G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00002241
Gene symbol
PSD (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
pleckstrin and Sec7 domain containing
Orthologue
G00000992 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000018954 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000059915 (Ensembl human gene)
5662 (Entrez Gene)
580 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PSD (GeneCards)
Literature
602327 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:9507 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q8IVG0 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • KIAA2011
  • PSD1
  • TYL

Literature (7)

Pubmed - other

  • Association between genetic variants in VEGF, ERCC3 and occupational benzene haematotoxicity.

    Hosgood HD, Zhang L, Shen M, Berndt SI, Vermeulen R, Li G, Yin S, Yeager M, Yuenger J, Rothman N, Chanock S, Smith M and Lan Q

    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892-7240, USA. hosgoodd@mail.nih.gov

    Introduction: Benzene is an established human haematotoxin, with substantial interindividual variation in benzene-induced toxicity.

    Methods: To further examine if genetic variation contributes to benzene haematotoxicity, we analysed 1023 tagSNPs in 121 gene regions important for benzene metabolism, haematopoiesis, leukaemia and lymphoma among 250 workers exposed to benzene and 140 unexposed controls in a cross-sectional study carried out in China. Linear regression was used to analyse the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and total white blood cell (WBC) count and its subtypes, adjusting for potential confounders and occupational exposure to benzene and toluene among exposed workers. The minp test assessed the association on the gene region level. The false discovery rate method was used to control for multiple comparisons.

    Results: VEGF (minp = 0.0030) and ERCC3 (minp = 0.0042) were the most significantly associated gene regions with altered WBC counts among benzene-exposed workers, after accounting for multiple comparisons. Highly significant changes were also found for WBC subtype counts, including granulocytes, CD4+ T cells and lymphocytes for VEGF and granulocytes and NK cells for ERCC3. Further, in workers exposed to <1 ppm, a SNP in VEGF was associated with changes in WBC and granulocyte counts, and SNPs in ERCC3 were associated with changes in WBC, NK cell and granulocyte counts.

    Discussion: Our findings suggest that genetic variation in VEGF, which plays an important role in blood vessel growth, and ERCC3, which is a member of the DNA repair pathway and is responsible for repairing bulky DNA adducts formed by chemicals, may contribute to individual susceptibility to benzene-induced haematotoxicity at relatively low levels of benzene exposure.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS: Z99 CA999999; NIEHS NIH HHS: P30 ES001896, P30ES01896, P42 ES004705, P42ES04705, R01 ES006721, R01ES06721

    Occupational and environmental medicine 2009;66;12;848-53

  • GEP100 links epidermal growth factor receptor signalling to Arf6 activation to induce breast cancer invasion.

    Morishige M, Hashimoto S, Ogawa E, Toda Y, Kotani H, Hirose M, Wei S, Hashimoto A, Yamada A, Yano H, Mazaki Y, Kodama H, Nio Y, Manabe T, Wada H, Kobayashi H and Sabe H

    Department of Molecular Biology, Osaka Bioscience Institute, Osaka 565-0874, Japan.

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) signalling is implicated in tumour invasion and metastasis. However, whether there are EGFR signalling pathways specifically used for tumour invasion still remains elusive. Overexpression of Arf6 and its effector, AMAP1, correlates with and is crucial for the invasive phenotypes of different breast cancer cells. Here we identify the mechanism by which Arf6 is activated to induce tumour invasion. We found that GEP100/BRAG2, a guanine nucleotide exchanging factor (GEF) for Arf6, is responsible for the invasive activity of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, whereas the other ArfGEFs are not. GEP100, through its pleckstrin homology domain, bound directly to Tyr1068/1086-phosphorylated EGFR to activate Arf6. Overexpression of GEP100, together with Arf6, caused non-invasive MCF7 cells to become invasive, which was dependent on EGF stimulation. Moreover, GEP100 knockdown blocked tumour metastasis. GEP100 was expressed in 70% of primary breast ductal carcinomas, and was preferentially co-expressed with EGFR in the malignant cases. Our results indicate that GEP100 links EGFR signalling to Arf6 activation to induce invasive activities of some breast cancer cells, and hence may contribute to their metastasis and malignancy.

    Nature cell biology 2008;10;1;85-92

  • Phosphorylation of pleckstrin increases proinflammatory cytokine secretion by mononuclear phagocytes in diabetes mellitus.

    Ding Y, Kantarci A, Badwey JA, Hasturk H, Malabanan A and Van Dyke TE

    Department of Periodontology and Oral Biology, Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston University, Boston, MA 02118, USA.

    The protein kinase C (PKC) family of intracellular enzymes plays a crucial role in signal transduction for a variety of cellular responses of mononuclear phagocytes including phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and secretion. Alterations in the activation pathways of PKC in a variety of cell types have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the complications of diabetes. In this study, we investigated the consequences of PKC activation by evaluating endogenous phosphorylation of PKC substrates with a phosphospecific PKC substrate Ab (pPKC(s)). Phosphorylation of a 40-kDa protein was significantly increased in mononuclear phagocytes from diabetics. Phosphorylation of this protein is downstream of PKC activation and its phosphorylated form was found to be associated with the membrane. Mass spectrometry analysis, immunoprecipitation, and immunoblotting experiments revealed that this 40-kDa protein is pleckstrin. We then investigated the phosphorylation and translocation of pleckstrin in response to the activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). The results suggest that pleckstrin is involved in RAGE signaling and advanced glycation end product (AGE)-elicited mononuclear phagocyte dysfunction. Suppression of pleckstrin expression with RNA interference silencing revealed that phosphorylation of pleckstrin is an important intermediate in the secretion and activation pathways of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) induced by RAGE activation. In summary, this study demonstrates that phosphorylation of pleckstrin is up-regulated in diabetic mononuclear phagocytes. The phosphorylation is in part due to the activation of PKC through RAGE binding, and pleckstrin is a critical molecule for proinflammatory cytokine secretion in response to elevated AGE in diabetes.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01 RR000533, M01 RR000533-360400; NIDCR NIH HHS: DE15566, P50 DE016191, P50 DE016191-010003, R01 DE015566, R01 DE015566-01A1

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2007;179;1;647-54

  • A scan of chromosome 10 identifies a novel locus showing strong association with late-onset Alzheimer disease.

    Grupe A, Li Y, Rowland C, Nowotny P, Hinrichs AL, Smemo S, Kauwe JS, Maxwell TJ, Cherny S, Doil L, Tacey K, van Luchene R, Myers A, Wavrant-De Vrièze F, Kaleem M, Hollingworth P, Jehu L, Foy C, Archer N, Hamilton G, Holmans P, Morris CM, Catanese J, Sninsky J, White TJ, Powell J, Hardy J, O'Donovan M, Lovestone S, Jones L, Morris JC, Thal L, Owen M, Williams J and Goate A

    Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA, USA.

    Strong evidence of linkage to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has been observed on chromosome 10, which implicates a wide region and at least one disease-susceptibility locus. Although significant associations with several biological candidate genes on chromosome 10 have been reported, these findings have not been consistently replicated, and they remain controversial. We performed a chromosome 10-specific association study with 1,412 gene-based single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to identify susceptibility genes for developing LOAD. The scan included SNPs in 677 of 1,270 known or predicted genes; each gene contained one or more markers, about half (48%) of which represented putative functional mutations. In general, the initial testing was performed in a white case-control sample from the St. Louis area, with 419 LOAD cases and 377 age-matched controls. Markers that showed significant association in the exploratory analysis were followed up in several other white case-control sample sets to confirm the initial association. Of the 1,397 markers tested in the exploratory sample, 69 reached significance (P < .05). Five of these markers replicated at P < .05 in the validation sample sets. One marker, rs498055, located in a gene homologous to RPS3A (LOC439999), was significantly associated with Alzheimer disease in four of six case-control series, with an allelic P value of .0001 for a meta-analysis of all six samples. One of the case-control samples with significant association to rs498055 was derived from the linkage sample (P = .0165). These results indicate that variants in the RPS3A homologue are associated with LOAD and implicate this gene, adjacent genes, or other functional variants (e.g., noncoding RNAs) in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; Medical Research Council: G0300429, G0701075, G9810900; NHGRI NIH HHS: T32 HG000045; NIA NIH HHS: AG 05146, AG05128, P01 AG003991, P01 AG03991, P50 AG005128, P50 AG005131, P50 AG005146, P50 AG005681, P50 AG008671, P50 AG016570, P50 AG05131, P50 AG05681, P50 AG16570, P50-AG08671, R01 AG016208, R01 AG16208, U24 AG021886; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM065509, P50 GM065509; NIMH NIH HHS: MH60451, P50 MH060451, U01 MH046281, U01 MH046290, U01 MH046373; NINDS NIH HHS: NS39764, P50 NS039764

    American journal of human genetics 2006;78;1;78-88

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Identification of a novel gene, PSD, adjacent to NFKB2/lyt-10, which contains Sec7 and pleckstrin-homology domains.

    Perletti L, Talarico D, Trecca D, Ronchetti D, Fracchiolla NS, Maiolo AT and Neri A

    Laboratorio di Ematologia Sperimentale e Genetica Molecolare, Università di Milano, Ospedale Maggiore IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

    We have identified a novel human gene on chromosome 10q24 located contiguously to the 3' end of the NFKB2/lyt-10 gene in a tail to tail arrangement. We describe here a cDNA of 4307 bp, isolated from an adult human brain cDNA library, which contains an open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 645 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 71 kDa. Database homology searches indicate that this is a novel gene coding for a putative protein containing two discrete domains with significant homology to the Sec7 and pleckstrin-homology (PH) domains, respectively. We named this gene PSD (plekstrin-Sec7 domains gene). Northern blot analysis of a panel of RNAs from normal human tissues using the PSD cDNA as probe revealed the presence of three different tissue-specific transcripts of approximately 4.3, 2.3, and 1.8 kb, the longest of which is expressed only in brain. Our data suggest that the PSD gene may code for a protein related to a recently identified protein family containing both the Sec7 and the PH domains thought to be involved in signaling transduction processes.

    Genomics 1997;46;2;251-9

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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