G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
sorbin and SH3 domain containing 2
G00001023 (Mus musculus)

Databases (6)

ENSG00000154556 (Ensembl human gene)
8470 (Entrez Gene)
470 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
SORBS2 (GeneCards)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:24098 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O94875 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • ARGBP2
  • KIAA0777

Literature (31)

Pubmed - other

  • CIP4 is a new ArgBP2 interacting protein that modulates the ArgBP2 mediated control of WAVE1 phosphorylation and cancer cell migration.

    Roignot J, Taïeb D, Suliman M, Dusetti NJ, Iovanna JL and Soubeyran P

    INSERM, U.624, Parc Scientifique de Luminy, Marseille, France.

    ArgBP2 is a multi-adapter protein involved in signal transduction associated to the cytoskeleton and was shown to regulate the migration and adhesion of pancreatic cancer cells thereby modulating their tumorigenicity. Here we describe the interaction of ArgBP2 with CIP4, a new associated protein identified by yeast two-hybrid. We found that both proteins modulated their reciprocal tyrosine phosphorylation catalyzed by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl. We observed that, like ArgBP2, CIP4 directly interacted with WAVE1 and could enhance its phosphorylation by c-Abl. ArgBP2 and CIP4 acted synergistically to increase WAVE1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Finally, we could show that CIP4 was dispensable for the ArgBP2 induced blockade of cell migration whereas its overexpression was deleterious for this important function of ArgBP2.

    Cancer letters 2010;288;1;116-23

  • Coeliac disease-associated risk variants in TNFAIP3 and REL implicate altered NF-kappaB signalling.

    Trynka G, Zhernakova A, Romanos J, Franke L, Hunt KA, Turner G, Bruinenberg M, Heap GA, Platteel M, Ryan AW, de Kovel C, Holmes GK, Howdle PD, Walters JR, Sanders DS, Mulder CJ, Mearin ML, Verbeek WH, Trimble V, Stevens FM, Kelleher D, Barisani D, Bardella MT, McManus R, van Heel DA and Wijmenga C

    Genetics Department, University Medical Centre, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

    Objective: Our previous coeliac disease genome-wide association study (GWAS) implicated risk variants in the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region and eight novel risk regions. To identify more coeliac disease loci, we selected 458 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that showed more modest association in the GWAS for genotyping and analysis in four independent cohorts.

    Design: 458 SNPs were assayed in 1682 cases and 3258 controls from three populations (UK, Irish and Dutch). We combined the results with the original GWAS cohort (767 UK cases and 1422 controls); six SNPs showed association with p<1 x 10(-04) and were then genotyped in an independent Italian coeliac cohort (538 cases and 593 controls).

    Results: We identified two novel coeliac disease risk regions: 6q23.3 (OLIG3-TNFAIP3) and 2p16.1 (REL), both of which reached genome-wide significance in the combined analysis of all 2987 cases and 5273 controls (rs2327832 p = 1.3 x 10(-08), and rs842647 p = 5.2 x 10(-07)). We investigated the expression of these genes in the RNA isolated from biopsies and from whole blood RNA. We did not observe any changes in gene expression, nor in the correlation of genotype with gene expression.

    Conclusions: Both TNFAIP3 (A20, at the protein level) and REL are key mediators in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) inflammatory signalling pathway. For the first time, a role for primary heritable variation in this important biological pathway predisposing to coeliac disease has been identified. Currently, the HLA risk factors and the 10 established non-HLA risk factors explain approximately 40% of the heritability of coeliac disease.

    Funded by: British Heart Foundation: G0000934; Medical Research Council: G0000934; Wellcome Trust: 068545/Z/02, GR068094MA

    Gut 2009;58;8;1078-83

  • ArgBP2-dependent signaling regulates pancreatic cell migration, adhesion, and tumorigenicity.

    Taieb D, Roignot J, André F, Garcia S, Masson B, Pierres A, Iovanna JL and Soubeyran P

    INSERM U.624, Marseille cedex 9, France.

    The poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer is due to rapid locoregional invasion, the early development of metastases, and the limited efficacy of current therapies. To date, none of the identified oncogenes and suppressors involved in this disease have led to efficient treatments. Here, we describe that the scaffold protein ArgBP2 is repressed during oncogenic transformation of the pancreas. We could show, using a pancreatic cancer cell line model, that this repression of ArgBP2 participates in the progression of this disease. Interestingly, in vitro analyses revealed that the antitumoral potential of ArgBP2 is linked to the control of cell adhesion and migration rather than to the regulation of cell proliferation or sensitivity to apoptosis. Moreover, we could detail part of the molecular mechanism responsible by identifying new ArgBP2-interacting proteins, and show that this function is partly achieved by the control of a WAVE/PTP-PEST/c-Abl signaling complex. These findings point to a new mechanism of pancreatic cancer progression leading to invasion and metastasis and suggest that the ArgBP2 signaling pathway could represent a new target for cancer therapy.

    Cancer research 2008;68;12;4588-96

  • Identification of preferred protein interactions by phage-display of the human Src homology-3 proteome.

    Kärkkäinen S, Hiipakka M, Wang JH, Kleino I, Vähä-Jaakkola M, Renkema GH, Liss M, Wagner R and Saksela K

    Institute of Medical Technology, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Biokatu 8, Tampere 33014, Finland.

    We have determined the human genome to contain 296 different Src homology-3 (SH3) domains and cloned them into a phage-display vector. This provided a powerful and unbiased system for simultaneous assaying of the complete human SH3 proteome for the strongest binding to target proteins of interest, without the limitations posed by short linear peptide ligands or confounding variables of more indirect methods for protein interaction screening. Studies involving three ligand proteins, human immunodeficiency virus-1 Nef, p21-activated kinase (PAK)2 and ADAM15, showed previously reported as well as novel SH3 partners with nanomolar affinities specific for them. This argues that SH3 domains may have a more dominant role in directing cellular protein interactions than has been assumed. Besides showing potentially important new SH3-directed interactions, these studies also led to the discovery of novel signalling proteins, such as the PAK2-binding adaptor protein POSH2 and the ADAM15-binding sorting nexin family member SNX30.

    EMBO reports 2006;7;2;186-91

  • The LIFEdb database in 2006.

    Mehrle A, Rosenfelder H, Schupp I, del Val C, Arlt D, Hahne F, Bechtel S, Simpson J, Hofmann O, Hide W, Glatting KH, Huber W, Pepperkok R, Poustka A and Wiemann S

    Division Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. a.mehrle@dkfz.de

    LIFEdb (http://www.LIFEdb.de) integrates data from large-scale functional genomics assays and manual cDNA annotation with bioinformatics gene expression and protein analysis. New features of LIFEdb include (i) an updated user interface with enhanced query capabilities, (ii) a configurable output table and the option to download search results in XML, (iii) the integration of data from cell-based screening assays addressing the influence of protein-overexpression on cell proliferation and (iv) the display of the relative expression ('Electronic Northern') of the genes under investigation using curated gene expression ontology information. LIFEdb enables researchers to systematically select and characterize genes and proteins of interest, and presents data and information via its user-friendly web-based interface.

    Nucleic acids research 2006;34;Database issue;D415-8

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Human sorbin is generated via splicing of an alternative transcript from the ArgBP2 gene locus.

    Hand D and Eiden LE

    Section on Molecular Neuroscience, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Health, 36 Convent Drive, MSC 4090, 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20892-4090, USA.

    We demonstrate that the human sorbin polypeptide is generated via splicing of an alternative transcript from the ArgBP2 gene locus. Previous studies have demonstrated that the central 139 amino acid region of the porcine sorbin polypeptide exhibits 95% homology to part of the human ArgBP2 protein. Yet neither the sorbin N- nor C-terminus has been identified in ArgBP2 or any other protein to date. Using computational analysis, we locate the sorbin N- and C-termini in the human ArgBP2 gene locus, and demonstrate that they are spliced to the 5' and 3' ends of the 95% homologous region. In addition, several sequence anomalies were identified in the putative human sorbin cDNA (AF396457). Thus, a revised human sorbin nucleotide sequence is proposed.

    Peptides 2005;26;7;1278-82

  • ArgBP2gamma interacts with Akt and p21-activated kinase-1 and promotes cell survival.

    Yuan ZQ, Kim D, Kaneko S, Sussman M, Bokoch GM, Kruh GD, Nicosia SV, Testa JR and Cheng JQ

    Department of Pathology, University of South Florida College of Medicine and H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA.

    Akt/protein kinase B is a major cell survival pathway through phosphorylation of proapoptotic proteins Bad and Bax and of additional apoptotic pathways linked to Forkhead proteins glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and ASK1. To further explore the mechanism by which Akt regulates cell survival, we identified an Akt interaction protein by yeast two-hybrid screening. It is highly homologous to ARG-binding protein 2 (ArgBP2) with splicing exon 8 of the coding region of the ArgBP2. As two splicing isoforms (ArgBP2alpha and -beta) of ArgBP2 have been identified (Wang, B., Golemis, E. A., and Kruh, G. D. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 17542-17550), it was named ArgBP2gamma. ArgBP2gamma contains four Akt phosphorylation consensus sites, a SoHo motif, and three Src homology (SH) 3 domains and binds to C-terminal proline-rich motifs of Akt through its first and second SH3 domains. It also interacts with p21-activated protein kinase (PAK1) via its first and third SH3 domains, indicating the SH3 domains of ArgBP2gamma as docking sites for Akt and PAK1. Akt phosphorylates ArgBP2gamma in vitro and in vivo. Expression of ArgBP2gamma induces PAK1 activity and overrides apoptosis induced by ectopic expression of Bad or DNA damage. Nonphosphorylatable ArgBP2gamma-4A and SH3 domain-truncated mutant ArgBP2gamma inhibit Akt-induced PAK1 activation and reduce Akt and PAK1 phosphorylation of Bad and antiapoptotic function. These data indicate that ArgBP2gamma is a physiological substrate of Akt, functions as an adaptor for Akt and PAK1, and plays a role in Akt/PAK1 cell survival pathway.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA107078, CA77429, CA77935, CA89242

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;22;21483-90

  • Targeted proteomic analysis of 14-3-3 sigma, a p53 effector commonly silenced in cancer.

    Benzinger A, Muster N, Koch HB, Yates JR and Hermeking H

    Molecular Oncology, Max-Planck-Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, D-82152 Martinsried/Munich, Germany.

    To comprehensively identify proteins interacting with 14-3-3 sigma in vivo, tandem affinity purification and the multidimensional protein identification technology were combined to characterize 117 proteins associated with 14-3-3 sigma in human cells. The majority of identified proteins contained one or several phosphorylatable 14-3-3-binding sites indicating a potential direct interaction with 14-3-3 sigma. 25 proteins were not previously assigned to any function and were named SIP2-26 (for 14-3-3 sigma-interacting protein). Among the 92 interactors with known function were a number of proteins previously implicated in oncogenic signaling (APC, A-RAF, B-RAF, and c-RAF) and cell cycle regulation (AJUBA, c-TAK, PTOV-1, and WEE1). The largest functional classes comprised proteins involved in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics, polarity, adhesion, mitogenic signaling, and motility. Accordingly ectopic 14-3-3 sigma expression prevented cellular migration in a wounding assay and enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. The functional diversity of the identified proteins indicates that induction of 14-3-3 sigma could allow p53 to affect numerous processes in addition to the previously characterized inhibitory effect on G2/M progression. The data suggest that the cancer-specific loss of 14-3-3 sigma expression by epigenetic silencing or p53 mutations contributes to cancer formation by multiple routes.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR11823-08

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2005;4;6;785-95

  • From ORFeome to biology: a functional genomics pipeline.

    Wiemann S, Arlt D, Huber W, Wellenreuther R, Schleeger S, Mehrle A, Bechtel S, Sauermann M, Korf U, Pepperkok R, Sültmann H and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    As several model genomes have been sequenced, the elucidation of protein function is the next challenge toward the understanding of biological processes in health and disease. We have generated a human ORFeome resource and established a functional genomics and proteomics analysis pipeline to address the major topics in the post-genome-sequencing era: the identification of human genes and splice forms, and the determination of protein localization, activity, and interaction. Combined with the understanding of when and where gene products are expressed in normal and diseased conditions, we create information that is essential for understanding the interplay of genes and proteins in the complex biological network. We have implemented bioinformatics tools and databases that are suitable to store, analyze, and integrate the different types of data from high-throughput experiments and to include further annotation that is based on external information. All information is presented in a Web database (http://www.dkfz.de/LIFEdb). It is exploited for the identification of disease-relevant genes and proteins for diagnosis and therapy.

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2136-44

  • Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins.

    Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Determining the site of a regulatory phosphorylation event is often essential for elucidating specific kinase-substrate relationships, providing a handle for understanding essential signaling pathways and ultimately allowing insights into numerous disease pathologies. Despite intense research efforts to elucidate mechanisms of protein phosphorylation regulation, efficient, large-scale identification and characterization of phosphorylation sites remains an unsolved problem. In this report we describe an application of existing technology for the isolation and identification of phosphorylation sites. By using a strategy based on strong cation exchange chromatography, phosphopeptides were enriched from the nuclear fraction of HeLa cell lysate. From 967 proteins, 2,002 phosphorylation sites were determined by tandem MS. This unprecedented large collection of sites permitted a detailed accounting of known and unknown kinase motifs and substrates.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041, K22 HG000041, T32 HG000041; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945, GMS6203, R01 GM056203, R01 GM067945

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;33;12130-5

  • Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation.

    Brandenberger R, Wei H, Zhang S, Lei S, Murage J, Fisk GJ, Li Y, Xu C, Fang R, Guegler K, Rao MS, Mandalam R, Lebkowski J and Stanton LW

    Geron Corporation, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. rbrandenberger@geron.com

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells hold promise for generating an unlimited supply of cells for replacement therapies. To characterize hES cells at the molecular level, we obtained 148,453 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from undifferentiated hES cells and three differentiated derivative subpopulations. Over 32,000 different transcripts expressed in hES cells were identified, of which more than 16,000 do not match closely any gene in the UniGene public database. Queries to this EST database revealed 532 significantly upregulated and 140 significantly downregulated genes in undifferentiated hES cells. These data highlight changes in the transcriptional network that occur when hES cells differentiate. Among the differentially regulated genes are several components of signaling pathways and transcriptional regulators that likely play key roles in hES cell growth and differentiation. The genomic data presented here may facilitate the derivation of clinically useful cell types from hES cells.

    Nature biotechnology 2004;22;6;707-16

  • Recruitment of Pyk2 and Cbl to lipid rafts mediates signals important for actin reorganization in growing neurites.

    Haglund K, Ivankovic-Dikic I, Shimokawa N, Kruh GD and Dikic I

    Institute for Biochemistry II, Building 75, Goethe University Medical School, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

    Protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 and multifunctional adaptor protein Cbl are implicated in the regulation of the cytoskeleton in several cell types. We report that Pyk2 and Cbl form a signaling complex that is translocated to lipid rafts and is enriched in growth cones of differentiating PC12 cells following growth factor stimulation. We found that Pyk2 and Cbl interacted with the adaptor protein ArgBP2, which also bound to flotillin-1, a component of lipid raft microdomains. These interactions contributed to recruitment of the Pyk2/Cbl complex to lipid raft compartments. In addition, Pyk2, Cbl and ArgBP2 were found co-localized with actin in axons and growth cones of differentiated PC12 cells. Moreover, co-expression of Pyk2, ArgBP2 and Cbl facilitated growth factor-induced formation of lamellipodia at the tip of neurites. Formation of these growth cone lamellipodia was dependent on intact lipid rafts and the Cbl-associated effectors Crk and phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI 3)-kinase. Our results indicate that recruitment of Pyk2/Cbl complexes to lipid rafts participates in growth factor-induced regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in growing neurites.

    Journal of cell science 2004;117;Pt 12;2557-68

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Cbl-ArgBP2 complex mediates ubiquitination and degradation of c-Abl.

    Soubeyran P, Barac A, Szymkiewicz I and Dikic I

    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Box 595, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, S-75124, Sweden.

    The mechanisms leading to the ubiquitination and degradation of the activated c-Abl kinase have not yet been identified. We found that the multi-adaptor protein ArgBP2 links c-Abl to the ubiquitin ligase Cbl. Phosphorylation of Cbl and ArgBP2 by c-Abl resulted in the stabilization of their interactions, thus facilitating Cbl-induced ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of c-Abl and ArgBP2.

    The Biochemical journal 2003;370;Pt 1;29-34

  • [A novel adaptor protein family regulating cytoskeletal organization and signal transduction--Vinexin, CAP/ponsin, ArgBP2].

    Kioka N

    Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502.

    Seikagaku. The Journal of Japanese Biochemical Society 2002;74;11;1356-60

  • Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a functionally classified library composed of long cDNAs.

    Nakayama M, Kikuno R and Ohara O

    Department of Human Gene Research, Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0818, Japan. nmanabu@kazusa.or.jp

    Large proteins have multiple domains that are potentially capable of binding many kinds of partners. It is conceivable, therefore, that such proteins could function as an intricate framework of assembly protein complexes. To comprehensively study protein-protein interactions between large KIAA proteins, we have constructed a library composed of 1087 KIAA cDNA clones based on prior functional classifications done in silico. We were guided by two principles that raise the success rate for detecting interactions per tested combination: we avoided testing low-probability combinations, and reduced the number of potential false negatives that arise from the fact that large proteins cannot reliably be expressed in yeast. The latter was addressed by constructing a cDNA library comprised of random fragments encoding large proteins. Cytoplasmic domains of KIAA transmembrane proteins (>1000 amino acids) were used as bait for yeast two-hybrid screening. Our analyses reveal that several KIAA proteins bearing a transmembrane region have the capability of binding to other KIAA proteins containing domains (e.g., PDZ, SH3, rhoGEF, and spectrin) known to be localized to highly specialized submembranous sites, indicating that they participate in cellular junction formation, receptor or channel clustering, and intracellular signaling events. Our representative library should be a very useful resource for detecting previously unidentified interactions because it complements conventional expression libraries, which seldom contain large cDNAs.

    Genome research 2002;12;11;1773-84

  • Involvement of TRAF4 in oxidative activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

    Xu YC, Wu RF, Gu Y, Yang YS, Yang MC, Nwariaku FE and Terada LS

    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern and The Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75216, USA.

    We previously found that the angiogenic factors TNFalpha and HIV-1 Tat activate an NAD(P)H oxidase in endothelial cells, which operates upstream of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a MAPK involved in the determination of cell fate. To further understand oxidant-related signaling pathways, we screened lung and endothelial cell libraries for interaction partners of p47(phox) and recovered the orphan adapter TNF receptor-associated factor 4 (TRAF4). Domain analysis suggested a tail-to-tail interaction between the C terminus of p47(phox) and the conserved TRAF domain of TRAF4. In addition, TRAF4, like p47(phox), was recovered largely in the cytoskeleton/membrane fraction. Coexpression of p47(phox) and TRAF4 increased oxidant production and JNK activation, whereas each alone had minimal effect. In addition, a fusion between p47(phox) and the TRAF4 C terminus constitutively activated JNK, and this activation was decreased by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine. In contrast, overexpression of the p47(phox) binding domain of TRAF4 blocked endothelial cell JNK activation by TNFalpha and HIV-1 Tat, suggesting an uncoupling of p47(phox) from upstream signaling events. A secondary screen of endothelial cell proteins for TRAF4-interacting partners yielded a number of proteins known to control cell fate. We conclude that endothelial cell agonists such as TNFalpha and HIV-1 Tat initiate signals that enter basic signaling cassettes at the level of TRAF4 and an NAD(P)H oxidase. We speculate that endothelial cells may target endogenous oxidant production to specific sites critical to cytokine signaling as a mechanism for increasing signal specificity and decreasing toxicity of these reactive species.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL061897, R01-HL61897

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;31;28051-7

  • Insight into hepatocellular carcinogenesis at transcriptome level by comparing gene expression profiles of hepatocellular carcinoma with those of corresponding noncancerous liver.

    Xu XR, Huang J, Xu ZG, Qian BZ, Zhu ZD, Yan Q, Cai T, Zhang X, Xiao HS, Qu J, Liu F, Huang QH, Cheng ZH, Li NG, Du JJ, Hu W, Shen KT, Lu G, Fu G, Zhong M, Xu SH, Gu WY, Huang W, Zhao XT, Hu GX, Gu JR, Chen Z and Han ZG

    Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai, 351 Guo Shou-Jing Road, Shanghai 201203, China.

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. In this work, we report on a comprehensive characterization of gene expression profiles of hepatitis B virus-positive HCC through the generation of a large set of 5'-read expressed sequence tag (EST) clusters (11,065 in total) from HCC and noncancerous liver samples, which then were applied to a cDNA microarray system containing 12,393 genes/ESTs and to comparison with a public database. The commercial cDNA microarray, which contains 1,176 known genes related to oncogenesis, was used also for profiling gene expression. Integrated data from the above approaches identified 2,253 genes/ESTs as candidates with differential expression. A number of genes related to oncogenesis and hepatic function/differentiation were selected for further semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis in 29 paired HCC/noncancerous liver samples. Many genes involved in cell cycle regulation such as cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, and cell cycle negative regulators were deregulated in most patients with HCC. Aberrant expression of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway and enzymes for DNA replication also could contribute to the pathogenesis of HCC. The alteration of transcription levels was noted in a large number of genes implicated in metabolism, whereas a profile change of others might represent a status of dedifferentiation of the malignant hepatocytes, both considered as potential markers of diagnostic value. Notably, the altered transcriptome profiles in HCC could be correlated to a number of chromosome regions with amplification or loss of heterozygosity, providing one of the underlying causes of the transcription anomaly of HCC.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001;98;26;15089-94

  • The sorbin homology domain: a motif for the targeting of proteins to lipid rafts.

    Kimura A, Baumann CA, Chiang SH and Saltiel AR

    Department of Internal Medicine and Physiology, Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

    On phosphorylation of Cbl, the c-Cbl-associated protein (CAP)/Cbl complex dissociates from the insulin receptor and translocates to a lipid raft membrane fraction to form a ternary complex with flotillin. Deletion analyses of the CAP gene identified a 115-aa region responsible for flotillin binding. This region is homologous to the peptide sorbin and is referred to as the sorbin homology (SoHo) domain. This domain is present in two other proteins, vinexin and ArgBP2. Vinexin also interacted with flotillin, and deletion of its SoHo domain similarly blocked flotillin binding. The overexpression of a CAP mutant in which the SoHo domain had been deleted (CAPDeltaSoHo) prevented the translocation of Cbl to lipid rafts and subsequently blocked the recruitment of CrkII and C3G. Moreover, overexpression of CAPDeltaSoHo prevented the stimulation of glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation by insulin. These results suggest a mechanism for localization of signaling proteins to the lipid raft that mediates the compartmentalization of crucial signal transduction pathways.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001;98;16;9098-103

  • Selection of ligands by panning of domain libraries displayed on phage lambda reveals new potential partners of synaptojanin 1.

    Zucconi A, Dente L, Santonico E, Castagnoli L and Cesareni G

    Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133, Italy.

    One of the goals of functional genomics is the description of reliable and complete protein interaction networks. To facilitate ligand discovery from complex protein mixtures, we have developed an improved approach that is affected by a negligible fraction of false positives. We have combined a novel technique based on the display of cDNA libraries on the capsid of bacteriophage lambda and an efficient plaque assay to reveal phage displaying ligands that are enriched after only a couple of affinity purification steps. We show that the lambda display system has a unique ability to display, at high density, proteins ranging in size from a few to at least 300 amino acid residues. This characteristic permits attenuation of the size bias in the selection procedure and, at the same time, offers a sensitive plaque assay that permits us to do away with the ligand background without unduly increasing the number of selection cycles. By using a proline-rich fragment of the synaptojanin 1 protein as a bait, we have identified, in a brain cDNA display library, seven ligands all containing either SH3 or WW domains. Four of these correspond to proteins that have already been validated as physiological partners, while the remaining three are new partners, whose physiological relevance remains to be established. Two different proline-rich regions of the p21-activated protein kinase 1 (Pak1) and WAVE/SCAR2 protein retrieve from the library different proteins containing SH3 or WW domains.

    Funded by: Telethon: 902

    Journal of molecular biology 2001;307;5;1329-39

  • Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs.

    Wiemann S, Weil B, Wellenreuther R, Gassenhuber J, Glassl S, Ansorge W, Böcher M, Blöcker H, Bauersachs S, Blum H, Lauber J, Düsterhöft A, Beyer A, Köhrer K, Strack N, Mewes HW, Ottenwälder B, Obermaier B, Tampe J, Heubner D, Wambutt R, Korn B, Klein M and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    With the complete human genomic sequence being unraveled, the focus will shift to gene identification and to the functional analysis of gene products. The generation of a set of cDNAs, both sequences and physical clones, which contains the complete and noninterrupted protein coding regions of all human genes will provide the indispensable tools for the systematic and comprehensive analysis of protein function to eventually understand the molecular basis of man. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of 500 novel human cDNAs containing the complete protein coding frame. Assignment to functional categories was possible for 52% (259) of the encoded proteins, the remaining fraction having no similarities with known proteins. By aligning the cDNA sequences with the sequences of the finished chromosomes 21 and 22 we identified a number of genes that either had been completely missed in the analysis of the genomic sequences or had been wrongly predicted. Three of these genes appear to be present in several copies. We conclude that full-length cDNA sequencing continues to be crucial also for the accurate identification of genes. The set of 500 novel cDNAs, and another 1000 full-coding cDNAs of known transcripts we have identified, adds up to cDNA representations covering 2%--5 % of all human genes. We thus substantially contribute to the generation of a gene catalog, consisting of both full-coding cDNA sequences and clones, which should be made freely available and will become an invaluable tool for detailed functional studies.

    Genome research 2001;11;3;422-35

  • DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination.

    Hartley JL, Temple GF and Brasch MA

    Life Technologies, Inc., Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA. jhartley@lifetech.com

    As a result of numerous genome sequencing projects, large numbers of candidate open reading frames are being identified, many of which have no known function. Analysis of these genes typically involves the transfer of DNA segments into a variety of vector backgrounds for protein expression and functional analysis. We describe a method called recombinational cloning that uses in vitro site-specific recombination to accomplish the directional cloning of PCR products and the subsequent automatic subcloning of the DNA segment into new vector backbones at high efficiency. Numerous DNA segments can be transferred in parallel into many different vector backgrounds, providing an approach to high-throughput, in-depth functional analysis of genes and rapid optimization of protein expression. The resulting subclones maintain orientation and reading frame register, allowing amino- and carboxy-terminal translation fusions to be generated. In this paper, we outline the concepts of this approach and provide several examples that highlight some of its potential.

    Genome research 2000;10;11;1788-95

  • nArgBP2, a novel neural member of ponsin/ArgBP2/vinexin family that interacts with synapse-associated protein 90/postsynaptic density-95-associated protein (SAPAP).

    Kawabe H, Hata Y, Takeuchi M, Ide N, Mizoguchi A and Takai Y

    Department of Molecular Biology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine/Faculty of Medicine, Suita 565-0871, Japan.

    Postsynaptic density (PSD)-95/synapse-associated protein (SAP) 90 and synaptic scaffolding molecule (S-SCAM) are synaptic membrane-associated guanylate kinases. Both the proteins interact with SAP90/PSD-95-associated protein (SAPAP) (also called guanylate kinase-associated protein/Dlg-associated protein). SAPAP is a protein highly enriched in the PSD fraction and may link PSD-95/SAP90 and S-SCAM to Triton X-100-insoluble structures. We found here a novel SAPAP-interacting protein, which was specifically expressed in neural tissue and was present in the postsynaptic density fraction in brain. This protein had a sorbin homology domain in the N terminus, a zinc finger motif in the middle region, and three src homology (SH) 3 domains in the C terminus and was homologous to the ponsin/ArgBP2/vinexin family proteins. We named this protein nArgBP2 because it was the most homologous to ArgBP2. nArgBP2 is a neural member of a growing family of SH3-containing proteins. nArgBP2 bound to the proline-rich region of SAPAP via its third SH3 domain and was coimmunoprecipitated with SAPAP from the extract of rat brain. Furthermore, nArgBP2 was colocalized with SAPAP at synapses in cerebellum. nArgBP2 bound to not only SAPAP but also vinculin and l-afadin, known to bind to ponsin and vinexin. nArgBP2 may be implicated in the protein network around SAPAP in the PSD.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;43;30914-8

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XI. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.

    Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Suyama M, Kikuno R, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    In our series of projects for accumulating sequence information on the coding sequences of unidentified human genes, we have newly determined the sequences of 100 cDNA clones from a set of size-fractionated human brain cDNA libraries, and predicted the coding sequences of the corresponding genes, named KIAA0711 to KIAA0810. These cDNA clones were selected according to their coding potentials of large proteins (50 kDa and more) in vitro. The average sizes of the inserts and corresponding open reading frames were 4.3 kb and 2.6 kb (869 amino acid residues), respectively. Sequence analyses against the public databases indicated that the predicted coding sequences of 78 genes were similar to those of known genes, 64% of which (50 genes) were categorized as proteins functionally related to cell signaling/communication, cell structure/motility and nucleic acid management. As additional information concerning genes characterized in this study, the chromosomal locations of the clones were determined by using human-rodent hybrid panels and the expression profiles among 10 human tissues were examined by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction which was substantially improved by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1998;5;5;277-86

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • ArgBP2, a multiple Src homology 3 domain-containing, Arg/Abl-interacting protein, is phosphorylated in v-Abl-transformed cells and localized in stress fibers and cardiocyte Z-disks.

    Wang B, Golemis EA and Kruh GD

    Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

    Arg and c-Abl represent the mammalian members of the Abelson family of protein-tyrosine kinases. A novel Arg/Abl-binding protein, ArgBP2, was isolated using a segment of the Arg COOH-terminal domain as bait in the yeast two-hybrid system. ArgBP2 contains three COOH-terminal Src homology 3 domains, a serine/threonine-rich domain, and several potential Abl phosphorylation sites. ArgBP2 associates with and is a substrate of Arg and v-Abl, and is phosphorylated on tyrosine in v-Abl-transformed cells. ArgBP2 is widely expressed in human tissues and extremely abundant in heart. In epithelial cells ArgBP2 is located in stress fibers and the nucleus, similar to the reported localization of c-Abl. In cardiac muscle cells ArgBP2 is located in the Z-disks of sarcomeres. These observations suggest that ArgBP2 functions as an adapter protein to assemble signaling complexes in stress fibers, and that ArgBP2 is a potential link between Abl family kinases and the actin cytoskeleton. In addition, the localization of ArgBP2 to Z-disks suggests that ArgBP2 may influence the contractile or elastic properties of cardiac sarcomeres and that the Z-disk is a target of signal transduction cascades.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA57273, CA63366

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;28;17542-50

  • Generation and analysis of 280,000 human expressed sequence tags.

    Hillier LD, Lennon G, Becker M, Bonaldo MF, Chiapelli B, Chissoe S, Dietrich N, DuBuque T, Favello A, Gish W, Hawkins M, Hultman M, Kucaba T, Lacy M, Le M, Le N, Mardis E, Moore B, Morris M, Parsons J, Prange C, Rifkin L, Rohlfing T, Schellenberg K, Bento Soares M, Tan F, Thierry-Meg J, Trevaskis E, Underwood K, Wohldman P, Waterston R, Wilson R and Marra M

    Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. lhillier@watson.wustl.edu

    We report the generation of 319,311 single-pass sequencing reactions (known as expressed sequence tags, or ESTs) obtained from the 5' and 3' ends of 194,031 human cDNA clones. Our goal has been to obtain tag sequences from many different genes and to deposit these in the publicly accessible Data Base for Expressed Sequence Tags. Highly efficient automatic screening of the data allows deposition of the annotated sequences without delay. Sequences have been generated from 26 oligo(dT) primed directionally cloned libraries, of which 18 were normalized. The libraries were constructed using mRNA isolated from 17 different tissues representing three developmental states. Comparisons of a subset of our data with nonredundant human mRNA and protein data bases show that the ESTs represent many known sequences and contain many that are novel. Analysis of protein families using Hidden Markov Models confirms this observation and supports the contention that although normalization reduces significantly the relative abundance of redundant cDNA clones, it does not result in the complete removal of members of gene families.

    Genome research 1996;6;9;807-28

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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