G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (brain)
G00001055 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000018846 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000171314 (Ensembl human gene)
5223 (Entrez Gene)
777 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PGAM1 (GeneCards)
172250 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:8888 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P18669 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • PGAM-B

Literature (20)

Pubmed - other

  • Redox proteomic analysis of carbonylated brain proteins in mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease.

    Sultana R, Perluigi M, Newman SF, Pierce WM, Cini C, Coccia R and Butterfield DA

    Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky , Lexington, KY, USA.

    Previous studies indicated increased levels of protein oxidation in brain from subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), raising the question of whether oxidative damage is a late effect of neurodegeneration or precedes and contributes to the pathogenesis of AD. Hence, in the present study we used a parallel proteomic approach to identify oxidatively modified proteins in inferior parietal lobule (IPL) from subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage-AD (EAD). By comparing to age-matched controls, we reasoned that such analysis could help in understanding potential mechanisms involved in upstream processes in AD pathogenesis. We have identified four proteins that showed elevated levels of protein carbonyls: carbonic anhydrase II (CA II), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), mitogen-activated protein kinase I (MAPKI), and syntaxin binding protein I (SBP1) in MCI IPL. In EAD IPL we identified three proteins: phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PM1), glial fibrillary acidic protein, and fructose bisphospate aldolase C (FBA-C). Our results imply that some of the common targets of protein carbonylation correlated with AD neuropathology and suggest a possible involvement of protein modifications in the AD progression.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG-05119, AG-10836

    Antioxidants & redox signaling 2010;12;3;327-36

  • Proteome analysis of schizophrenia patients Wernicke's area reveals an energy metabolism dysregulation.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Novello JC, Marangoni S, Turck CW and Dias-Neto E

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Rua Dr, Ovídio Pires de Campos, no 785, São Paulo, SP, CEP 05403-010, Brazil. martins@mpipsykl.mpg.de

    Background: Schizophrenia is likely to be a consequence of DNA alterations that, together with environmental factors, will lead to protein expression differences and the ultimate establishment of the illness. The superior temporal gyrus is implicated in schizophrenia and executes functions such as the processing of speech, language skills and sound processing.

    Methods: We performed an individual comparative proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of 9 schizophrenia and 6 healthy control patients' left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area - BA22p) identifying by mass spectrometry several protein expression alterations that could be related to the disease.

    Results: Our analysis revealed 11 downregulated and 14 upregulated proteins, most of them related to energy metabolism. Whereas many of the identified proteins have been previously implicated in schizophrenia, such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, creatine kinase and neuron-specific enolase, new putative disease markers were also identified such as dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, tropomyosin 3, breast cancer metastasis-suppressor 1, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 and phosphate carrier protein, mitochondrial precursor. Besides, the differential expression of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were confirmed by western blot in schizophrenia prefrontal cortex.

    Conclusion: Our data supports a dysregulation of energy metabolism in schizophrenia as well as suggests new markers that may contribute to a better understanding of this complex disease.

    BMC psychiatry 2009;9;17

  • Exercise-induced cramp, myoglobinuria, and tubular aggregates in phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency.

    Oh SJ, Park KS, Ryan HF, Danon MJ, Lu J, Naini AB and DiMauro S

    Department of Neurology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA. shinjoh@uab.edu

    We report two patients in whom phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) deficiency was associated with the triad of exercise-induced cramps, recurrent myoglobinuria, and tubular aggregates in the muscle biopsy. Serum creatine kinase (CK) levels were elevated between attacks of myoglobinuria. Forearm ischemic exercise tests produced subnormal increases of venous lactate. Muscle biopsies showed subsarcolemmal tubular aggregates in type 2 fibers. Muscle PGAM activities were markedly decreased (3% of the normal mean) and molecular genetic studies showed that both patients were homozygous for a described missense mutation (W78X). A review of 15 cases with tubular aggregates in the muscle biopsies from our laboratory and 15 cases with PGAM deficiency described in the literature showed that this clinicopathological triad is highly suggestive of PGAM deficiency.

    Muscle & nerve 2006;34;5;572-6

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Phosphoglycerate mutase BB isoenzyme deficiency in a patient with non-spherocytic anemia: familial and metabolic studies.

    Repiso A, Ramirez Bajo MJ, Corrons JL, Carreras J and Climent F

    We previously reported the first case of red blood cell phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) isozyme BB deficiency due to the homozygous point mutation cDNA 690G->A, which causes a substitution of methionine 230 by isoleucine. In the present work we analyzed the changes in glycolytic intermediates caused by this mutation. With the exception of hexose phosphates, all other intermediates were decreased. In contrast, lactate levels were increased. The methionine 230 isoleucine change did not alter the mutated PGAM levels.

    Haematologica 2005;90;2;257-9

  • Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells.

    Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, Zha XM, Polakiewicz RD and Comb MJ

    Cell Signaling Technology Inc., 166B Cummings Center, Beverly, Massachusetts 01915, USA.

    Tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in human cancer, yet the oncogenic signaling pathways driving cell proliferation and survival have been difficult to identify, in part because of the complexity of the pathways and in part because of low cellular levels of tyrosine phosphorylation. In general, global phosphoproteomic approaches reveal small numbers of peptides containing phosphotyrosine. We have developed a strategy that emphasizes the phosphotyrosine component of the phosphoproteome and identifies large numbers of tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Peptides containing phosphotyrosine are isolated directly from protease-digested cellular protein extracts with a phosphotyrosine-specific antibody and are identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Applying this approach to several cell systems, including cancer cell lines, shows it can be used to identify activated protein kinases and their phosphorylated substrates without prior knowledge of the signaling networks that are activated, a first step in profiling normal and oncogenic signaling networks.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R43CA101106

    Nature biotechnology 2005;23;1;94-101

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human phosphoglycerate mutase.

    Wang Y, Cheng Z, Liu L, Wei Z, Wan M and Gong W

    National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, People's Republic of China.

    Human B-type 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase (dPGM-B) has been cloned, overexpressed and purified, with a yield of 30% of the total protein. Crystals of human dPGM-B were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.8 A resolution. The human dPGM-B crystals belong to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 130.5, b = 75.9, c = 187.0 A, beta = 94.4 degrees. There could be between 9 and 18 monomers per asymmetric unit, with 12 molecules being the most likely.

    Acta crystallographica. Section D, Biological crystallography 2004;60;Pt 10;1893-4

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • A p21-activated kinase-controlled metabolic switch up-regulates phagocyte NADPH oxidase.

    Shalom-Barak T and Knaus UG

    Department of Immunology IMM28, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N. Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    Chemoattractant-stimulated phagocytes increase their glucose uptake and divert energy production from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway to generate NADPH. NADPH is a required cofactor for the NADPH oxidase to produce reactive oxygen metabolites, an important microbicidal tool in host defense. p21-Activated kinases (Paks) are regulated by the GTPases Rac and Cdc42 and control actin dynamics and phosphorylation of the oxidase component p47(phox). Here we report the interaction of Pak with phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM)-B, an enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. Activated Pak1 inhibits glycolysis by association of its catalytic domain with PGAM-B and subsequent phosphorylation of the enzyme on serine residues 23 and 118, thereby abolishing PGAM activity. Leukocyte activation through chemoattractant receptors leads to Pak activation and transient inhibition of endogenous PGAM-B activity. Consistent with these observations, treatment of neutrophils with phosphoglycolic acid, a competitive PGAM-B inhibitor, increases upstream intermediates, thereby amplifying the respiratory burst. These results demonstrate that Rho GTPases regulate the glycolytic pathway through Pak and suggest a link between chemoattractant signaling and metabolic responses to enhance host defense.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01 RR 00833

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;43;40659-65

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing.

    Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, Muzny DM, Ding Y, Liu W, Ricafrente JY, Wentland MA, Lennon G and Gibbs RA

    A total of 100 kb of DNA derived from 69 individual human brain cDNA clones of 0.7-2.0 kb were sequenced by concatenated cDNA sequencing (CCS), whereby multiple individual DNA fragments are sequenced simultaneously in a single shotgun library. The method yielded accurate sequences and a similar efficiency compared with other shotgun libraries constructed from single DNA fragments (> 20 kb). Computer analyses were carried out on 65 cDNA clone sequences and their corresponding end sequences to examine both nucleic acid and amino acid sequence similarities in the databases. Thirty-seven clones revealed no DNA database matches, 12 clones generated exact matches (> or = 98% identity), and 16 clones generated nonexact matches (57%-97% identity) to either known human or other species genes. Of those 28 matched clones, 8 had corresponding end sequences that failed to identify similarities. In a protein similarity search, 27 clone sequences displayed significant matches, whereas only 20 of the end sequences had matches to known protein sequences. Our data indicate that full-length cDNA insert sequences provide significantly more nucleic acid and protein sequence similarity matches than expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for database searching.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: 1F32 HG00169-01, F32 HG000169, F33 HG000210, P30 HG00210-05, R01 HG00823, U54 HG003273

    Genome research 1997;7;4;353-8

  • Two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of human breast carcinoma proteins: mapping of proteins that bind to the SH3 domain of mixed lineage kinase MLK2.

    Rasmussen RK, Ji H, Eddes JS, Moritz RL, Reid GE, Simpson RJ and Dorow DS

    Joint Protein Structure Laboratory, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

    MLK2, a member of the mixed lineage kinase (MLK) family of protein kinases, first reported by Dorow et al. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1993, 213, 701-710), comprises several distinct structural domains including an src homology-3 (SH3) domain, a kinase catalytic domain, a unique domain containing two leucine zipper motifs, a polybasic sequence, and a cdc42/rac interactive binding motif. Each of these domains has been shown in other systems to be associated with a specific type of protein interaction in the regulation of cellular signal transduction. To study the role of MLK2 in recruiting specific substrates, we constructed a recombinant cDNA encoding the N-terminal 100 amino acids of MLK2 (MLK2N), including the SH3 domain (residues 23-77), fused to glutathione S-transferase. This fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified using gluthathione-Sepharose affinity chromatography and employed in an affinity approach to isolate MLK2-SH3 domain binding proteins from lysates of 35S-labelled MDA-MB231 human breast tumour cells. Electrophoretic analysis of bound proteins revealed that two low-abundance proteins with a molecular weights (Mr) of approximately 31,500 and approximately 34,000, bound consistently to the MLK2N protein. To establish accurately the Mt / isoelectric point (pI) loci of these MLK2-SH3 domain binding proteins, a number of abundant proteins in a two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) master gel were identified to serve as triangulation marker points. Proteins were identified by (i) direct Edman degradation following electroblotting onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes, (ii) Edman degradation of peptides generated by in-gel proteolysis and fractionation by rapid (approximately 12 min) microbore column (2.1 mm ID) reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (iii) mass spectrometric methods including peptide-mass fingerprinting and electrospray (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS)-MS utilizing capillary (0.2-0.3 mm ID) column chromatography, or (iv) immunoblot analysis. Using this information, a preliminary 2-DE protein database for the human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB231, comprising 21 identified proteins, has been constructed and can be accessed via the World Wide Web (URL address: http:(/)/ www.ludwig.edu.au/www/jpsl/jpslhome.htm l).

    Electrophoresis 1997;18;3-4;588-98

  • A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction.

    Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W and Gibbs RA

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas, 77030, USA.

    The efficiency of shotgun DNA sequencing depends to a great extent on the quality of the random-subclone libraries used. We here describe a novel "double adaptor" strategy for efficient construction of high-quality shotgun libraries. In this method, randomly sheared and end-repaired fragments are ligated to oligonucleotide adaptors creating 12-base overhangs. Nonphosphorylated oligonucleotides are used, which prevents formation of adaptor dimers and ensures efficient ligation of insert to adaptor. The vector is prepared from a modified M13 vector, by KpnI/PstI digestion followed by ligation to oligonucleotides with ends complementary to the overhangs created in the digest. These adaptors create 5'-overhangs complementary to those on the inserts. Following annealing of insert to vector, the DNA is directly used for transformation without a ligation step. This protocol is robust and shows three- to fivefold higher yield of clones compared to previous protocols. No chimeric clones can be detected and the background of clones without an insert is <1%. The procedure is rapid and shows potential for automation.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: R01 HG00823

    Analytical biochemistry 1996;236;1;107-13

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • Sequence of the human erythrocyte phosphoglycerate mutase by microsequencer and mass spectrometry.

    Blouquit Y, Calvin MC, Rosa R, Promé D, Promé JC, Pratbernou F, Cohen-Solal M and Rosa J

    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U.91, Hôpital Henri Mondor, Créteil, France.

    We have previously reported the isolation in pure form of the human erythrocyte phosphoglycerate mutase isozyme B. We now report the sequence of the whole protein and the identification of its N-terminal blocking group. The protein tryptic peptides of phosphoglycerate mutase isozyme B were isolated by high performance liquid chromatography and their sequence determined by microsequencing. The sequence and the nature of the blocking group of the N-terminal tryptic peptide was shown to be N-acetyl-Ala-Ala-Tyr-Lys by mass spectrometry. Overlaps of the tryptic peptides were obtained by studying the V8 Staphylococcus aureus protease peptides of the aminoethylated phosphoglycerate mutase isozyme B either by microsequencing or by mass spectrometry. The procedure used allowed us to obtain the sequence on a very small amount of material and in a short period of time. Our data agree well with those derived from the cDNA nucleotide sequence described by Sakoda et al. (Sakoda, S., Shanske, S., DiMauro, S., and Schon, E. A. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 16899-16905). In addition, our data directly indicate that the initiation codon does not introduce a methionine as N-terminal amino acid and allowed the identification of the acetyl N-terminal group.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1988;263;32;16906-10

  • Isolation of a cDNA encoding the B isozyme of human phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) and characterization of the PGAM gene family.

    Sakoda S, Shanske S, DiMauro S and Schon EA

    H. Houston Merritt Clinical Research Center for Muscular Dystrophy and Related Disorders, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032.

    We previously reported the isolation of a full-length cDNA specifying the muscle-specific isozyme of human phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM-M). We now report the isolation of a full-length cDNA specifying the non-muscle-specific, or brain (B), isozyme of human PGAM (PGAM-B). The PGAM-B cDNA encodes a deduced protein 254 amino acids long, 79% identical to PGAM-M, and contains a 913-nucleotide 3'-untranslated region, as compared to the unusually short 37-nucleotide 3'-untranslated region of PGAM-M. Northern analysis demonstrates the non-muscle-specific nature of PGAM-B transcription, while genomic Southern analysis implies the presence of a large PGAM family in the human genome. Most of the PGAM-hybridizing sequences in both the human and mouse genomes seem to be related to the B-isozyme gene; many members of the PGAM-B gene family in humans are apparently processed genes. These results agree with the evolutionary analysis, which indicates that the PGAM-B gene is the progenitor of the PGAM-M gene.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM15253; NINDS NIH HHS: NS11766

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1988;263;32;16899-905

  • Isolation of a cDNA encoding the muscle-specific subunit of human phosphoglycerate mutase.

    Shanske S, Sakoda S, Hermodson MA, DiMauro S and Schon EA

    H. Houston Merritt Clinical Research Center for Muscular Dystrophy and Related Disorders, Columbia University, College of Physicians & Surgeons, New York, New York 10032.

    We have isolated a full-length cDNA specifying the muscle-specific subunit of human phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM-M). The cDNA encodes a deduced protein 253 amino acids in length and contains an unusually short (37 nucleotides) 3'-untranslated region. The deduced human PGAM-M protein is clearly related to yeast PGAM and to human diphosphoglycerate mutase. Genomic Southern analysis using the PGAM-M cDNA as a probe implies the presence of a large PGAM gene family in the human genome, while Northern analysis demonstrates tissue-specific transcription of this isoenzyme gene.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM15253; NINDS NIH HHS: NS11766

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1987;262;30;14612-7

  • Assignment of phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAMA) to human chromosome 10. Regional mapping of GOT1 and PGAMA to subbands 10q26.1 (or q25.3).

    Junien C, Despoisse S, Turleau C, de Grouchy J, Bucher T and Fundele R

    Human phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM, EC is under the control of two structural loci that code for subunits A and B. By means of gene-dosage studies, Bücher et al. (1980) have assigned the loci for GOT1 and PGAMA to chromosome 19 of Mus musculus. Because of the known homologies between human and murine chromosomes, gene dosage studies were carried out in erythrocytes from one patient trisomic for the entire band 10q26 and from another patient monosomic for 10q26.2 and q26.3. Results were compatible with the assignment of PGAMA and GOT1 to 10q26.1 (or 10q25.3).

    Annales de genetique 1982;25;1;25-7

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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