G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00002206
Gene symbol
BSN (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
bassoon (presynaptic cytomatrix protein)
Orthologue
G00000957 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000164061 (Ensembl human gene)
8927 (Entrez Gene)
85 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
BSN (GeneCards)
Literature
604020 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:1117 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9UPA5 (UniProt)

Literature (17)

Pubmed - other

  • Variants at the 3p21 locus influence susceptibility and phenotype both in adults and early-onset patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Latiano A, Palmieri O, Corritore G, Valvano MR, Bossa F, Cucchiara S, Castro M, Riegler G, De Venuto D, D'Incà R, Andriulli A and Annese V

    Division of Gastroenterology & Endoscopy, Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital, IRCCS, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy.

    Background: To date, a number of high-profile studies have yielded over 50 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) disease genes/loci. The polymorphisms rs9858542 (BSN) and rs3197999 (MST1), on 3p21 locus, have been found associated with susceptibility to IBD. We aimed to replicate these associations in adult and early-onset cohorts of IBD Italian patients, by analyzing also potential gene-gene interactions with variants in NOD2/CARD15, IL23R, ATG16L1, and IRGM genes, and investigating genotype-phenotype correlation.

    Methods: In all, 1808 patients with IBD, 855 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 953 with ulcerative colitis (UC), including 539 patients with their initial diagnosis <19 years of age, and 651 controls were analyzed for SNPs rs9858542 and rs3197999.

    Results: BSN and MST1 were significantly associated with either CD (P(rs9858542) 2.5 x 10(-7); P(rs3197999) 3.9 x 10(-7)), and UC (P(rs9858542) = 3.1 x 10(-4); P(rs3197999) = 8 x 10(-4)). Prevalence of these variants was significantly increased in both adult and early-onset IBD patients. After stepwise logistic regression, the 2 variants were associated in adult UC with distal colitis (P(rs9858542) = 0.013, odds ratio [OR] = 2.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16-3.59; P(rs3197999) = 0.018, OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.3), while the rs3197999 variant was inversely associated with occurrence of extraintestinal manifestations in adult CD(P = 0.017, OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9).

    Conclusions: We confirmed the association of BSN and MST1 with IBD susceptibility, either in the adult or the early-onset cohorts. These variants appeared to influence either the distal location of the disease in the UC cohort and extraintestinal manifestations in CD patients.

    Inflammatory bowel diseases 2010;16;7;1108-17

  • Identification of neuroglycan C and interacting partners as potential susceptibility genes for schizophrenia in a Southern Chinese population.

    So HC, Fong PY, Chen RY, Hui TC, Ng MY, Cherny SS, Mak WW, Cheung EF, Chan RC, Chen EY, Li T and Sham PC

    Department of Psychiatry, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

    Chromosome 3p was reported by previous studies as one of the regions showing strong evidence of linkage with schizophrenia. We performed a fine-mapping association study of a 6-Mb high-LD and gene-rich region on 3p in a Southern Chinese sample of 489 schizophrenia patients and 519 controls to search for susceptibility genes. In the initial screen, 4 SNPs out of the 144 tag SNPs genotyped were nominally significant (P < 0.05). One of the most significant SNPs (rs3732530, P = 0.0048) was a non-synonymous SNP in the neuroglycan C (NGC, also known as CSPG5) gene, which belongs to the neuregulin family. The gene prioritization program Endeavor ranked NGC 8th out of the 129 genes in the 6-Mb region and the highest among the genes within the same LD block. Further genotyping of NGC revealed 3 more SNPs to be nominally associated with schizophrenia. Three other genes (NRG1, ErbB3, ErbB4) involved in the neuregulin pathways were subsequently genotyped. Interaction analysis by multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) revealed a significant two-SNP interaction between NGC and NRG1 (P = 0.015) and three-SNP interactions between NRG1 and ErbB4 (P = 0.009). The gene NGC is exclusively expressed in the brain. It is implicated in neurodevelopment in rats and was previously shown to promote neurite outgrowth. Methamphetamine, a drug that may induce psychotic symptoms, was reported to alter the expression of NGC. Taken together, these results suggest that NGC may be a novel candidate gene, and neuregulin signaling pathways may play an important role in schizophrenia.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2010;153B;1;103-13

  • Genome-wide association study of ulcerative colitis identifies three new susceptibility loci, including the HNF4A region.

    UK IBD Genetics Consortium, Barrett JC, Lee JC, Lees CW, Prescott NJ, Anderson CA, Phillips A, Wesley E, Parnell K, Zhang H, Drummond H, Nimmo ER, Massey D, Blaszczyk K, Elliott T, Cotterill L, Dallal H, Lobo AJ, Mowat C, Sanderson JD, Jewell DP, Newman WG, Edwards C, Ahmad T, Mansfield JC, Satsangi J, Parkes M, Mathew CG, Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2, Donnelly P, Peltonen L, Blackwell JM, Bramon E, Brown MA, Casas JP, Corvin A, Craddock N, Deloukas P, Duncanson A, Jankowski J, Markus HS, Mathew CG, McCarthy MI, Palmer CN, Plomin R, Rautanen A, Sawcer SJ, Samani N, Trembath RC, Viswanathan AC, Wood N, Spencer CC, Barrett JC, Bellenguez C, Davison D, Freeman C, Strange A, Donnelly P, Langford C, Hunt SE, Edkins S, Gwilliam R, Blackburn H, Bumpstead SJ, Dronov S, Gillman M, Gray E, Hammond N, Jayakumar A, McCann OT, Liddle J, Perez ML, Potter SC, Ravindrarajah R, Ricketts M, Waller M, Weston P, Widaa S, Whittaker P, Deloukas P, Peltonen L, Mathew CG, Blackwell JM, Brown MA, Corvin A, McCarthy MI, Spencer CC, Attwood AP, Stephens J, Sambrook J, Ouwehand WH, McArdle WL, Ring SM and Strachan DP

    Ulcerative colitis is a common form of inflammatory bowel disease with a complex etiology. As part of the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2, we performed a genome-wide association scan for ulcerative colitis in 2,361 cases and 5,417 controls. Loci showing evidence of association at P < 1 x 10(-5) were followed up by genotyping in an independent set of 2,321 cases and 4,818 controls. We find genome-wide significant evidence of association at three new loci, each containing at least one biologically relevant candidate gene, on chromosomes 20q13 (HNF4A; P = 3.2 x 10(-17)), 16q22 (CDH1 and CDH3; P = 2.8 x 10(-8)) and 7q31 (LAMB1; P = 3.0 x 10(-8)). Of note, CDH1 has recently been associated with susceptibility to colorectal cancer, an established complication of longstanding ulcerative colitis. The new associations suggest that changes in the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier may contribute to the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.

    Funded by: Chief Scientist Office: CSO_CZB/4/540; Department of Health: DH_PDA/02/06/016; Medical Research Council: MRC_G0000934, MRC_G0000934(68341), MRC_G0600329, MRC_G0601387, MRC_G0601387(80207), MRC_G0800383, MRC_G0800509, MRC_G0800675, MRC_G0800759, MRC_G19/2, MRC_MC_QA137934; Wellcome Trust: 068545/Z/02, 083948/Z/07/Z, WT068545, WT077011, WT083948, WT085475, WT089061, WT089120

    Nature genetics 2009;41;12;1330-4

  • A protein interaction node at the neurotransmitter release site: domains of Aczonin/Piccolo, Bassoon, CAST, and rim converge on the N-terminal domain of Munc13-1.

    Wang X, Hu B, Zieba A, Neumann NG, Kasper-Sonnenberg M, Honsbein A, Hultqvist G, Conze T, Witt W, Limbach C, Geitmann M, Danielson H, Kolarow R, Niemann G, Lessmann V and Kilimann MW

    Institut für Physiologische Chemie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.

    Multidomain scaffolding proteins organize the molecular machinery of neurotransmitter vesicle dynamics during synaptogenesis and synaptic activity. We find that domains of five active zone proteins converge on an interaction node that centers on the N-terminal region of Munc13-1 and includes the zinc-finger domain of Rim1, the C-terminal region of Bassoon, a segment of CAST1/ELKS2, and the third coiled-coil domain (CC3) of either Aczonin/Piccolo or Bassoon. This multidomain complex may constitute a center for the physical and functional integration of the protein machinery at the active zone. An additional connection between Aczonin and Bassoon is mediated by the second coiled-coil domain of Aczonin. Recombinant Aczonin-CC3, expressed in cultured neurons as a green fluorescent protein fusion protein, is targeted to synapses and suppresses vesicle turnover, suggesting involvements in synaptic assembly as well as activity. Our findings show that Aczonin, Bassoon, CAST1, Munc13, and Rim are closely and multiply interconnected, they indicate that Aczonin-CC3 can actively participate in neurotransmitter vesicle dynamics, and they highlight the N-terminal region of Munc13-1 as a hub of protein interactions by adding three new binding partners to its mechanistic potential in the control of synaptic vesicle priming.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2009;29;40;12584-96

  • Effect of BSN-MST1 locus on inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis susceptibility.

    Márquez A, Cénit MC, Núñez C, Mendoza JL, Taxonera C, Díaz-Rubio M, Bartolomé M, Arroyo R, Fernández-Arquero M, de la Concha EG and Urcelay E

    Department of Immunology, Hospital Universitario Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

    Genome-wide studies highlighted the effect in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) susceptibility of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3p21, where BSN (bassoon), MST1 (macrophage stimulating-1) and MST1R (MST1 Receptor) genes map. MST1R expression was significantly downregulated in multiple sclerosis (MS) compared with control brains, resembling findings in the MS mouse model. We pursued to replicate the effect of this locus on inflammatory bowel diseases and to evaluate its contribution to MS risk. Polymorphisms rs9858542, rs2131109 and rs1128535 were analysed by TaqMan assays in Spanish patients (370 CD, 405 UC and 415 MS) and 800 ethnically matched controls. Allele frequencies of these SNPs were significantly different in CD patients compared with controls [rs9858542: P=0.001, Odds ratio (OR)=1.35; rs2131109: P=0.0005, OR=1.37; rs1128535: P=0.007, OR=0.78] and, specifically, in the ileal phenotype [rs9858542: P=0.0004, OR=1.47; rs2131109: P=0.00009, OR=1.52; rs1128535: P=0.02, OR=0.69]. No differences were detected between UC or MS patients and control individuals. The effect of this locus on CD predisposition was replicated, but no influence on UC or MS predisposition could be detected. This susceptibility locus seems to affect mainly to the ileal CD subphenotype, although this point awaits further corroboration in independent cohorts.

    Genes and immunity 2009;10;7;631-5

  • Genetic risk profiling and prediction of disease course in Crohn's disease patients.

    Henckaerts L, Van Steen K, Verstreken I, Cleynen I, Franke A, Schreiber S, Rutgeerts P and Vermeire S

    Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology Section, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. liesbet.henckaerts@uzleuven.be

    Clinical presentation at diagnosis and disease course of Crohn's disease (CD) are heterogeneous and variable over time. Early introduction of immunomodulators and/or biologicals might be justified in patients at risk for disease progression, so it is important to identify these patients as soon as possible. We examined the influence of recently discovered CD-associated susceptibility loci on changes in disease behavior and evaluated whether a genetic risk model for disease progression could be generated.

    Methods: Complete medical data were available for 875 CD patients (median follow-up time, 14 years; interquartile range, 7-22). Fifty CD-associated polymorphisms were genotyped. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, multiple logistic regression, and generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analyses (GMDR) were performed, correcting for follow-up time.

    Results: Homozygosity for the rs1363670 G-allele in a gene encoding a hypothetical protein near the IL12B gene was independently associated with stricturing disease behavior (odds ratio [OR], 5.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-18.83; P = .007) and with shorter time to strictures (P = .01), especially in patients with ileal involvement (P = .0002). Male patients carrying at least one rs12704036 T-allele in a gene desert had the shortest time to non-perianal fistula (P < .0001). The presence of a C-allele at the CDKAL1 single nucleotide polymorphism rs6908425 and the absence of NOD2 variants were independently associated with development of perianal fistula (OR, 8.86; 95% CI, 1.13-69.78; P = .04 and OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.38-0.83; P = .004, respectively), particularly when colonic involvement and active smoking were present.

    Conclusions: CD-associated polymorphisms play a role in disease progression and might be useful in identifying patients who could benefit from an early top-down treatment approach.

    Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 2009;7;9;972-980.e2

  • Genetic utility of broadly defined bipolar schizoaffective disorder as a diagnostic concept.

    Hamshere ML, Green EK, Jones IR, Jones L, Moskvina V, Kirov G, Grozeva D, Nikolov I, Vukcevic D, Caesar S, Gordon-Smith K, Fraser C, Russell E, Breen G, St Clair D, Collier DA, Young AH, Ferrier IN, Farmer A, McGuffin P, Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, Holmans PA, Owen MJ, O'Donovan MC and Craddock N

    Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Unit and Department of Psychological Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK.

    Background: Psychiatric phenotypes are currently defined according to sets of descriptive criteria. Although many of these phenotypes are heritable, it would be useful to know whether any of the various diagnostic categories in current use identify cases that are particularly helpful for biological-genetic research.

    Aims: To use genome-wide genetic association data to explore the relative genetic utility of seven different descriptive operational diagnostic categories relevant to bipolar illness within a large UK case-control bipolar disorder sample.

    Method: We analysed our previously published Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) bipolar disorder genome-wide association data-set, comprising 1868 individuals with bipolar disorder and 2938 controls genotyped for 276 122 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that met stringent criteria for genotype quality. For each SNP we performed a test of association (bipolar disorder group v. control group) and used the number of associated independent SNPs statistically significant at P<0.00001 as a metric for the overall genetic signal in the sample. We next compared this metric with that obtained using each of seven diagnostic subsets of the group with bipolar disorder: Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC): bipolar I disorder; manic disorder; bipolar II disorder; schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type; DSM-IV: bipolar I disorder; bipolar II disorder; schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type.

    Results: The RDC schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type (v. controls) stood out from the other diagnostic subsets as having a significant excess of independent association signals (P<0.003) compared with that expected in samples of the same size selected randomly from the total bipolar disorder group data-set. The strongest association in this subset of participants with bipolar disorder was at rs4818065 (P = 2.42 x 10(-7)). Biological systems implicated included gamma amniobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptors. Genes having at least one associated polymorphism at P<10(-4) included B3GALTS, A2BP1, GABRB1, AUTS2, BSN, PTPRG, GIRK2 and CDH12.

    Conclusions: Our findings show that individuals with broadly defined bipolar schizoaffective features have either a particularly strong genetic contribution or that, as a group, are genetically more homogeneous than the other phenotypes tested. The results point to the importance of using diagnostic approaches that recognise this group of individuals. Our approach can be applied to similar data-sets for other psychiatric and non-psychiatric phenotypes.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0000647, MRC_G0000934, MRC_G0701003; Wellcome Trust: 060620

    The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science 2009;195;1;23-9

  • Prefrontal cortex shotgun proteome analysis reveals altered calcium homeostasis and immune system imbalance in schizophrenia.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Rewerts C, Maccarrone G, Dias-Neto E and Turck CW

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua. Dr. Ovidio Pires de Campos, no 785, Consolação, São Paulo, SP 05403-010, Brazil.

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease, likely to be caused by a combination of serial alterations in a number of genes and environmental factors. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46) is involved in schizophrenia and executes high-level functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts and attitudes, correct social behavior and personality expression. Global proteomic analysis of post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples from schizophrenia patients and non-schizophrenic individuals was performed using stable isotope labeling and shotgun proteomics. The analysis resulted in the identification of 1,261 proteins, 84 of which showed statistically significant differential expression, reinforcing previous data supporting the involvement of the immune system, calcium homeostasis, cytoskeleton assembly, and energy metabolism in schizophrenia. In addition a number of new potential markers were found that may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

    European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience 2009;259;3;151-63

  • Sequence variants in the autophagy gene IRGM and multiple other replicating loci contribute to Crohn's disease susceptibility.

    Parkes M, Barrett JC, Prescott NJ, Tremelling M, Anderson CA, Fisher SA, Roberts RG, Nimmo ER, Cummings FR, Soars D, Drummond H, Lees CW, Khawaja SA, Bagnall R, Burke DA, Todhunter CE, Ahmad T, Onnie CM, McArdle W, Strachan D, Bethel G, Bryan C, Lewis CM, Deloukas P, Forbes A, Sanderson J, Jewell DP, Satsangi J, Mansfield JC, Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, Cardon L and Mathew CG

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease Research Group, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK. miles.parkes@addenbrookes.nhs.uk

    A genome-wide association scan in individuals with Crohn's disease by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium detected strong association at four novel loci. We tested 37 SNPs from these and other loci for association in an independent case-control sample. We obtained replication for the autophagy-inducing IRGM gene on chromosome 5q33.1 (replication P = 6.6 x 10(-4), combined P = 2.1 x 10(-10)) and for nine other loci, including NKX2-3, PTPN2 and gene deserts on chromosomes 1q and 5p13.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0000934; Wellcome Trust: 068545/Z/02, 072029

    Nature genetics 2007;39;7;830-2

  • Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls.

    Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium

    There is increasing evidence that genome-wide association (GWA) studies represent a powerful approach to the identification of genes involved in common human diseases. We describe a joint GWA study (using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set) undertaken in the British population, which has examined approximately 2,000 individuals for each of 7 major diseases and a shared set of approximately 3,000 controls. Case-control comparisons identified 24 independent association signals at P < 5 x 10(-7): 1 in bipolar disorder, 1 in coronary artery disease, 9 in Crohn's disease, 3 in rheumatoid arthritis, 7 in type 1 diabetes and 3 in type 2 diabetes. On the basis of prior findings and replication studies thus-far completed, almost all of these signals reflect genuine susceptibility effects. We observed association at many previously identified loci, and found compelling evidence that some loci confer risk for more than one of the diseases studied. Across all diseases, we identified a large number of further signals (including 58 loci with single-point P values between 10(-5) and 5 x 10(-7)) likely to yield additional susceptibility loci. The importance of appropriately large samples was confirmed by the modest effect sizes observed at most loci identified. This study thus represents a thorough validation of the GWA approach. It has also demonstrated that careful use of a shared control group represents a safe and effective approach to GWA analyses of multiple disease phenotypes; has generated a genome-wide genotype database for future studies of common diseases in the British population; and shown that, provided individuals with non-European ancestry are excluded, the extent of population stratification in the British population is generally modest. Our findings offer new avenues for exploring the pathophysiology of these important disorders. We anticipate that our data, results and software, which will be widely available to other investigators, will provide a powerful resource for human genetics research.

    Funded by: Chief Scientist Office: CZB/4/540; Medical Research Council: G0000934, G0100594, G0501942, G0600329, G0600705, G0800759, G0901461, G19/9, G90/106, G9806740, G9810900; Wellcome Trust: 076113, 077011, 090532

    Nature 2007;447;7145;661-78

  • Physical and functional interaction of the active zone proteins, CAST, RIM1, and Bassoon, in neurotransmitter release.

    Takao-Rikitsu E, Mochida S, Inoue E, Deguchi-Tawarada M, Inoue M, Ohtsuka T and Takai Y

    KAN Research Institute, Kyoto Research Park, Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto 600-8815, Japan.

    We have recently isolated a novel cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ)-associated protein, CAST, and found it directly binds another CAZ protein RIM1 and indirectly binds Munc13-1 through RIM1; RIM1 and Munc13-1 directly bind to each other and are implicated in priming of synaptic vesicles. Here, we show that all the CAZ proteins thus far known form a large molecular complex in the brain, including CAST, RIM1, Munc13-1, Bassoon, and Piccolo. RIM1 and Bassoon directly bind to the COOH terminus and central region of CAST, respectively, forming a ternary complex. Piccolo, which is structurally related to Bassoon, also binds to the Bassoon-binding region of CAST. Moreover, the microinjected RIM1- or Bassoon-binding region of CAST impairs synaptic transmission in cultured superior cervical ganglion neurons. Furthermore, the CAST-binding domain of RIM1 or Bassoon also impairs synaptic transmission in the cultured neurons. These results indicate that CAST serves as a key component of the CAZ structure and is involved in neurotransmitter release by binding these CAZ proteins.

    The Journal of cell biology 2004;164;2;301-11

  • Functional inactivation of a fraction of excitatory synapses in mice deficient for the active zone protein bassoon.

    Altrock WD, tom Dieck S, Sokolov M, Meyer AC, Sigler A, Brakebusch C, Fässler R, Richter K, Boeckers TM, Potschka H, Brandt C, Löscher W, Grimberg D, Dresbach T, Hempelmann A, Hassan H, Balschun D, Frey JU, Brandstätter JH, Garner CC, Rosenmund C and Gundelfinger ED

    Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, 39118 Magdeburg, Germany.

    Mutant mice lacking the central region of the presynaptic active zone protein Bassoon were generated to establish the role of this protein in the assembly and function of active zones as sites of synaptic vesicle docking and fusion. Our data show that the loss of Bassoon causes a reduction in normal synaptic transmission, which can be attributed to the inactivation of a significant fraction of glutamatergic synapses. At these synapses, vesicles are clustered and docked in normal numbers but are unable to fuse. Phenotypically, the loss of Bassoon causes spontaneous epileptic seizures. These data show that Bassoon is not essential for synapse formation but plays an essential role in the regulated neurotransmitter release from a subset of glutamatergic synapses.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: P01 AG06569; NICHD NIH HHS: P50 HD32901; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS39471

    Neuron 2003;37;5;787-800

  • The presynaptic cytomatrix protein Bassoon: sequence and chromosomal localization of the human BSN gene.

    Winter C, tom Dieck S, Boeckers TM, Bockmann J, Kämpf U, Sanmartí-Vila L, Langnaese K, Altrock W, Stumm M, Soyke A, Wieacker P, Garner CC and Gundelfinger ED

    AG Molecular Neurobiology, University of Muenster, Muenster, D-48149, Germany.

    Bassoon is a novel 420-kDa protein recently identified as a component of the cytoskeleton at presynaptic neurotransmitter release sites. Analysis of the rat and mouse sequences revealed a polyglutamine stretch in the C-terminal part of the protein. Since it is known for some proteins that abnormal amplification of such polyglutamine regions can cause late-onset neurodegeneration, we cloned and localized the human BASSOON gene (BSN). Phage clones spanning most of the open reading frame and the 3' untranslated region were isolated from a human genomic library and used for chromosomal localization of BSN to chromosome 3p21 by FISH. The localization was confirmed by PCR on rodent/human somatic cell hybrids; it is consistent with the localization of the murine Bsn gene at chromosome 9F. Sequencing revealed a polyglutamine stretch of only five residues in human, and PCR amplifications from 50 individuals showed no obvious length polymorphism in this region. Analysis of the primary structure of Bassoon and comparison to previous database entries provide evidence for a newly emerging protein family.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: P50 HD32901

    Genomics 1999;57;3;389-97

  • Cloning and mapping of ZNF231, a novel brain-specific gene encoding neuronal double zinc finger protein whose expression is enhanced in a neurodegenerative disorder, multiple system atrophy (MSA).

    Hashida H, Goto J, Zhao N, Takahashi N, Hirai M, Kanazawa I and Sakaki Y

    Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. hhashida-tky@umin.ac.jp

    A novel brain-specific gene, neuronal double zinc finger protein (ZNF231), was cloned and mapped. We used the high-density cDNA filter method to analyze the gene-expression profile in brains with multiple system atrophy (MSA). MSA is a sporadic progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized clinically by cerebellar symptoms, parkinsonism, autonomic dysfunction, or their various combinations, but its pathogenesis has yet to be clarified. In total, 8300 cDNA clones were screened, and a novel gene, ZNF231, was identified, whose expression was elevated in cerebella of patients with MSA. Its transcript is approximately 16 kb long and encodes an open reading frame of 3926 amino acid residues that has several interesting motifs; two glycine-proline dipeptide repeats (aa 22-32 and aa 61-74), a pair of homologous C8 double zinc finger motifs (aa 169-226 and aa 465-521), a leucine zipper motif (aa 561-582), a SH3 domain-binding motif (aa 825-831), two nuclear targeting signals (aa 1011-1028 and aa 1071-1091), two glutamine-rich domains (aa 2428-2473 and aa 3775-3804), and a histidine-rich domain (aa 3597-3682). These features suggest that the new gene encodes a nuclear protein or transcription regulator. Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that its expression is specific to the brain and apparently restricted to the neurons. Elevation of ZNF231 expression may be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple system atrophy. The gene for ZNF231 is located on chromosome 3p21.

    Genomics 1998;54;1;50-8

  • Bassoon, a novel zinc-finger CAG/glutamine-repeat protein selectively localized at the active zone of presynaptic nerve terminals.

    tom Dieck S, Sanmartí-Vila L, Langnaese K, Richter K, Kindler S, Soyke A, Wex H, Smalla KH, Kämpf U, Fränzer JT, Stumm M, Garner CC and Gundelfinger ED

    Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, D-39118 Magdeburg, Germany.

    The molecular architecture of the cytomatrix of presynaptic nerve terminals is poorly understood. Here we show that Bassoon, a novel protein of >400,000 Mr, is a new component of the presynaptic cytoskeleton. The murine bassoon gene maps to chromosome 9F. A comparison with the corresponding rat cDNA identified 10 exons within its protein-coding region. The Bassoon protein is predicted to contain two double-zinc fingers, several coiled-coil domains, and a stretch of polyglutamines (24 and 11 residues in rat and mouse, respectively). In some human proteins, e.g., Huntingtin, abnormal amplification of such poly-glutamine regions causes late-onset neurodegeneration. Bassoon is highly enriched in synaptic protein preparations. In cultured hippocampal neurons, Bassoon colocalizes with the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin and Piccolo, a presynaptic cytomatrix component. At the ultrastructural level, Bassoon is detected in axon terminals of hippocampal neurons where it is highly concentrated in the vicinity of the active zone. Immunogold labeling of synaptosomes revealed that Bassoon is associated with material interspersed between clear synaptic vesicles, and biochemical studies suggest a tight association with cytoskeletal structures. These data indicate that Bassoon is a strong candidate to be involved in cytomatrix organization at the site of neurotransmitter release.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: P50 HD32901

    The Journal of cell biology 1998;142;2;499-509

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. VIII. 78 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.

    Ishikawa K, Nagase T, Nakajima D, Seki N, Ohira M, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Chiba, Japan.

    As a part of our project for accumulating sequence information of the coding regions of unidentified human genes, we herein report the sequence features of 78 new cDNA clones isolated from human brain cDNA libraries as those which may code for large proteins. The sequence data showed that the average size of the cDNA inserts and their open reading frames was 6.0 kb and 2.8 kb (925 amino acid residues), respectively, and these clones produced the corresponding sizes of protein products in an in vitro transcription/translation system. Homology search against the public databases indicated that the predicted coding sequences of 68 genes contained sequences similar to known genes, 69% of which (47 genes) were related to cell signaling/communication, nucleic acid management, and cell structure/motility. The expression profiles of these genes in 14 different tissues have been analyzed by the reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction method, and 8 genes were found to be predominantly expressed in the brain.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1997;4;5;307-13

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000013 G2C Homo sapiens Human mGluR5 Human orthologues of mouse mGluR5 complex adapted from Collins et al (2006) 52
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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