAA genes, it is necessary to prepare a set of cDNA clones which direct the synthesis of functional KIAA gene products. However, since the KIAA cDNAs were derived from long mRNAs (> 4 kb), it was not expected that all of them were full-length. Thus, as the first step toward preparing these clones, we evaluated the integrity of protein-coding sequences of KIAA cDNA clones through comparison with homologous protein entries in the public database. As a result, 1141 KIAA cDNAs had at least one homologous entry in the database, and 619 of them (54%) were found to be truncated at the 5' and/or 3' ends. In this study, 290 KIAA cDNA clones were tailored to be full-length or have considerably longer sequences than the original clones by isolating additional cDNA clones and/or connected parts of additional cDNAs or PCR products of the missing portion to the original cDNA clone. Consequently, 265, 8, and 17 predicted CDSs of KIAA cDNA clones were increased in the amino-, carboxy-, and both terminal sequences, respectively. In addition, 40 cDNA clones were modified to remove spurious interruption of protein-coding sequences. The total length of the resultant extensions at amino- and carboxy-terminals of KIAA gene products reached 97,000 and 7,216 amino acid residues, respectively, and various protein domains were found in these extended portions.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2002;9;3;99-106

  • Characterization of novel Rab6-interacting proteins involved in endosome-to-TGN transport.

    Monier S, Jollivet F, Janoueix-Lerosey I, Johannes L and Goud B

    Laboratories Molecular mechanisms of intracellular transport, Institut Curie, 26 rue d'Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France. smonier@curie.fr

    Rab6 GTPase regulates intracellular transport at the level of the Golgi complex. Using the yeast two-hybrid screen, we have isolated two clones that specifically interact with the three isoforms of Rab6 present in mammalian cells (Rab6A, A' and B). The cDNAs encode two proteins of 976 and 1120 amino acids (calculated molecular mass of 112 and 128 kDa, respectively) that we named Rab6IP2A and Rab6IP2B (for Rab6 Interacting Protein 2). The two proteins likely correspond to spliced variants of the same gene. Rab6IP2s have no significant homology with other known proteins, including Rab effectors or partners. They are ubiquitously expressed, mostly cytosolic and found in high molecular mass complexes in brain cytosol. We show that Rab6IP2s can be recruited on Golgi membranes in a Rab6:GTP-dependent manner. The overexpression of any form of Rab6IP2 has no detectable effect on the secretory pathway. In contrast, the retrograde transport of the Shiga toxin B subunit between the plasma membrane and the Golgi complex is partly inhibited in cells overexpressing the Rab6-binding domain of Rab6IP2. Our data suggest that Rab6IP2s is involved in the pathway regulated by Rab6A'.

    Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 2002;3;4;289-97

  • Genomic organization and chromosomal mapping of ELKS, a gene rearranged in a papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Yokota T, Nakata T, Minami S, Inazawa J and Emi M

    Department of Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, Kawasaki, Japan.

    We recently isolated a novel cDNA, designated ELKS, that was fused to RET cDNA in a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Its encoded polypeptide sequence was rich in glutamic acid (E), leucine (L), lysine (K), and serine (S), and was characterized by the presence of nine alpha-helical coiled-coil domains consisting of periodic heptad repeats. We have now cloned the entire structure of the human ELKS gene from within a 700-kb genomic region represented by overlapping bacteriophage P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, and localized it to chromosomal band 12p13.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The gene is approximately 500 kb long, with 19 exons and 18 introns; the transcription initiation site within exon 1 is separate from the initiation codon (in exon 2). Analysis of the exon/intron structure revealed that introns interrupt the coding sequence in such a way that many functional segments of the protein are encoded by distinct exons. Exon 1 encodes the 5' non-coding region; exons 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 14, and 15 encode the nine coiled-coil domains. Exons 17-19 constitute the 3' non-coding region. Analysis of the region immediately upstream of exon 1 showed that it was extremely rich in G/C nucleotides and contained multiple Sp-1 and AP2 binding sequences. The ELKS-RET gene fusion rearrangement we had observed in a papillary thyroid carcinoma occurred between intron 10 of the ELKS gene and intron 11 of RET.

    Journal of human genetics 2000;45;1;6-11

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XIV. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.

    Kikuno R, Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Hirosawa M, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    To extend our cDNA project for accumulating basic information on unidentified human genes, we newly determined the sequences of 100 cDNA clones from a set of size-fractionated human adult and fetal brain cDNA libraries, and predicted the coding sequences of the corresponding genes, named KIAA1019 to KIAA1118. The sequencing of these clones revealed that the average size of the inserts and corresponding open reading frames were 5.0 kb and 2.6 kb (880 amino acid residues), respectively. Database search of the predicted amino acid sequences classified 58 predicted gene products into the five functional categories, such as cell signaling/communication, cell structure/motility, nucleic acid management, protein management and cell division. It was also found that, for 34 gene products, homologues were detected in the databases, which were similar in sequence through almost the entire regions. The chromosomal locations of the genes were determined by using human-rodent hybrid panels unless their mapping data were already available in the public databases. The expression profiles of all the genes among 10 human tissues, 8 brain regions (amygdala, corpus callosum, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, substania nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and thalamus), spinal cord, fetal brain and fetal liver were also examined by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction, products of which were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1999;6;3;197-205

  • Fusion of a novel gene, ELKS, to RET due to translocation t(10;12)(q11;p13) in a papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Nakata T, Kitamura Y, Shimizu K, Tanaka S, Fujimori M, Yokoyama S, Ito K and Emi M

    Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Gerontology, Nippon Medical School, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan.

    In papillary thyroid carcinomas, the genes for receptor-type tyrosine kinase, RET or TRKA, are sometimes rearranged, resulting in fusion of its tyrosine kinase domain to 5' portions of several activating genes. In a papillary thyroid carcinoma, we identified a novel gene (ELKS), the 5' portion of which is fused to the RET gene by gene rearrangement due to the translocation t(10;12)(q11;p13). Subsequent cloning of the ELKS cDNA revealed that ELKS encodes a novel 948 amino acid peptide and is expressed ubiquitously in human tissues. The presence of multiple coiled-coil domains in the ELKS product suggests that the ELKS protein forms dimers. Since the tyrosine kinase of RET is activated by dimerization that occurs when its ligands bind to the receptor, fusion of RET with the 5' dimerization domains of ELKS would activate its cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase constitutively in papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    Genes, chromosomes & cancer 1999;25;2;97-103

  • Human minisatellite alleles detectable only after PCR amplification.

    Armour JA, Crosier M and Jeffreys AJ

    Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, United Kingdom.

    We present evidence that a proportion of alleles at two human minisatellite loci is undetected by standard Southern blot hybridization. In each case the missing allele(s) can be identified after PCR amplification and correspond to tandem arrays too short to detect by hybridization. At one locus, there is only one undetected allele (population frequency 0.3), which contains just three repeat units. At the second locus, there are at least five undetected alleles (total population frequency 0.9) containing 60-120 repeats; they are not detected because these tandem repeats give very poor signals when used as a probe in standard Southern blot hybridization, and also cross-hybridize with other sequences in the genome. Under these circumstances only signals from the longest tandemly repeated alleles are detectable above the nonspecific background. The structures of these loci have been compared in human and primate DNA, and at one locus the short human allele containing three repeat units is shown to be an intermediate state in the expansion of a monomeric precursor allele in primates to high copy number in the longer human arrays. We discuss the implications of such loci for studies of human populations, minisatellite isolation by cloning, and the evolution of highly variable tandem arrays.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Genomics 1992;12;1;116-24

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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