G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 (mitochondrial)
G00000942 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000115159 (Ensembl human gene)
2820 (Entrez Gene)
819 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
GPD2 (GeneCards)
138430 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:4456 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P43304 (UniProt)

Literature (21)

Pubmed - other

  • A genome-wide association scan of RR and QT interval duration in 3 European genetically isolated populations: the EUROSPAN project.

    Marroni F, Pfeufer A, Aulchenko YS, Franklin CS, Isaacs A, Pichler I, Wild SH, Oostra BA, Wright AF, Campbell H, Witteman JC, Kääb S, Hicks AA, Gyllensten U, Rudan I, Meitinger T, Pattaro C, van Duijn CM, Wilson JF, Pramstaller PP and EUROSPAN Consortium

    Institute of Genetic Medicine, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Munich, Germany.

    Background: We set out to identify common genetic determinants of the length of the RR and QT intervals in 2325 individuals from isolated European populations.

    We analyzed the heart rate at rest, measured as the RR interval, and the length of the corrected QT interval for association with 318 237 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The RR interval was associated with common variants within GPR133, a G-protein-coupled receptor (rs885389, P=3.9 x 10(-8)). The QT interval was associated with the earlier reported NOS1AP gene (rs2880058, P=2.00 x 10(-10)) and with a region on chromosome 13 (rs2478333, P=4.34 x 10(-8)), which is 100 kb from the closest known transcript LOC730174 and has previously not been associated with the length of the QT interval.

    Conclusions: Our results suggested an association between the RR interval and GPR133 and confirmed an association between the QT interval and NOS1AP.

    Funded by: Chief Scientist Office: CSO_CZB/4/710; Medical Research Council: MRC_MC_PC_U127561128, MRC_MC_U127561128, MRC_U.1275.00.001(61128)

    Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics 2009;2;4;322-8

  • Haploinsufficiency of the GPD2 gene in a patient with nonsyndromic mental retardation.

    Daoud H, Gruchy N, Constans JM, Moussaoui E, Saumureau S, Bayou N, Amy M, Védrine S, Vu PY, Rötig A, Laumonnier F, Vourc'h P, Andres CR, Leporrier N and Briault S

    Faculté de Médecine, INSERM U930, Université François Rabelais, Tours, France. daoud_h@med.univ-tours.fr

    We have investigated the chromosome abnormalities in a female patient exhibiting mild nonsyndromic mental retardation. The patient carries a de novo balanced reciprocal translocation 46,XX,t(2;7)(q24.1;q36.1). Physical mapping of the breakpoints by fluorescent in situ hybridization experiments revealed the disruption of the GPD2 gene at the 2q24.1 region. This gene encodes the mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH), which is located on the outer surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane, and catalyzes the unidirectional conversion of glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) to dihydroxyacetone phosphate with concomitant reduction of the enzyme-bound FAD. Molecular and functional studies showed approximately a twofold decrease of GPD2 transcript level as well as decreased activity of the coded mGPDH protein in lymphoblastoid cell lines of the patient compared to controls. Bioinformatics analysis allowed us to confirm the existence of a novel transcript of the GPD2 gene, designated GPD2c, which is directly disrupted by the 2q breakpoint. To validate GPD2 as a new candidate gene for mental retardation, we performed mutation screening of the GPD2 gene in 100 mentally retarded patients; however, no mutations have been identified. Nevertheless, our results propose that a functional defect of the mGPDH protein could be associated with mental retardation, suggesting that GPD2 gene could be involved in mental retardation in some cases.

    Human genetics 2009;124;6;649-58

  • Increased expression of mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and antioxidant enzymes in prostate cancer cell lines/cancer.

    Chowdhury SK, Raha S, Tarnopolsky MA and Singh G

    Juravinski Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

    The involvement of mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) has previously been established in the production of ROS in prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, DU145, PC3 and CL1). The current study demonstrates that the mRNA level of mGPDH in prostate cancer cells is 3.3-8.9-fold higher compared to the normal prostate epithelial cell line, PNT1A. This is consistent with the enzymatic activity and protein level of mGPDH. However, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity is 2.9-3.2-fold down-regulated in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines. The level of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, MnSOD and CuZnSOD are up-regulated in prostate cancer cell lines. Furthermore, it was observed that the activity of mGPDH is significantly higher in liver tissues from all mice with cancer compared to liver tissues from control mice. These data suggest that the up-regulation of mGPDH, due to a highly glycolytic environment, contributes to the overall increase in ROS generation and may result in the progression of the cancer.

    Free radical research 2007;41;10;1116-24

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Transcriptome analysis of human gastric cancer.

    Oh JH, Yang JO, Hahn Y, Kim MR, Byun SS, Jeon YJ, Kim JM, Song KS, Noh SM, Kim S, Yoo HS, Kim YS and Kim NS

    Laboratory of Human Genomics, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon , 305-333, Korea.

    To elucidate the genetic events associated with gastric cancer, 124,704 cDNA clones were collected from 37 human gastric cDNA libraries, including 20 full-length enriched cDNA libraries of gastric cancer cell lines and tissues from Korean patients. An analysis of the collected ESTs revealed that 97,930 high-quality ESTs coalesced into 13,001 clusters, of which 11,135 clusters (85.6%) were annotated to known ESTs. The analysis of the full-length cDNAs also revealed that 4862 clusters (51.7%) contained at least one putative full-length cDNA clone with an initiation codon, with the average length of the 5' UTR of 140 bp. A large number appear to have a diverse transcription start site (TSS). An examination of the TSS of some genes, such as TEGT and GAPD, using 5' RACE revealed that the predicted TSSs are actually found in human gastric cancer cells and that several TSSs differ depending on the specific gastric cell line. Furthermore, of the human gastric ESTs, 766 genes (9.5%) were present as putative alternatively spliced variants. Confirmation of the predicted spliced isoforms using RT-PCR showed that the predicted isoforms exist in gastric cancer cells and some isoforms coexist in gastric cell lines. These results provide potentially useful information for elucidating the molecular mechanisms associated with gastric oncogenesis.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 2005;16;12;942-54

  • High activity of mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and glycerophosphate-dependent ROS production in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Chowdhury SK, Gemin A and Singh G

    Juravinski Cancer Centre, 699 Concession St., Hamilton, Ont., Canada L8V 5C2.

    Most malignant cells are highly glycolytic and produce high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared to normal cells. Mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) participates in the reoxidation of cytosolic NADH by delivering reducing equivalents from this molecule into the electron transport chain, thus sustaining glycolysis. Here, we investigate the role of mGPDH in maintaining an increased rate of glycolysis and evaluate glycerophosphate-dependent ROS production in prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, DU145, PC3, and CL1). Immunoblot, polarographic, and spectrophotometric analyses revealed that mGPDH abundance and activity was significantly elevated in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to the normal prostate epithelial cell line PNT1A. Furthermore, both the glycolytic capacity and glycerophosphate-dependent ROS production was increased 1.68- to 4.44-fold and 5- to 7-fold, respectively, in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to PNT1A cells. Overall, these data demonstrate that mGPDH is involved in maintaining a high rate of glycolysis and is an important site of electron leakage leading to ROS production in prostate cancer cells.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;333;4;1139-45

  • Germ cell nuclear factor relieves cAMP-response element modulator tau-mediated activation of the testis-specific promoter of human mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Rajkovic M, Middendorff R, Wetzel MG, Frkovic D, Damerow S, Seitz HJ and Weitzel JM

    Institut für Biochemie und Molekularbiologie, Zentrum für Experimentelle Medizin, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

    Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) is an essential component of the glycerol phosphate shuttle that transfers reduction equivalents from the cytosol into the mitochondrion. Within the testis, immunohistological analysis localized human mGPDH to late spermatids and to the midpiece of spermatozoa. The expression of human mGPDH is regulated by two somatic promoters, and here, we describe a third testis-specific promoter of human mGPDH. The usage of this testis-specific promoter correlates with the expression of a shortened mGPDH transcript of approximately 2.4 kb in length, which is solely detectable from testicular RNA. Within the testis-specific promoter, we detected a cAMP-response element (CRE) site at -51, which binds the testis-specific transcriptional activator CRE modulator tau (CREMtau) in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. This recognition site overlaps with a nuclear receptor binding half-site at -49, which binds the testis-specific transcriptional repressor germ cell nuclear factor (GCNF). Both factors compete for binding to the same DNA response element. Ectopic expression of CREMtau in HepG2 cells activated a promoter-driven luciferase construct in transient transfection experiments. Additional cotransfection of GCNF relieved this activity, suggesting a down-regulation of CREMtau-mediated activation by GCNF. This effect was preserved by introducing the CRE/nuclear receptor-binding element into a heterologous promoter context. Our data suggest a down-regulation of CREMtau-mediated gene expression by GCNF, which might be a general regulation mechanism for several postmeiotically expressed genes with a temporal expression peak during early spermatid development.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;50;52493-9

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • A sequence variation in the mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene is associated with increased plasma glycerol and free fatty acid concentrations among French Canadians.

    St-Pierre J, Vohl MC, Brisson D, Perron P, Després JP, Hudson TJ and Gaudet D

    Dyslipidemia, Diabetes and Atherosclerosis Research Group, Chicoutimi Hospital, Quebec, Canada.

    FAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD) enzyme is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane where it catalyzes irreversible oxidation reactions. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multifactorial disorder associated with physiological abnormalities in the glycerol and free fatty acids (FFA) metabolic pathways. In the present study, we have evaluated the association among the mGPD H264R sequence variation and postabsorptive plasma FFA and glycerol concentrations in a sample of French Canadians with and without type 2 DM. A sample of 81 recently diagnosed type 2 DM and 318 nondiabetic, nonobese, normotriglyceridemic French Canadians were screened for the presence of the mGPD H264R genetic variant using a PCR-RFLP-based method. The 318 nondiabetic subjects were free of known type 2 DM covariates (fasting glucose <7.0 mmol/L, body mass index <29 kg/m(2), fasting glycerol <2.0 mmol/L and absence of the N288D sequence variation in the glycerol kinase gene, fasting triglyceride <2.5 mmol/L). The association of mGPD H264R sequence variation with plasma FFA and glycerol concentrations was assessed in different regression models. Among non-DM individuals, the R allele (HR and RR genotypes) was associated with increased plasma FFA and glycerol concentrations (P < 0.05). However, the mean plasma FFA and glycerol concentrations were not affected by the H264R genotype in the type 2 DM sample. Overall, mean plasma FFA concentrations in non-DM RR homozygotes reached values that were similar to those achieved in patients with type 2 diabetes (0.87 +/- 0.63 vs 0.90 +/- 0.48 mmol/L). After controlling for age, gender, body mass index, fasting glucose, and fasting triglyceride concentrations, the relative odds of having fasting plasma FFA levels above the 90th percentile (0.9 mmol/L) in the absence of DM was increased by twofold in H264R heterozygotes (P = 0.04) and fourfold among R264 homozygotes (P = 0.009) compared to noncarriers. In the absence of DM, the mGPD R allele was also associated with higher plasma glycerol concentrations (P < 0.05). Results in non-DM individuals suggest that the mGPD R allele is associated with DM intermediate phenotypes. The absence of a relation between mGPD genotype and DM is in accordance with the view that DM is a complex phenotype in which increased plasma FFA or glycerol concentrations result from metabolic alterations which might obscure the effect of the mGPD polymorphism.

    Molecular genetics and metabolism 2001;72;3;209-17

  • Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing.

    Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, Muzny DM, Ding Y, Liu W, Ricafrente JY, Wentland MA, Lennon G and Gibbs RA

    A total of 100 kb of DNA derived from 69 individual human brain cDNA clones of 0.7-2.0 kb were sequenced by concatenated cDNA sequencing (CCS), whereby multiple individual DNA fragments are sequenced simultaneously in a single shotgun library. The method yielded accurate sequences and a similar efficiency compared with other shotgun libraries constructed from single DNA fragments (> 20 kb). Computer analyses were carried out on 65 cDNA clone sequences and their corresponding end sequences to examine both nucleic acid and amino acid sequence similarities in the databases. Thirty-seven clones revealed no DNA database matches, 12 clones generated exact matches (> or = 98% identity), and 16 clones generated nonexact matches (57%-97% identity) to either known human or other species genes. Of those 28 matched clones, 8 had corresponding end sequences that failed to identify similarities. In a protein similarity search, 27 clone sequences displayed significant matches, whereas only 20 of the end sequences had matches to known protein sequences. Our data indicate that full-length cDNA insert sequences provide significantly more nucleic acid and protein sequence similarity matches than expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for database searching.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: 1F32 HG00169-01, F32 HG000169, F33 HG000210, P30 HG00210-05, R01 HG00823, U54 HG003273

    Genome research 1997;7;4;353-8

  • Mutation in the calcium-binding domain of the mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase gene in a family of diabetic subjects.

    Novials A, Vidal J, Franco C, Ribera F, Sener A, Malaisse WJ and Gomis R

    Diabetes Unit, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona University, Spain.

    The Ca(2+)-sensitive and mitochondrial enzyme FAD-linked glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (m-GDH) represents an essential component of the pancreatic B-cell glucose-sensing device. This report deals with the first identified case of mutation in the calcium-binding domain of the m-GDH gene in a patient with type-2 diabetes and his glucose-intolerant half sister. Single strand conformation polymorphism analysis indeed revealed an abnormal mobility of the 32P-labelled polymerase chain reaction product in these two subjects. The corresponding base pair mutations and amino acid changes were documented. In the diabetic proband, the relative extent of the Ca(2+)-induced activation of m-GDH in CD3+ T-lymphocytes was lower than in his brother with a normal m-GDH gene sequence.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1997;231;3;570-2

  • Structural organization and mapping of the human mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gene and pseudogene.

    Brown LJ, Stoffel M, Moran SM, Fernald AA, Lehn DA, LeBeau MM and MacDonald MJ

    University of Wisconsin Children's Diabetes Center, Madison 53706, USA.

    Mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (mtGPD) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the glycerol phosphate shuttle, which is thought to play an important role in cells that require an active glycolytic pathway. Abnormalities in mtGPD have been proposed as a potential cause for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. To facilitate genetic studies, we have isolated genomic clones containing the coding regions of the human mtGPD-encoding gene (GPDM). The gene contains 17 exons and is estimated to span more than 80 kb. All splice junctions contain GT/AG consensus sequences. Introns interrupt the sequences encoding the leader peptide, the FAD-binding site, the calcium-binding regions, and a conserved central element postulated to play a role in glycerol phosphate binding. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to map this gene to chromosome 2, band q24.1. A retropseudogene was identified and mapped to chromosome 17.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA40046; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK28348, DK42176

    Gene 1996;172;2;309-12

  • A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction.

    Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W and Gibbs RA

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas, 77030, USA.

    The efficiency of shotgun DNA sequencing depends to a great extent on the quality of the random-subclone libraries used. We here describe a novel "double adaptor" strategy for efficient construction of high-quality shotgun libraries. In this method, randomly sheared and end-repaired fragments are ligated to oligonucleotide adaptors creating 12-base overhangs. Nonphosphorylated oligonucleotides are used, which prevents formation of adaptor dimers and ensures efficient ligation of insert to adaptor. The vector is prepared from a modified M13 vector, by KpnI/PstI digestion followed by ligation to oligonucleotides with ends complementary to the overhangs created in the digest. These adaptors create 5'-overhangs complementary to those on the inserts. Following annealing of insert to vector, the DNA is directly used for transformation without a ligation step. This protocol is robust and shows three- to fivefold higher yield of clones compared to previous protocols. No chimeric clones can be detected and the background of clones without an insert is <1%. The procedure is rapid and shows potential for automation.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: R01 HG00823

    Analytical biochemistry 1996;236;1;107-13

  • Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Cloning of an alternatively spliced human islet-cell cDNA, tissue distribution, physical mapping, and identification of a polymorphic genetic marker.

    Ferrer J, Aoki M, Behn P, Nestorowicz A, Riggs A and Permutt MA

    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

    Pancreatic beta-cell mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) plays a major role in glucose-induced insulin secretion. Decreased activity of this enzyme has thus been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of NIDDM. Cloning of human insulinoma mGPDH cDNAs disclosed the existence of two variant transcripts with different 5' ends. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the presence of both mGPDH mRNAs in purified native human pancreatic islets and other tissues. A major 6.5-Kb mGPDH transcript was detected by Northern blot analysis in RNA from human and rat pancreatic islets, with distinctly lower levels in other human tissues, indicating that previously reported high mGPDH enzymatic activity in beta-cells is determined by high transcript levels. The mGPDH gene was mapped to chromosome 2 by PCR analysis of genomic DNA from human/rodent somatic cell hybrids, and five independent overlapping yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones containing the mGPDH sequence were identified from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain YAC library. Analysis of these YAC clones identified a highly polymorphic chromosome 2q21-q33 dinucleotide repeat genetic marker (D2S141) physically linked to the mGPDH gene. These studies provide the means to investigate the role of the human mGPDH gene in the pathogenesis of NIDDM and illustrate the value of a novel strategy to identify genetic markers for diabetes candidate genes.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-16746

    Diabetes 1996;45;2;262-6

  • The sequence of a human mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding cDNA.

    Lehn DA, Brown LJ, Simonson GD, Moran SM and MacDonald MJ

    University of Wisconsin Childrens Diabetes Center, Madison 53706.

    A 2618-bp cDNA that encodes the human mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase has been isolated from a HeLa cell cDNA library and the nucleotide sequence determined. An open reading frame encodes a protein of 727 amino acids that is 96% similar to the rat protein and, like the rat protein, contains sites homologous to the Ca(2+)-binding sites of calmodulin, as well as FAD- and putative glycerol-phosphate-binding sites.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK28348, DK42176

    Gene 1994;150;2;417-8

  • Modulation of the interaction between aldolase and glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase by fructose phosphates.

    Vértessy BG, Orosz F and Ovádi J

    Institute of Enzymology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest.

    Kinetics of fructose-1,6-disphosphate aldolase (EC catalyzed conversion of fructose phosphates was analyzed by coupling the aldolase reactions to the metabolically sequential enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC, which interacts with aldolase. At low enzyme concentration poly(ethylene glycol) was added to promote complex formation of aldolase and glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase resulting in a 3-fold increase in KM of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and no change in Vmax. Kinetic parameters for fructose-1-phosphate conversion changed inversely upon complex formation: Vmax increased while KM remained unchanged. Gel penetration and ion-exchange chromatographic experiments showed positive modulation of the interaction of aldolase and dehydrogenase by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. The dissociation constant of the heterologous enzyme complex decreased 10-fold in the presence of this substrate. Fructose-1-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate had no effect on the dissociation constant of the aldolase-dehydrogenase complex. In addition, titration of fluorescein-labelled glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase with aldolase indicated that both fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and fructose-2,6-biphosphate enhanced the affinity of aldolase to glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase. The results of the kinetic and binding experiments suggest that binding of the C-6 phosphate group of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to aldolase complexed with dehydrogenase is sterically impeded while saturation of the C-6 phosphate group site increases the affinity of aldolase for dehydrogenase. The possible molecular mechanism of the fructose-1,6-bisphosphate modulated interaction is discussed.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1991;1078;2;236-42

  • Isolation and properties of glycerol-3-phosphate oxidoreductase from human placenta.

    Zołnierowicz S, Swierczyński J and Zelewski L

    Glycerol-3-phosphate oxidoreductase (sn-glycerol 3-phosphate: NAD+ 2-oxidoreductase, EC from human placenta has been purified by chromatography on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenehexamethylenediamine-Sepharose, DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and 5'-AMP-Sepharose 4B approximately 15800-fold with an overall yield of about 19%. The final purified material displayed a specific activity of about 88 mumol NADH min-1 mg protein-1 and a single protein band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. The native molecular mass, determined by Ultrogel AcA 44 filtration, was 62000 +/- 2000 whereas the subunit molecular mass, established on polyacrylamide gel in the presence of 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulphate, was 38000 +/- 500. The isoelectric point of the enzyme protein, determined by column isoelectric focusing, was found to be 5.29 +/- 0.09. The pH optimum of the placental enzyme was in the range 7.4-8.1 for dihydroxyacetone phosphate reduction and 8.7-9.2 for sn-glycerol 3-phosphate oxidation. The apparent Michaelis constants (Km) for dihydroxyacetone phosphate, NADH, sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and NAD+ were 26 microM, 5 microM, 143 microM and 36 microM respectively. The activity ratio of cytoplasmic glycerol-3-phosphate oxidoreductase to mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in human placental tissue was 1:2. The consumption of oxygen by human placental mitochondria incubated with the purified glycerol-3-phosphate oxidoreductase, NADH and dihydroxyacetone phosphate was similar to that observed in the presence of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The possible physiological role of glycerol-3-phosphate oxidoreductase in placental metabolism is discussed.

    European journal of biochemistry 1986;154;1;161-6

  • Interaction of the dissociable glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase. Quantitative analysis by an extrinsic fluorescence probe.

    Ovádi J, Mohamed Osman IR and Batke J

    Cytoplasmic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, labelled covalently with fluorescein isothiocyanate, shows an enzyme-concentration-dependent fluorescence anisotropy. The anisotropy versus enzyme concentration curve is shifted towards higher concentrations when substrates are present. The comparison of the dissociation constants estimated from anisotropy measurements and derived from kinetic experiments suggests that the substrate-induced dissociation of the dimeric dehydrogenase is slow with respect to the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by either its monomeric or dimeric form. The fluorescence anisotropy of the fluorescent dye-labelled dehydrogenase increase with time upon addition of unlabelled fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase approaching a limiting value. This fact indicates the binding of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase aldose aldolase to glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase. A model is proposed assuming simultaneous binding of tetrameric fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase to monomeric and dimeric glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase with 1:1 stoichiometry. The dissociation constants, as parameters fitted to the experimental curves, were estimated as 0.2 microM and 1 microM for aldolase-dimeric-glycerolphosphate-dehydrogenase and aldolase-monomeric-glycerolphosphate-dehydrogenase complexes respectively.

    European journal of biochemistry 1983;133;2;433-7

  • High content of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in pancreatic islets and its inhibition by diazoxide.

    MacDonald MJ

    Homogenates of isolated pancreatic islets contain 40-70 times as much flavin-linked glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC as homogenates of whole pancreas, liver, heart, or skeletal muscle when the activity is assayed with either iodonitrotetrazolium or with dichloroindophenol as an electron acceptor. Intact mitochondria from islets release 3HOH from [2-3H]glycerol phosphate 7 times faster than do skeletal muscle mitochondria. The activity of the cytosolic, NAD-linked, glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (EC in pancreatic islets is comparable to that of the mitochondrial dehydrogenase so a glycerol phosphate shuttle is possible in pancreatic islets. Diazoxide, an inhibitor of insulin release in vivo and in vitro, inhibits the islet mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase in all three of the assays mentioned above at concentrations that inhibit insulin release and CO2 formation from glucose by isolated pancreatic islets. Diazoxide does not inhibit the dehydrogenase in mitochondria from skeletal muscle, liver, and heart. A slight inhibition in mitochondria from whole pancreas can be accounted for as inhibition of the islet dehydrogenase because no inhibition is observed in mitochondria from pancreas of rats treated with alloxan, an agent that causes diabetes by destroying pancreatic beta cells. The results of this study are compatible with the hypothesis that the mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase has a key role in stimulus-secretion coupling in the pancreatic beta cell during glucose-induced insulin release.

    Funded by: NIADDK NIH HHS: AM28348

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1981;256;16;8287-90

  • Role of glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase in glyceride metabolism. Effect of diet on enzyme activities in chicken liver.

    Harding JW, Pyeritz EA, Copeland ES and White HB

    1. The metabolic role of hepatic NAD-linked glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC was investigated vis-a-vis glyceride synthesis, glyceride degradation and the maintainence of the NAD redox state. 2. Five-week-old chickens were placed on five dietary regimes: a control group, a group on an increased-carbohydrate-lowered-fat diet, a group on a high-fat-lowered-carbohydrate diet, a starved group and a starved-refed group. In each group the specific activity (mumol/min per g wet wt. of tissue) of hepatic glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase was compared with the activities of the beta-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) reductase component of fatty acid synthetase, glycerol kinase (EC and lactate dehydrogenase (EC 3. During starvation, the activities of glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycerol kinase and lactate dehydrogenase rose significantly. After re-feeding these activities returned to near normal. All three activities rose slightly on the high-fat diet. Lactate dehydrogenase activity rose slightly, whereas those of the other two enzymes fell slightly on the increased-carbohydrate-lowered-fat diet. 4. The activity of the beta-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) reductase component of fatty acid synthetase, a lipid-synthesizing enzyme, contrasted strikingly with the other three enzyme activities. Its activity was slightly elevated on the increased-carbohydrate diet and significantly diminished on the high-fat diet and during starvation. 5. The changes in activity of the chicken liver isoenzyme of glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase in response to dietary stresses suggest that the enzyme has an important metabolic role other than or in addition to glyceride biosynthesis.

    The Biochemical journal 1975;146;1;223-9

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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