G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5
G00000999 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000022715 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000005022 (Ensembl human gene)
292 (Entrez Gene)
123 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
SLC25A5 (GeneCards)
300150 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:10991 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P05141 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • 2F1
  • T2
  • T3

Literature (24)

Pubmed - other

  • Growth-dependent repression of human adenine nucleotide translocator-2 (ANT2) transcription: evidence for the participation of Smad and Sp family proteins in the NF1-dependent repressor complex.

    Luciakova K, Kollarovic G, Barath P and Nelson BD

    Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlarska 7, 83391 Bratislava, Slovak Republic. Katarina.Luciakova@savba.sk

    NF1 (nuclear factor 1) binds to two upstream elements of the human ANT2 (adenine nucleotide translocator-2) promoter and actively represses expression of the gene in growth-arrested diploid skin fibroblasts [Luciakova, Barath, Poliakova, Persson and Nelson (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 30624-30633]. ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) and co-immunoprecipitation analyses of nuclear extracts from growth-arrested and growth-activated diploid cells demonstrate that NF1, when acting as a repressor, is part of a multimeric complex that also includes Smad and Sp-family proteins. This complex appears to be anchored to both the upstream NF1-repressor elements and the proximal promoter, Sp1-dependent activation elements in growth-arrested cells. In growth-activated cells, the repressor complex dissociates and NF1 leaves the promoter. As revealed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments, NF1-Smad4-Sp3 complexes are present in nuclear extracts only from growth-inhibited cells, suggesting that the growth-state-dependent formation of these complexes is not an ANT2 promoter-specific event. Consistent with the role of Smad proteins in the repression complex, TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) can fully repress ANT2 transcription in normally growing fibroblasts. Finally, pull-down experiments of in vitro transcribed/translated NF1 isoforms by GST (glutathione transferase)-Smad and GST-Smad MH fusion proteins indicate direct physical interactions between members of the two families. These findings suggest a possible functional relationship between the NF1 and Smad proteins that has not been previously observed.

    The Biochemical journal 2008;412;1;123-30

  • The layered structure of human mitochondrial DNA nucleoids.

    Bogenhagen DF, Rousseau D and Burke S

    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-8651, USA. dan@pharm.sunysb.edu

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) occurs in cells in nucleoids containing several copies of the genome. Previous studies have identified proteins associated with these large DNA structures when they are biochemically purified by sedimentation and immunoaffinity chromatography. In this study, formaldehyde cross-linking was performed to determine which nucleoid proteins are in close contact with the mtDNA. A set of core nucleoid proteins is found in both native and cross-linked nucleoids, including 13 proteins with known roles in mtDNA transactions. Several other metabolic proteins and chaperones identified in native nucleoids, including ATAD3, were not observed to cross-link to mtDNA. Additional immunofluorescence and protease susceptibility studies showed that an N-terminal domain of ATAD3 previously proposed to bind to the mtDNA D-loop is directed away from the mitochondrial matrix, so it is unlikely to interact with mtDNA in vivo. These results are discussed in relation to a model for a layered structure of mtDNA nucleoids in which replication and transcription occur in the central core, whereas translation and complex assembly may occur in the peripheral region.

    Funded by: NIEHS NIH HHS: R01-ES12039

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;6;3665-75

  • Suppression of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 by vector-based siRNA in human breast cancer cells induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Jang JY, Choi Y, Jeon YK and Kim CW

    Department of Pathology, Tumor Immunity Medical Research Center, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-799, South Korea.

    Introduction: Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) 2 is highly expressed in proliferative cells, and ANT2 induction in cancer cells is known to be directly associated with glycolytic metabolisms and carcinogenesis. In addition, ANT2 repression results in the growth arrest of human cells, implying that ANT2 is a candidate for cancer therapy based on molecular targeting.

    Methods: We utilized an ANT2-specific RNA interference approach to inhibit ANT2 expression for evaluating its antitumor effect in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, to investigate the therapeutic potential of ANT2 repression, we used a DNA vector-based RNA interference approach by expressing shRNA to knockdown ANT2 in breast cancer cell lines overexpressing ANT2.

    Results: ANT2 shRNA treatment in breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 repressed cell growth as well as proliferation. In addition, cell cycle arrest, ATP depletion and apoptotic cell death characterized by the potential disruption of mitochondrial membrane were observed from the ANT2 shRNA-treated breast cancer cells. Apoptotic breast cancer cells transfected with ANT2 shRNA also induced a cytotoxic bystander effect that generates necrotic cell death to the neighboring cells. The intracellular levels of TNFalpha and TNF-receptor I were increased in ANT2 shRNA transfected cells and the bystander effect was partly blocked by anti-TNFalpha antibody. Ultimately, ANT2 shRNA effectively inhibited tumor growth in vivo.

    Conclusion: These results suggest that vector-based ANT2 RNA interference could be an efficient molecular therapeutic method for breast cancer with high expression of ANT2.

    Breast cancer research : BCR 2008;10;1;R11

  • Regulation of insulin secretion by SIRT4, a mitochondrial ADP-ribosyltransferase.

    Ahuja N, Schwer B, Carobbio S, Waltregny D, North BJ, Castronovo V, Maechler P and Verdin E

    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158, USA.

    Sirtuins are homologues of the yeast transcriptional repressor Sir2p and are conserved from bacteria to humans. We report that human SIRT4 is localized to the mitochondria. SIRT4 is a matrix protein and becomes cleaved at amino acid 28 after import into mitochondria. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins that coimmunoprecipitate with SIRT4 identified insulindegrading enzyme and the ADP/ATP carrier proteins, ANT2 and ANT3. SIRT4 exhibits no histone deacetylase activity but functions as an efficient ADP-ribosyltransferase on histones and bovine serum albumin. SIRT4 is expressed in islets of Langerhans and colocalizes with insulin-expressing beta cells. Depletion of SIRT4 from insulin-producing INS-1E cells results in increased insulin secretion in response to glucose. These observations define a new role for mitochondrial SIRT4 in the regulation of insulin secretion.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;46;33583-92

  • The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome.

    Ross MT, Grafham DV, Coffey AJ, Scherer S, McLay K, Muzny D, Platzer M, Howell GR, Burrows C, Bird CP, Frankish A, Lovell FL, Howe KL, Ashurst JL, Fulton RS, Sudbrak R, Wen G, Jones MC, Hurles ME, Andrews TD, Scott CE, Searle S, Ramser J, Whittaker A, Deadman R, Carter NP, Hunt SE, Chen R, Cree A, Gunaratne P, Havlak P, Hodgson A, Metzker ML, Richards S, Scott G, Steffen D, Sodergren E, Wheeler DA, Worley KC, Ainscough R, Ambrose KD, Ansari-Lari MA, Aradhya S, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Ballabio A, Banerjee R, Barker GE, Barlow KF, Barrett IP, Bates KN, Beare DM, Beasley H, Beasley O, Beck A, Bethel G, Blechschmidt K, Brady N, Bray-Allen S, Bridgeman AM, Brown AJ, Brown MJ, Bonnin D, Bruford EA, Buhay C, Burch P, Burford D, Burgess J, Burrill W, Burton J, Bye JM, Carder C, Carrel L, Chako J, Chapman JC, Chavez D, Chen E, Chen G, Chen Y, Chen Z, Chinault C, Ciccodicola A, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Clerc-Blankenburg K, Clifford K, Cobley V, Cole CG, Conquer JS, Corby N, Connor RE, David R, Davies J, Davis C, Davis J, Delgado O, Deshazo D, Dhami P, Ding Y, Dinh H, Dodsworth S, Draper H, Dugan-Rocha S, Dunham A, Dunn M, Durbin KJ, Dutta I, Eades T, Ellwood M, Emery-Cohen A, Errington H, Evans KL, Faulkner L, Francis F, Frankland J, Fraser AE, Galgoczy P, Gilbert J, Gill R, Glöckner G, Gregory SG, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gu Y, Gwilliam R, Hamilton C, Hart EA, Hawes A, Heath PD, Heitmann K, Hennig S, Hernandez J, Hinzmann B, Ho S, Hoffs M, Howden PJ, Huckle EJ, Hume J, Hunt PJ, Hunt AR, Isherwood J, Jacob L, Johnson D, Jones S, de Jong PJ, Joseph SS, Keenan S, Kelly S, Kershaw JK, Khan Z, Kioschis P, Klages S, Knights AJ, Kosiura A, Kovar-Smith C, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leversha M, Lewis L, Liu W, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loulseged H, Loveland JE, Lovell JD, Lozado R, Lu J, Lyne R, Ma J, Maheshwari M, Matthews LH, McDowall J, McLaren S, McMurray A, Meidl P, Meitinger T, Milne S, Miner G, Mistry SL, Morgan M, Morris S, Müller I, Mullikin JC, Nguyen N, Nordsiek G, Nyakatura G, O'Dell CN, Okwuonu G, Palmer S, Pandian R, Parker D, Parrish J, Pasternak S, Patel D, Pearce AV, Pearson DM, Pelan SE, Perez L, Porter KM, Ramsey Y, Reichwald K, Rhodes S, Ridler KA, Schlessinger D, Schueler MG, Sehra HK, Shaw-Smith C, Shen H, Sheridan EM, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith ML, Sotheran EC, Steingruber HE, Steward CA, Storey R, Swann RM, Swarbreck D, Tabor PE, Taudien S, Taylor T, Teague B, Thomas K, Thorpe A, Timms K, Tracey A, Trevanion S, Tromans AC, d'Urso M, Verduzco D, Villasana D, Waldron L, Wall M, Wang Q, Warren J, Warry GL, Wei X, West A, Whitehead SL, Whiteley MN, Wilkinson JE, Willey DL, Williams G, Williams L, Williamson A, Williamson H, Wilming L, Woodmansey RL, Wray PW, Yen J, Zhang J, Zhou J, Zoghbi H, Zorilla S, Buck D, Reinhardt R, Poustka A, Rosenthal A, Lehrach H, Meindl A, Minx PJ, Hillier LW, Willard HF, Wilson RK, Waterston RH, Rice CM, Vaudin M, Coulson A, Nelson DL, Weinstock G, Sulston JE, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Gibbs RA, Beck S, Rogers J and Bentley DR

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. mtr@sanger.ac.uk

    The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination between X and Y, and the extent of subsequent degradation of the Y chromosome. LINE1 repeat elements cover one-third of the X chromosome, with a distribution that is consistent with their proposed role as way stations in the process of X-chromosome inactivation. We found 1,098 genes in the sequence, of which 99 encode proteins expressed in testis and in various tumour types. A disproportionately high number of mendelian diseases are documented for the X chromosome. Of this number, 168 have been explained by mutations in 113 X-linked genes, which in many cases were characterized with the aid of the DNA sequence.

    Nature 2005;434;7031;325-37

  • ANT2 expression under hypoxic conditions produces opposite cell-cycle behavior in 143B and HepG2 cancer cells.

    Chevrollier A, Loiseau D, Gautier F, Malthièry Y and Stepien G

    INSERM E0018, Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire, CHU, Angers, France.

    Under hypoxic conditions, mitochondrial ATP production ceases, leaving cells entirely dependent on their glycolytic metabolism. The cytoplasmic and intramitochondrial ATP/ADP ratios, partly controlled by the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), are drastically modified. In dividing and growing cells that have a predominantly glycolytic metabolism, the ANT isoform 2, which has kinetic properties allowing ATP import into mitochondria, is over-expressed in comparison to control cells. We studied the cellular metabolic and proliferative response to hypoxia in two transformed human cell lines with different metabolic backgrounds: HepG2 and 143B, and in their rho(o) derivatives, i.e., cells with no mitochondrial DNA. Transformed 143B and rho(o) cells continued their proliferation whereas HepG2 cells, with a more differentiated phenotype, arrested their cell-cycle at the G(1)/S checkpoint. Hypoxia induced an increase in glycolytic activity, correlated to an induction of VEGF and hexokinase II (HK II) expression. Thus, according to their tumorigenicity, transformed cells may adopt one of two distinct behaviors to support hypoxic stress, i.e., proliferation or quiescence. Our study links the constitutive glycolytic activity and ANT2 expression levels of transformed cells with the loss of cell-cycle control after oxygen deprivation. ATP import by ANT2 allows cells to maintain their mitochondrial integrity while acquiring insensitivity to any alterations in the proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation. This loss of cell dependence on oxidative metabolism is an important factor in the development of tumors.

    Molecular carcinogenesis 2005;42;1;1-8

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Mitochondrial membrane permeabilization by HIV-1 Vpr.

    Deniaud A, Brenner C and Kroemer G

    CNRS FRE 2445, Université de Versailles/St Quentin, 45, avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles, France.

    The mitochondrion is a privileged target for apoptosis-modulatory proteins of viral origin. Thus, viral protein R (Vpr) can target mitochondria and induce apoptosis via a specific interaction with the permeability transition pore complex (PTPC). Vpr cooperates with the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) to form large conductance channels and to trigger all the hallmarks of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP). The Vpr/ANT interaction is direct, since it is abolished by the addition of a peptide corresponding to the Vpr binding site of ANT, ADP, ATP, or by Bcl-2. Accordingly, Vpr modulates MMP through direct structural and functional interactions with PTPC proteins.

    Mitochondrion 2004;4;2-3;223-33

  • The mitochondrial transporter family (SLC25): physiological and pathological implications.

    Palmieri F

    Department of Pharmaco-Biology, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125, Bari, Italy. fpalm@farmbiol.uniba.it

    The mitochondrial carriers (MCs) shuttle a variety of metabolites across the inner mitochondrial membrane (i.m.m.). In man they are encoded by the SLC25 genes. Some MCs have isoforms encoded by different SLC25 genes, whereas the phosphate carrier has two variants arising from an alternative splicing of SLC25A3. Six MCs have been sequenced after purification, and many more have been identified from their transport and kinetic properties following heterologous over-expression and reconstitution into liposomes. All MCs of known function belong to the same protein family, since their polypeptide chains consist of three tandemly related sequences of about 100 amino acids, and the repeats of the different carriers are homologous. They probably function as homodimers, each monomer being folded in the membrane into six transmembrane segments. The functional information obtained in studies with mitochondria and/or the reconstituted system has helped to gain an insight into the physiological role of the MCs in cell metabolism, as have tissue distribution, the use of knock-out mice (and/or yeast) and over-expression in human cell lines (or yeast) of individual carriers and isoforms. At the same time, the cloning and functional identification of many SLC25 genes has made it possible (i) to identify the genes (and their defects) responsible for some diseases, e.g. Stanley syndrome and Amish microcephaly, and (ii) where the genes were already known, to characterize the function of the gene products and hence understand the molecular basis and the symptoms of the diseases, e.g. hyperornithinaemia, hyperammonaemia and homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome and type II citrullinemia. It is likely that further extension and functional characterization of the SLC25 gene family will elucidate other diseases caused by MC deficiency.

    Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology 2004;447;5;689-709

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • Repression of the human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 gene in growth-arrested human diploid cells: the role of nuclear factor-1.

    Luciakova K, Barath P, Poliakova D, Persson A and Nelson BD

    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Arrhenius Laboratories, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Katarina.Luciakova@savba.sk

    Adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2) catalyzes the exchange of ATP for ADP across the mitochondrial membrane, thus playing an important role in maintaining the cytosolic phosphorylation potential required for cell growth. Expression of ANT2 is activated by growth stimulation of quiescent cells and is down-regulated when cells become growth-arrested. In this study, we address the mechanism of growth arrest repression. Using a combination of transfection, in vivo dimethyl sulfate mapping, and in vitro DNase I mapping experiments, we identified two protein-binding elements (Go-1 and Go-2) that are responsible for growth arrest of ANT2 expression in human diploid fibroblasts. Proteins that bound the Go elements were purified and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry as members of the NF1 family of transcription factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that NF1 was bound to both Go-1 and Go-2 in quiescent human diploid cells in vivo, but not in the same cells stimulated to growth by serum. NF1 binding correlated with the disappearance of ANT2 transcripts in quiescent cells. Furthermore, overexpression of NF1-A, -C, and -X in NIH3T3 cells repressed expression of an ANT2-driven reporter gene construct. Two additional putative repressor elements in the ANT2 promoter, an Sp1 element juxtaposed to the transcription start site and a silencer centered at nucleotide -332, did not appear to contribute to growth arrest repression. Thus, enhanced binding of NF1 is a key step in the growth arrest repression of ANT2 transcription. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing a role for NF1 in growth arrest.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;33;30624-33

  • The human mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers: kinetic properties and biogenesis of wild-type and mutant proteins in the yeast S. cerevisiae.

    De Marcos Lousa C, Trézéguet V, Dianoux AC, Brandolin G and Lauquin GJ

    Laboratoire de Physiologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Institut de Biochimie et Génétique Cellulaires, 1, rue Camille Saint-Saëns, 33077 Bordeaux Cedex, France.

    The mitochondrial adenine nucleotide carrier, or Ancp, plays a key role in the maintenance of the energetic fluxes in eukaryotic cells. Human disorders have been found associated to unusual human ANC gene (HANC) expression but also to direct inactivation of the protein, either by autoantibody binding or by mutation. However, the individual biochemical properties of the three HAncp isoforms have not yet been deciphered. To do so, the three HANC ORF were expressed in yeast under the control of the regulatory sequences of ScANC2. Each of the three HANC was able to restore growth on a nonfermentable carbon source of a yeast mutant strain lacking its three endogenous ANC. Their ADP/ATP exchange properties could then be measured for the first time in isolated mitochondria. HANC3 was the most efficient to restore yeast growth, and HAnc3p presented the highest V(M) (80 nmol ADP min(-1) mg protein(-1)) and K(ADP)(M)(8.4 microM). HAnc1p and HAnc2p presented similar kinetic constants (V(M) approximately 30-40 nmol ADP min(-(1) mg protein(-1) and K(ADP)(M) approximately 2.5-3.7 microM), whose values were consistent with HANC1's and HANC2's lower capacity to restore yeast growth. However, the HANC genes restored growth at a lower level than ScANC2, indicating that HAncp amount may be limiting in vivo. To optimize the HAncp production, we investigated their biogenesis into mitochondria by mutagenesis of two charged amino acids in the N-terminus of HAnc1p. Severe effects were observed with the D3A and D3K mutations that precluded yeast growth. On the contrary, the K10A mutation increased yeast growth complementation and nucleotide exchange rate as compared to the wild type. These results point to the importance of the N-terminal region of HAnc1p for its biogenesis and transport activity in yeast mitochondria.

    Biochemistry 2002;41;48;14412-20

  • Mitochondrial creatine kinase and mitochondrial outer membrane porin show a direct interaction that is modulated by calcium.

    Schlattner U, Dolder M, Wallimann T and Tokarska-Schlattner M

    Institute of Cell Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Hönggerberg HPM, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland. schlattn@cell.biol.ethz.ch

    Mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) co-localizes with mitochondrial porin (voltage-dependent anion channel) and adenine nucleotide translocator in mitochondrial contact sites. A specific, direct protein-protein interaction between MtCK and mitochondrial porin was demonstrated using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. This interaction was independent of the immobilized binding partner (porin reconstituted in liposomes or MtCK) or the analyzed isoform (chicken sarcomeric MtCK or human ubiquitous MtCK, human recombinant porin, or purified bovine porin). Increased ionic strength reduced the binding of MtCK to porin, suggesting predominantly ionic interactions. By contrast, micromolar concentrations of Ca(2+) increased the amount of bound MtCK, indicating a physiological regulation of complex formation. No interaction of MtCK with reconstituted adenine nucleotide translocator was detectable in our experimental setup. The relevance of these findings for structure and function of mitochondrial contact sites is discussed.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;51;48027-30

  • Ikappa b-alpha, the NF-kappa B inhibitory subunit, interacts with ANT, the mitochondrial ATP/ADP translocator.

    Bottero V, Rossi F, Samson M, Mari M, Hofman P and Peyron JF

    INSERM U526 "Activation des Cellules Hématopoiétiques," IFR50, Faculté de Médecine Pasteur, 06107 Nice cedex 2, France.

    The transcription factor NF-kappaB regulates a wide set of genes involved in the establishment of many cellular processes that control cell activation, proliferation, and apoptosis. IkappaB inhibitory subunits integrate NF-kappaB activation signals through phosphorylation and ubiquitination of its N-terminal domain. Using the two-hybrid system in yeast, we searched for IkappaB-alpha N-terminal domain interactors and therefore potential NF-kappaB regulators. An interaction of IkappaB-alpha with the mitochondrial ATP/ADP translocator ANT was detected in yeast and confirmed in glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays and co-precipitation experiments in transfected cells. Subcellular cell fractionation, resistance to proteinase K treatment, and electron microscopy experiments demonstrated the presence of IkappaB-alpha and associated p65 NF-kappaB in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. IkappaB-alpha.NF-kappaB appeared to be released from mitochondria upon the induction of apoptosis by engagement of the Fas receptor. These data suggest that the mitochondrial IkappaB-alpha.NF-kappaB pool participates in the regulation of apoptosis.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;24;21317-24

  • The HIV-1 viral protein R induces apoptosis via a direct effect on the mitochondrial permeability transition pore.

    Jacotot E, Ravagnan L, Loeffler M, Ferri KF, Vieira HL, Zamzami N, Costantini P, Druillennec S, Hoebeke J, Briand JP, Irinopoulou T, Daugas E, Susin SA, Cointe D, Xie ZH, Reed JC, Roques BP and Kroemer G

    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, F-94801 Villejuif, France.

    Viral protein R (Vpr) encoded by HIV-1 is a facultative inducer of apoptosis. When added to intact cells or purified mitochondria, micromolar and submicromolar doses of synthetic Vpr cause a rapid dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)), as well as the mitochondrial release of apoptogenic proteins such as cytochrome c or apoptosis inducing factor. The same structural motifs relevant for cell killing are responsible for the mitochondriotoxic effects of Vpr. Both mitochondrial and cytotoxic Vpr effects are prevented by Bcl-2, an inhibitor of the permeability transition pore complex (PTPC). Coincubation of purified organelles revealed that nuclear apoptosis is only induced by Vpr when mitochondria are present yet can be abolished by PTPC inhibitors. Vpr favors the permeabilization of artificial membranes containing the purified PTPC or defined PTPC components such as the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) combined with Bax. Again, this effect is prevented by addition of recombinant Bcl-2. The Vpr COOH terminus binds purified ANT, as well as a molecular complex containing ANT and the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), another PTPC component. Yeast strains lacking ANT or VDAC are less susceptible to Vpr-induced killing than control cells yet recover Vpr sensitivity when retransfected with yeast ANT or human VDAC. Hence, Vpr induces apoptosis via a direct effect on the mitochondrial PTPC.

    The Journal of experimental medicine 2000;191;1;33-46

  • Expression of human ANT2 gene in highly proliferative cells: GRBOX, a new transcriptional element, is involved in the regulation of glycolytic ATP import into mitochondria.

    Giraud S, Bonod-Bidaud C, Wesolowski-Louvel M and Stepien G

    CNRS UMR-5534, Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, Villeurbanne, Cedex, 69622, France. stepien@cissun.univ-lyon1.fr

    The adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) is the most abundant mitochondrial inner membrane protein which catalyses the exchange of ADP and ATP between cytosol and mitochondria. The human ANT protein has three isoforms encoded by three differentially regulated nuclear genes. The ANT gene expression was examined in several human cells. The gene encoding the ANT2 isoform was found specifically induced in Simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed, tumoral and mtDNA lacking rho degrees cell lines. Moreover, the ANT2 gene was preferentially expressed under a glycolytic metabolism. Functional complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant revealed that the human ANT2 protein specifically restores yeast cell growth under anaerobic conditions. Sequence analysis of the ANT2 proximal promoter in comparison to that of the third yeast adenine nucleotide translocator (AAC3) led us to identify a new motif termed GRBOX. Promoter-deletion transfection and mobility gel-shift assays revealed that this motif is recognized by a negative transcriptional regulator. This transcription factor might be involved in a molecular mechanism which selects the import of the glycolytic ATP in the mitochondrial matrix. This ATP import is required in highly proliferative cells, such as tumour cells, which depend strongly on glycolysis for ATP synthesis.

    Journal of molecular biology 1998;281;3;409-18

  • Tissue-specific transcription pattern of the adenine nucleotide translocase isoforms in humans.

    Doerner A, Pauschinger M, Badorff A, Noutsias M, Giessen S, Schulze K, Bilger J, Rauch U and Schultheiss HP

    Department of Cardiology, Benjamin Franklin Hospital, Free University of Berlin, Germany. doerner@pop.ukbf.fu-berlin.de

    Three adenine nucleotide translocase isoforms (ANT1, ANT2 and ANT3) are coded by different genes. The relative amounts of the three ANT isoform mRNAs were determined in detail in various human tissues. ANT isoforms were co-expressed in all tested tissues revealing tissue-specific transcription patterns. The highest ANT1 mRNA proportions were found in terminally differentiated tissues like skeletal muscle, heart and brain, whereas ANT2 was mainly expressed in tissues capable of proliferation and regeneration as in the kidneys, spleen, liver, fibroblasts and lymphocytes. The ANT3 mRNA proportion was not prominently expressed in any of the tissues tested. In conclusion, tissue-specific expression of ANT isoforms is strongly related to the state of cellular differentiation.

    FEBS letters 1997;414;2;258-62

  • Ordered shotgun sequencing of a 135 kb Xq25 YAC containing ANT2 and four possible genes, including three confirmed by EST matches.

    Chen CN, Su Y, Baybayan P, Siruno A, Nagaraja R, Mazzarella R, Schlessinger D and Chen E

    Applied Biosystems Division, ACGT, Foster City, CA 94402, USA.

    Ordered shotgun sequencing (OSS) has been successfully carried out with an Xq25 YAC substrate. yWXD703 DNA was subcloned into lambda phage and sequences of insert ends of the lambda subclones were used to generate a map to select a minimum tiling path of clones to be completely sequenced. The sequence of 135 038 nt contains the entire ANT2 cDNA as well as four other candidates suggested by computer-assisted analyses. One of the putative genes is homologous to a gene implicated in Graves' disease and it, ANT2 and two others are confirmed by EST matches. The results suggest that OSS can be applied to YACs in accord with earlier simulations and further indicate that the sequence of the YAC accurately reflects the sequence of uncloned human DNA.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00201

    Nucleic acids research 1996;24;20;4034-41

  • Localization of the adenine nucleotide translocase gene ANT2 to chromosome Xq24-q25 with tight linkage to DXS425.

    Schiebel K, Mertz A, Winkelmann M, Nagaraja R and Rappold G

    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Heidelberg, Germany.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: P50HG00201

    Genomics 1994;24;3;605-6

  • The human fibroblast adenine nucleotide translocator gene. Molecular cloning and sequence.

    Ku DH, Kagan J, Chen ST, Chang CD, Baserga R and Wurzel J

    Department of Pathology, Temple University Medical School, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140.

    The human adenine nucleotide translocator multigene family consists of three transcribed genes and at least seven pseudogenes. We report the cloning and sequencing of the gene expressed in human fibroblasts. Like the other two transcribed genes, it has four exons. The 5'-flanking region of the fibroblast translocase gene contains a functional promoter. The promoter has a TATA motif beginning 30 base pairs upstream of the transcription initiation site and five potential SP1 binding sites, but lacks a canonical CCAAT box immediately upstream of the TATA sequence. Differences among the sequence motifs of the 5'-flanking region of the three human translocase genes could account for differences in their cell type-specific and proliferation-associated expression.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG003787; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM33964

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1990;265;27;16060-3

  • A human ADP/ATP translocase gene has seven pseudogenes and localizes to chromosome X.

    Chen ST, Chang CD, Huebner K, Ku DH, McFarland M, DeRiel JK, Baserga R and Wurzel J

    Department of Pathology, Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, Temple University Medical School, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    There are at least three transcriptionally active human ADP/ATP translocase genes. We have isolated seven ADP/ATP translocase pseudogenes from recombinant human genomic libraries. Each pseudogene sequence had more than 85% identity with the sequence of the human ADP/ATP translocase cDNA derived from fibroblast mRNA, but each had mutations that precluded synthesis of a functional protein. Using an intron probe derived from a partial clone of the human fibroblast ADP/ATP translocase gene, we localized the gene to chromosome Xq13----Xq25-26. The gene encoding the skeletal muscle translocase has previously been shown to be on chromosome 4. Therefore, the human ADP/ATP translocase genes are members of a multigene family that includes pseudogenes and has been dispersed to at least two chromosomes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA21124; NIA NIH HHS: AG00378; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM33694

    Somatic cell and molecular genetics 1990;16;2;143-9

  • Two distinct genes for ADP/ATP translocase are expressed at the mRNA level in adult human liver.

    Houldsworth J and Attardi G

    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125.

    Several clones hybridizing with a bovine ADP/ATP translocase cDNA were isolated from an adult human liver cDNA library in the vector pEX1. DNA sequence analysis revealed that these clones encode two distinct forms of translocase. In particular, two clones specifying the COOH-end-proximal five-sixths of the protein exhibit a 9% amino acid sequence divergence and totally dissimilar 3' untranslated regions. One of these cDNAs is nearly identical in sequence to an ADP/ATP translocase clone (hp2F1) recently isolated from a human fibroblast cDNA library [Battini, R., Ferrari, S., Kaczmarek, L., Calabretta, B., Chen, S. & Baserga, R. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 4355-4359], with three amino acid changes and a few differences in the 3' untranslated region. Another clone isolated from the pEX1 library contains a reading frame encoding the remaining, NH2-end-proximal, 37 amino acids of the translocase. This sequence differs significantly (14% amino acid sequence divergence) from the corresponding segment of hp2F1, and the 5' untranslated regions of the two clones are totally dissimilar. RNA transfer hybridization experiments utilizing the clones isolated from the pEX1 library revealed the presence in HeLa cells of three distinct mRNA species. The pattern of hybridization and the sizes of these mRNAs suggest a greater complexity of organization and expression of the ADP/ATP translocase genes in human cells than indicated by the analysis of the cDNA clones.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-11726

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1988;85;2;377-81

  • Molecular cloning of a cDNA for a human ADP/ATP carrier which is growth-regulated.

    Battini R, Ferrari S, Kaczmarek L, Calabretta B, Chen ST and Baserga R

    We have identified in a human cDNA library a clone (hp2F1) whose cognate RNA is growth-regulated. The insert has been sequenced and the nucleotide sequence shows a strong homology to the nucleotide sequences of the ADP/ATP carrier cDNA and gene, respectively, isolated from Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The putative amino acid sequence of hp2F1 shows an 87% homology to the amino acid sequence of the ADP/ATP carrier from beef heart mitochondria. We conclude that the insert of hp2F1 contains the full coding sequence of a human ADP/ATP carrier. The steady-state RNA levels of the ADP/ATP carrier are growth-regulated. They increase when quiescent cells are stimulated by serum, platelet-derived growth factor, or epidermal growth factor, but not by platelet-poor plasma or insulin. RNA levels of the ADP/ATP carrier decrease instead when growing HL-60 cells are induced to differentiate by either phorbol esters or retinoic acid.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 25898

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1987;262;9;4355-9

Gene lists (11)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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